CYP2C8

Gene Summary

Gene:CYP2C8; cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily C member 8
Aliases: CPC8, CYPIIC8, MP-12/MP-20
Location:10q23.33
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by phenobarbital. The enzyme is known to metabolize many xenobiotics, including the anticonvulsive drug mephenytoin, benzo(a)pyrene, 7-ethyoxycoumarin, and the anti-cancer drug taxol. This gene is located within a cluster of cytochrome P450 genes on chromosome 10q24. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 2C8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Statistics as Topic
  • Genetic Variation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Haplotypes
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Tumor Burden
  • Drug Resistance
  • Case-Control Studies
  • P-Glycoproteins
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • P-Glycoprotein
  • RTPCR
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Tamoxifen
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Vomiting
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Steroid 16-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Phytogenic Anticancer Agents
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • Japan
  • Young Adult
  • Risk Factors
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8
  • Genotype
  • Messenger RNA
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Polymorphism
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A
  • Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy
  • Genetic Association Studies
  • Chromosome 10
  • Paclitaxel
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Ovarian Cancer
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP2C8 (cancer-related)

Boora GK, Kanwar R, Kulkarni AA, et al.
Testing of candidate single nucleotide variants associated with paclitaxel neuropathy in the trial NCCTG N08C1 (Alliance).
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(4):631-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) cannot be predicted from clinical parameters and might have a pharmacogenomic basis. Previous studies identified single nucleotide variants (SNV) associated with PIPN. However, only a subset of findings has been confirmed to date in more than one study, suggesting a need for further re-testing and validation in additional clinical cohorts. Candidate PIPN-associated SNVs were identified from the literature. SNVs were retested in 119 patients selected by extreme phenotyping from 269 in NCCTG N08C1 (Alliance) as previously reported. SNV genotyping was performed by a combination of short-read sequencing analysis and Taqman PCR. These 22 candidate PIPN SNVs were genotyped. Two of these, rs7349683 in the EPHA5 and rs3213619 in ABCB1 were found to be significantly associated with PIPN with an Odds ratios OR = 2.07 (P = 0.02) and OR = 0.12 (P = 0.03), respectively. In addition, three SNVs showed a trend toward a risk- or protective effect that was consistent with previous reports. The rs10509681 and rs11572080 in the gene CYP2C8*3 showed risk effect with an OR = 1.49 and rs1056836 in CYP1B1 showed a protective effect with an OR = 0.66. None of the other results supported the previously reported associations, including some SNVs displaying an opposite direction of effect from previous reports, including rs1058930 in CYP2C8, rs17222723 and rs8187710 in ABCC2, rs10771973 in FGD4, rs16916932 in CACNB2 and rs16948748 in PITPNA. Alliance N08C1 validated or supported a minority of previously reported SNV-PIPN associations. Associations previously reported by multiple studies appeared to have a higher likelihood to be validated by Alliance N08C1.

Szalai R, Ganczer A, Magyari L, et al.
Interethnic differences of cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms may influence outcome of taxane therapy in Roma and Hungarian populations.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2015; 30(6):453-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Taxanes are widely used microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cancers. Several cytochrome P450 gene variants have been proven to influence taxane metabolism and therapy. The purpose of this work was to determine the distribution of genetic variations of CYP1B1, CYP2C8 and CYP3A5 genes as the first report on taxane metabolizer cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms in Roma and Hungarian populations. A total of 397 Roma and 412 Hungarian healthy subjects were genotyped for CYP1B1 c.4326C > G, CYP2C8 c.792C > G and CYP3A5 c.6986A > G variant alleles by PCR-RFLP assay and direct sequencing. We found significant differences in the frequencies of homozygous variant genotypes of CYP1B1 4326 GG (p = 0.002) and CYP3A5 6986 GG (p < 0.001) between Roma and Hungarian populations. Regarding minor allele frequencies, for CYP2C8 a significantly increased prevalence was found in 792G allele frequency in the Hungarian population compared to the Roma population (5.83% vs. 2.14%, p = 0.001). Our results can be used as possible predictive factors in population specific treatment algorithms to developing effective programs for a better outcome in patients treated with taxanes.

Lee MY, Apellániz-Ruiz M, Johansson I, et al.
Role of cytochrome P450 2C8*3 (CYP2C8*3) in paclitaxel metabolism and paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity.
Pharmacogenomics. 2015; 16(9):929-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The CYP2C8*3 allele has been suggested as a risk factor for paclitaxel-induced neuropathy but the data hitherto published are conflicting.
MATERIALS & METHODS: In total 435 patients were investigated with respect to maximum neuropathy grade and accumulated paclitaxel dose. The enzymatic properties of CYP2C8.3 variant were analyzed using heterologous mammalian HEK293 cell expression system.
RESULTS: No significant association between CYP2C8*3 allele and neuropathy was found, although a trend was observed. The paclitaxel and amodiaquine metabolism by CYP2C8.3 were found similar to CYP2C8.1, whereas CYP2C8.3 was more efficient in the metabolism of rosiglitazone.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate a difference in substrate specificity between CYP2C8.1 and CYP2C8.3; however, the CYP2C8*3 allele has no major impact on paclitaxel metabolism in vitro or of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in vivo. Original submitted on 6 February 2015; revision submitted on 9 April 2015.

Thomas M, Bayha C, Vetter S, et al.
Activating and Inhibitory Functions of WNT/β-Catenin in the Induction of Cytochromes P450 by Nuclear Receptors in HepaRG Cells.
Mol Pharmacol. 2015; 87(6):1013-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway has been identified as an important endogenous regulator of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) expression in mouse liver. In particular, it is involved in the regulation of P450 expression in response to exposure to xenobiotic agonists of the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and Nrf2. To systematically elucidate the effect of the WNT/β-catenin pathway on the regulation and inducibility of major human P450 enzymes, HepaRG cells were treated with either the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway agonist, WNT3a, or with small interfering RNA directed against β-catenin, alone or in combination with a panel of activating ligands for AhR [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)], CAR [6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO)], pregnane X receptor (PXR) [rifampicin], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid (WY14,643)]. Assessment of P450 gene expression and enzymatic activity after downregulation or activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway revealed a requirement of β-catenin in the AhR-, CAR-, and PXR-mediated induction of CYP1A, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 (for CAR and PXR), and CYP2C8 (for PXR) gene expression. By contrast, activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway prevented PPARα-mediated induction of CYP1A, CYP2C8, CYP3A4, and CYP4A11 genes, suggesting a dominant-negative role of β-catenin in PPARα-mediated regulation of these genes. Our data indicate a significant effect of the WNT/β-catenin pathway on the regulation of P450 enzymes in human hepatocytes and reveal a novel crosstalk between β-catenin and PPARα signaling pathways in the regulation of P450 expression.

Bosó V, Herrero MJ, Santaballa A, et al.
SNPs and taxane toxicity in breast cancer patients.
Pharmacogenomics. 2014; 15(15):1845-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: In order to identify genetic variants associated with taxanes toxicity, a panel with 47 SNPs in 20 genes involved in taxane pathways was designed.
PATIENTS & METHODS: Genomic DNA of 113 breast cancer patients was analyzed (70 taking docetaxel, 43 taking paclitaxel).
RESULTS: Two SNPs associated with docetaxel toxicity were identified: CYP3A4*1B with infusion-related reactions; and ERCC1 Gln504Lys with mucositis (p≤0.01). Regarding paclitaxel toxicity: CYP2C8 HapC and CYP2C8 rs1934951 were associated with anemia; and ERCC1 Gln504Lys with neuropathy (p≤0.01).
CONCLUSION: Genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms and reactive oxygen species levels influence taxane toxicity in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy schemes not containing platinum. These findings could lead to better treatment selection for breast cancer patients.

Ng T, Chan M, Khor CC, et al.
The genetic variants underlying breast cancer treatment-induced chronic and late toxicities: a systematic review.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2014; 40(10):1199-214 [PubMed] Related Publications
A systematic review was performed to describe the findings from 19 genetic association studies that have examined the genetic variants underlying four common treatment-induced chronic and late toxicities in breast cancer patients, and to evaluate the quality of reporting. Three out of 5 studies found an association between HER2 lle655Val polymorphisms and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity. Two studies found a positive association between cognitive impairment and the Val allele of the COMT gene and the ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene. Genetic associations were established between fatigue and the G/G genotype of IL6-174 and TNF-308, and the Met allele of the COMT gene in 4 studies. Among studies (N=8) that evaluated the genetic associations underlying peripheral neuropathy, CYP2C8∗3 variant is commonly reported as the associated gene. Most studies failed to conform to the major criteria listed in the STREGA guidelines, with a lack of transparent reporting of methods and results.

Sprouse AA, Herbert BS
Resveratrol augments paclitaxel treatment in MDA-MB-231 and paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5363-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol (RES) inhibits cell growth, induces apoptosis and augments chemotherapeutics in multiple cancer types, although its effects on drug-resistant cancer cells are unknown.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study the effects of resveratrol in triple-negative breast cancer cells that are resistant to the common cancer drug, paclitaxel, a novel paclitaxel-resistant cell line was generated from the MDA-MB-231 cell line.
RESULTS: The resistant MDA-MB-231/PacR cells exhibited a 12-fold increased resistance to paclitaxel. RES treatment reduced cell proliferation and colony formation and increased senescence and apoptosis in both parental and resistant cells. Importantly, RES augmented the effects of paclitaxel in both cell lines. Up-regulation of the MDR1 and CYP2C8 genes were shown to be potential mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance in the resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: RES, both alone and in combination with paclitaxel, may be useful in the treatment of paclitaxel-sensitive and paclitaxel-resistant triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Tulsyan S, Agarwal G, Lal P, Mittal B
Significant role of CYP450 genetic variants in cyclophosphamide based breast cancer treatment outcomes: a multi-analytical strategy.
Clin Chim Acta. 2014; 434:21-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug, is catalyzed by the Phase I cytochrome P450 (CYPs) isozymes - CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Hence this study aimed to elucidate the influence of genetic variants in CYP450 metabolizing enzymes on breast cancer treatment outcomes, using multi-analytical approaches.
METHODS: Treatment response was noticed in 111 patients whereas 234 patients were followed for myelo-toxicity. Eight known functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six CYP450 genes were selected for the study on the basis of CP metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. The possible functional effects of CYP450 polymorphisms were determined by online Web servers F-SNP. Multifactor dimensionality reductions (MDR), haplotype analysis were combined with logistic regression to characterize gene-gene interaction model with treatment outcomes.
RESULTS: Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of G(rs10509681)-*1(rs1799853)-*3(rs1057910)-G(rs4244285) on chromosome 10 with overall toxicity (P=0.024) and grade 2-4 leucopenia (P=0.03). On MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2B6*5 yielded the highest testing accuracy for treatment response (0.60) and CYP2C8*3, CYP2C9*2 for overall toxicity (0.50).
CONCLUSION: Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better clinical prediction of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients.

Hertz DL, Roy S, Jack J, et al.
Genetic heterogeneity beyond CYP2C8*3 does not explain differential sensitivity to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 145(1):245-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is influenced by drug exposure and patient genetics. The purpose of this analysis was to expand on a previous reported association of CYP2C8*3 and PIPN risk by investigating additional polymorphisms in CYP2C8 and in hundreds of other genes potentially relevant to paclitaxel pharmacokinetics. Clinical data was collected prospectively in an observational registry of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Patients treated with paclitaxel-containing regimens were genotyped using the Affymetrix DMET™ Plus chip. Patients who carried the CYP2C8*2, *3, or *4 variant were collapsed into a low-metabolizer CYP2C8 phenotype for association with PIPN. Separately, all SNPs that surpassed quality control were assessed individually and as a composite of genetic ancestry for associations with PIPN. 412 paclitaxel-treated patients and 564 genetic markers were included in the analysis. The risk of PIPN was significantly greater in the CYP2C8 low-metabolizer group (HR = 1.722, p = 0.018); however, the influences of the *2 and *4 SNPs were not independently significant (*2: p = 0.847, *4: p = 0.408). One intronic SNP in ABCG1 (rs492338) surpassed the exploratory significance threshold for an association with PIPN in the Caucasian cohort (p = 0.0008) but not in the non-Caucasian replication group (p = 0.54). Substantial genetic variability was observed within self-reported racial groups but this genetic variability was not associated with risk of grade 2+ PIPN. The pharmacogenetic heterogeneity within a cohort of breast cancer patients is dramatic, though we did not find evidence that this heterogeneity directly influences the risk of PIPN beyond the contribution of CYP2C8*3.

Tulsyan S, Chaturvedi P, Singh AK, et al.
Assessment of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes: multi-analytical approach.
Gene. 2014; 543(1):69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes.

Alcazar-González GA, Calderón-Garcidueñas AL, Garza-Rodríguez ML, et al.
Comparative study of polymorphism frequencies of the CYP2D6, CYP3A5, CYP2C8 and IL-10 genes in Mexican and Spanish women with breast cancer.
Pharmacogenomics. 2013; 14(13):1583-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Pharmacogenetic studies in breast cancer (BC) may predict the efficacy of tamoxifen and the toxicity of paclitaxel and capecitabine. We determined the frequency of polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene associated with activation of tamoxifen, and those of the genes CYP2C8, CYP3A5 and DPYD associated with toxicity of paclitaxel and capecitabine. We also included a IL-10 gene polymorphism associated with advanced tumor stage at diagnosis.
PATIENTS & METHODS: Genomic DNAs from 241 BC patients from northeast Mexico were genotyped using DNA microarray technology.
RESULTS: For tamoxifen processing, CYP2D6 genotyping predicted that 90.8% of patients were normal metabolizers, 4.2% ultrarapid, 2.1% intermediate and 2.9% poor metabolizers. For paclitaxel and the CYP2C8 gene, 75.3% were normal, 23.4% intermediate and 1.3% poor metabolizers. Regarding the DPYD gene, only one patient was a poor metabolizer. For the IL-10 gene, 47.1% were poor metabolizers.
CONCLUSION: These results contribute valuable information towards personalizing BC chemotherapy in Mexican women.

White KL, Vierkant RA, Fogarty ZC, et al.
Analysis of over 10,000 Cases finds no association between previously reported candidate polymorphisms and ovarian cancer outcome.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(5):987-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis, and drug disposition genes.
METHODS: Twenty-seven SNPs in VHL, HGF, IL18, PRKACB, ABCB1, CYP2C8, ERCC2, and ERCC1 previously associated with ovarian cancer outcome were genotyped in 10,084 invasive cases from 28 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium with over 37,000-observed person-years and 4,478 deaths. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between candidate SNPs and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival with and without adjustment for key covariates.
RESULTS: We observed no association between genotype and ovarian cancer recurrence or survival for any of the SNPs examined.
CONCLUSIONS: These results refute prior associations between these SNPs and ovarian cancer outcome and underscore the importance of maximally powered genetic association studies.
IMPACT: These variants should not be used in prognostic models. Alternate approaches to uncovering inherited prognostic factors, if they exist, are needed.

Jabir RS, Naidu R, Annuar MA, et al.
Pharmacogenetics of taxanes: impact of gene polymorphisms of drug transporters on pharmacokinetics and toxicity.
Pharmacogenomics. 2012; 13(16):1979-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interindividual variability in drug response and the emergence of adverse drug effects are the main causes of treatment failure in cancer therapy. Functional membrane drug transporters play important roles in altering pharmacokinetic profile, resistance to treatment, toxicity and patient survival. Pharmacogenetic studies of these transporters are expected to provide new approaches for optimizing therapy. Taxanes are approved for the treatment of various cancers. Circulating taxanes are taken up by SLCO1B3 into hepatocytes. The CYP450 enzymes CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2C8 are responsible for the conversion of taxanes into their metabolites. Ultimately, ABCB1 and ABCC2 will dispose the metabolites into bile canaliculi. Polymorphisms of genes encoding for proteins involved in the transport and clearance of taxanes reduce excretion of the drugs, leading to development of toxicity in patients. This review addresses current knowledge on genetic variations of transporters affecting taxanes pharmacokinetics and toxicity, and provides insights into future direction for personalized medicine.

Seredina TA, Goreva OB, Talaban VO, et al.
Association of cytochrome P450 genetic polymorphisms with neoadjuvant chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2012; 13:45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYPs) play an important role in the metabolism of a great variety of anticancer agents; therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding for metabolizing enzymes and drugs transporters can affect drug efficacy and toxicity.
METHODS: The genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 were studied in 395 patients with breast cancer by RLFP analysis.
RESULTS: Here, we studied the association of functionally significant variant alleles of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. A significant correlation was observed between the CYP2C9*2 polymorphism and chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 - 20.91), as well as between CYP2C9*2 heterozygotes and chemotherapy resistance in women with nodal forms of breast cancer and a cancer hereditary load (OR = 15.50; CI 95% = 1.08 - 826.12) when the potential combined effects were examined. No significant association between chemotherapy resistance and the other examined genotypes and the potential combined clinical and tumour-related parameters were discovered.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CYP2C9*2 was associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy resistance (OR = 4.64; CI 95% = 1.01 - 20.91) in the population of interest.

Chokkalingam AP, Metayer C, Scelo GA, et al.
Variation in xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes, household chemical exposures, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Causes Control. 2012; 23(8):1367-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that environmental exposures to pesticides, tobacco, and other xenobiotic chemicals may increase risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We sought to evaluate the role of genes involved in xenobiotic transport and metabolism in childhood ALL risk, both alone and in conjunction with household chemical exposures previously found to be associated with childhood ALL risk.
METHODS: We conducted a population-based epidemiologic study of 377 cases and 448 controls in California, utilizing a haplotype-based approach to evaluate 42 xenobiotic transport and metabolism genes in conjunction with data on self-reported household chemical exposures.
RESULTS: We identified significant associations of childhood ALL risk with haplotypes of ABCB1, ARNT, CYP2C8, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, and IDH1. In addition, certain haplotypes showed significant joint effects with self-reported household chemical exposures on risk of childhood ALL. Specifically, elevated risks associated with use of paints in the home (ever) and indoor insecticides (pre-birth) were limited to subjects carrying specific haplotypes of CYP2C8 and ABCB1, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide support for a role of xenobiotic transport and metabolism pathways in risk of childhood ALL and indicate that genes in these pathways may modulate the risk of disease associated with use of common household chemicals. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings and localize specific causal variants.

Hertz DL, Motsinger-Reif AA, Drobish A, et al.
CYP2C8*3 predicts benefit/risk profile in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant paclitaxel.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 134(1):401-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Paclitaxel is one of the most frequently used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of breast cancer patients. Using a candidate gene approach, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in genes relevant to the metabolism and transport of paclitaxel are associated with treatment efficacy and toxicity. Patient and tumor characteristics and treatment outcomes were collected prospectively for breast cancer patients treated with paclitaxel-containing regimens in the neoadjuvant setting. Treatment response was measured before and after each phase of treatment by clinical tumor measurement and categorized according to RECIST criteria, while toxicity data were collected from physician notes. The primary endpoint was achievement of clinical complete response (cCR) and secondary endpoints included clinical response rate (complete response+partial response) and grade 3+ peripheral neuropathy. The genotypes and haplotypes assessed were CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, CYP3A4*1B/CYP3A5*3C, and ABCB1*2. A total of 111 patients were included in this study. Overall, cCR was 30.1% to the paclitaxel component. CYP2C8*3 carriers (23/111, 20.7%) had higher rates of cCR (55% vs. 23%; OR=3.92 [95% CI: 1.46-10.48], corrected p=0.046). In the secondary toxicity analysis, we observed a trend toward greater risk of severe neuropathy (22% vs. 8%; OR=3.13 [95% CI: 0.89-11.01], uncorrected p=0.075) in subjects carrying the CYP2C8*3 variant. Other polymorphisms interrogated were not significantly associated with response or toxicity. Patients carrying CYP2C8*3 are more likely to achieve clinical complete response from neoadjuvant paclitaxel treatment, but may also be at increased risk of experiencing severe peripheral neurotoxicity.

Balla B, Vaszilko M, Kósa JP, et al.
New approach to analyze genetic and clinical data in bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw.
Oral Dis. 2012; 18(6):580-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a major complication associated with long-term use of bisphosphonates (BP). We aimed to investigate the effect of CYP2C8 rs1934951 SNP and its relationship to a number of clinical and biochemical factors in 46 Hungarian subjects with bisphosphonate-induced ONJ.
METHODS: Blood samples were collected from each subject and genomic DNA was extracted. SNP analysis of CYP2C8 gene was carried out by predesigned TaqMan primer/probe sets. The genetic data together with clinical and biochemical variables were evaluated by chi-square test, logistic regression, and principal component analysis (PCA).
RESULTS: The risk of mandibular localization of ONJ was 19.2-fold higher in subjects with AG genotype than in normal GG genotype. PCA revealed strong positive correlations between maxillar localization of ONJ and a group of variables including intravenous BP application and serum lipid markers. Mandibular localization of ONJ was correlated positively with serum calcium, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and PTH levels, oral BP application, and the length of BP therapy. The degree of the disease and the number of recurrences were correlated with the application of hormone-deprivation therapy for breast cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: The statistical approach applying PCA to our data may contribute to the better understanding of factors playing role in the development of bisphosphonate-induced ONJ.

Bergmann TK, Brasch-Andersen C, Gréen H, et al.
Impact of ABCB1 variants on neutrophil depression: a pharmacogenomic study of paclitaxel in 92 women with ovarian cancer.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012; 110(2):199-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
The standard treatment for ovarian cancer in advanced stages is post-surgery treatment with taxane-platin chemotherapy. Despite an initial high response rate, most patients eventually relapse. The dose-limiting toxicities of paclitaxel are neutropenia and neuropathy, but the inter-individual variability is large. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the impact of genetic variants in key drug metabolizing/transporter genes on toxicity and compliance. CYP2C8*3 and three ABCB1 polymorphisms were chosen for primary analysis, and a host of other candidate genes was explored in 92 prospectively recruited Scandinavian Caucasian women with primary ovarian cancer who were treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin. A single investigator assessed the clinical toxicity in 97% of the patients. Patients carrying variant alleles of ABCB1 C3435T experienced more pronounced neutrophil decrease (63%, 72% and 80% for 3435CC, CT and TT, respectively; p-value 0.03). A similar association was found for G2677T/A, p-value 0.02. For C1236T, there was a trend with p-value 0.06. No statistically significant correlations were found for paclitaxel compliance and sensory neuropathy in the primary analysis. Variants in the drug transporter ABCB1 gene are possibly associated with the neutrophil suppressing effect of paclitaxel in patients with ovarian cancer. This finding has implications for the understanding of bone marrow suppression and future tailored chemotherapy.

Vangsted A, Klausen TW, Vogel U
Genetic variations in multiple myeloma II: association with effect of treatment.
Eur J Haematol. 2012; 88(2):93-117 [PubMed] Related Publications
Association studies on genetic variation to treatment effect may serve as a predictive marker for effect of treatment and can also uncover biological pathways behind drug effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been studied in relation to high-dose treatment (HDT), thalidomide- and bortezomib-based therapy, maintenance treatment with interferon-α and in relation to therapy-related adverse effects caused by treatment. Candidate genes for prediction of effect of HDT include DNA repair genes, CYP genes and genes involved in inflammation and apoptosis such as IL1B and RAI. In thalidomide- and bortezomid-based therapy, candidate genes include TNFA and genes involved in the nuclear factor kappa B pathway (NFKB2 and TRAF3), respectively. In maintenance treatment with interferon-α, a polymorphism in gene NFKB1 is a candidate gene for prediction for effect. Adverse effect includes infection, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), venous thrombotic events (VTE) and peripheral neuropathy (PN). A SNP in MBL2 and MPO gene was associated with septicemia and a SNP in the gene CYP2C8 was strongly associated with ONJ. Several SNPs in genes encoding DNA repair, apoptosis, inflammation and genes involved in function of the nervous system have been associated with VTE induced by thalidomide and with PN induced by bortezomib. SNP analysis is simple and can be performed, e.g., on blood and buccal cells. Further analysis of SNPs in clinical trials is needed, and collaboration between scientific groups will be an advantage because SNP analysis required large number of patients.

Gréen H, Khan MS, Jakobsen-Falk I, et al.
Impact of CYP3A5*3 and CYP2C8-HapC on paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced myelosuppression in patients with ovarian cancer.
J Pharm Sci. 2011; 100(10):4205-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The influence of genetic variants on paclitaxel-induced toxicity is of considerable interest for reducing adverse drug reactions. Recently, the genetic variants CYP2C8*3, CYP2C8-HapC, and CYP3A5*3 were associated with paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity. We, therefore, investigated the impact of CYP2C8-HapC and CYP3A5*3 on paclitaxel/carboplatin-induced myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Thirty-three patients from a prospective pharmacokinetics study were genotyped using pyrosequencing. Patients with variant alleles of CYP2C8-HapC were found to have significantly lower nadir values of both leukocytes and neutrophils (p < 0.05) than patients with the wild-type genotype. CYP3A5*3/*1 patients were shown to have borderline, significantly lower nadir values of leukocytes (p = 0.07) than *3/*3 patients. Combining the two genotypes resulted in a significant correlation with both leukopenia and neutropenia (p = 0.01). No effect of these genetic variants on neurotoxicity could be shown in this rather small study, but their importance for paclitaxel-induced toxicity could be confirmed.

Such E, Cervera J, Terpos E, et al.
CYP2C8 gene polymorphism and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with multiple myeloma.
Haematologica. 2011; 96(10):1557-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteonecrosis of the jaw is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of bisphosphonate therapy in multiple myeloma. Previous studies showed that the presence of one or two minor alleles of the cytochrome P450, subfamily 2C polypeptide 8 gene (CYP2C8) polymorphism rs1934951 was an independent prognostic marker associated with development of osteonecrosis of the jaw in multiple myeloma patients treated with bisphosphonates. The aim of this study was to validate the frequency of SNP rs193451 in 79 patients with multiple myeloma. In 9 (22%) patients developing osteonecrosis of the jaw, a heterozygous genotype was found, in contrast with those who did not develop osteonecrosis of the jaw (n=4, 11%) or healthy individuals (n=6, 13%). We found no differences in the cumulative risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw between patients homozygous and heterozygous for the major allele. We were unable to confirm a significant association between this polymorphism and the risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw.

Xu X, Zhang XA, Wang DW
The roles of CYP450 epoxygenases and metabolites, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, in cardiovascular and malignant diseases.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2011; 63(8):597-609 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases metabolize arachidonic acid to biologically active eicosanoids. The primary epoxidation products are four regioisomers of cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET): 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET. CYP2J2, CYP2C8, and CYP2C9 are the predominant epoxygenase isoforms involved in EET formation. CYP2J and CYP2C gene families in humans are abundantly expressed in the endothelium, myocardium, and kidney. The cardiovascular effects of CYP epoxygenases and EETs range from vasodilation, anti-hypertension, pro-angiogenesis, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammation to anti-injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Using transgenic animals for in vivo analyses of CYP epoxygenases revealed comprehensive and marked cardiovascular protective effects. In contrast, CYP epoxygenases and their metabolites, EETs, are upregulated in human tumors and promote tumor progression and metastasis. These biological effects result from the anti-apoptosis, pro-mitogenesis, and anti-migration roles of CYP epoxygenases and EETs at the cellular level. Importantly, soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory and, therefore, protect the heart from damage, whereas the terfenadine-related, specific inhibitors of CYP2J2 exhibit strong anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CYP2J2 and arachidonic acid-derived metabolites likely play important roles in regulating cardiovascular functions and malignancy under physiological and/or pathological conditions. Moreover, although challenges remain to improving the drug-like properties of sEH inhibitors and identifying efficient ways to deliver sEH inhibitors, sEH will likely become an important therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. In addition, CYP2J2 may be a therapeutic target for treating human cancers and leukemia.

Katz J, Gong Y, Salmasinia D, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms and other risk factors associated with bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaw.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011; 40(6):605-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bisphosphonate induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (BONJ) is a complication in patients taking bisphosphonate (BP) that affects their quality of life and compliance. In this cohort study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) on intravenous BP therapy were enrolled over 1 year. Demographic and clinical data and genotyping of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from seven candidate genes associated with drug or bone metabolism were determined. Of the 78 patients enrolled, 12 had BONJ. The median time to developing BONJ was 28 months. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed a significant association between BONJ and smoking (p=0.048) and type of BP treatment (p=0.03). A trend for higher odds for BONJ was found for SNPs in five genes: COL1A1 (rs1800012), RANK (rs12458117), MMP2 (rs243865), OPG (rs2073618) and OPN (rs11730582). Considering all five SNPs together, patients with genotype scores ≥ 5 had a BONJ event rate of 57%; those with scores < 5 had a rate of 10%. The adjusted odds ratio was 11.2 (95% confidence interval of 1.8-69.9; p value 0.0097). Smoking, type of BP and combined genotype score of COL1A1, RANK, MMP2, OPG and OPN were significantly associated with BONJ in MM patients undergoing BP therapy.

Bergmann TK, Gréen H, Brasch-Andersen C, et al.
Retrospective study of the impact of pharmacogenetic variants on paclitaxel toxicity and survival in patients with ovarian cancer.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2011; 67(7):693-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Paclitaxel has a broad spectrum of anti-tumor activity and is useful in the treatment of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel is metabolized in the liver by CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 and transported by P-glycoprotein. The dose-limiting toxicities are neuropathy and neutropenia, but the interindividual variability in toxicity and also survival is large. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of genetic variants in CYP2C8 and ABCB1 on toxicity and survival.
METHODS: The 182 patients previously treated for ovarian cancer with carboplatin and paclitaxel in either the AGO-OVAR-9 or the NSGO-OC9804 trial in Denmark or Sweden were eligible for this study. Genotyping was carried out on formalin-fixed tissue. The patients' toxicity profiles and survival data were derived from retrospective data. CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T were chosen a priori for primary analysis; a host of other variants were entered into an exploratory analysis.
RESULTS: Clinical data and tissue were available from a total of 119 patients. Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 genes were determined. Toxicity registration was available from 710 treatment cycles. In the primary analysis, no statistically significant correlation was found between CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T and neutropenia, sensoric neuropathy, and overall survival.
CONCLUSION: CYP2C8*3 and the ABCB1 SNPs C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T were not statistically significantly correlated to overall survival, sensoric neuropathy, and neutropenia in 119 patients treated for ovarian cancer with paclitaxel/carboplatin.

Campayo M, Viñolas N, Navarro A, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms in tobacco metabolism and DNA repair genes and prognosis in resected non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Surg Res. 2011; 167(1):e5-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: If tobacco-related carcinogens are not inactivated or extruded from the cell, they can damage the DNA. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in tobacco metabolism, DNA repair, and multidrug resistance have been related to lung cancer susceptibility. We examined 13 SNPs in 10 of these genes and correlated the results with time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) in 71 smoker or former smoker patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA was obtained from paraffin-embedded tumor. SNP analysis of the candidate genes was performed by allelic discrimination assay. Log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier plots, and Cox multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the association of TTP and survival with the SNPs evaluated.
RESULTS: Patients with wild-type (wt) XPC rs2228001, wt CYP2C8 rs10509681, or non-wt NAT2 rs1799930 had a longer TTP. Patients with wt ERCC1 showed a nonsignificant trend towards longer TTP. No other relation between SNPs and TTP were observed. Patients harboring at least two unfavorable genotypes in these four genes had a shorter TTP and OS than patients with either one or no unfavorable genotypes. In the multivariate analysis, non-wt XPC rs2228001 and the presence of at least two unfavorable genotypes emerged as independent markers for shorter TTP.
CONCLUSIONS: SNPs in tobacco metabolism and DNA repair genes may influence the clinical outcome of resected NSCLC.

Rizzo R, Spaggiari F, Indelli M, et al.
Association of CYP1B1 with hypersensitivity induced by taxane therapy in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010; 124(2):593-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Taxanes represent a group of anticancer drugs with a wide range of activity against breast cancer. Therapy side effects include haematologic toxicity (neutropenia, leucopenia), peripheral neuropathy and hypersensitivity, and demonstrate inter-individual variations. Since it is known that three genes are implicated in taxane turnover, namely ABCB1 in the transport, CYP2C8 in the metabolism and CYP1B1 in the activity, we explored the association among polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in these three genes and the occurrence of taxane-induced toxicity. We studied 95 patients affected by breast cancer and under treatment with taxanes as adjuvant, metastatic or neo-adjuvant therapy. We genotyped them for SNPs in the CYP2C8 (alleles *1, *2, *3 and *4), CYP1B1 (alleles *1 and *3) and ABCB1 (1236 C>T; 2677 G>T/A; 3435 C>T) genes by real-time PCR assay. We observed a significant association between the CYP1B1*3 allele and a lower occurrence of hypersensitivity reactions to taxane treatment. We speculate that the highest production of 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2) metabolite by CYP1B1*3 allele could increase the formation of the 4-OHE2-taxane adduct and possibly inhibit taxane toxicity. We suggest that CYP1B1 might affect taxane hypersensitivity therefore representing, if confirmed in a large cohort of patients, an exploratory hypersensitivity predictive biomarker.

Leskelä S, Jara C, Leandro-García LJ, et al.
Polymorphisms in cytochromes P450 2C8 and 3A5 are associated with paclitaxel neurotoxicity.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2011; 11(2):121-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurotoxicity is one of the most relevant dose-limiting toxicities of the anticancer drug paclitaxel. It exhibits substantial interindividual variability of unknown molecular basis, and represents one of the major challenges for the improvement of paclitaxel therapy. The extensive variability in paclitaxel clearance and metabolism lead us to investigate the association between polymorphisms in paclitaxel elimination pathway and neurotoxicity. We selected 13 relevant polymorphisms in genes encoding paclitaxel metabolizing enzymes (CYP2C8, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) and transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3 and P-glycoprotein) and genotyped them in 118 Spanish cancer patients treated with paclitaxel. After adjusting for age and treatment schedule, CYP2C8 Haplotype C and CYP3A5*3 were associated with protection (hazard ratio (HR) (per allele)=0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.34-0.89; P=0.014 and HR (per allele)=0.51; 95%CI=0.30-0.86; and P=0.012, respectively) and CYP2C8*3 with increased risk (HR (per allele)=1.72; 95%CI=1.05-2.82; and P=0.032). In each case, the allele causing increased paclitaxel metabolism was associated with increased neurotoxicity, suggesting an important role for metabolism and hydroxylated paclitaxel metabolites. We estimated the HR per paclitaxel-metabolism increasing allele carried across the three polymorphisms to be HR=1.64 (95% CI=1.26-2.14; P=0.0003). The results for P-glycoprotein were inconclusive, and no associations were observed for the other genes studied. The incorporation of this genetic data in treatment selection could help to reduce neurotoxicity events, thereby individualizing paclitaxel pharmacotherapy. These results warrant validation in independent series.

Edvardsen H, Brunsvig PF, Solvang H, et al.
SNPs in genes coding for ROS metabolism and signalling in association with docetaxel clearance.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2010; 10(6):513-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The dose of docetaxel is currently calculated based on body surface area and does not reflect the pharmacokinetic, metabolic potential or genetic background of the patients. The influence of genetic variation on the clearance of docetaxel was analysed in a two-stage analysis. In step one, 583 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 203 genes were genotyped on samples from 24 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. We found that many of the genes harbour several SNPs associated with clearance of docetaxel. Most notably these were four SNPs in EGF, three SNPs in PRDX4 and XPC, and two SNPs in GSTA4, TGFBR2, TNFAIP2, BCL2, DPYD and EGFR. The multiple SNPs per gene suggested the existence of common haplotypes associated with clearance. These were confirmed with detailed haplotype analysis. On the basis of analysis of variance (ANOVA), quantitative mutual information score (QMIS) and Kruskal-Wallis (KW) analysis SNPs significantly associated with clearance of docetaxel were confirmed for GSTA4, PRDX4, TGFBR2 and XPC and additional putative markers were found in CYP2C8, EPHX1, IGF2, IL1R2, MAPK7, NDUFB4, TGFBR3, TPMT (2 SNPs), (P<0.05 or borderline significant for all three methods, 14 SNPs in total). In step two, these 14 SNPs were genotyped in additional 9 samples and the results combined with the genotyping results from the first step. For 7 of the 14 SNPs, the results are still significant/borderline significant by all three methods: ANOVA, QMIS and KW analysis strengthening our hypothesis that they are associated with the clearance of docetaxel.

Grau JJ, Caballero M, Campayo M, et al.
Gene single nucleotide polymorphism accumulation improves survival in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with weekly paclitaxel.
Laryngoscope. 2009; 119(8):1484-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of certain genes involved in drug metabolism correlate with survival.
METHODS: We evaluated the presence of SNPs in six genes (CYP2C8, GSTT1, GSTP1, MDR1-57, MDR1-62, and ERCC1) and the response rate (RR), time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) of advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with weekly paclitaxel.
RESULTS: SNPs in CYP2C8, MDR1-57, and MDR1-62 genes were more frequent than wild-type genes in our patients. RR was 45% (21/47), and median TTP in responders was 5.1 months. OS for all patients was 5.6 months. Response was higher in SNPs of MDR1-62, MDR1-57, or in two or more accumulated genes than in those with wild-type genes. OS was significantly longer in patients with two or more accumulated SNPs (P = .039).
CONCLUSIONS: Response rate and OS were significantly higher in patients with two or more accumulated SNPs.

Gandara DR, Kawaguchi T, Crowley J, et al.
Japanese-US common-arm analysis of paclitaxel plus carboplatin in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a model for assessing population-related pharmacogenomics.
J Clin Oncol. 2009; 27(21):3540-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE To explore whether population-related pharmacogenomics contribute to differences in patient outcomes between clinical trials performed in Japan and the United States, given similar study designs, eligibility criteria, staging, and treatment regimens. METHODS We prospectively designed and conducted three phase III trials (Four-Arm Cooperative Study, LC00-03, and S0003) in advanced-stage, non-small-cell lung cancer, each with a common arm of paclitaxel plus carboplatin. Genomic DNA was collected from patients in LC00-03 and S0003 who received paclitaxel (225 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the concentration-time curve, 6). Genotypic variants of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, NR1I2-206, ABCB1, ERCC1, and ERCC2 were analyzed by pyrosequencing or by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results were assessed by Cox model for survival and by logistic regression for response and toxicity. Results Clinical results were similar in the two Japanese trials, and were significantly different from the US trial, for survival, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and anemia. There was a significant difference between Japanese and US patients in genotypic distribution for CYP3A4*1B (P = .01), CYP3A5*3C (P = .03), ERCC1 118 (P < .0001), ERCC2 K751Q (P < .001), and CYP2C8 R139K (P = .01). Genotypic associations were observed between CYP3A4*1B for progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.94; P = .04) and ERCC2 K751Q for response (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83; P = .02). For grade 4 neutropenia, the HR for ABCB1 3425C-->T was 1.84 (95% CI, 0.77 to 4.48; P = .19). CONCLUSION Differences in allelic distribution for genes involved in paclitaxel disposition or DNA repair were observed between Japanese and US patients. In an exploratory analysis, genotype-related associations with patient outcomes were observed for CYP3A4*1B and ERCC2 K751Q. This common-arm approach facilitates the prospective study of population-related pharmacogenomics in which ethnic differences in antineoplastic drug disposition are anticipated.

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