Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CDR2 (cancer-related)
Shiota M, Fujimoto N, Imada K, et al.Potential Role for YB-1 in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Resistance to Enzalutamide Through the Androgen Receptor V7.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(7) [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer initially exerts excellent anticancer effects, most prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy eventually recurs as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although aberrant kinase activation has been proposed as a mechanism of castration resistance, comprehensive kinase profiles in CRPC remain unknown. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the kinome in CRPC as well as the role of key molecules.
METHODS: We utilized a kinome array in androgen-dependent LNCaP and castration-resistant CxR cells. The effect of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) on androgen receptor (AR) expression was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The association between polymorphisms in the YB-1 gene determined by genotyping and YB-1 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry in prostate cancer tissues, as well as outcome in metastatic prostate cancer, were investigated by the Cochran-Armitage test and the Cox proportional hazards model, respectively. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: One hundred fifty-six of 180 kinase phosphorylation sites, including ERK and RSK, were activated in CRPC cells, leading to increased phosphorylation of YB-1, which is a key molecule in the progression to CRPC. YB-1 signaling regulated AR V7 expression, and YB-1 inhibition augmented the anticancer effect of enzalutamide. Moreover, polymorphism (rs12030724) in the YB-1 gene affected YB-1 expression in 93 prostate cancer tissues (YB-1 positive rate; 14.3% in TT, 40.0% in AT, and 52.9% in AA, P = .04) and associated with probability of progression in 104 metastatic prostate cancer case patients (AT/TT vs AA, hazard ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = 0.32 to 0.77, P = .001).
CONCLUSIONS: YB-1 appears to be a promising target to inhibit the development of castration resistance, even at the AR variant-expressing stage. Polymorphism in the YB-1 gene may be a promising predictive biomarker in hormonal therapy.
Wu C, Pan J, Qiu H, et al.Microarray CGH analysis of hematological patients with del(20q).
Int J Hematol. 2015; 102(5):617-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 20 is a common abnormality underlying hematological malignancy. We analyzed 21 patients with hematologic diseases confirmed to carry the del(20q) by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization using microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Seventeen patients were positive for del(20q), but this deletion was not detected in four patients. All deletions detected were interstitial of which continuous deletions were seen in 12 patients and discrete deletions in five. Three commonly deleted regions (CDRs) and two commonly retained regions (CRRs) were defined: CDR1 spanning 3.05Mb (34560497-37608229) within 20q11.23, CDR2 spanning 1.76Mb (37851501-39615698) within 20q12, CDR3 spanning 116Kb (48120412-48236791) within 20q13.13, CRR1 spanning 1.1Mb (29374726-30428250) within 20q11.21, and CRR2 spanning 2.5Mb (60484668-62963548) within 20q13.33. Duplications of retained regions (20q11.21) were found in five cases with similar erythroid hyperplasia (2 M6, 3 MDS). Moreover, duplication of 20p13-p11.21 was also found in two cases with M6. Using the CDRs and CRRs, we identified the candidate genes we searched for using the UCSC Genome Browser. Our data suggest that aCGH analysis is useful for more precisely defining breakpoints on 20q. Further work is required to identify candidate pathogenic genes within these CDRs and CRRs.
Qi H, Chen L, Ning L, et al.Proteomic analysis of β-asarone induced cytotoxicity in human glioblastoma U251 cells.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2015; 115:292-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Though rhizoma acori graminei (RAG) is frequently prescribed in formulations for brain tumor in traditional Chinese medicine, the potential mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of β-asarone, a major component in the volatile oil of RAG, against brain tumor and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results showed that β-asarone significantly inhibited the cell viability of human glioblastoma U251 cells. Moreover, YO-PRO-1/PI staining revealed that cells treated with β-asarone underwent apoptotic and necrotic death. Then, the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics was applied to investigate the different protein profiles of U251 cells treated with vehicle or β-asarone. Sixteen proteins affected by β-asarone were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Gene ontology analysis showed that those proteins participated in several important biological processes and exhibited diverse molecular functions. Importantly, four proteins (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (H), isoform CRA_b, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1, isoform CRA_a, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 and cathepsin D) acting as either oncoproteins or tumor suppressors draw our special attention. Finally, the effect of β-asarone on these four genes was confirmed at transcriptional level by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Collectively, a variety of proteins affected by β-asarone were identified by 2-DE coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS analysis. Four potential protein targets were proposed, which will enable a better understanding of the anti-tumor activity of β-asarone.
Differentiating between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and other RCC subtypes can be problematic using routine light microscopy. This study aimed to identify novel immunohistochemical markers useful for a differential diagnosis between chromophobe RCC and other RCC subtypes. We selected 3 genes (including BSND and ATP6V1G3) that showed specific transcriptional expression in chromophobe RCC using expression data (n = 783) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A subsequent immunohistochemical examination of 186 RCCs obtained in our patient series resulted in a strong diffuse positivity of BSND and ATP6V1G3 proteins (both of which are involved in the regulation of membrane transport) in all the chromophobe RCC specimens (23/23 cases, 100%) but not in the clear cell RCC specimens (0/153 cases, 0%) or the papillary RCC specimens (0/10 cases, 0%). BSND and ATP6V1G3 protein expressions were also detected in renal oncocytoma (13/14 cases, 92.9%) and in the distal nephron, including the collecting duct, in the normal kidney. A computational analysis of TCGA data suggested that DNA methylation was involved in the differential expression pattern of both genes among RCC subtypes. Finally, an immunohistochemical analysis showed lung carcinomas were negative (0/85 cases, 0%) for the expression of both proteins. These results suggest that BSND and ATP6V1G3 are excellent novel immunohistochemical markers for differentiating between chromophobe RCC and other subtypes of RCC, including clear cell and papillary RCCs.
Morodomi Y, Okamoto T, Kohno M, et al.Associations between driver gene mutations and cytotoxic chemosensitivity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(3):1791-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations or echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) rearrangement often have a better prognosis when they are treated with specific inhibitors than when treated with cytotoxic agents. However, the associations between gene mutations and cytotoxic chemosensitivity are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify which clinicopathological factors, including genetic mutations, influence chemosensitivity, determined using the succinate dehydrogenase inhibition (SDI) test in patients with NSCLC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemosensitivity of tumor tissues from 96 patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection was evaluated using the SDI test.
RESULTS: In patients with adenocarcinoma, tumors with EGFR gene mutations were significantly more sensitive to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) than tumors without EGFR gene mutations (p<0.0149).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patients with adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR gene mutations may be susceptible to 5-FU.
BACKGROUND: Distant metastasis is the major cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a systemic, comprehensive discovery for expression patterns of metastasis-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) by directly comparing primary CRCs (pCRCs) and matched liver metastases (LMs) and evaluated the feasibility of their clinical application as metastasis-specific biomarkers.
METHODS: CRC metastasis-specific miRNA profiles were generated by analyzing nine pairs of pCRC and LM tissues, followed by quantitative validation in an independent cohort of 58 pairs of matched pCRC and LM tissues. We evaluated associations between miRNA expression and patient survival and ability to predict metastasis in another 84 patients with CRC. Subsequently, associations were quantitatively validated in 175 CRC tissues and 169 serum samples. Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression, and logistic regression analyses were used. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Twenty-three miRNAs were identified that were differentially expressed between pCRC and LM (P < .001; FDR < .5). Four miRNAs downregulated in LM (let-7i, miR-10b, miR-221, and miR-320a) and one upregulated miR (miR-885-5p) were quantitatively validated in pCRC (P < .0001). Low let-7i expression in pCRC tissue predicted worsened prognosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 24.4, P = .0479) as well as distant metastasis (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5, 95% CI = 1.1 to 26.8, P = .0334). High miR-10b expression in pCRC tissue independently predicted distant metastasis (OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.2 to 19.7, P = .0248). High serum miR-885-5p expression independently predicted prognosis (HR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1 to 7.5, P = .0323), LN metastasis (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.3 to 7.2, P = .0116), and distant metastasis (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0 to 10.0, P = .0456), whereas tissue miR-885-5p expression did not. Expression patterns of miRNAs were confirmed by in situ hybridization.
CONCLUSIONS: We discovered a metastasis-specific miRNA signature in pCRCs and discovered novel tissue- and serum-based CRC metastasis-specific miRNA biomarkers through intensive validation. These unique miRNAs may be clinically applicable to predict prognosis and distant metastasis in CRC.
Tate G, Kishimoto K, Mitsuya TBiallelic disruption of the PTCH1 gene in multiple basal cell carcinomas in Japanese patients with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.
Acta Med Okayama. 2014; 68(3):163-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of the present study is to address whether the molecular pathogenesis is identical among multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) present in the same nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patient. Patient 1 is a 61-year-old (yo) Japanese female whose clinical characteristics and findings of a genetic analysis of PTCH1 have been previously described. Patient 2 is patient 1's 64-yo sister who also suffered from NBCCS with a single base deletion at nucleotide 2613 in exon 16 (c.2613delC) in one PTCH1 allele. Thirteen and 3 independent specimens of BCC were applied for a molecular analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in PTCH1 in patients 1 and 2, respectively. Of particular note is that all BCC specimens examined showed a loss of the wild-type allele of exon 16 in PTCH1, thus indicating that LOH results in the biallelic disruption of PTCH1 in multiple BCCs that develop in an age- and location-independent manner in the same patient. These results indicate that the germline single base deletion of PTCH1 (c.2613 delC) is a first hit and the LOH of the wild-type allele is a second hit, implying that all 16 BCCs detected in these NBCCS sisters fit the standard two-hit model.
The primary cause of death from breast cancer is the progressive growth of tumors and resistance to conventional therapies. It is currently believed that recurrent cancer is repopulated according to a recently proposed cancer stem cell hypothesis. New therapeutic strategies that specifically target cancer stem-like cells may represent a new avenue of cancer therapy. We aimed to discover novel compounds that target breast cancer stem-like cells. We used a dye-exclusion method to isolate side population (SP) cancer cells and, subsequently, subjected these SP cells to a sphere formation assay to generate SP spheres (SPS) from breast cancer cell lines. Surface markers, stemness genes, and tumorigenicity were used to test stem properties. We performed a high-throughput drug screening using these SPS. The effects of candidate compounds were assessed in vitro and in vivo. We successfully generated breast cancer SPS with stem-like properties. These SPS were enriched for CD44(high) (2.8-fold) and CD24(low) (4-fold) cells. OCT4 and ABCG2 were overexpressed in SPS. Moreover, SPS grew tumors at a density of 10(3), whereas an equivalent number of parental cells did not initiate tumor formation. A clinically approved drug, niclosamide, was identified from the LOPAC chemical library of 1,258 compounds. Niclosamide downregulated stem pathways, inhibited the formation of spheroids, and induced apoptosis in breast cancer SPS. Animal studies also confirmed this therapeutic effect. The results of this proof-of-principle study may facilitate the development of new breast cancer therapies in the near future. The extension of niclosamide clinical trials is warranted.
Kara IO, Duman BB, Afsar CUThe evaluation of minimal residual disease in multiple myeloma by fluorescent molecular beacons in real time PCR of IgH gene rearrangements and correlation with flow cytometry.
J BUON. 2013 Apr-Jun; 18(2):442-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients relapse after a period of time despite longer disease-free survival due to novel treatment options. In this study we aimed to assess the value of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement using allele-specific molecular beacons as fluorescence probes to quantify minimal residual disease (MRD) and also to correlate post-treatment flow cytometric detection of plasma cells' (PCs) expression of CD19, CD38, CD45, CD56 and CD138 in MM.
METHODS: After diagnosis of 17 MM patients, the CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 regions of the IgH gene were analysed and sequenced to identify IgH's clonal nature. Unique sequences of the clonal IgH rearrangement were used to design specific molecular beacon probes for each MM patient. Examined were also the co-expression of CD19, CD38, CD45, CD56, and CD138 molecules in bone marrow aspirates of patients with MM by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Detection of MRD was positive in 13 (76%) of 17 patients by RT-PCR. The infiltration ratio was significantly correlated with CD138 expression (p=0.009). Significant correlation was also found between RT-PCR detection of MRD and CD138 expression (p=0.006). Nevertheless, no correlation was observed among other surface antigens (CD38, CD45, CD56).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that RT-PCR with specific molecular beacons provide a feasible, accurate and reproducible method for the determination of MRD in MM. Flow cytometry detection of CD138 expression may be used as a disease marker in addition to RT-PCR.
Kaufmann MR, Schraml P, Hermanns T, et al.Onconeuronal antigen Cdr2 correlates with HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylase PHD1 and worse prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2013; 94(3):453-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Neoplastic expression of the onconeuronal cerebellar degeneration-related antigen Cdr2 in ovary and breast tumors is associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). Cdr2 protein expression is normally restricted to neurons, but aberrant Cdr2 expression has mainly been described for breast and ovarian tumors. Previously, we found strong Cdr2 protein expression in the papillary subtype of renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) and showed that Cdr2 interacts with the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl-4-hydroxylase PHD1. High Cdr2 protein levels are associated with decreased HIF-dependent gene expression in cells as well as in clinical pRCC samples, providing a possible explanation why pRCCs are the most hypovascular renal tumors. Here, we demonstrate that strong Cdr2 protein expression in clinical samples from pRCC patients correlates with elevated PHD1 protein levels, suggesting that increased PHD1 activity attenuates HIF-dependent gene expression. Interestingly, survival analysis revealed a significant correlation between high levels of Cdr2 expression and worse patient outcome in clear cell (cc) RCC patients. These findings provide evidence that Cdr2 might represent an important tumor antigen in kidney cancer and possibly in other cancer types as well. In contrast to ovary and breast tumor patients who develop PCD, no Cdr2 auto-antibodies were detected in the serum of pRCC patients, which is in line with the fact that pRCC patients have not been reported to display paraneoplastic neurodegenerative syndromes. This suggests that, despite a shared target antigen, tumor immunity and autoimmunity only partially overlap, and also highlights to which extent immuno-surveillance against cancer can be clinically silent.
Chao TK, Yo YT, Liao YP, et al.LIM-homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha (LMX1A) inhibits tumourigenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem-like properties of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 128(3):475-82 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: We reported recently the hypermethylation of LMX1A, a LIM-homeobox gene, as a prognostic biomarker in ovarian cancer; however, the function of LMX1A in ovarian cancer remains unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the hypothesized tumour-suppressor functions of LMX1A in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: We analysed the function of LMX1A by examining cell lines, animal models and human ovarian cancer tissues. Overexpression of LMX1A in relation to chemotherapy was also analysed.
RESULTS: The expression of LMX1A inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation in vitro, as well as tumourigenicity in a xenotransplantation mouse model. LMX1A also sensitized ovarian cancer cell lines to chemotherapeutics, and affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The restoration of LMX1A down-regulated stem cell markers and inhibited tumour spheroid formation in SKOV3 cells. Univariate analysis of immunohistochemical staining of tissue arrays (n=83) revealed that low LMX1A expression was significantly associated with advanced stages (p=0.001), poor differentiation (p<0.001), early recurrence (p=0.023) and poor overall survival (p=0.042) in ovarian cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that LMX1A is a bona fide tumour suppressor of ovarian cancer. The prognostic values of LMX1A may provide a biomarker for personalized treatments of ovarian cancer patients. The mechanisms of LMX1A in EMT and stem-like properties in ovarian cancer warrant further investigation.
BACKGROUND: Despite of the trend that the application of DNA methylation as a biomarker for cancer detection is promising, clinically applicable genes are few. Therefore, we looked for novel hypermethylated genes for cervical cancer screening.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: At the discovery phase, we analyzed the methylation profiles of human cervical carcinomas and normal cervixes by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled to promoter tiling arrays (MeDIP-on-chip). Methylation-specific PCR (MSP), quantitative MSP and bisulfite sequencing were used to verify the methylation status in cancer tissues and cervical scrapings from patients with different severities. Immunohistochemical staining of a cervical tissue microarray was used to confirm protein expression. We narrowed to three candidate genes: DBC1, PDE8B, and ZNF582; their methylation frequencies in tumors were 93%, 29%, and 100%, respectively. At the pre-validation phase, the methylation frequency of DBC1 and ZNF582 in cervical scraping correlated significantly with disease severity in an independent cohort (n = 330, both P<0.001). For the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and worse, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of ZNF582 was 0.82 (95% confidence interval= 0.76-0.87).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows ZNF582 is frequently methylated in CIN3 and worse lesions, and it is demonstrated as a potential biomarker for the molecular screening of cervical cancer.
Yo YT, Lin YW, Wang YC, et al.Growth inhibition of ovarian tumor-initiating cells by niclosamide.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11(8):1703-12 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A recent hypothesis for cancer chemoresistance posits that cytotoxic survival of a subpopulation of tumor progenitors drives the propagation of recurrent disease, underscoring the need for new therapeutics that target such primitive cells. To discover such novel compounds active against drug-resistant ovarian cancer, we identified a subset of chemoresistant ovarian tumor cells fulfilling current definitions of cancer-initiating cells from cell lines and patient tumors using multiple stemness phenotypes, including the expression of stem cell markers, membrane dye efflux, sphere formation, potent tumorigenicity, and serial tumor propagation. We then subjected such stem-like ovarian tumor-initiating cells (OTIC) to high-throughput drug screening using more than 1,200 clinically approved drugs. Of 61 potential compounds preliminarily identified, more stringent assessments showed that the antihelmintic niclosamide selectively targets OTICs in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression arrays following OTIC treatment revealed niclosamide to disrupt multiple metabolic pathways affecting biogenetics, biogenesis, and redox regulation. These studies support niclosamide as a promising therapy for ovarian cancer and warrant further preclinical and clinical evaluation of this safe, clinically proven drug for the management of this devastating gynecologic malignancy.
BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 testing is not recommended for children, as risk reduction measures and screening are not generally recommended before 25 years old (YO). Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of parent communication to offspring and how offspring respond to this communication.
METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents who had BRCA1/2 testing and at least 1 child <25 YO. Logistic regressions were utilized to evaluate associations with communication. Framework analysis was utilized to analyze open-ended responses.
RESULTS: A total of 253 parents completed interviews (61% response rate), reporting on 505 offspring. Twenty-nine percent of parents were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Three hundred thirty-four (66%) offspring learned of their parent's test result. Older offspring age (P ≤ .01), offspring gender (female, P = .05), parents' negative test result (P = .03), and parents' education (high school only, P = .02) were associated with communication to offspring. The most frequently reported initial offspring responses were neutral (41%) or relief (28%). Thirteen percent of offspring were reported to experience concern or distress (11%) in response to parental communication of their test results. Distress was more frequently perceived among offspring learning of their parent's BRCA1/2 positive or variant of uncertain significance result.
CONCLUSIONS: Many parents communicate their BRCA1/2 test results to young offspring. Parents' perceptions of offspring responses appear to vary by offspring age and parent test result. A better understanding of how young offspring respond to information about hereditary risk for adult cancer could provide opportunities to optimize adaptive psychosocial responses to risk information and performance of health behaviors, in adolescence and throughout an at-risk life span.
UNLABELLED: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates the somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) variable (V) regions that is required for the generation of antibody diversity and for the affinity maturation of the antibody response against infectious agents and toxic substances. AID preferentially targets WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G) hot spot motifs, particularly WGCW motifs that create overlapping hot spots on both strands. In order to gain a better understanding of the generation of antibody diversity and to create a platform for the in vitro generation of affinity-matured antibodies, we have established a system involving recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to replace the V region and its flanking sequences. This makes it possible to easily manipulate the sequence of the Ig gene within the endogenous heavy chain of the Ramos human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. Here we show that the newly integrated wild-type (WT) VH regions introduced by RMCE undergo SHM similarly to non-RMCE-modified Ramos cells. Most importantly, we have shown that introducing a cluster of WGCW motifs into the complementary determining region 2 (CDR2) of the human heavy chain V region significantly raised the mutation frequency and number of mutations per sequence compared to WT controls. Thus, we have demonstrated a novel platform in Ramos cells whereby we can easily and quickly manipulate the endogenous human VH region to further explore the regulation and targeting of SHM. This platform will be useful for generating human antibodies with changes in affinity and specificity in vitro.
IMPORTANCE: An effective immune response requires a highly diverse repertoire of affinity-matured antibodies. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Although a great deal has been learned about the regulation of AID, it remains unclear how it is preferentially targeted to particular motifs, to certain locations within the Ig gene and not to other highly expressed genes in the germinal center B cell. This is an important question because AID is highly mutagenic and is sometimes mistargeted to other highly expressed genes, including proto-oncogenes, leading to B cell lymphomas. Here we describe how we utilize recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to modify the sequence of the endogenous heavy chain locus in the Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. This platform can be used to explore the regulation and targeting of SHM and to generate human antibodies with changes in affinity and specificity in vitro.
Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can routinely be isolated from phage display libraries against virtually any protein available in sufficient purity and quantity, but library design can influence epitope coverage on the target antigen. Here we describe the construction of a novel synthetic human antibody phage display library that incorporates hydrophilic or charged residues at position 52 of the CDR2 loop of the variable heavy chain domain, instead of the serine residue found in the corresponding germline gene. The novel library was used to isolate human mAbs to various antigens, including the alternatively-spliced EDA domain of fibronectin, a marker of tumor angiogenesis. In particular, the mAb 2H7 was proven to bind to a novel epitope on EDA, which does not overlap with the one recognized by the clinical-stage F8 antibody. F8 and 2H7 were used for the construction of chelating recombinant antibodies (CRAbs), whose tumor-targeting properties were assessed in vivo in biodistribution studies in mice bearing F9 teratocarcinoma, revealing a preferential accumulation at the tumor site.
BACKGROUND: Sensitivity of cancer cells to recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI) depends on expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (AS), a rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of arginine from citrulline. To understand the efficiency of RNA interfering of AS in sensitizing the resistant cancer cells to rADI, the down regulation of AS transiently and permanently were performed in vitro, respectively.
METHODS: We studied the use of down-regulation of this enzyme by RNA interference in three human cancer cell lines (A375, HeLa, and MCF-7) as a way to restore sensitivity to rADI in resistant cells. The expression of AS at levels of mRNA and protein was determined to understand the effect of RNA interference. Cell viability, cell cycle, and possible mechanism of the restore sensitivity of AS RNA interference in rADI treated cancer cells were evaluated.
RESULTS: AS DNA was present in all cancer cell lines studied, however, the expression of this enzyme at the mRNA and protein level was different. In two rADI-resistant cell lines, one with endogenous AS expression (MCF-7 cells) and one with induced AS expression (HeLa cells), AS small interference RNA (siRNA) inhibited 37-46% of the expression of AS in MCF-7 cells. ASsiRNA did not affect cell viability in MCF-7 which may be due to the certain amount of residual AS protein. In contrast, ASsiRNA down-regulated almost all AS expression in HeLa cells and caused cell death after rADI treatment. Permanently down-regulated AS expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) made MCF-7 cells become sensitive to rADI via the inhibition of 4E-BP1-regulated mTOR signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that rADI-resistance can be altered via AS RNA interference. Although transient enzyme down-regulation (siRNA) did not affect cell viability in MCF-7 cells, permanent down-regulation (shRNA) overcame the problem of rADI-resistance due to the more efficiency in AS silencing.
Yo YT, Shieh GS, Hsu KF, et al.Licorice and licochalcone-A induce autophagy in LNCaP prostate cancer cells by suppression of Bcl-2 expression and the mTOR pathway.
J Agric Food Chem. 2009; 57(18):8266-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Licorice is a common Chinese medicinal herb with antitumor activity. Some components in licorice root have been shown to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in cancer cells. This paper demonstrates for the first time that licorice Glycyrrhiza glabra and its component licochalcone-A (LA) can induce autophagy in addition to apoptosis in human LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Exposure of cells to licorice or LA resulted in several confirmed characteristics of autophagy, including the appearance of autophagic vacuoles revealed by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), and autophagosome membrane association of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) characterized by cleavage of LC3 and its punctuate redistribution, as well as ultrastructural observation of autophagic vacuoles by transmission electron microscopy. Autophagy induction was accompanied by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In summary, licorice can induce caspase-dependent and autophagy-related cell death in LNCaP cells.
Balamurugan K, Luu VD, Kaufmann MR, et al.Onconeuronal cerebellar degeneration-related antigen, Cdr2, is strongly expressed in papillary renal cell carcinoma and leads to attenuated hypoxic response.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(37):3274-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The onconeuronal cerebellar degeneration-related antigen Cdr2 is associated with paraneoplastic syndromes. Neoplastic expression of Cdr2 in ovary and breast tumors triggers an autoimmune response that suppresses tumor growth by developing tumor immunity, but culminates in cerebellar degeneration when Cdr2-specific immune cells recognize neuronal Cdr2. We identified Cdr2 as a novel interactor of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl-4-hydroxylase PHD1 and provide evidence that Cdr2 might represent a novel important tumor antigen in renal cancer. Strong Cdr2 protein expression was observed in 54.2% of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) compared with 7.8% of clear-cell RCC and no staining was observed in chromophobe RCC or oncocytoma. High Cdr2 protein levels correlated with attenuated HIF target gene expression in these solid tumors, and Cdr2 overexpression in tumor cell lines reduced HIF-dependent transcriptional regulation. This effect was because of both attenuation of hypoxic protein accumulation and suppression of the transactivation activity of HIF-1alpha. pRCC is known for its tendency to avascularity, usually associated with a lower pathological stage and higher survival rates. We provide evidence that Cdr2 protein strongly accumulates in pRCC, attenuates the HIF response to tumor hypoxia and may become of diagnostic importance as novel renal tumor marker.
Farina L, Carniti C, Dodero A, et al.Qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction monitoring of minimal residual disease in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia: early assessment can predict long-term outcome after reduced intensity allogeneic transplantation.
Haematologica. 2009; 94(5):654-62 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The graft-versus-leukemia effect is able to induce clinical responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with a reduced intensity conditioning regimen, followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We investigated whether molecular remissions could be attained after reduced intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and whether the assessment of minimal residual disease might be used to predict the clinical outcome.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Minimal residual disease was monitored by polymerase chain reaction using the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangement as a molecular marker in 29 relapsed patients who achieved complete remission following reduced intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. A nested-polymerase chain reaction with patient-specific primers derived from complementarity determining regions (CDR2 and CDR3) was carried out in all the patients. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed in patients whose nested reaction gave positive or mixed results.
RESULTS: Three patterns of minimal residual disease were observed: negative (31%), mixed (24%), and always positive (45%). The cumulative incidence of relapse according to the minimal residual disease status at 6 and 12 months after transplantation was significantly different between polymerase chain reaction-negative and -positive patients (p=0.031 and p=0.04, respectively). Two-year disease-free survival was 93% and 46% for polymerase chain reaction-negative and -positive patients at 6 months after transplantation, respectively (p=0.012). Similarly, 2-year disease-free survival was 100% and 57% for polymerase chain reaction-negative and -positive patients at 12 months, respectively (p=0.037). No clinical or biological factors were predictive of the achievement of polymerase chain reaction negativity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Graft-versus-host disease was more frequent in patients who did not relapse (p=0.04). Quantitative monitoring of minimal residual disease was able to identify polymerase chain reaction-positive patients with a higher risk of relapse.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that relapsed patients can achieve molecular remission after reduced intensity conditioning and allogeneic stem cell transplantation and suggest a minimal residual disease-driven intervention that might be useful to prevent overt hematologic relapse.
Parkhurst MR, Joo J, Riley JP, et al.Characterization of genetically modified T-cell receptors that recognize the CEA:691-699 peptide in the context of HLA-A2.1 on human colorectal cancer cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 15(1):169-80 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor-associated protein expressed on a variety of adenocarcinomas. To develop an immunotherapy for patients with cancers that overexpress CEA, we isolated and genetically modified a T-cell receptors (TCRs) that specifically bound a CEA peptide on human cancer cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice were immunized with CEA:691-699. A CEA-reactive TCR was isolated from splenocytes of these mice and was genetically introduced into human peripheral blood lymphocytes via RNA electroporation or retroviral transduction. Amino acid substitutions were introduced throughout the complementarity determining regions (CDR1, CDR2, and CDR3) of both TCR alpha and beta chains to improve recognition of CEA.
RESULTS: Murine lymphocytes bearing the CEA-reactive TCR specifically recognized peptide-loaded T2 cells and HLA-A2.1(+) CEA(+) human colon cancer cells. Both CD8(+) and CD4(+) human lymphocytes expressing the murine TCR specifically recognized peptide-loaded T2 cells. However, only gene-modified CD8(+) lymphocytes specifically recognized HLA-A2.1(+) CEA(+) colon cancer cell lines, and tumor cell recognition was weak and variable. We identified two substitutions in the CDR3 of the alpha chain that significantly influenced tumor cell recognition by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. One substitution, T for S at position 112 (S112T), enhanced tumor cell recognition by CD8(+) lymphocytes, and a second dually substituted receptor (S112T L110F) enhanced tumor cell recognition by CD4(+) T cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The modified CEA-reactive TCRs are good candidates for future gene therapy clinical trials and show the power of selected amino acid substitutions in the antigen-binding regions of the TCR to enhance desired reactivities.
Walia S, Fishman GA, Molday RS, et al.Relation of response to treatment with dorzolamide in X-linked retinoschisis to the mechanism of functional loss in retinoschisin.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2009; 147(1):111-115.e1 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: To determine if a positive response of macular cysts to treatment with dorzolamide eye drops in patients with juvenile X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) can occur with mutations that result in different types of retinoschisin protein dysfunction.
DESIGN: Retrospective case series.
METHODS: Thirteen eyes of seven patients seen at the University of Illinois at Chicago with a known diagnosis of XLRS were included. Each patient had received or currently was receiving treatment with topical dorzolamide. One patient from each family was screened for a genetic mutation. Using the method of cell transfection and protein preparation, the mutation in each patient was analyzed further and was categorized into one of three groups: 1) total absence of retinoschisin protein secretion, 2) decreased expression of the secreted protein, or 3) secretion of a nonfunctional protein. The response to dorzolamide was observed using optical coherence tomography.
RESULTS: Significant improvement in the foveal zone thickness was observed with the use of dorzolamide in three of four patients with absence of protein secretion, in two patients with a lack of protein expression, and in one patient with a nonfunctional protein secretion.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the response of macular cysts to dorzolamide in patients with XLRS may be observed independent of the mechanism responsible for retinoschisin protein dysfunction. Hence, treatment with dorzolamide may be effective in patients with different mechanisms of dysfunction in retinoschisin.
Donnelly-Roberts DL, Namovic MT, Surber B, et al.[3H]A-804598 ([3H]2-cyano-1-[(1S)-1-phenylethyl]-3-quinolin-5-ylguanidine) is a novel, potent, and selective antagonist radioligand for P2X7 receptors.
Neuropharmacology. 2009; 56(1):223-9 [PubMed
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ATP-sensitive P2X7 receptors are localized on cells of immunological origin including peripheral macrophages and glial cells in the CNS. Activation of P2X7 receptors leads to rapid changes in intracellular calcium concentrations, release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta, and following prolonged agonist exposure, the formation of cytolytic pores in plasma membranes. Data from gene knockout studies and recently described selective antagonists indicate a role for P2X7 receptor activation in inflammation and pain. While several species selective P2X7 antagonists exist, A-804598 represents a structurally novel, competitive, and selective antagonist that has equivalent high affinity at rat (IC50 = 10 nM), mouse (IC50 = 9 nM) and human (IC50 = 11 nM) P2X7 receptors. A-804598 also potently blocked agonist stimulated release of IL-1beta and Yo-Pro uptake from differentiated THP-1 cells that natively express human P2X7 receptors. A-804598 was tritiated ([3H]A-804598; 8.1Ci/mmol) and utilized to study recombinant rat P2X7 receptors expressed in 1321N1 cells. [3H]A-804598 labeled a single class of high affinity binding sites (Kd=2.4 nM and apparent Bmax=0.56 pmol/mg). No specific binding was observed in untransfected 1321N1 cells. The pharmacological profile for P2X antagonists to inhibit [3H]A-804598 binding correlated with their ability to block functional activation of P2X7 receptors (r=0.95, P<0.05). These data demonstrate that A-804598 is one of the most potent and selective antagonists for mammalian P2X7 receptors described to date and [3H]A-804598 is a high affinity antagonist radioligand that specifically labels rat P2X7 receptors.
Qin YR, Fu L, Sham PC, et al.Single-nucleotide polymorphism-mass array reveals commonly deleted regions at 3p22 and 3p14.2 associate with poor clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2008; 123(4):826-30 [PubMed
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common solid tumors in the world with poor prognosis. Deletion of chromosome 3p is one of the most frequent chromosomal alterations in ESCC, suggesting the existence of one or more tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) at this region. In the present study, a recently developed high-throughput and high-resolution technology, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-mass array, was applied to investigate loss of heterozygosity on 3p in 100 primary ESCC cases with 386 SNP markers. Four commonly deleted regions (CDRs) at 3p26.3, 3p22, 3p21.3 and 3p14.2 were identified. Absent and down-regulated expression of several candidate TSGs, including CHL1, PCAF, RBMS3, PLCD1 and CACNA2D3, were detected in primary ESCC tumors and ESCC cell lines. Moreover, deletions of CDRs 2 and 4 were correlated with advanced tumor stage and deletion of CDR2 was associated with tumor metastasis in ESCC. Our findings provided evidence that minimal deleted regions at 3p26.3, 3p22, 3p21.3 and 3p14.2 containing potential TSGs may contribute to the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.
Tani T, Tanaka K, Idezuka J, Nishizawa MRegulatory T cells in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.
J Neuroimmunol. 2008; 196(1-2):166-9 [PubMed
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Focusing on CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (T(reg)), we studied the gene expression of T(reg) functional molecules in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS), including Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and anti-Hu- or anti-Yo-antibody-positive PNS. T(reg)-rich subsets were sorted from the patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the mRNA expression levels of their functional genes were measured. The expression levels of FOXP3, TGF-beta and CTLA4 mRNA in T(reg)-rich subsets of PNS patients were down-regulated compared with that of SCLC patients without PNS. These results suggest that T(reg) dysfunction plays a role in PNS development.
Wu CL, Shieh GS, Chang CC, et al.Tumor-selective replication of an oncolytic adenovirus carrying oct-3/4 response elements in murine metastatic bladder cancer models.
Clin Cancer Res. 2008; 14(4):1228-38 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Oncolytic adenoviruses are attractive therapeutics for cancer because they selectively replicate in tumors. However, targeting tumor metastasis remains a major challenge for current virotherapy for cancer. Oct-3/4 is specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells and tumor cells. Oct-3/4 highly expressed in cancer cells may be a potential target for cancer therapy. We developed an E1B-55 kDa-deleted adenovirus, designated Ad.9OC, driven by nine copies of Oct-3/4 response element for treating Oct-3/4-expressing metastatic bladder cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the expression of Oct-3/4 in human bladder tumor tissues and bladder cancer cell lines. We also evaluated the cytolytic and antitumor effects of Ad.9OC on bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Oct-3/4 expression was detected in bladder cancer cell lines, as well as in human bladder tumor tissues. Notably, Oct-3/4 expression was higher in metastatic compared with nonmetastatic bladder cancer cells. Ad.9OC induced higher cytolytic activity in metastatic bladder cancer cells than in their nonmetastatic counterparts, whereas it did not cause cytotoxicity in normal cells. Pharmacologic and short hairpin RNA-mediated Oct-3/4 inhibition rendered bladder cancer cells more resistant to Ad.9OC-induced cytolysis. Replication of Ad.9OC was detected in murine bladder cancer cells and bladder tumor tissues. We also showed the effectiveness of Ad.9OC for treating bladder cancer in subcutaneous, as well as metastatic, bladder tumor models.
CONCLUSIONS: Ad.9OC may have therapeutic potential for treating Oct-3/4-expressing tumors. Especially, metastatic bladder tumors are good target for Ad.9OC treatment. Because Oct-3/4 is expressed in a broad spectrum of cancers, Ad.9OC may be broadly applicable.
The onconeural antigens appear to serve as tumor rejection antigens in the paraneoplastic neurologic disorders. Here, we used an unbiased peptide binding screen, followed by studies in HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice to identify naturally processed HLA-A2.1 restricted epitopes of the paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration breast/ovarian cancer antigen cdr2. These mice were used to clone high-avidity cdr2-specific CD8(+) T cells that recognize human tumor cells presenting endogenously loaded MHC class I-cdr2 peptide. T cells with this specificity were detected in the peripheral blood of two HLA-A2.1(+) paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration patients. We cloned T cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta genes from cdr2-specific T cells; electroporation of RNA encoding this TCR turned nonreactive donor T cells into efficient killers of human cdr2-expressing tumor cells. Cloned cdr2-specific TCR genes provide a clinically relevant means for immunologic targeting of human gynecologic cancers.
Shieh GS, Shiau AL, Yo YT, et al.Low-dose etoposide enhances telomerase-dependent adenovirus-mediated cytosine deaminase gene therapy through augmentation of adenoviral infection and transgene expression in a syngeneic bladder tumor model.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(20):9957-66 [PubMed
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The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter can selectively drive transgene expression in many telomerase-positive human cancer cells. Here we evaluated combination therapy of adenoviral vector Ad-hTERT-CD encoding E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) driven by the hTERT promoter and low-dose etoposide (0.1 microg/mL) for treating bladder cancer. Ad-hTERT-CD conferred sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) in bladder cancer cells, which could be enhanced by etoposide treatment, but not in normal cells. Such effect was correlated with up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha expression. By contrast, etoposide activated p53 and down-regulated hTERT promoter activity in normal cells. Etoposide also increased adenoviral infection via enhancement of coxsackie-adenovirus receptor expression on bladder cancer and normal cells. Combination index analysis revealed that combined therapy of Ad-hTERT-CD (10(9) plaque-forming units)/5-FC (200 mg/kg) with etoposide (2 mg/kg) synergistically suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival in mice bearing syngeneic MBT-2 bladder tumors. This combination therapy regimen induced complete tumor regression and generated antitumor immunity in 75% of tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, increased infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and necrosis within tumors were found in mice receiving combination therapy of Ad-hTERT-CD and etoposide compared with those treated with either treatment alone. Thus, the potential high therapeutic index of the combination therapy may be an appealing therapeutic intervention for bladder cancer. Furthermore, because a majority of human tumors exhibit high telomerase activity, adenovirus-mediated CD gene therapy driven by the hTERT promoter in combination with low-dose etoposide may be applicable to a broad spectrum of cancers.
Cancers result from large-scale deregulation of genes that lead to cancer pathophysiologies such as increase proliferation, decreased apoptosis, increased motility, increased angiogenesis, and others. Genes that influence proliferation and apoptosis are particularly attractive as therapeutic targets. To identify genes that influence these phenotypes, we have developed simple and rapid methods to measure apoptosis and cell proliferation using high content screening with YO-PRO-1 and anti-BrdU staining of BrdU pulsed cells, respectively.
Bredholt G, Storstein A, Haugen M, et al.Detection of autoantibodies to the BTB-kelch protein KLHL7 in cancer sera.
Scand J Immunol. 2006; 64(3):325-35 [PubMed
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The aim of the study was to search for novel targets of autoantibodies in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). PNS are mediated by immune reactions against autoantigen(s) shared by the cancer cells and the nervous system. By serological screening of a rat cerebellum cDNA expression library using anti-Hu-positive sera from three patients with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM), we identified an open reading frame encoding an isoform of the BTB-kelch protein KLHL7. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the KLHL7 protein is expressed in the nuclei of neurones, but not in other tissues including various cancers. However, the KLHL7 protein was detected in the nuclei of cancer cell lines. Antibodies to KLHL7 were detected by an immunoprecipitation assay in sera from 12 of 254 (4.7%) patients with various cancers and 2 of 170 blood donors (1.2%). None of 50 sera from patients with multiple sclerosis were positive for KLHL7 antibodies. Sixteen patients with classical PNS and anti-Hu or anti-Yo antibodies were also negative for KLHL7 antibodies. Seven cancer patients with KLHL7 antibodies had various signs of neurological disease that could be related to cancer, whereas the remaining five seropositive cancer patients had no clinical signs of possible PNS. The present results indicate that KLHL7 antibodies are associated with various cancers, and in some patients also with neurological disease. Whether KLHL7 antibodies can be used as paraneoplastic markers for PNS remains to be determined.