Gene Summary

Gene:CXCR1; chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1
Aliases: C-C, CD128, CD181, CKR-1, IL8R1, IL8RA, CMKAR1, IL8RBA, CDw128a, C-C-CKR-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor family. This protein is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8). It binds to IL8 with high affinity, and transduces the signal through a G-protein activated second messenger system. Knockout studies in mice suggested that this protein inhibits embryonic oligodendrocyte precursor migration in developing spinal cord. This gene, IL8RB, a gene encoding another high affinity IL8 receptor, as well as IL8RBP, a pseudogene of IL8RB, form a gene cluster in a region mapped to chromosome 2q33-q36. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C chemokine receptor type 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (15)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 2
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Lung Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Survival Rate
  • Young Adult
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptors, Interleukin-8A
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cancer RNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Smoking
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Genetic Variation
  • Disease Progression
  • Cell Line
  • Interleukin-8
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Breast Cancer
  • beta-Thromboglobulin
  • Angiogenesis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Receptors, Interleukin-8B
  • Risk Factors
  • Staging
  • Receptors, CXCR
  • Messenger RNA
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Signal Transduction
  • Chemokines
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Gene Expression
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCR1 (cancer-related)

Lohri C, Schaltegger CS, VAN DEN Broek M, et al.
Neutrophil expression of ICAM1, CXCR1, and VEGFR1 in patients with breast cancer before and after adjuvant chemotherapy.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(9):4693-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Distinct populations of neutrophils have been identified based on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1, CD54) and chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1, interleukin 8 receptor α).
AIM: We analyzed the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), a physiological negative regulator of angiogenesis, on distinct populations of neutrophils from the blood of patients before and after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neutrophil populations were distinguished as reverse transmigrated (ICAM1(high)/CXCR1(low)), naïve (ICAM1(low)/CXCR1(high)), or tissue-resident neutrophils (ICAM1(low)/CXCR1(low)), and their VEGFR1 expression quantified.
RESULTS: Reverse transmigrated ICAM1(high)/CXCR1(low) neutrophilic granulocytes decreased significantly after chemotherapy and these were also the cells with highest mean fluorescence intensity for VEGFR1.
CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy mainly reduces the number of reverse transmigrated long-lived ICAM1(high)/CXCR1(low) VEGFR1-expressing neutrophils. The decrease of antiangiogenic VEGFR1 may have a potential impact on tumour angiogenesis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.

Sun Q, Sun F, Wang B, et al.
Interleukin-8 promotes cell migration through integrin αvβ6 upregulation in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(2):245-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC), which is notorious for high morbidity and mortality around the world, shows a predilection for metastasis to liver. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine with a defining CXC amino acid motif, has been reported to promote CRC cell migration and is associated with poor prognosis of CRC. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-8-mediated migration remains obscure. In this study, we first demonstrated the cross talk between IL-8 and integrin αvβ6. We analyzed 139 human CRC samples, and found that the immunohistochemical expression of αvβ6 was significantly correlated with expression of IL-8. Furthermore, IL-8 increased the migration through integrin αvβ6 in human CRC cells, and both CXCR1 and CXCR2 were primarily involved during the process. IL-8 upregulated αvβ6 expression in a dose-dependent manner through activation of ERK and Ets-1 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results indicated that IL-8 enhances the migration of CRC cells by increasing αvβ6 integrin expression through the ERK/Ets-1 pathway. Targeting integrin αvβ6 in IL-8 expressing tumors might be a potential therapeutic strategy for CRC patients.

de Haas S, Delmar P, Bansal AT, et al.
Genetic variability of VEGF pathway genes in six randomized phase III trials assessing the addition of bevacizumab to standard therapy.
Angiogenesis. 2014; 17(4):909-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite extensive translational research, no validated biomarkers predictive of bevacizumab treatment outcome have been identified.
METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from six randomized phase III trials in colorectal, pancreatic, lung, renal, breast, and gastric cancer to explore the potential relationships between 195 common genetic variants in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and bevacizumab treatment outcome.
RESULTS: The analysis included 1,402 patients (716 bevacizumab-treated and 686 placebo-treated). Twenty variants were associated (P < 0.05) with progression-free survival (PFS) in bevacizumab-treated patients. Of these, 4 variants in EPAS1 survived correction for multiple testing (q < 0.05). Genotype-by-treatment interaction tests revealed that, across these 20 variants, 3 variants in VEGF-C (rs12510099), EPAS1 (rs4953344), and IL8RA (rs2234671) were potentially predictive (P < 0.05), but not resistant to multiple testing (q > 0.05). A weak genotype-by-treatment interaction effect was also observed for rs699946 in VEGF-A, whereas Bayesian genewise analysis revealed that genetic variability in VHL was associated with PFS in the bevacizumab arm (q < 0.05). Variants in VEGF-A, EPAS1, and VHL were located in expression quantitative loci derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines, indicating that they affect the expression levels of their respective gene.
CONCLUSIONS: This large genetic analysis suggests that variants in VEGF-A, EPAS1, IL8RA, VHL, and VEGF-C have potential value in predicting bevacizumab treatment outcome across tumor types. Although these associations did not survive correction for multiple testing in a genotype-by-interaction analysis, they are among the strongest predictive effects reported to date for genetic variants and bevacizumab efficacy.

Maxwell PJ, Neisen J, Messenger J, Waugh DJ
Tumor-derived CXCL8 signaling augments stroma-derived CCL2-promoted proliferation and CXCL12-mediated invasion of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):4895-908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Impaired PTEN function is a genetic hallmark of aggressive prostate cancers (CaP) and is associated with increased CXCL8 expression and signaling. The current aim was to further characterize biological responses and mechanisms underpinning CXCL8-promoted progression of PTEN-depleted prostate cancer, focusing on characterizing the potential interplay between CXCL8 and other disease-promoting chemokines resident within the prostate tumor microenvironment. Autocrine CXCL8-stimulation (i) increased expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in PTEN-deficient CaP cells suggesting a self-potentiating signaling axis and (ii) induced expression of CXCR4 and CCR2 in PTEN-wild-type and PTEN-depleted CaP cells. In contrast, paracrine CXCL8 signaling induced expression and secretion of the chemokines CCL2 and CXCL12 from prostate stromal WPMY-1 fibroblasts and monocytic macrophage-like THP-1 cells. In vitro studies demonstrated functional co-operation of tumor-derived CXCL8 with stromal-derived chemokines. CXCL12-induced migration of PC3 cells and CCL2-induced proliferation of prostate cancer cells were dependent upon intrinsic CXCL8 signaling within the prostate cancer cells. For example, in co-culture experiments, CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling but not CCL2/CCR2 signaling supported fibroblast-mediated migration of PC3 cells while CXCL12/CXCR4 and CCL2/CCR2 signaling underpinned monocyte-enhanced migration of PC3 cells. Combined inhibition of both CXCL8 and CXCL12 signaling was more effective in inhibiting fibroblast-promoted cell motility while repression of CXCL8 attenuated CCL2-promoted proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We conclude that tumor-derived CXCL8 signaling from PTEN-deficient tumor cells increases the sensitivity and responsiveness of CaP cells to stromal chemokines by concurrently upregulating receptor expression in cancer cells and inducing stromal chemokine synthesis. Combined chemokine targeting may be required to inhibit their multi-faceted actions in promoting the invasion and proliferation of aggressive CaP.

Wilson BJ, Saab KR, Ma J, et al.
ABCB5 maintains melanoma-initiating cells through a proinflammatory cytokine signaling circuit.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(15):4196-207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The drug efflux transporter ABCB5 identifies cancer stem-like cells (CSC) in diverse human malignancies, where its expression is associated with clinical disease progression and tumor recurrence. ABCB5 confers therapeutic resistance, but other functions in tumorigenesis independent of drug efflux have not been described that might help explain why it is so broadly overexpressed in human cancer. Here we show that in melanoma-initiating cells, ABCB5 controls IL1β secretion, which serves to maintain slow cycling, chemoresistant cells through an IL1β/IL8/CXCR1 cytokine signaling circuit. This CSC maintenance circuit involved reciprocal paracrine interactions with ABCB5-negative cancer cell populations. ABCB5 blockade induced cellular differentiation, reversed resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents, and impaired tumor growth in vivo. Together, our results defined a novel function for ABCB5 in CSC maintenance and tumor growth.

Wang J, Taylor A, Showeil R, et al.
Expression profiling and significance of VEGF-A, VEGFR2, VEGFR3 and related proteins in endometrial carcinoma.
Cytokine. 2014; 68(2):94-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis plays a key role in the progression of various tumors, including endometrial carcinomas. Several cytokines and their associated receptors are shown to be involved, particularly VEGF-A with VEGFR1, -2 and -3.
METHODS: The expressions of VEGF-A, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 were studied in by immunohistochemistry in 76 endometrial carcinoma specimens. VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 receptor expression were also studied by qRT-PCR in 17 tumors in comparison to normal endometrium. The expression profiles were correlated with tumor type, grade, stage, lymphovascular invasion, disease free survival, and the expressions of other cytokine receptors (EGFR, CXCR1 and CXCR2).
RESULTS: Immunohistochemically, 63% of endometrial cancers expressed VEGF-A, 55% VEGFR2 and 26% VEGFR3. VEGFR3 was significantly correlated with tumor stage (p=0.02), with a trend towards poorer disease free survival (p=0.09). VEGF-A was significantly correlated with microvessel density (p<0.01). Using qRT-PCR, increased expression of VEGFR2 (17.2-fold) and VEGFR3 (21.9-fold) was seen in endometrial carcinomas compared with normal endometrium, with significant correlations among the expression levels of VEGFR2, VEGFR3, EGFR, CXCR1 and CXCR2.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that evaluation of VEGFR3 expression in tumors may provide prognostic data, and help identify patients who would best benefit from anti-angiogenic therapeutic agents. This is the first report showing correlations between the expressions levels of the different receptors.

Caccuri F, Rueckert C, Giagulli C, et al.
HIV-1 matrix protein p17 promotes lymphangiogenesis and activates the endothelin-1/endothelin B receptor axis.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014; 34(4):846-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: AIDS-related lymphomas are high grade and aggressively metastatic with poor prognosis. Lymphangiogenesis is essential in supporting proliferation and survival of lymphoma, as well as tumor dissemination. Data suggest that aberrant lymphangiogenesis relies on action of HIV-1 proteins rather than on a direct effect of the virus itself. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 was found to accumulate and persist in lymph nodes of patients even under highly active antiretroviral therapy. Because p17 was recently found to exert a potent proangiogenic activity by interacting with chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptors 1 and 2, we tested the prolymphangiogenic activity of the viral protein.
APPROACH AND RESULTS: Human primary lymph node-derived lymphatic endothelial cells were used to perform capillary-like structure formation, wound healing, spheroids, and Western blot assays after stimulation with or without p17. Here, we show that p17 promotes lymphangiogenesis by binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor-1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor-2 expressed on lymph node-derived lymphatic endothelial cells and activating the Akt/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway. In particular, it was found to induce capillary-like structure formation, sprout formation from spheroids, and increase lymph node-derived lymphatic endothelial cells motility. The p17 lymphangiogenic activity was, in part, sustained by activation of the endothelin-1/endothelin receptor B axis. A Matrigel plug assay showed that p17 was able to promote the outgrowth of lymphatic vessels in vivo, demonstrating that p17 directly regulates lymphatic vessel formation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that p17 may generate a prolymphangiogenic microenvironment and plays a role in predisposing the lymph node to lymphoma growth and metastasis. This finding offers new opportunities to identify treatment strategies in combating AIDS-related lymphomas.

Grépin R, Guyot M, Giuliano S, et al.
The CXCL7/CXCR1/2 axis is a key driver in the growth of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(3):873-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau gene upregulate expression of the central angiogenic factor VEGF, which drives abnormal angiogenesis in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). However, the overexpression of VEGF in these tumors was not found to correlate with overall survival. Here, we show that the proangiogenic, proinflammatory cytokine CXCL7 is an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in this setting. CXCL7 antibodies strongly reduced the growth of ccRCC tumors in nude mice. Conversely, conditional overexpression of CXCL7 accelerated ccRCC development. CXCL7 promoted cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro, in which expression of CXCL7 was induced by the central proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. ccRCC cells normally secrete low amounts of CXCL7; it was more highly expressed in tumors due to high levels of IL-1β there. We found that a pharmacological inhibitor of the CXCL7 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 (SB225002) was sufficient to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and ccRCC growth. Because CXCR1 and CXCR2 are present on both endothelial and ccRCC cells, their inhibition affected both the tumor vasculature and the proliferation of tumor cells. Our results highlight the CXCL7/CXCR1/CXCR2 axis as a pertinent target for the treatment of ccRCC.

Gacche RN, Meshram RJ
Targeting tumor micro-environment for design and development of novel anti-angiogenic agents arresting tumor growth.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2013; 113(2):333-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis: a process of generation of new blood vessels has been proved to be necessary for sustained tumor growth and cancer progression. Inhibiting angiogenesis pathway has long been remained a significant hope for the development of novel, effective and target orientated antitumor agents arresting the tumor proliferation and metastasis. The process of neoangiogenesis as a biological process is regulated by several pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, especially vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, hypoxia inducible factor 1 and transforming growth factor. Every endothelial cell destined for vessel formation is equipped with receptors for these angiogenic peptides. Moreover, numerous other angiogenic cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PGDF), placenta growth factor (PGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), stem-cell factor (SCF), and interleukins-2, 4, 6 etc. These molecular players performs critical role in regulating the angiogenic switch. Couple of decade's research in molecular aspects of tumor biology has unraveled numerous structural and functional mysteries of these angiogenic peptides. In present article, a detailed update on the functional and structural peculiarities of the various angiogenic peptides is described focusing on structural opportunities made available that has potential to be used to modulate function of these angiogenic peptides in developing therapeutic agents targeting neoplastic angiogenesis. The data may be useful in the mainstream of developing novel anticancer agents targeting tumor angiogenesis. We also discuss major therapeutic agents that are currently used in angiogenesis associated therapies as well as those are subject of active research or are in clinical trials.

Adalsteinsson VA, Tahirova N, Tallapragada N, et al.
Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines.
Integr Biol (Camb). 2013; 5(10):1272-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Cancer is an inflammatory disease of tissue that is largely influenced by the interactions between multiple cell types, secreted factors, and signal transduction pathways. While single-cell sequencing continues to refine our understanding of the clonotypic heterogeneity within tumors, the complex interplay between genetic variations and non-genetic factors ultimately affects therapeutic outcome. Much has been learned through bulk studies of secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment, but the secretory behavior of single cells has been largely uncharacterized. Here we directly profiled the secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines from thousands of single colorectal tumor and stromal cells, using an array of subnanoliter wells and a technique called microengraving to characterize both the rates of secretion of several factors at once and the numbers of cells secreting each chemokine. The ELR+ CXC chemokines are highly redundant, pro-angiogenic cytokines that signal via the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, influencing tumor growth and progression. We find that human primary colorectal tumor and stromal cells exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in the combinations and magnitudes of secretions for these chemokines. In cell lines, we observe similar variance: phenotypes observed in bulk can be largely absent among the majority of single cells, and discordances exist between secretory states measured and gene expression for these chemokines among single cells. Together, these measures suggest secretory states among tumor cells are complex and can evolve dynamically. Most importantly, this study reveals new insight into the intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity of human primary tumors.

Hu W, Wang J, Luo G, et al.
Proteomics-based analysis of differentially expressed proteins in the CXCR1-knockdown gastric carcinoma MKN45 cell line and its parental cell.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013; 45(10):857-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
C-X-C chemokine receptor types 1 (CXCR1), a cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptor has been found to be associated with tumorigenesis, development, and progression of some tumors. Previously, we have found that CXCR1 overexpression is associated with late-stage gastric adenocarcinoma. We also have demonstrated that knockdown of CXCR1 could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we compared the changes of protein expression profile between gastric carcinoma MKN45 cell line and CXCR1-knockdown MKN45 cell line by 2D electrophoresis. Among the 101 quantified proteins, 29 spots were significantly different, among which 13 were down-regulated and 16 were up-regulated after CXCR1 knockdown. These proteins were further identified by mass spectrometry analysis. Among them, several up-regulated proteins such as hCG2020155, Keratin8, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (C1/C2), and several down-regulated proteins such as Sorcin, heat shock protein 27, serpin B6 isoform b, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K were confirmed. These proteins are related to cell cycle, the transcription regulation, cell adherence, cellular metabolism, drug resistance, and so on. These results provide an additional support to the hypothesis that CXCR1 might play an important role in proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and prognosis, and drug resistance of gastric carcinoma.

Hao J, Zhang Y, Ye R, et al.
Mechanotransduction in cancer stem cells.
Cell Biol Int. 2013; 37(9):888-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept, which arose about a decade ago, proposes that tumor growth is sustained by a subpopulation of highly malignant cells. These cells, termed CSCs, are capable of extensive self-renewal that contributes to metastasis and treatment resistance. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target CSCs should be developed for improving outcomes of cancer patients. Recent progress has highlighted the importance of physical properties of the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction pathway in cancer cells during cancer development. On the other hand, the significance of CXCR1, an upstream signal of FAK/PI3K/Akt has been revealed in CSCs. FAK/PI3K/Akt is a key signal mediator in mechanotransduction pathway. Therefore, mechanotransduction could be a new target for CSCs, and would be an innovative way to treat cancer by inhibiting FAK/PI3K/Akt.

Almajhdi FN, Al-Ahdal M, Abdo AA, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in CXCR1 gene and its association with hepatitis B infected patients in Saudi Arabia.
Ann Hepatol. 2013 Mar-Apr; 12(2):220-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aims to investigate whether the SNPs of CXCR1 gene, could predict the likelihood of viral persistence and/or disease progression.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated the association of two different SNPs (rs2234671, and rs142978743) in 598 normal healthy controls and 662 HBV patients from a Saudi ethnic population. The HBV patients were categorized into inactive carriers (n = 428), active carriers (n = 162), cirrhosis (n = 54) and Cirrhosis-HCC (n = 18) sub-groups. Genetic variants in CXCR1 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA direct sequencing.
RESULTS: The frequency of the risk allele 'C' for the SNP, rs2234671 was found to be insignificant when the patient group was compared to the uninfected control group, however, a significant distribution of the allele 'C' of rs2234671 was observed among active HBV carriers + cirrhosis + cirrhosis - HCC vs. inactive HBV carriers with an OR = 1.631 (95% C.I. 1.016-2.616) and p = 0.032. However, no significant association was observed for rs142978743 when the distribution of risk allele was analyzed among the different patient groups (i.e. inactive carriers, active carriers, cirrhosis and HCC). Furthermore, the most common haplotype, Haplo-1 (AG), was found to have an insignificant frequency distribution between HBV cases and controls, while the same haplotype was found to be significantly distributed when active carriers + cirrhosis + cirrhosis - HCC patients were compared to inactive HBV carriers with a frequency of 0.938 and p = 0.0315. Haplo-2 (AC) was also found to be significantly associated with a frequency of 0.058 and p = 0.0163.
CONCLUSION: The CXCR1 polymorphism, rs2234671 was found to be associated with chronic HBV infection and may play a role in disease activity.

Du L, Xu WT, Fan QM, et al.
Tumorigenesis and spontaneous metastasis by luciferase-labeled human xenograft osteosarcoma cells in nude mice.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2012; 125(22):4022-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone. Mouse models of human OS can invariably provide greater insight into the complex mechanisms that underlie the development and pathogenesis of this aggressive tumor. Bioluminescence technology favored tracing cancer cells in vivo. In this study, an OS model was described and evaluated using human OS cell line, Saos2, labeled with luciferase (Saos2-luc).
METHODS: Saos2 cells were infected by lentivirus loading a firefly luciferase gene. Luciferase expression of Saos2-luc cells was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Specific biologic and oncologic features of Saos2-luc cells were analyzed. The OS was established as orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. Both orthotopic tumors and spontaneous lung metastasis were analyzed.
RESULTS: Tumorigenesis and spontaneous lung metastasis in nude mice could be monitored in vivo through in vivo imaging system. The enhancement in proliferation, migration and invasion abilities and the attenuation in adhesion ability were observed in Saos2-luc cells compared with Saos2 cells. Furthermore, there were the up-regulation of Osteocalcin, CCR10, CXCR1 and ID1 and the down-regulation of ALP, collagen I, CCR1, CCR3, CXCR3, NID and N-cadherin in Saos2-luc cells compare to Saos2 cells. The rate of spontaneous lung metastasis in Saos2-luc cells was higher than that in Saos2 cells, although without significant difference.
CONCLUSIONS: Lentivirus transfection may cause alteration of gene expression profiles and further biological functions. This model can be used in the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the screening of new therapeutic agents.

Singh JK, Farnie G, Bundred NJ, et al.
Targeting CXCR1/2 significantly reduces breast cancer stem cell activity and increases the efficacy of inhibiting HER2 via HER2-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(3):643-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are an important therapeutic target as they are predicted to be responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance, and metastases. Interleukin (IL)-8 is upregulated in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Breast cancer cell line studies indicate that IL-8 via its cognate receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, is important in regulating breast CSC activity. We investigated the role of IL-8 in the regulation of CSC activity using patient-derived breast cancers and determined the potential benefit of combining CXCR1/2 inhibition with HER2-targeted therapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CSC activity of metastatic and invasive human breast cancers (n = 19) was assessed ex vivo using the mammosphere colony-forming assay.
RESULTS: Metastatic fluid IL-8 level correlated directly with mammosphere formation (r = 0.652; P < 0.05; n = 10). Recombinant IL-8 directly increased mammosphere formation/self-renewal in metastatic and invasive breast cancers (n = 17). IL-8 induced activation of EGFR/HER2 and downstream signaling pathways and effects were abrogated by inhibition of SRC, EGFR/HER2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), or MEK. Furthermore, lapatinib, which targets EGFR/HER2, inhibited the mammosphere-promoting effect of IL-8 in both HER2-positive and negative patient-derived cancers. CXCR1/2 inhibition also blocked the effect of IL-8 on mammosphere formation and added to the efficacy of lapatinib in HER2-positive cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies establish a role for IL-8 in the regulation of patient-derived breast CSC activity and show that IL-8/CXCR1/2 signaling is partly mediated via a novel SRC and EGFR/HER2-dependent pathway. Combining CXCR1/2 inhibitors with current HER2-targeted therapies has potential as an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce CSC activity in breast cancer and improve the survival of HER2-positive patients.

Asfaha S, Dubeykovskiy AN, Tomita H, et al.
Mice that express human interleukin-8 have increased mobilization of immature myeloid cells, which exacerbates inflammation and accelerates colon carcinogenesis.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 144(1):155-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin (IL)-8 has an important role in initiating inflammation in humans, attracting immune cells such as neutrophils through their receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. IL-8 has been proposed to contribute to chronic inflammation and cancer. However, mice do not have the IL-8 gene, so human cancer cell lines and xenograft studies have been used to study the role of IL-8 in colon and gastric carcinogenesis. We generated mice that carry a bacterial artificial chromosome that encompasses the entire human IL-8 gene, including its regulatory elements (IL-8Tg mice).
METHODS: We studied the effects of IL-8 expression in APCmin(+/-) mice and IL-8Tg mice given azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). We also examined the effects of IL-8 expression in gastric cancer in INS-GAS mice that overexpress gastrin and IL-8Tg mice infected with Helicobacter felis.
RESULTS: In IL-8Tg mice, expression of human IL-8 was controlled by its own regulatory elements, with virtually no messenger RNA or protein detectable under basal conditions. IL-8 was strongly up-regulated on systemic or local inflammatory stimulation, increasing mobilization of immature CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells (IMCs) with thioglycolate-induced peritonitis, DSS-induced colitis, and H. felis-induced gastritis. IL-8 was increased in colorectal tumors from patients and IL-8Tg mice compared with nontumor tissues. IL-8Tg mice developed more tumors than wild-type mice following administration of azoxymethane and DSS. Expression of IL-8 increased tumorigenesis in APCmin(+/-) mice compared with APCmin(+/-) mice that lack IL-8; this was associated with increased numbers of IMCs and angiogenesis in the tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 contributes to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis by mobilizing IMCs and might be a therapeutic target for gastrointestinal cancers.

Liu X, Peng J, Sun W, et al.
G31P, an antagonist against CXC chemokine receptors 1 and 2, inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells in nude mice.
Tohoku J Exp Med. 2012; 228(2):147-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in Western countries. Chemokine C-X-C motif receptor 1 (CXCR1) and CXCR2 play a key role in generation and regulation of CXC chemokine signaling. CXCR1 is a receptor for interleukin 8 (IL8), a pro-inflammatory chemokine, and CXCR1/2 are crucially involved in the prostate cancer development and progression. Thus, we generated a high-affinity human CXCR1/CXCR2 inhibitor, CXCL8 (3-72) K11R/G31P, named G31P, which is a synthetic derivative of the human cytokine, IL-8. In this study, we investigated the effects of G31P on regulation of prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. Cell viability, adhesion, and wound healing assays were used to assess the effects of G31P on growth, adhesion, and migration of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro, respectively. Nude mouse xenografts and xenograft implantation assays were performed to determine the effect of G31P on PC-3 cells in vivo. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect gene expression, and fluorescence imaging was used to detect tumor volume and microvessel density in tumor xenografts. The data showed that G31P treatment significantly reduced PC-3 cell viability, adhesion and migration capacity in a dose-dependent manner (up to 100 ng/ml). Additionally, G31P treatment of nude mice suppressed the growth of orthotopically transplanted tumor xenografts. G31P also inhibited tumor tissue vascularization, which was associated with the decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB in orthotopic xenograft tissues. This study provides evidence that G31P, a CXCR1/2 inhibitor, may effectively control prostate cancer.

Maxwell PJ, Coulter J, Walker SM, et al.
Potentiation of inflammatory CXCL8 signalling sustains cell survival in PTEN-deficient prostate carcinoma.
Eur Urol. 2013; 64(2):177-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and genetic instability are enabling characteristics of prostate carcinoma (PCa). Inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is prevalent in early PCa. The relationship of PTEN deficiency to inflammatory signalling remains to be characterised.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how loss of PTEN functionality modulates expression and efficacy of clinically relevant, proinflammatory chemokines in PCa.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Experiments were performed in established cell-based PCa models, supported by pathologic analysis of chemokine expression in prostate tissue harvested from PTEN heterozygous (Pten(+/-)) mice harbouring inactivation of one PTEN allele.
INTERVENTIONS: Small interfering RNA (siRNA)- or small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-directed strategies were used to repress PTEN expression and resultant interleukin-8 (CXCL8) signalling, determined under normal and hypoxic culture conditions.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Changes in chemokine expression in PCa cells and tissue were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunohistochemistry; effects of chemokine signalling on cell function were assessed by cell cycle analysis, apoptosis, and survival assays.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Transient (siRNA) or prolonged (shRNA) PTEN repression increased expression of CXCL8 and its receptors, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor (CXCR) 1 and CXCR2, in PCa cells. Hypoxia-induced increases in CXCL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2 expression were greater in magnitude and duration in PTEN-depleted cells. Autocrine CXCL8 signalling was more efficacious in PTEN-depleted cells, inducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) transcription and regulating genes involved in survival and angiogenesis. Increased expression of the orthologous chemokine KC was observed in regions displaying atypical cytologic features in Pten(+/-) murine prostate tissue relative to normal epithelium in wild-type PTEN (Pten(WT)) glands. Attenuation of CXCL8 signalling decreased viability of PCa cells harbouring partial or complete PTEN loss through promotion of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The current absence of clinical validation is a limitation of the study.
CONCLUSIONS: PTEN loss induces a selective upregulation of CXCL8 signalling that sustains the growth and survival of PTEN-deficient prostate epithelium.

Hill KS, Gaziova I, Harrigal L, et al.
Met receptor tyrosine kinase signaling induces secretion of the angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8/CXCL8 in pancreatic cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40420 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
At diagnosis, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients present with advanced disease when curative resection is no longer feasible and current therapeutic treatments are largely ineffective. An improved understanding of molecular targets for effective intervention of pancreatic cancer is thus urgent. The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is one candidate implicated in pancreatic cancer. Notably, Met is over expressed in up to 80% of invasive pancreatic cancers but not in normal ductal cells correlating with poor overall patient survival and increased recurrence rates following surgical resection. However the functional role of Met signaling in pancreatic cancer remains poorly understood. Here we used RNA interference to directly examine the pathobiological importance of increased Met signaling for pancreatic cancer. We show that Met knockdown in pancreatic tumor cells results in decreased cell survival, cell invasion, and migration on collagen I in vitro. Using an orthotopic model for pancreatic cancer, we provide in vivo evidence that Met knockdown reduced tumor burden correlating with decreased cell survival and tumor angiogenesis, with minimal effect on cell growth. Notably, we report that Met signaling regulates the secretion of the pro-angiogenic chemokine interleukin-8/CXCL8. Our data showing that the interleukin-8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 are not expressed on pancreatic tumor cells, suggests a paracrine mechanism by which Met signaling regulates interleukin-8 secretion to remodel the tumor microenvironment, a novel finding that could have important clinical implications for improving the effectiveness of treatments for pancreatic cancer.

Bondurant KL, Lundgreen A, Herrick JS, et al.
Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(4):905-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In our study, we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1,555 cases and 1,956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were used. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk, and CXCR1 and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28-2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest that interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer.

Ewington L, Taylor A, Sriraksa R, et al.
The expression of interleukin-8 and interleukin-8 receptors in endometrial carcinoma.
Cytokine. 2012; 59(2):417-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which exerts its effects via binding to 2 receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2 and is known to promote angiogenesis, mitogenesis and motogenesis in cancer. IL-8 is over expressed in endometrial carcinoma, but the expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in endometrial carcinoma has not been previously investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of IL-8 receptors in endometrial carcinoma. The expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 was studied in endometrial carcinomas and normal endometrium by immunohistochemistry in 101 tumours. IL-8 and IL-8 receptor expression was also studied by Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in 17 tumours in comparison to normal endometrium. The expression profile was correlated to the clinico-pathological features of the tumours. Immunohistochemistry showed CXCR1 and CXCR2 were expressed in all cases of endometrial carcinoma, with CXCR1 showing stronger expression. There was a statistically significant correlation between CXCR2 staining intensity and tumour grade (P=0.012) and disease free survival (P=0.015) independently. On RT-qPCR, 14/17, 15/17 and 16/17 tumours showed significant increase in IL-8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression levels in comparison to normal endometrium, with median fold increase of 42-fold, 51-fold and 27-fold, respectively. This is the first report of the expression of IL-8 receptors in endometrial carcinoma and the results show an association between IL-8 and IL-8 receptors and the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma, and represent potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Wilson C, Maxwell PJ, Longley DB, et al.
Constitutive and treatment-induced CXCL8-signalling selectively modulates the efficacy of anti-metabolite therapeutics in metastatic prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e36545 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The current study was undertaken to characterize the effect of anti-metabolites on inducing CXCL8 signaling and determining whether the constitutive and/or drug-induced CXCL8 signaling in metastatic prostate cancer (CaP) cells modulates their sensitivity to this class of agent.
METHODS: The response of metastatic CaP cells to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Pemetrexed or Tomudex was determined using cell count assays, flow cytometry and PARP cleavage analysis. Quantitative-PCR, ELISA and immunoblots were employed to determine effects of drugs or CXCL8 administration on target gene/protein expression.
RESULTS: Administration of 5-FU but not pemetrexed potentiated CXCL8 secretion and increased CXCR1 and CXCR2 gene expression in metastatic PC3 cells. Consistent with this, the inhibition of CXCL8 signaling using a CXCR2 antagonist, AZ10397767, increased the cytotoxicity of 5-FU by 4-fold (P<0.001), and increased 5-FU-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells (P<0.01). In contrast, while administration of AZ10397767 had no effect on the sensitivity of pemetrexed, the CXCR2 antagonist exerted the greatest effect in increasing the sensitivity of PC3 cells to Tomudex, a directed thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor. Subsequent experiments confirmed that administration of recombinant human CXCL8 increased TS expression, a response mediated in part by the CXCR2 receptor. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of the CXCL8-target gene Bcl-2 increased the sensitivity of PC3 cells to 5-FU.
CONCLUSIONS: CXCL8 signaling provides a selective resistance of metastatic prostate cancer cells to specific anti-metabolites by promoting a target-associated resistance, in addition to underpinning an evasion of treatment-induced apoptosis.

Escudero-Lourdes C, Wu T, Camarillo JM, Gandolfi AJ
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012; 258(1):10-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβ and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation.

Lee ES, Choi JS, Kim MS, et al.
Ginsenoside metabolite compound K differentially antagonizing tumor necrosis factor-α-induced monocyte-endothelial trafficking.
Chem Biol Interact. 2011; 194(1):13-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human leukocyte endothelial adhesion and transmigration occur in the early stage of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial cells are targeted by pro-inflammatory cytokines modulating many gene proteins responsible for cell adhesion, thrombosis and inflammatory responses. This study examined the potential of compound K to inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α induction of monocyte adhesion onto TNF-α-activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were cultured with 10ng/ml TNF-α with individual ginsenosides of Rb1, Rc, Re, Rh1 and compound K (CK). Ginsenosides at doses of ⩽50μM did not show any cytotoxicity. TNF-α induced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVEC, and such induction was attenuated by Rh1 and CK. Consistently, CK suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of HUVEC adhesion molecules of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and E-selectin, and also Rh1 showed a substantial inhibition. Rh1 and CK dampened induction of counter-receptors, α4/β1 integrin VLA-4 and αL/β2 integrin LFA-1 in TNF-α-treated THP-1 cells. Additionally, CK diminished THP-1 secretion of MMP-9 required during transmigration, inhibiting transendothelial migration of THP-1 cells. CK blunted TNF-α-promoted IL-8 secretion of HUVEC and CXCR1 expression of THP-1 monocytes. Furthermore, TNF-α-activated endothelial IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation were disturbed by CK, and TNF-α induction of α4/β1 integrin was abrogated by the NF-κB inhibitor SN50. These results demonstrate that CK exerts anti-atherogenic activity with blocking leukocyte endothelial interaction and transmigration through negatively mediating NF-κB signaling.

Gerger A, El-Khoueiry A, Zhang W, et al.
Pharmacogenetic angiogenesis profiling for first-line Bevacizumab plus oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(17):5783-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is substantial germline genetic variability within angiogenesis pathway genes, thereby causing interindividual differences in angiogenic capacity and resistance to antiangiogenesis therapy. We investigated germline polymorphisms in genes involved in VEGF-dependent and -independent angiogenesis pathways to predict clinical outcome and tumor response in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with bevacizumab and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A total of 132 patients treated with first-line bevacizumab and FOLFOX or XELOX were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole-blood samples by PCR-RFLP or direct DNA sequencing. The endpoints of the study were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and response rate (RR).
RESULTS: The minor alleles of EGF rs444903 A>G and IGF-1 rs6220 A>G were associated with increased OS and remained significant in multivariate Cox regression analysis (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31-0.87; adjusted P = 0.012 and HR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36-0.99; adjusted P = 0.046, respectively). The minor allele of HIF1α rs11549465 C>T was significantly associated with increased PFS but lost its significance in multivariate analysis. CXCR1 rs2234671 G>C, CXCR2 rs2230054 T>C, EGFR rs2227983 G>A, and VEGFR-2 rs2305948 C>T predicted tumor response, with CXCR1 rs2234671 G>C remaining significant in multiple testing (P(act) = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified common germline variants in VEGF-dependent and -independent angiogenesis genes predicting clinical outcome and tumor response in patients with mCRC receiving first-line bevacizumab and oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy.

Kim SM, Kim DS, Jeong CH, et al.
CXC chemokine receptor 1 enhances the ability of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells to migrate toward gliomas.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011; 407(4):741-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we showed that knocking-down interleukin-8 (IL-8) in glioma cells, or its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) in hUCB-MSCs reduced hUCB-MSC migration toward glioma cells in a Transwell chamber. In contrast, CXCR1-transfected hUCB-MSCs (CXCR1-MSCs) showed a superior capacity to migrate toward glioma cells in a Transwell chamber compared to primary hUCB-MSCs. Furthermore, these transfected cells also demonstrated the same ability to migrate toward tumors in mice bearing intracranial human gliomas as shown by histological and in vivo imaging analysis. Our findings indicate that overexpression of CXCR1 could be a useful tool for MSC-based gene therapy to achieve a sufficient quantity of therapeutic MSCs that are localized within tumors.

Alfaro C, Suárez N, Martínez-Forero I, et al.
Carcinoma-derived interleukin-8 disorients dendritic cell migration without impairing T-cell stimulation.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(3):e17922 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) is readily produced by human malignant cells. Dendritic cells (DC) both produce IL-8 and express the IL-8 functional receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. Most human colon carcinomas produce IL-8. IL-8 importance in malignancies has been ascribed to angiogenesis promotion.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IL-8 effects on human monocyte-derived DC biology were explored upon DC exposure to recombinant IL-8 and with the help of an IL-8 neutralizing mAb. In vivo experiments were performed in immunodeficient mice xenografted with IL-8-producing human colon carcinomas and comparatively with cell lines that do not produce IL-8. Allogenic T lymphocyte stimulation by DC was explored under the influence of IL-8. DC and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured by transwell-migration assays. Sera from tumor-xenografted mice contained increasing concentrations of IL-8 as the tumors progress. IL-8 production by carcinoma cells can be modulated by low doses of cyclophosphamide at the transcription level. If human DC are injected into HT29 or CaCo2 xenografted tumors, DC are retained intratumorally in an IL-8-dependent fashion. However, IL-8 did not modify the ability of DC to stimulate T cells. Interestingly, pre-exposure of DC to IL-8 desensitizes such cells for IL-8-mediated in vitro or in vivo chemoattraction. Thereby DC become disoriented to subsequently follow IL-8 chemotactic gradients towards malignant or inflamed tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 as produced by carcinoma cells changes DC migration cues, without directly interfering with DC-mediated T-cell stimulation.

Baird AM, Gray SG, O'Byrne KJ
Epigenetics underpinning the regulation of the CXC (ELR+) chemokines in non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(1):e14593 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis may play a role in the pathogenesis of Non-Small Cell Lung cancer (NSCLC). The CXC (ELR(+)) chemokine family are powerful promoters of the angiogenic response.
METHODS: The expression of the CXC (ELR(+)) family members (CXCL1-3/GROα-γ, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCR1/2) was examined in a series of resected fresh frozen NSCLC tumours. Additionally, the expression and epigenetic regulation of these chemokines was examined in normal bronchial epithelial and NSCLC cell lines.
RESULTS: Overall, expression of the chemokine ligands (CXCL1, 2, 8) and their receptors (CXCR1/2) were down regulated in tumour samples compared with normal, with the exception of CXCL3. CXCL8 and CXCR1/2 were found to be epigenetically regulated by histone post-translational modifications. Recombinant CXCL8 did not stimulate cell growth in either a normal bronchial epithelial or a squamous carcinoma cell line (SKMES-1). However, an increase was observed at 72 hours post treatment in an adenocarcinoma cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: CXC (ELR(+)) chemokines are dysregulated in NSCLC. The balance of these chemokines may be critical in the tumour microenvironment and requires further elucidation. It remains to be seen if epigenetic targeting of these pathways is a viable therapeutic option in lung cancer treatment.

Wolff HA, Rolke D, Rave-Fränk M, et al.
Analysis of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cell lines.
Radiat Environ Biophys. 2011; 50(1):145-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2015 Related Publications
The purpose of this work was to analyze chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in untreated and in irradiated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) tumor cell lines, aiming at the establishment of assays to test for the relevance of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the response of SCCHN to radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. Five low passage and 10 established SCCHN lines, as well as two normal cell lines, were irradiated at 2 Gy or sham-irradiated, and harvested between 1 and 48 h after treatment. For chemokines with CC and CXC structural motifs and their receptors, transcript levels of target and reference genes were quantified relatively by real-time PCR. In addition, CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein expression was analyzed by ELISA. A substantial variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor expression between SCCHN was detected. Practically, all cell lines expressed CCL5 and CCL20, while CCL2 was expressed in normal cells and in some of the tumor cell lines. CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were expressed in the vast majority of the cell lines, while the expression of CXCL9 and CXCL12 was restricted to fibroblasts and few tumor cell lines. None of the analyzed cell lines expressed the chemokines CCL3, CCL4, or CCL19. Of the receptors, transcript expression of CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR7, CCXR2, and CCXR3 was not detected, and CCR6, CXCR1, and CXCR4 expression was restricted to few tumor cells. Radiation caused up- and down-regulation with respect to chemokine expressions, while for chemokine receptor expressions down-regulations were prevailing. CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein expression corresponded well with the mRNA expression. We conclude that the substantial variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor expression between SCCHN offer opportunities for the establishment of assays to test for the relevance of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the response of SCCHN to radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy.

Raychaudhuri B, Vogelbaum MA
IL-8 is a mediator of NF-κB induced invasion by gliomas.
J Neurooncol. 2011; 101(2):227-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadly form of primary brain tumor with a median survival of eleven months, despite use of extensive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. We have previously shown that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is aberrantly expressed in GBM tumors and primary cell lines derived from tumor tissue. Here we show that IL-8, a chemokine is also aberrantly expressed by GBM cell lines and expression of IL-8 is in large part, attributable to the aberrant activation of NF-κB. We hypothesized that invasiveness of GBM cells is driven at least in part by aberrantly expressed IL-8. In support of the hypothesis we found that treatment of glioma cells with an IL-8 neutralizing antibody markedly decreased their invasiveness compared to cells treated with control IgG or left untreated. Furthermore, downregulation of IL-8 protein production with use of IL-8 targeted siRNA also resulted in decreased invasion in matrigel. We next investigated the presence of IL-8 receptors by FACS analysis and found that GBM cells (U87, U251, D54 and LN229) only express CXCR1 but not CXCR2. Treatment of U87 cells with a blocking CXCR1 antibody reduced their invasion through matrigel. Finally, we found that addition of exogenous IL-8, following downregulation of NF-κB which results in loss of endogenous IL-8 production, incompletely restored tumor cell invasion. Our data indicate that IL-8 is necessary but not solely responsible for glioma cell invasion and mediates its effect in an autocrine manner.

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