CISH

Gene Summary

Gene:CISH; cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein
Aliases: CIS, G18, SOCS, CIS-1, BACTS2
Location:3p21.3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS box domain. The protein thus belongs to the cytokine-induced STAT inhibitor (CIS), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) or STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. CIS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by IL2, IL3, GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. Proteasome-mediated degradation of this protein has been shown to be involved in the inactivation of the erythropoietin receptor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Stomach Cancer
  • Ductal Breast Carcinoma
  • Uterine Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Mutation
  • p53 Protein
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • FISH
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • ERBB2
  • Chromogenic Compounds
  • Paraffin Embedding
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Staging
  • Spinal Cord Neoplasms
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Gene Amplification
  • Breast Cancer
  • Chromosome 3
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer RNA
  • Gene Dosage
  • Adolescents
  • Cancer DNA
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Young Adult
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Chromosome 17
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Monoclonal Antibodies
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Tissue Fixation
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CISH (cancer-related)

Kwan ML, Bernard PS, Kroenke CH, et al.
Breastfeeding, PAM50 tumor subtype, and breast cancer prognosis and survival.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(7) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is associated with decreased breast cancer risk, yet associations with prognosis and survival by tumor subtype are largely unknown.
METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 1636 women from two prospective breast cancer cohorts. Intrinsic tumor subtype (luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]-enriched, basal-like) was determined by the PAM50 gene expression assay. Breastfeeding history was obtained from participant questionnaires. Questionnaires and medical record reviews documented 383 recurrences and 290 breast cancer deaths during a median follow-up of nine years. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between breastfeeding and tumor subtype. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer recurrence or death. Statistical significance tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Breast cancer patients with basal-like tumors were less likely to have previously breastfed than those with luminal A tumors (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.80). Among all patients, ever breastfeeding was associated with decreased risk of recurrence (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.93), especially breastfeeding for six months or more (HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.87, P trend = .01). Similar associations were observed for breast cancer death. Among women with luminal A subtype, ever breastfeeding was associated with decreased risks of recurrence (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.31 to 0.89) and breast cancer death (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.93), yet no statistically significant associations were observed among the other subtypes. Effects appeared to be limited to tumors with lower expression of proliferation genes.
CONCLUSIONS: History of breastfeeding might affect prognosis and survival by establishing a luminal tumor environment with lower proliferative activity.

Liao W, Mao Y, Ge P, et al.
Value of quantitative and qualitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA as diagnostic tools for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(14):e722 [PubMed] Related Publications
Qualitative and quantitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are potential methods for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many studies have evaluated these approaches, but the results have been variable. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these published results and evaluate the use of circulating cfDNA values for HCC diagnosis. All articles that met our inclusion criteria were assessed using QUADAS guidelines after the literature research. We also investigated 3 subgroups in this meta-analysis: qualitative analysis of abnormal concentrations of circulating cfDNA; qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations; and multiple analyses combined with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 12.0. We synthesized these published results and calculated accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratios [PLRs/NLRs], diagnostic odds ratios [DORs], and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]). Data were pooled using bivariate generalized linear mixed model. Furthermore, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined. A total of 2424 subjects included 1280 HCC patients in 22 studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, AUC, and CIs of quantitative analysis were 0.741 (95% CI: 0.610-0.840), 0.851 (95% CI: 0.718-0.927), 4.970 (95% CI: 2.694-9.169), 0.304 (95% CI: 0.205-0.451), 16.347 (95% CI: 8.250-32.388), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. For qualitative analysis, the values were 0.538 (95% CI: 0.401-0.669), 0.944 (95% CI: 0.889-0.972), 9.545 (95% CI: 5.298-17.196), 0.490 (95% CI: 0.372-0.646), 19.491 (95% CI: 10.458-36.329), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84-0.90), respectively. After combining with AFP assay, the values were 0.818 (95% CI: 0.676-0.906), 0.960 (95% CI: 0.873-0.988), 20.195 (95% CI: 5.973-68.282), 0.190 (95% CI: 0.100-0.359), 106.270 (95% CI: 22.317-506.055), and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97), respectively. The results in this meta-analysis suggest that circulating cfDNA have potential value for HCC diagnosis. However, it would not be recommended for using independently, which is based on the nonrobust results. After combining with AFP, the diagnostic performance will be improved. Further investigation with more data is needed.

Cappellesso R, Fassan M, Hanspeter E, et al.
HER2 status in gastroesophageal cancer: a tissue microarray study of 1040 cases.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(5):665-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Among patients with gastric cancer (GC) and gastroesophageal cancer (G-EC), HER2 amplification identifies those who may benefit from trastuzumab. HER2 status assessment, however, is influenced by preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic variables. In a series of 5426 microarray cancer tissue cores obtained from 1040 GC/G-ECs (824 GC, 216 G-EC) and 720 synchronous nodal metastases, we evaluated both the performances of 2 different immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocols and the HER2 status intratumor variability. The prevalence of HER2 amplification and protein overexpression were assessed by chromogenic in situ hybridization and by 2 IHC protocols (CB11 and 4B5). HER2 was amplified in 114 (11%) of 1040 cases; in 6 (5.3%) of 114 cases, gene amplification only involved nodal metastasis. HER2 amplification prevailed in intestinal-type (P = .001) and low-grade (P < .001) tumors, showing no correlation with patients' age/sex, tumor location, stage, and Ming histotype. Overall, 12.5% and 13.7% of cases IHC scored 2+/3+ using the CB11-IHC and the 4B5-IHC protocol, respectively. HER2 amplification was not associated with protein overexpression (score 0/1+) in 11.4% and 6.2% of cases using the CB11-IHC and the 4B5-IHC protocol, respectively. The 4B5-IHC protocol proved more sensitive than CB11-IHC (93.9% versus 88.6%) and just as specific (96.1% versus 96.9%). Tested by chromogenic in situ hybridization, intratumor HER2 status was "substantially" consistent in different tissue cores obtained from the same case (κ = 0.78). Similar results were obtained for HER2 protein expression (CB11-IHC, κ = 0.78, and 4B5-IHC, κ = 0.83). Immunohistochemistry testing, however, fails in identifying about 10% of HER2-amplified cancers, potentially excluding these patients from anti-HER2 therapy.

Deng Q, He B, Pan Y, et al.
Polymorphisms of GSTA1 contribute to elevated cancer risk: evidence from 15 studies.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):287-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, and may be linked to carcinogenesis. As a vital component of GSTs, GSTA1 plays an important role in carcinogenesis. However, the studies about the effect of GSTA1 polymorphisms on cancer risk are limited and the conclusions are contradictory. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between GSTA1 polymorphisms (-567T>G, (69C>T and -52G>A) and cancer risk.
METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted from their inception through December 2013. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the association of GSTA1 polymorphisms and cancer risk.
RESULTS: A total of 15 studies were enrolled, and the results indicated that GSTA1 BB genotype was associated with elevated cancer risk, especially in colorectal cancer. Further stratifications showed that GSTA1 BB genotype was associated with increased cancer risk in Caucasian populations and in the study with population-based controls.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that GSTA1 BB genotype was a risk factor for colorectal cancer, especially in Caucasian populations.

Lin HY, Shi H, Li CY, et al.
LEP and LEPR polymorphisms in non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk: a systematic review and pooled analysis.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):261-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk.
METHODS: All studies published up to July 2014 on the association between LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and NHL risk were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for LEP and LEPR polymorphisms and NHL were calculated with fixed-effects and random-effects models.
RESULTS: LEP G2528A polymorphism was associated with increased, yet not statistically significant risk of NHL (homozygote comparison, OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.01-1.60, p=0.63; heterozygote comparison, OR=1.13, 95% CI=0.86-1.49, p=0.14; dominant model, OR=1.18, 95% CI=0.99-1.41, p=0.21; recessive model, OR=1.18, 95% CI=0.97-1.43, p=0.78; additive model, OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.01-1.28, p=0.52). Significant decrease of NHL risk was found in LEP A19G polymorphism, while no links were detected with the LEPR polymorphisms studied. In subgroup analysis, the pooled results showed that LEP A19G polymorphism was associated with decreased risk of follicular lymphoma (FL) (homozygote comparison, OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.37-0.85, p=0.69). However, no evidence of a significant association was observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) for variant genotypes of all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
CONCLUSIONS: LEP G2548A polymorphism contributes to NHL susceptibility. Also, our results provide evidence that LEP A19G polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of NHL, especially in FL. Further large-scale and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.

Cini G, Carnevali I, Quaia M, et al.
Concomitant mutation and epimutation of the MLH1 gene in a Lynch syndrome family.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(4):452-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition cancer syndrome, typically caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. In the last years, a role for epimutations of the same genes has also been reported. MLH1 promoter methylation is a well known mechanism of somatic inactivation in tumors, and more recently, several cases of constitutional methylation have been identified. In four subjects affected by multiple tumors and belonging to a suspected LS family, we detected a novel secondary MLH1 gene epimutation. The methylation of MLH1 promoter was always linked in cis with a 997 bp-deletion (c.-168_c.116+713del), that removed exon 1 and partially involved the promoter of the same gene. Differently from cases with constitutional primary MLH1 inactivation, this secondary methylation was allele-specific and CpGs of the residual promoter region were totally methylated, leading to complete allele silencing. In the colon tumor of the proband, MLH1 and PMS2 expression was completely lost as a consequence of a pathogenic somatic point mutation (MLH1 c.199G>A, p.Gly67Arg) that also abrogated local methylation by destroying a CpG site. The evidences obtained highlight how MLH1 mutations and epimutations can reciprocally influence each other and suggest that an altered structure of the MLH1 locus results in epigenetic alteration.

Graff RE, Pettersson A, Lis RT, et al.
The TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and response to androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2015; 75(9):897-906 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the United States, half of men with prostate cancer harbor the androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2:ERG. We hypothesized that men with TMPRSS2:ERG positive tumors are more responsive to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
METHODS: We studied a cohort of 239 men with prostate cancer from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study who received ADT during their disease course. Fusion status was assessed on available tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry for ERG protein expression. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment of prostate cancer-specific mortality after ADT initiation.
RESULTS: Roughly half of the men had stage T3 or higher tumors at diagnosis and 39% had Gleason 8-10 tumors. During an average follow up of 10.2 years, 42 men died from prostate cancer. There was a non-significant inverse association between positive fusion status and time to death from prostate cancer after ADT (multivariable HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.40-1.45). Harboring the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of prostate cancer mortality among men who were treated with orchiectomy (multivariable HR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03-0.62), based on 15 events.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results, combined with those from earlier studies, provide suggestive evidence that men with TMPRSS2:ERG positive tumors may have longer prostate cancer survival after ADT. Larger cohorts are needed for more robust results and to assess whether men with tumors harboring the fusion benefit from treatment with ADT in the (neo) adjuvant or metastatic setting specifically.

Yuan T, Jiao Y, de Jong S, et al.
An integrative multi-scale analysis of the dynamic DNA methylation landscape in aging.
PLoS Genet. 2015; 11(2):e1004996 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2016 Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that the DNA methylome changes with age. This epigenetic drift may have deep implications for cellular differentiation and disease development. However, it remains unclear how much of this drift is functional or caused by underlying changes in cell subtype composition. Moreover, no study has yet comprehensively explored epigenetic drift at different genomic length scales and in relation to regulatory elements. Here we conduct an in-depth analysis of epigenetic drift in blood tissue. We demonstrate that most of the age-associated drift is independent of the increase in the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio that accompanies aging and that enrichment of age-hypermethylated CpG islands increases upon adjustment for cellular composition. We further find that drift has only a minimal impact on in-cis gene expression, acting primarily to stabilize pre-existing baseline expression levels. By studying epigenetic drift at different genomic length scales, we demonstrate the existence of mega-base scale age-associated hypomethylated blocks, covering approximately 14% of the human genome, and which exhibit preferential hypomethylation in age-matched cancer tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating Illumina 450k DNA methylation with ENCODE data to identify transcription factors with key roles in cellular development and aging. Specifically, we identify REST and regulatory factors of the histone methyltransferase MLL complex, whose function may be disrupted in aging. In summary, most of the epigenetic drift seen in blood is independent of changes in blood cell type composition, and exhibits patterns at different genomic length scales reminiscent of those seen in cancer. Integration of Illumina 450k with appropriate ENCODE data may represent a fruitful approach to identify transcription factors with key roles in aging and disease.

Nishio J, Iwasaki H, Aoki M, et al.
FDG PET/CT and MR imaging of CD34-negative soft-tissue solitary fibrous tumor with NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(2):967-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate biological potential. Herein, we describe the radiological, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features of an SFT arising in the left thigh of a 55-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging exhibited a well-defined mass with intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted sequences and heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted sequences. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences showed strong homogeneous enhancement of the mass. A prominent vascular pedicle was visible. Integrated positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) scan demonstrated a moderate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake (maximum standardized uptake value, 4.45) in the mass. Following an open biopsy, wide excision of the tumor was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of a proliferation of spindle cells in a fibrous stroma with focal hyalinization. Thin-walled branching hemangiopericytoma-like vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) but negative for CD34. The MIB-1 labeling index was less than 5%. Subsequent reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis identified a nerve growth factor inducible-A binding protein 2-STAT6 gene fusion. Our case supports the utility of STAT6 immunohistochemistry as an adjunct in the diagnosis of soft-tissue SFT with loss of CD34 positivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the FDG PET/CT findings of soft-tissue SFT.

Xiang C, Wang J, Kou X, et al.
Pulmonary expression of CYP2A13 and ABCB1 is regulated by FOXA2, and their genetic interaction is associated with lung cancer.
FASEB J. 2015; 29(5):1986-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhaled xenobiotics such as tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone are mainly metabolized by phase I oxidase cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 13 (CYP2A13), phase II conjugate UDP glucuronosyltransferase 2 family, polypeptide B17 (UGT2B17), and phase III transporter ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (MDR/TAP), member 1 (ABCB1), with genetic polymorphisms implicated in lung cancer. Their genetic interaction and pulmonary expression regulation are largely unknown. We analyzed joint association for CYP2A13 and ABCB1 polymorphisms in 2 independent lung cancer case populations (669 and 566 patients) and 1 common control population (749 subjects), and characterized the trans-acting function of the lung development-related transcription factor forkhead box A2 (FOXA2). We undertook FOXA2 overexpression and down-regulation in lung epithelial cell lines, analyzed functional impact on the transactivation of CYP2A13, UGT2B17, and ABCB1, and measured correlation for their expressions in lung tissues. We found a substantial reduction in cancer risk (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.25-0.61; Pinteraction = 0.029) associated with combined genotypes for CYP2A13 R257C and a functionary regulatory variant in the cis element of ABCB1 synergistically targeted by GATA binding protein 6 and FOXA2. Genetic manipulation of FOXA2 consistently influenced its binding to and transactivation of the promoters of CYP2A13, UGT2B17, and ABCB1, whose mRNA and protein expressions were all consistently correlated with those of FOXA2 in both tumorous and normal lung tissues. We therefore establish FOXA2 as a core transcriptional modulator for pulmonary xenobiotic metabolic pathways and uncover an etiologically relevant interaction between CYP2A13 and ABCB1, furthering our understanding of expression and function of the xenobiotic metabolism system.

Qin F, Song Z, Babiceanu M, et al.
Discovery of CTCF-sensitive Cis-spliced fusion RNAs between adjacent genes in human prostate cells.
PLoS Genet. 2015; 11(2):e1005001 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/06/2016 Related Publications
Genes or their encoded products are not expected to mingle with each other unless in some disease situations. In cancer, a frequent mechanism that can produce gene fusions is chromosomal rearrangement. However, recent discoveries of RNA trans-splicing and cis-splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) support for other mechanisms in generating fusion RNAs. In our transcriptome analyses of 28 prostate normal and cancer samples, 30% fusion RNAs on average are the transcripts that contain exons belonging to same-strand neighboring genes. These fusion RNAs may be the products of cis-SAGe, which was previously thought to be rare. To validate this finding and to better understand the phenomenon, we used LNCaP, a prostate cell line as a model, and identified 16 additional cis-SAGe events by silencing transcription factor CTCF and paired-end RNA sequencing. About half of the fusions are expressed at a significant level compared to their parental genes. Silencing one of the in-frame fusions resulted in reduced cell motility. Most out-of-frame fusions are likely to function as non-coding RNAs. The majority of the 16 fusions are also detected in other prostate cell lines, as well as in the 14 clinical prostate normal and cancer pairs. By studying the features associated with these fusions, we developed a set of rules: 1) the parental genes are same-strand-neighboring genes; 2) the distance between the genes is within 30kb; 3) the 5' genes are actively transcribing; and 4) the chimeras tend to have the second-to-last exon in the 5' genes joined to the second exon in the 3' genes. We then randomly selected 20 neighboring genes in the genome, and detected four fusion events using these rules in prostate cancer and non-cancerous cells. These results suggest that splicing between neighboring gene transcripts is a rather frequent phenomenon, and it is not a feature unique to cancer cells.

Rose M, Schubert C, Dierichs L, et al.
OASIS/CREB3L1 is epigenetically silenced in human bladder cancer facilitating tumor cell spreading and migration in vitro.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(12):1626-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
CREB3L1 has been recently proposed as a novel metastasis suppressor gene in breast cancer. Our current study highlights CREB3L1 expression, regulation, and function in bladder cancer. We demonstrate a significant downregulation of CREB3L1 mRNA expression (n = 64) in primary bladder cancer tissues caused by tumor-specific CREB3L1 promoter hypermethylation (n = 51). Based on pyrosequencing CREB3L1 methylation was shown to be potentially associated with a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. These findings were verified by an independent public data set containing data from 184 bladder tumors. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that CREB3L1 protein expression is decreased in bladder cancer tissues as well. Interestingly, protein loss is predominately observed in the nuclei of aggressive tumor cells. Based on in vitro models we clearly show that CREB3L1 re-expression mediates suppression of tumor cell migration and colony growth of high grade and invasive bladder cancer cells. The candidate tumor suppressor and TGF-β signaling inhibitor HTRA3 was furthermore identified as putative target gene of CREB3L1 in both invasive J82 bladder cells and primary bladder tumors. Hence, our data provide for the first time evidence that the transcription factor CREB3L1 may have an important role as a putative tumor suppressor in bladder cancer.

Li Y, Lyu Z, Zhao L, et al.
Prognostic value of MGMT methylation in colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and literature review.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1595-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of colorectal cancer (CRC) spans about 5-10 years, making early detection and prevention beneficial to the survival of CRC patients. To address inconsistencies in evidence regarding O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation as a potential prognostic factor in CRC, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate MGMT methylation in CRC patients. Fourteen studies were included in the meta-analysis after screening 120 articles. The following items were collected from each study: author, published year, country, patient gender, MGMT methylation status, and patients' disease progression. Pooled hazard ratios and odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed or random effect models depending on the heterogeneity between studies. The overall survival of CRC patients was found not to be significantly associated with MGMT methylation. Further subgroup analysis showed that the frequency of MGMT methylation was significantly higher in CRC than in normal tissues (p < 0.00001). MGMT promoter in CRC patients was more frequently methylated than in adenoma patients. In addition, MGMT methylation was significantly increased in adenoma than in normal tissues (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MGMT methylation is central to the development of cancer that involves a stepwise carcinogenesis of normal adenoma carcinoma cascade. However, MGMT methylation is not associated with the prognosis of CRC.

Julin B, Shui I, Heaphy CM, et al.
Circulating leukocyte telomere length and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(4):769-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent large-scale prospective studies suggest that long telomeres are associated with an increase cancer risk, counter to conventional wisdom.
METHODS: To further clarify the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and prostate cancer, and assess genetic variability in relation to both LTL and prostate cancer, we performed a nested case-control study (922 cases and 935 controls). The participants provided blood in 1993-1995 and were followed through August 2004 (prostate cancer incidence) or until 28 February 2013 (lethal or fatal prostate cancer). Relative LTL was measured by quantitative PCR and was calculated as the ratio of telomere repeat copy number to a single gene (36B4) copy number (T/S). Genotyping was performed using the TaqMan OpenArray SNP Genotyping Platform. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all prostate cancer and subtypes defined by Gleason grade, stage and lethality (metastasis or death).
RESULTS: We observed a positive association between each s.d. increase in LTL and all (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.22), low-grade (OR 1.13, 95% CI:1.01-1.27), and localised (OR 1.12, 95% CI:1.01-1.24) prostate cancer. Associations for other subtypes were similar, but did not reach statistical significance. In subgroup analyses, associations for high grade and advanced stage (OR=2.04, 95% CI 1.00-4.17; Pinteraction=0.06) or lethal disease (OR=2.37, 95% CI 1.19-4.72; Pinteraction=0.01) were stronger in men with a family history of the disease compared with those without. The minor allele of SNP, rs7726159, which has previously been shown to be positively associated with LTL, showed an inverse association with all prostate cancer risk after correction for multiple testing (P=0.0005).
CONCLUSION: In this prospective study, longer LTL was modestly associated with higher risk of prostate cancer. A stronger association for more aggressive cancer in men with a family history of the disease needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

Xun X, Wang H, Yang H, et al.
CLPTM1L genetic polymorphisms and interaction with smoking and alcohol drinking in lung cancer risk: a case-control study in the Han population from northwest China.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(28):e289 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic variants of cleft lip and palate trans-membrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) genes in the p15.33 region of chromosome 5 were previously identified to influence susceptibility to lung cancer. We examined the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CLPTM1L genes with lung cancer and explored their potential effects on the relationship between environmental risk factors (smoking, drinking) and lung cancer in a Chinese Han population. We genotyped 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CLPTM1L in a case-control study with 228 lung cancer cases and 301 controls from northwest China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. We identified that the minor alleles of rs451360, rs402710, and rs31484 in CLPTM1L were associated with a 0.52-fold, 0.76-fold, and 0.70-fold decreased risk of lung cancer in allelic model analysis, respectively. In the genetic model analysis, we found rs402710 and rs401681 were associated with decreased lung cancer risk. Further stratification analysis showed that rs380286 displayed a significantly decreased lung cancer risk (OR=0.65, P=0.041) in the non-drinkers. In addition, Haplotype "GTTATCTGT" was found to be associated with decreased lung cancer risk (OR=0.50, P=0.033). Our results verified that genetic variants of CLPTM1L contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in the northwest Chinese Han population. Additionally, we found that consumption of alcohol may interact with CLPTM1L polymorphisms to contribute to overall lung cancer susceptibility.

Duan F, Cui S, Song C, et al.
Systematic evaluation of cancer risk associated with DNMT3B polymorphisms.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(7):1205-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to provide a precise quantification for the association between DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) variations (rs2424913 C/T, rs1569686 G/T, rs6087990 T/C and rs2424908 T/C) and the risk of cancer.
METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review and assessed the methodological quality of included case-control designed studies based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strengths of the associations.
RESULTS: We identified 34 studies for pooled analyses. Overall, the results demonstrated that rs2424913 polymorphism was significantly associated with negative cancer risk in the African population (CT vs TT: OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.63, P = 0.01; CT+CC vs TT: OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03-0.76, P = 0.02), and the rs1569686 polymorphism was significantly associated with a subtly decreased cancer risk (GT vs TT: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.90, P < 0.01; GT+GG vs TT: OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.94, P < 0.01), particularly in the Asian population (GT vs TT: OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.96, P < 0.01) and in colorectal cancer subgroup (G vs T: OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.88, P < 0.01). In addition, the rs6087990 polymorphism was associated with decreased risk in Asian population (T vs C: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96, P = 0.02). Similarly, the rs2424908 polymorphism was observed as a protective factor for cancer in the Asian population (CT+CC vs TT: OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.95, P = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: DNMT3B polymorphisms might be associated with decreased cancer risk especially in the Asian population and for colorectal cancer. Further multicentric studies are still needed to confirm the results.

Yan Q, Chen P, Wang S, et al.
Association between HIF-1α C1772T/G1790A polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis based on 40 case-control studies.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:950 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1) is a transcriptional activator that functions as a critical regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Recently, a large number of epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between HIF-1α C1772T/G1790A polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. However, the results remain inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on all of the available case-control studies to systematically summarize the possible association.
METHODS: A literature search was performed using PubMed and the Web of Science database to obtain relevant published studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between HIF-1α C1772T/G1790A polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility were calculated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessments were also performed in our meta-analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analysis: 40 studies comprised of 10869 cases and 14289 controls for the HIF-1α C1772T polymorphism and 30 studies comprised of 7117 cases and 10442 controls for the HIF-1α G1790A polymorphism. The results demonstrated that there were significant association between the HIF-1α C1772T polymorphism and cancer susceptibility under four genetic models (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.02-2.60; CT + TT vs. CC: OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.34; TT vs. CT + CC: OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.32-3.77; T vs. C: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.04-1.41). Similarly, the statistically significant association between the HIF-1α G1790A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was found to be consistently strong in all of the genetic models. Moreover, increased cancer risk was observed when the data were stratified by cancer type, ethnicity and the source of controls.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates that both the C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms in the HIF-1α gene likely contribute to increased cancer susceptibility, especially in the Asian population and in breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and oral cancer. However, further research is necessary to evaluate the relationship between these polymorphisms and cancer risk.

Wade MA, Jones D, Wilson L, et al.
The histone demethylase enzyme KDM3A is a key estrogen receptor regulator in breast cancer.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(1):196-207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/02/2016 Related Publications
Endocrine therapy has successfully been used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but this invariably fails with cancers becoming refractory to treatment. Emerging evidence has suggested that fluctuations in ER co-regulatory protein expression may facilitate resistance to therapy and be involved in breast cancer progression. To date, a small number of enzymes that control methylation status of histones have been identified as co-regulators of ER signalling. We have identified the histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methyl demethylase enzyme KDM3A as a positive regulator of ER activity. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of KDM3A by RNAi abrogates the recruitment of the ER to cis-regulatory elements within target gene promoters, thereby inhibiting estrogen-induced gene expression changes. Global gene expression analysis of KDM3A-depleted cells identified gene clusters associated with cell growth. Consistent with this, we show that knockdown of KDM3A reduces ER-positive cell proliferation and demonstrate that KDM3A is required for growth in a model of endocrine therapy-resistant disease. Crucially, we show that KDM3A catalytic activity is required for both ER-target gene expression and cell growth, demonstrating that developing compounds which target demethylase enzymatic activity may be efficacious in treating both ER-positive and endocrine therapy-resistant disease.

Rad R, Rad L, Wang W, et al.
A conditional piggyBac transposition system for genetic screening in mice identifies oncogenic networks in pancreatic cancer.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(1):47-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we describe a conditional piggyBac transposition system in mice and report the discovery of large sets of new cancer genes through a pancreatic insertional mutagenesis screen. We identify Foxp1 as an oncogenic transcription factor that drives pancreatic cancer invasion and spread in a mouse model and correlates with lymph node metastasis in human patients with pancreatic cancer. The propensity of piggyBac for open chromatin also enabled genome-wide screening for cancer-relevant noncoding DNA, which pinpointed a Cdkn2a cis-regulatory region. Histologically, we observed different tumor subentities and discovered associated genetic events, including Fign insertions in hepatoid pancreatic cancer. Our studies demonstrate the power of genetic screening to discover cancer drivers that are difficult to identify by other approaches to cancer genome analysis, such as downstream targets of commonly mutated human cancer genes. These piggyBac resources are universally applicable in any tissue context and provide unique experimental access to the genetic complexity of cancer.

Ren HT, Wang XJ, Kang HF, et al.
Associations between C1772T polymorphism in hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Med Sci Monit. 2014; 20:2578-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between HIF-1α polymorphism (C1772T) and breast cancer risk.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The relevant published literature was retrieved from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the associations.
RESULTS: Six case-control studies, including 2043 cases and 2146 controls were identified. Meta-analysis showed that there was no marked association between C1772T polymorphism and breast cancer risk in the overall population in the dominant model. The subgroup analysis showed an increased breast cancer risk in Asians based on homozygote comparison and the recessive model. There were no associations between C1772T polymorphism with clinicopathological parameters and habits.
CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis suggests that HIF-1α C1772T polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to breast cancer in Asians.

Mudvari P, Movassagh M, Kowsari K, et al.
SNPlice: variants that modulate Intron retention from RNA-sequencing data.
Bioinformatics. 2015; 31(8):1191-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
RATIONALE: The growing recognition of the importance of splicing, together with rapidly accumulating RNA-sequencing data, demand robust high-throughput approaches, which efficiently analyze experimentally derived whole-transcriptome splice profiles.
RESULTS: We have developed a computational approach, called SNPlice, for identifying cis-acting, splice-modulating variants from RNA-seq datasets. SNPlice mines RNA-seq datasets to find reads that span single-nucleotide variant (SNV) loci and nearby splice junctions, assessing the co-occurrence of variants and molecules that remain unspliced at nearby exon-intron boundaries. Hence, SNPlice highlights variants preferentially occurring on intron-containing molecules, possibly resulting from altered splicing. To illustrate co-occurrence of variant nucleotide and exon-intron boundary, allele-specific sequencing was used. SNPlice results are generally consistent with splice-prediction tools, but also indicate splice-modulating elements missed by other algorithms. SNPlice can be applied to identify variants that correlate with unexpected splicing events, and to measure the splice-modulating potential of canonical splice-site SNVs.
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: SNPlice is freely available for download from https://code.google.com/p/snplice/ as a self-contained binary package for 64-bit Linux computers and as python source-code.
CONTACT: pmudvari@gwu.edu or horvatha@gwu.edu
SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Zhao X, Wang T, Liu B, et al.
Significant association between upstream transcription factor 1 rs2516839 polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a case-control study.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2551-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with high mortality rate. Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involving in different biological processes, including cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between USF1 polymorphisms and HCC susceptibility. Ninety-four HCC patients and 100 healthy volunteers are recruited in our study. Tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (Tag-SNPs) were retrieved in the International HapMap Project Databases. Extraction of genomic DNAs was conducted with TaqMan Blood DNA kits. Genotyping of USF1 polymorphisms were carried out with TaqMan SNPs genotyping assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between USF1 polymorphisms and HCC risk. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 20.0 software. Five tag-SNPs were identified to represent the genetic variants of USF1. Our results suggested that rs2516839 in the 5'UTR of USF1 was significantly associated with increased HCC risk (AA vs GG: OR = 3.15; 95% CI 1.44-6.87; P = 0.003; GA + AA vs AA: OR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.04-3.30; P = 0.034; AA vs GG + GA: OR = 2.96; 95% CI 1.40-6.26; P = 0.004; A vs G: OR = 2.09; 9% CI 1.35-3.23; P < 0.001). Although rs2073655 in the intron region of USF1 was also shown to be correlated with decreased HCC susceptibility in recessive model (TT vs CC + CT: OR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.54-0.75; P = 0.004), this association was not conclusive. Our results indicated that the SNP of rs2516839 have close association with increased risk of HCC. Further studies may be needed to validate our results and gain insights into the pathological mechanism of USF1 gene in the HCC tumorigenesis.

Tang J, Zhuo H, Zhang X, et al.
A novel biomarker Linc00974 interacting with KRT19 promotes proliferation and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1549 [PubMed] Related Publications
Location-associated long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) was reported to interact with target protein via a cis-regulatory process especially for the Flank10kb class lncRNA. Based on this theory, we aimed to explore the regulatory mechanisms of Linc00974 and KRT19 (an lncRNA beyond the Flank10kb class with protein) when we first confirmed the aberrant expression in hepatocellular carcinoma in a previous study. Knockdown of Linc00974 resulted in an inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion with an activation of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in vitro, which was also validated by a subcutaneous and tail vein/intraperitoneal injection xenotransplantation model in vivo. We further investigated the interaction pattern of Linc00974 and KRT19. MiR-642 was identified, by acting as the competing endogenous RNA in regulating Linc00974 and KRT19. Linc00974 was increased owing to an abnormal hypomethylation promoter, which induced the upregulation of KRT19 via ceRNA interaction, resulting in the activation of the Notch and TGF-β pathways as detected by cDNA microarray. We also discovered Linc00974F-1 stably expressed in the plasma. By the combined analysis of Linc00974F-1 with CYFRA21-1, we found that these joint indicators predicted growth and metastasis of tumor in HCC patients. In conclusion, the combination of Linc00974 and KRT19 may be novel indices for clinical diagnosis of tumor growth and metastasis in HCC, while Linc00974 may become a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of HCC progression.

Chen P, Chen C, Chen K, et al.
Polymorphisms in IL-4/IL-13 pathway genes and glioma risk: an updated meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(1):121-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 pathway genes have previously been reported to be associated with glioma susceptibility, although results are inconsistent. We therefore performed an updated meta-analysis to determine a more precise estimation of this relationship. Twelve eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library electronic databases. Nine polymorphisms in genes within the IL-4/IL-13 pathway (IL-4 rs2243250, rs2070874, rs2243248, IL-4R rs1805011, rs1805012, rs1805015, rs1801275, and IL-13 rs20541 and rs1800925) were assessed for their relationship with glioma risk by computing odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Akaike's information criterion (AIC) was used to identify the best genetic model for each polymorphism. No association between IL-4/IL-13 pathway genetic polymorphisms and glioma risk was observed in the overall population, although a significant association was found between rs2234248 and glioblastoma when stratified by histological subtype (log-additive model, OR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.11-2.24). This meta-analysis therefore suggested that IL-4/IL-13 pathway genetic polymorphisms are not associated with glioma risk.

Johnston RJ, Comps-Agrar L, Hackney J, et al.
The immunoreceptor TIGIT regulates antitumor and antiviral CD8(+) T cell effector function.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 26(6):923-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors constitute highly suppressive microenvironments in which infiltrating T cells are "exhausted" by inhibitory receptors such as PD-1. Here we identify TIGIT as a coinhibitory receptor that critically limits antitumor and other CD8(+) T cell-dependent chronic immune responses. TIGIT is highly expressed on human and murine tumor-infiltrating T cells, and, in models of both cancer and chronic viral infection, antibody coblockade of TIGIT and PD-L1 synergistically and specifically enhanced CD8(+) T cell effector function, resulting in significant tumor and viral clearance, respectively. This effect was abrogated by blockade of TIGIT's complementary costimulatory receptor, CD226, whose dimerization is disrupted upon direct interaction with TIGIT in cis. These results define a key role for TIGIT in inhibiting chronic CD8(+) T cell-dependent responses.

Rad SM, Bamdad T, Sadeghizadeh M, et al.
Transcription factor decoy against stem cells master regulators, Nanog and Oct-4: a possible approach for differentiation therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2621-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcription factor decoys (TFDs) are exogenous oligonucleotides which can compete by cis-elements in promoters or enhancers for binding to TFs and downregulating gene expression in a specific manner. It is believed that tumor mass originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs) which the same with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the properties of both pluripotency and self-renewal (stemness). Many transcription factors such as Nanog, Oct-4, Sox2, Klf4, and Sall4 act as master regulators in the maintenance of stemness in both cell types. Differentiation therapy is based on this theory that by differentiation of CSCs, tumor mass can be eliminated with common cancer therapy methods. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of a TFD approach against master regulator of stemness, Nanog, Oct-4, and Klf4, for downregulation purposes in P19 embryonic carcinoma stem cell. Different simple and complex decoys against Nanog, OCT-4, Sox2, and Klf4 were designed and used for this purpose. The results showed that the applied decoys especially Nanog-specific decoy decreased the expression of downstream genes.

Song Q, Zhang Z, Liu Y, et al.
The tag SNP rs10746463 in decay-accelerating factor is associated with the susceptibility to gastric cancer.
Mol Immunol. 2015; 63(2):473-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Complement activation involved in the innate immunity and adaptive immunity and further contributed to the development of tumor growth. This study aimed to investigate the association of genetic variants in complement 3 (C3) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) genes with the risk of gastric cancer.
METHODS: This case-control study included 500 gastric cancer patients and 500 cancer-free controls. Based on the Chinese population data from HapMap database, we used Haploview 4.2 program to select candidate tag SNPs. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression to evaluate the association of each genetic variant with the risk of gastric cancer.
RESULTS: Among 12 tag SNPs of C3, no correlation was observed between C3 genetic variants and risk of gastric cancer. For tag SNPS of DAF, logistic regression analysis revealed that the carriers with DAF rs10746463 AA genotype had a significantly increased risk for developing gastric cancer (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.01–2.10) when compared with GG genotype, but those carrying with rs10746463 AG genotype didn't (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.98-1.75). When stratified by smoking status, we found that the risk of gastric cancer was associated with rs10746463 GA or AA genotype carriers among smoker with OR (95% CI) of 1.64 (1.06-2.54), but not among non-smoker (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.97-1.94).
CONCLUSION: DAF rs10746463 polymorphism effects on the risk of developing gastric cancer in Chinese population.

Zhou W, Tao Z, Wang Z, et al.
Long noncoding RNA PCA3 gene promoter region is related to the risk of prostate cancer on Chinese males.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(3):550-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Long noncoding RNA prostate cancer gene antigen 3 (PCA3) is one of the most prostate cancer-specific genes at present. Consequently, the prostate-specific expression and the sharp up-regulation of PCA3 RNA in prostate cancer suggest a unique transcriptional regulation, which possibly can be attributed to promoter polymorphism. In this study, we investigated a short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism of TAAA in the promoter region of PCA3 gene found in our previous study in prostate cancer (PCa) patients and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, aiming to evaluate the association between the STR and increased risk for PCa.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: 120 PCa cases and 120 benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) cases were identified among participants. The region encompassing the TAAA repeat was amplified with a specific primer set we designed and screened by PCR-based cloning and sequencing in paired peripheral blood leukocytes and prostate tissues. Genotype-specific risks were estimated as odds ratios (ORs) associated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted for age by means of unconditional logistic regression.
RESULTS: 5 PCA3 TAAA STR polymorphisms and 8 genotypes were found in both peripheral blood leukocytes and prostate tissues, the carriers with more TAAA repeats were associated with increased risk for PCa than individuals having less TAAA repeats. Interestingly, 18 (15.0%) of 120 PCa patients had more (TAAA)n repeats in prostate tissues than that in peripheral blood leukocytes, and 3 (2.5%) of 120 had less (TAAA)n repeats in prostate tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that short tandem repeat polymorphism of TAAA in the promoter region of PCA3 gene is a risk-increasing factor for prostate cancer in the Chinese population. In addition to the hereditary factor, the insertion mutation of (TAAA)n in a local tissue maybe another mechanism of the onset of PCa.

Chen C, Yang S, Chaugai S, et al.
Meta-analysis of Hsa-mir-499 polymorphism (rs3746444) for cancer risk: evidence from 31 case-control studies.
BMC Med Genet. 2014; 15:126 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of endogenous, small and non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression negatively at the post-transcriptional level by suppressing translation or degrading target mRNAs, and are involved in diverse biological and pathological processes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which are located in the miRNA-coding genes may participate in the process of development and diseases by altering the expression of mature miRNA. Recent studies investigating the association between hsa-mir-499 polymorphism (rs3746444) and cancer risk have yielded conflicting results.
METHODS: In this meta-analysis, we conducted a search of case-control studies on the associations of SNP rs3746444 with susceptibility to cancer in electronic databases. A total of 31 studies involving 12799 cases and 14507 controls were retrieved and the strength of the association was estimated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was assessed by the goodness-of-fit chi-square test in controls. Subgroup analyses were done by racial descent and cancer type. Publication bias of literatures was evaluated by visual inspection of funnel plots and the linear regression asymmetry test by Egger et al. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by excluding one study at a time to examine the influence of individual data set on the pooled ORs.
RESULTS: Overall, significant association between rs3746444 polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer was identified in TC versus TT and TC/CC versus TT (dominant) models. In the stratified analyses, increased risks were found in Asians, but not in Caucasians in all comparison models tested. Moreover, significant association with an increased risk was found in Chinese population. Also, much higher significant association with increased cancer risks were found in Iranian population. In different cancer types, a decreased risk was found in esophageal cancer.
CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggested that hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 T > C polymorphism is associated with the risk of cancer in Asians, mainly in Iranian and Chinese population. However, rs3746444 T > C polymorphism is negatively associated with the risk of esophageal cancer.

Zhou JY, He LW, Liu J, et al.
Comprehensive assessment of associations between ERCC2 Lys751Gln/Asp312Asn polymorphisms and risk of non- Hodgkin lymphoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9347-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Excision repair crossing-complementing group 2 (ERCC2), also called xeroderma pigmentosum complementary group D (XPD), plays a crucial role in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Previous epidemiological studies have reported associations between ERCC2 polymorphisms and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk, but the results have remained controversial.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted this meta- analysis based on eligible case-control studies to investigate the role of two ERCC2 polymorphisms (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn) in determining susceptibility to NHL. Ten case-control studies from several electronic databases were included in our study up to August 14, 2014. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed- or random-effects models to estimate the association strength.
RESULTS: The combined results based on all studies did not show any association between Lys751Gln/Asp312Asn polymorphisms and NHL risk for all genetic models. Stratified analyses by histological subtype and ethnicity did not indicate any significant association between Lys751Gln polymorphism and NHL risk. However, a significant reduced risk of NHL was found among population-based studies (Lys/Gln versus Lys/Lys: OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.77-0.99, P=0.037) but not hospital-based studies. As for Asp312Asn polymorphism, there was no evidence for the association between this polymorphism and the risk of NHL in all subgroup analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that there may be no association between Lys751Gln/Asp312Asn polymorphism and the risk of NHL and its two subtypes, whereas ERCC2 Lys751Gln heterozygote genotype may provide protective effects against the risk of NHL in population-based studies. Therefore, large-scale and well-designed studies are needed to clarify the effects of haplotypes, gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions on these polymorphisms and the risk of NHL and its different histological subtypes in an ethnicity specific population.

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