Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CYP2E1 (cancer-related)
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a malignancy that severely threatens human health and carries a high incidence rate and a low 5-year survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are commonly accepted as a key regulatory function in human cancer, but the potential regulatory mechanisms of miRNA-mRNA related to ESCC remain poorly understood.The GSE55857, GSE43732, and GSE6188 miRNA microarray datasets and the gene expression microarray datasets GSE70409, GSE29001, and GSE20347 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus databases. The differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained using GEO2R. Gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis for DEGs were performed by Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and functional modules were established using the STRING database and were visualized by Cytoscape. Kaplan-Meier analysis was constructed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.In total, 26 DEMs and 280 DEGs that consisted of 96 upregulated and 184 downregulated genes were screened out. A functional enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in the ECM-receptor interaction and cytochrome P450 metabolic pathways. In addition, MMP9, PCNA, TOP2A, MMP1, AURKA, MCM2, IVL, CYP2E1, SPRR3, FOS, FLG, TGM1, and CYP2C9 were considered to be hub genes owing to high degrees in the PPI network. MiR-183-5p was with the highest connectivity target genes in hub genes. FOS was predicted to be a common target gene of the significant DEMs. Hsa-miR-9-3p, hsa-miR-34c-3p and FOS were related to patient prognosis and higher expression of the transcripts were associated with a poor OS in patients with ESCC.Our study revealed the miRNA-mediated hub genes regulatory network as a model for predicting the molecular mechanism of ESCC. This may provide novel insights for unraveling the pathogenesis of ESCC.
Gaviria-Calle M, Duque-Jaramillo A, Aranzazu M, et al.Polymorphisms in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) and cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) genes in patients with cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma
Biomedica. 2018; 38(4):555-568 [PubMed
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Introduction: One of the most important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is alcohol consumption: Studies in different populations suggest that the risk of liver disease could be associated with genetic variants of the enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism, such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 CYP2E1.
Objective: To identify and characterize the allelic variants of ADH1B, ADH1C and CYP2E1 genes in Colombian patients with cirrhosis and/or HCC.
Materials and methods: We included samples from patients attending the hepatology unit between 2005-2007 and 2014-2016 of a hospital in Medellin. Samples were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. We compared the results with two control groups and the 1000 Genomes Project database.
Results: We collected 97 samples from patients with a diagnosis of cirrhosis and/or HCC. The two main risk factors were chronic alcohol consumption (18.6%) and cholangiopathies (17.5%). The most frequent genotypes in the study population were ADH1B*1/1 (82%), ADH1C*1/1 (59%), and CYP2E1*C/C (84%).
Conclusions: This first study of polymorphisms in Colombian patients diagnosed with cirrhosis and/or HCC showed genotypes ADH1B*1/1, ADH1C*1/1 and CYP2E1*C/C as the most frequent. We found no significant differences in the genotype frequency between cases and controls. Further studies are necessary to explore the association between polymorphisms and the risk of end-stage liver disease from alcohol consumption.
Sivalingam K, Amirthalingam V, Ganasan K, et al.Neferine suppresses diethylnitrosamine-induced lung carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2019; 123:385-398 [PubMed
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Neferine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the embryos of lotus which has attracted attention for its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of neferine against diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced lung carcinogenesis in Wistar rats and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. DEN-induced oxidative stress is mediated by alterations in the levels of pulmonary reactive-oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and antioxidant status. Thus, treatment with neferine restored cellular normalcy, highlighting the antioxidant potential of neferine in mitigating the oxidative stress-mediated damage produced during DEN-induced lung carcinogenesis. Histopathological analysis showed disorganized alveolar structure, thickened alveolar wall, infiltration of inflammatory cells in DEN-induced rats, the damage was significantly reduced upon neferine treatment. DEN-induced rats exhibited increased gene expression of NF-κB, COX-2, CYP2E1, VEGF, Bcl-2, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and significantly decreased the gene expression of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3. Neferine treatment restored the DEN- induced alteration of these gene expression levels. Further, blotting analysis also revealed increased expression of NF-κB, COX-2, Bcl-2 and decreased expression of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 proteins in DEN-induced rats. Neferine treatment restored the expression of these proteins in DEN- induced lung carcinogenesis.
Chen Y, Han M, Matsumoto A, et al.Glutathione and Transsulfuration in Alcohol-Associated Tissue Injury and Carcinogenesis.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1032:37-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol, attaining cellular concentrations in the millimolar range. GSH functions to protect cells against endogenous and exogenous electrophiles. In addition, GSH serves as a cofactor for the GSH peroxidase family of enzymes which metabolize H
BACKGROUND: Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) is an enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of many carcinogens, including nitrosamines. CYP2E1 represents a major CYP isoform and is expressed in the human urothelial cells. Recent studies have investigated the association of CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms with bladder cancer risk but have shown contradictory results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the association between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer.
METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Excerpt Medica Database, Science Direct/Elsevier, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Cochrane Library up to January 2018 for studies that involved the association of CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms with bladder cancer risk. A meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Combined odds ratios (ORs) were identified with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in a random or fixed effects model.
ETHICS: The protocol was approved by the institutional review board of each study center. Written informed consent will be obtained from all patients before registration, in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
RESULTS: Eight studies were identified, including 1733 cases of bladder cancer and 1814 normal controls. Our results illustrated that there are significant associations between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer in all genetic models (P < .05). The combined ORs and 95% CIs were as follows for each model: additive model [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.38-0.82)]; dominant model [OR 0.79; 95% CI (0.67-0.93)]; recessive model [OR 0.61; 95% CI (0.41-0.89)]; codominant model [OR 0.80; 95% CI (0.67-0.96)]; allele model [OR 0.75; 95% CI (0.59-0.95)]. A subgroup study showed that there are also significant associations between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer in Asian people. However, there are no significant associations between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer in Caucasian populations.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence for an association between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer progression, and suggests that CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms might be a protective factor against bladder cancer in Asian people. However, studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the correlation between CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms and bladder cancer.
Ren X, Ji Y, Jiang X, Qi XDownregulation of CYP2A6 and CYP2C8 in Tumor Tissues Is Linked to Worse Overall Survival and Recurrence-Free Survival from Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:5859415 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the links between CYP450 family genes in tumor tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes.
Methods: Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases GSE14520 and GSE36376 were used to identify differential expressed CYP450 genes between tumor and nontumor tissues and related to HCC clinicopathological features and survivals.
Results: Seven CYP450 genes including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, and CYP4A11 were downregulated in tumor tissues, which were validated in both GSE14520 and GSE36376. HCC patients with CYP2A6 and CYP2C8 low levels in tumor tissues suffered from poorer overall survival (OS) compared to those with high CYP2A6 and CYP2C8 in GSE14520 profile (log ranks
Conclusion: Downregulation of CYP2A6 and CYP2C8 in tumor tissues links to poorer OS and RFS in HCC patients.
Bulus H, Oguztuzun S, Güler Simsek G, et al.Expression of CYP and GST in human normal and colon tumor tissues.
Biotech Histochem. 2019; 94(1):1-9 [PubMed
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We investigated the immunohistochemical staining characteristics of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYPB1, CYP2E1, and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), GSTT1, GSTO1, GSTK1 in colon tumor and surrounding normal colon tissues. Tissues were obtained from 47 patients with colon adenocarcinoma and the staining intensity of tumor and control tissues was compared. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTO1 and GSTK1 expressions in colon cancer cells were significantly greater than those in normal colon epithelial cells. No significant relation was found between the isoenzyme expressions and age, gender, smoking status, tumor grade and tumor stage. The higher expressions of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, GSTP1, GSTO1, GSTT1 and GSTK1 in tumor than in normal colon tissues may be important for colon cancer progression and development.
BACKGROUND: Genistein (5,7-Dihydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is the most abundant isoflavone in soybean, which has been associated with a lower risk of development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Of particular interest regarding cancer preventive properties of flavonoids is their interaction with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). However, contradictory data report the effect of genistein on expression of СYPs enzymes.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genistein on cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2/C3A) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells.
METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of genes families involved in xenobiotic metabolism, such as CYP1 (CYP1A1, CYP1B1), CYP2 (CYP2E1, CYP2D6), CYP3 (CYP3A4); and of a family involved in the catabolism of the all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), CYP26 (CYP26A1, CYP26B1).
RESULTS: RT-qPCR data analysis showed that after 12 h of exposure of HepG2/C3A cells to genistein (5 and 50 µM) there was an upregulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and downregulation of CYP2D6, CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 mRNA levels. There was no change in the mRNA levels of CYP P450 genes in HT29 cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that treatment with genistein in non-toxic concentrations may impact the expression level of CYPs involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and drug metabolizing enzymes. Moreover, the downregulation of ATRA metabolism-related genes opens a new research path for the study of genistein as retinoic acid metabolism blocking agent for treating cancer and other pathologies.
Pál I, Illés Á, Gergely L, et al.The Impact of Drug Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms on Therapeutic Response and Survival in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients.
Isr Med Assoc J. 2018; 20(4):217-221 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) accounts for 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 80% of agressive lymphomas. Besides the traditional International Prognostic Index (IPI), some other factors may also influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients.
OBJECTIVES: To study how the genetic polymorphisms in the metabolic pathway influence the event-free and overall survivals and therapeutic responses in DLBCL.
METHODS: The study was comprised of 51 patients (32 men, 19 women). The average age was 53.1 years. DLBCL was diagnosed between 2011 and 2016 and the average follow-up time was 3.78 years. These patients received 1-8 cycles (an average of 6.2 cycles) of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristin, prednisolon (R-CHOP) immunochemotherapy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, NAT1, and NAT2 genes.
RESULTS: Our results showed that the polymorphisms of CYP2E1, GSTP1, and NAT1 genes did not influence the prognosis of DLBCL patients significantly. In terms of the NAT2 gene, GG homozygous patients showed slightly better therapeutic response and survival results compared to those bearing an A allele; however, the differences were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results could not confirm that genetic polymorphism in metabolic pathways has any predictive role in DLBCL.
AIM: To evaluate the relation between 12 polymorphisms and the development of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: In this study, we included 125 individuals with GC diagnosis, 66 individuals with CRC diagnosis and 475 cancer-free individuals. All participants resided in the North region of Brazil and authorized the use of their samples. The 12 polymorphisms (in
RESULTS: After statistical analyses with the control of confounding factors, such as genetic ancestry, three markers (rs79071878 in
CONCLUSION: These findings are important for the comprehension of gastric and CRC development, particularly in highly admixed populations, such as the Brazilian population.
BACKGROUND: Gene alterations are crucial to the molecular pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. The present study was designed to identify the potential candidate genes in the pancreatic carcinogenesis.
METHODS: Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) datasets of pancreatic cancer tissue were retrieval and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from individual microarray data were merged. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, and gene coexpression analysis were performed.
RESULTS: Three GEO datasets, including 74 pancreatic cancer samples and 55 controls samples were selected. A total of 2325 DEGs were identified, including 1383 upregulated and 942 downregulated genes. The GO terms for molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular component were protein binding, small molecule metabolic process, and integral to membrane, respectively. The most significant pathway in KEGG analysis was metabolic pathways. PPI network analysis indicated that the significant hub genes including cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily E, polypeptide 1 (CYP2E1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3), and phospholipase C, gamma 1 (PLCG1). Gene coexpression network analysis identified 4 major modules, and the potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 10 (KCTD10), kin of IRRE like (KIRREL), dipeptidyl-peptidase 10 (DPP10), and unc-80 homolog (UNC80) were the hub gene of each modules, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our integrative analysis provides a comprehensive view of gene expression patterns associated with the pancreatic carcinogenesis.
Wittliff JL, Sereff SB, Daniels MWExpression of Genes for Methylxanthine Pathway-Associated Enzymes Accompanied by Sex Steroid Receptor Status Impacts Breast Carcinoma Progression.
Horm Cancer. 2017; 8(5-6):298-313 [PubMed
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Consumption of methylxanthine alkaloids appears to induce activities by antagonizing adenosine receptors, implicated in breast cancer behavior in vitro. Our goal was to evaluate expression of genes for methylxanthine receptors and metabolizing enzymes to assess risk of breast carcinoma recurrence. Clinical outcomes, estrogen/progestin receptor results, and gene expression assays guided selection. RNA was isolated from laser capture microdissection-procured carcinoma cells for microarray using established protocols. Gene expression levels of eight methylxanthine receptors, eight metabolizing enzymes, and various phosphodiesterases were retrieved from microarray results. Univariable Cox regressions and Kaplan-Meier plots were determined for each gene with R software. Individually, lower expressions of PDE4A, CYP2A6, or CYP2E were related to decreased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). PDE1A over-expression predicted decreased PFS and OS. ADORA2B and RYR1 over-expressions predicted diminished OS. ER+ cancers exhibited lower ADORA1, ADORA2B, and RYR1 and elevated PDE4A, CYP2A6, and CYP2E expressions. Of PR+ carcinomas, diminished ADORA2B and RYR1 and elevated expressions of ADORA3, PDE4A, CYP2C8, and CYP2E were noted. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) revealed that CYP2E, PDE1A, and PDE4A expressions collectively predicted PFS whereas ADORA1, CYP2E, PDE1A, PDE1B, and PDE4A expressions jointly predicted OS. Models were clinically significant when validated externally. LASSO also derived a six-gene model and five-gene model that predicted PFS of ER- or PR- carcinomas, respectively. Similarly, five-gene and four-gene models predicted OS in ER- or PR- carcinomas, respectively. Collectively, expression of genes involved in methylxanthine action and metabolism in single-cell types predicted clinical outcomes of breast carcinoma indicating promise for developing diagnostics and design of new therapeutics.
Wang J, Liu Q, Yuan S, et al.Genetic predisposition to lung cancer: comprehensive literature integration, meta-analysis, and multiple evidence assessment of candidate-gene association studies.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):8371 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 1000 candidate-gene association studies on genetic susceptibility to lung cancer have been published over the last two decades but with few consensuses for the likely culprits. We conducted a comprehensive review, meta-analysis and evidence strength evaluation of published candidate-gene association studies in lung cancer up to November 1, 2015. The epidemiological credibility of cumulative evidence was assessed using the Venice criteria. A total of 1018 publications with 2910 genetic variants in 754 different genes or chromosomal loci were eligible for inclusion. Main meta-analyses were performed on 246 variants in 138 different genes. Twenty-two variants from 21 genes (APEX1 rs1130409 and rs1760944, ATM rs664677, AXIN2 rs2240308, CHRNA3 rs6495309, CHRNA5 rs16969968, CLPTM1L rs402710, CXCR2 rs1126579, CYP1A1 rs4646903, CYP2E1 rs6413432, ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, FGFR4 rs351855, HYKK rs931794, MIR146A rs2910164, MIR196A2 rs11614913, OGG1 rs1052133, PON1 rs662, REV3L rs462779, SOD2 rs4880, TERT rs2736098, and TP53 rs1042522) showed significant associations with lung cancer susceptibility with strong cumulative epidemiological evidence. No significant associations with lung cancer risk were found for other 150 variants in 98 genes; however, seven variants demonstrated strong cumulative evidence. Our findings provided the most updated summary of genetic risk effects on lung cancer and would help inform future research direction.
Jiménez-Garza O, Guo L, Byun HM, et al.Promoter methylation status in genes related with inflammation, nitrosative stress and xenobiotic metabolism in low-level benzene exposure: Searching for biomarkers of oncogenesis.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2017; 109(Pt 1):669-676 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Exposure to low levels of benzene may cause acute myeloid leukemia in humans. Epigenetic effects in benzene exposure have been studied for tumor suppressor genes and oxidative stress-related genes, but other cellular pathways must be explored. Here, we studied promoter DNA methylation of IL6, CYP2E1 and iNOS in blood cells from three groups of workers: a) gas station attendants (GS) exposed to low levels of benzene; b) plastic shoe factory workers (PS) exposed to other solvents different to benzene and c) administrative workers as a reference group with no solvent exposure (C).
RESULTS: IL6 promoter methylation was higher in GS workers (p < 0.05). Also in GS, CYP2E1 promoter methylation negatively correlated with benzene levels (r = -0.47, p < 0.05); iNOS promoter methylation positively correlated with CYP2E1 promoter methylation (r = 0.29, p < 0.05), cumulative time of exposure (r = 0.31, p < 0.05) as well as with urinary levels of S- Phenyl mercapturic acid (SPMA), (r = 0.55, p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate alterations in the inflammation pathway at the epigenetic level associated with exposure to benzene. Correlations between iNOS methylation with both CYP2E1 methylation and urinary SPMA levels represent novel evidence about CYP2E1 epigenetic regulation and activity related with nitrosative stress, making promoter methylation status of these genes a potential biomarker in early stages of oncogenesis.
Altay A, Bozoğlu FSalvia fruticosa Modulates mRNA Expressions and Activity Levels of Xenobiotic Metabolizing CYP1A2, CYP2E1, NQO1, GPx, and GST Enzymes in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma HT-29 Cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2017 Aug-Sep; 69(6):892-903 [PubMed
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Natural products have gained considerable interests because of their use in some industrial areas including nutrition, cosmetic, pharmacy, and medicine. Salvia fruticosa M. (Lamiaceae) is known for its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Phase I xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1, produce reactive metabolites which are eliminated by the action of phase II enzymes, NQO1, GPx, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). In this study, in vitro modulatory effects of S. fruticosa and its major phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) on CYP1A2, CYP2E1, NQO1, GPx, and GSTm1 mRNA expressions and enzyme activities of GPx and GSTs were investigated in HT-29 cells. An mRNA expression analysis revealed that CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 levels were decreased while those of NQO1, GPx, and GSTm1 increased after S. fruticosa and RA treatments. In parallel to gene expressions, enzyme activities of GPx and GSTs by S. fruticosa increased 1.68- and 1.48-fold, respectively. Moreover, RA increased GPx and GSTs activities 1.67- and 1.94-fold, respectively. The results of this preliminary study show that metabolism of xenobiotics may be altered due to changes in the expression and activity of the investigated enzymes by S. fruticosa.
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by
Karacaoğlan V, Ada AO, Bilgen S, et al.Xenobiotic/drug metabolizing enzyme and TP53 polymorphisms and clinical outcome in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer patients.
Turk J Med Sci. 2017; 47(2):554-562 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: The association between polymorphisms of xenobiotic/drug metabolizing enzymes and TP53 and response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited and inconclusive. In this study, CYP2E1*5B, CYP2E1*6, CYP2E1*7B, GSTO1 (A140D), and TP53 (Arg72Pro) polymorphisms and response to platinum-based chemotherapy and survival in 137 advanced stage NSCLC patients were investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphism analyses were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).
RESULTS: The patients with TP53 Pro/Pro variant were more likely to be resistant to chemotherapy than those with Arg/Arg variants with marginal significance (P = 0.066). We also analyzed these gene variants in combination with CYP1A1 (Ile462Val), CYP1B1 (Asn453Ser), GSTM1, GSTP1 exon 5 (Ile105Val), and GSTP1 exon 6 (Ala114Val) and GSTT1 polymorphic genes that we have previously genotyped in the same patients (Ada et al., Neoplasma, 57, 512-527, 2010). The multivariate analysis revealed that adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death of the combined variant genotypes of TP53 (Arg72Pro, Pro72Pro) and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val, Val462Val) increased significantly as compared to wild-type genotypes (HR, 6.03; 95% CI, 1.39-26.04, P = 0.016).
CONCLUSION: These results show that combined variant genotypes of TP53 (Arg72Pro, Pro72Pro) and CYP1A1 (Ile/Val, Val/Val) are associated with worsening of survival in NSCLC patients.
Li L, Wang L, Song R, et al.Cytochrome P450 2E1 increases the sensitivity of hepatoma cells to vitamin K2.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(5):1832-1838 [PubMed
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Although vitamin K2 (VK2) exhibits inhibitory effects on the viability of hepatoma cells, hepatoma cells are insensitive to VK2. Therefore, this investigation is an attempt to enhance the sensitivity of hepatoma cells to VK2. Our results showed that VK2 acted synergistically with ethanol (EtOH) to inhibit the viability of Smmc-7721 cells, mainly because cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was activated by EtOH. The synergistic effect of VK2 and EtOH was also observed in QGY-7703 cells, which also express CYP2E1. However, in HepG2 cells, which do not express CYP2E1, the synergistic effect of VK2 and EtOH was not observed. In addition, we demonstrated that CYP2E1 could be induced by VK2 via both post-transcriptional and transcriptional mechanisms. These results suggest that induction of CYP2E1 can enhance the inhibitory effect of VK2 on the viability of hepatoma cells. CYP2E1 may be an attractive target for enhanced antitumor effects of VK2 in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.
Álvarez-Avellón SM, Fernández-Somoano A, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, et al.Effect of alcohol and its metabolites in lung cancer: CAPUA study.
Med Clin (Barc). 2017; 148(12):531-538 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Alcohol and its metabolites play an important role in carcinogenesis. This effect could be modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol and folate. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of alcohol consumption and ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1B Arg370Cys, ADH1C Ile349Val, ALDH2 Glu540Lys, CYP2E1 RsaI, CYP2E1 DraI, CYP2E1 TaqI and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of developing lung cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 876 lung cancer cases and 840 controls of the CAPUA hospital-based case-control study. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassArray (iPLEX GOLD) technology.
RESULTS: An alcohol consumption of 0.1-9.9g/day decreased lung cancer risk (OR
CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and polymorphisms in genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol and folate are related to the onset of lung cancer.
Ada AO, Bilgen S, Karacaoglan V, et al.Association between the TP53 and CYP2E1*5B gene polymorphisms and non-small cell lung cancer.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2016; 67(4):311-316 [PubMed
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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer. Genetic polymorphisms in tumour suppressor genes and genes encoding xenobiotic metabolising enzymes alter the activity of their corresponding enzymes and are important individual susceptibility factors for NSCLC. Because of the lack of information in literature, the aim of our study was to investigate the role of the tumour suppressor gene TP53 (Arg72Pro) and the xenobiotic metabolising CYP2E1*5B gene polymorphisms on the risk of NSCLC development. The study population consisted of 172 patients and 172 controls (156 men and 16 women in each group). Genetic polymorphisms were determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Multivariate analysis showed a significant association with NSCLC for the combination between the TP53 codon72 Arg/Pro and the Pro/Pro genotypes (OR 2.21, 95 % CI 1.390-3.51; p=0.001). We also analysed whether combinations of these gene variants with GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1 exon 5 (Ile105Val), and GSTP1 exon 6 (Ala114Val) gene polymorphisms were associated with the NSCLC risk. A significant increase in the risk was observed for the following combinations: TP53 codon72 variant with GSTM1 null (OR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.23-4.04; p=0.009), GSTT1 null (OR 2.98, 95 % CI 1.49-5.94; p=0.002), and GSTP1 (Ala114Val) variant genotypes (OR 3.38, 95 % CI 1.54-7.41; p=0.002). Further studies with larger samples are needed to verify these findings.
Müller MF, Zhou Y, Adams DJ, Arends MJEffects of long-term ethanol consumption and Aldh1b1 depletion on intestinal tumourigenesis in mice.
J Pathol. 2017; 241(5):649-660 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde have been classified as carcinogens for the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, breast, and colorectum. Whereas mechanisms related to oxidative stress and Cyp2e1 induction seem to prevail in the liver, and acetaldehyde has been proposed to play a crucial role in the upper aerodigestive tract, pathological mechanisms in the colorectum have not yet been clarified. Moreover, all evidence for a pro-carcinogenic role of ethanol in colorectal cancer is derived from correlations observed in epidemiological studies or from rodent studies with additional carcinogen application or tumour suppressor gene inactivation. In the current study, wild-type mice and mice with depletion of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1b1 (Aldh1b1), an enzyme which has been proposed to play an important role in acetaldehyde detoxification in the intestines, received ethanol in drinking water for 1 year. Long-term ethanol consumption led to intestinal tumour development in wild-type and Aldh1b1-depleted mice, but no intestinal tumours were observed in water-treated controls. Moreover, a significant increase in DNA damage was detected in the large intestinal epithelium of ethanol-treated mice of both genotypes compared with the respective water-treated groups, along with increased proliferation of the small and large intestinal epithelium. Aldh1b1 depletion led to increased plasma acetaldehyde levels in ethanol-treated mice, to a significant aggravation of ethanol-induced intestinal hyperproliferation, and to more advanced features of intestinal tumours, but it did not affect intestinal tumour incidence. These data indicate that ethanol consumption can initiate intestinal tumourigenesis without any additional carcinogen treatment or tumour suppressor gene inactivation, and we provide evidence for a role of Aldh1b1 in protection of the intestines from ethanol-induced damage, as well as for both carcinogenic and tumour-promoting functions of acetaldehyde, including increased progression of ethanol-induced tumours. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
AIM: To investigate the contribution of polymorphisms in the
METHODS: Six hundred forty-one individuals (227 patients with SCRC and 400 controls) were enrolled in the study. The variables analyzed were age, gender, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and clinical and histopathological tumor parameters. The
RESULTS: Age over 62 years was a risk factor for SCRC development (OR = 7.54, 95%CI: 4.94-11.50,
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the results demonstrated that
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most heterogeneous cancers, as reflected by its multiple grades and difficulty to subtype. In this study, we integrated copy number variation, DNA methylation, mRNA, and miRNA data with the developed "cluster of cluster" method and classified 256 HCC samples from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) into five major subgroups (S1-S5). We observed that this classification was associated with specific mutations and protein expression, and we detected that each subgroup had distinct molecular signatures. The subclasses were associated not only with survival but also with clinical observations. S1 was characterized by bulk amplification on 8q24, TP53 mutation, low lipid metabolism, highly expressed onco-proteins, attenuated tumor suppressor proteins and a worse survival rate. S2 and S3 were characterized by telomere hypomethylation and a low expression of TERT and DNMT1/3B. Compared to S2, S3 was associated with less copy number variation and some good prognosis biomarkers, including CRP and CYP2E1. In contrast, the mutation rate of CTNNB1 was higher in S3. S4 was associated with bulk amplification and various molecular characteristics at different biological levels. In summary, we classified the HCC samples into five subgroups using multiple "-omics" data. Each subgroup had a distinct survival rate and molecular signature, which may provide information about the pathogenesis of subtypes in HCC.
It is unclear whether the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk as observed in some epidemiological studies reflects a causal relationship. We aimed at clarifying the causality by analyzing acrylamide-gene interactions for endometrial cancer risk. The prospective Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 62,573 women, aged 55-69 years. At baseline, a random subcohort of 2589 women was selected for a case cohort analysis approach. Acrylamide intake of subcohort members and endometrial cancer cases (n = 315) was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in acrylamide metabolism, sex steroid systems, oxidative stress and DNA repair were assessed through a MassARRAY iPLEX Platform. Interaction between acrylamide and SNPs was assessed with Cox proportional hazards analysis, based on 11.3 years of follow-up. Among the results for 57 SNPs and 2 gene deletions, there were no statistically significant interactions after adjustment for multiple testing. However, there were nominally statistically significant interactions for SNPs in acrylamide-metabolizing enzymes: CYP2E1 (rs915906 and rs2480258) and the deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1. Although in need of confirmation, the interactions between acrylamide intake and CYP2E1 SNPs contribute to the evidence for a causal relationship between acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk.
Kakino K, Kiyohara C, Horiuchi T, Nakanishi YCYP2E1 rs2031920, COMT rs4680 Polymorphisms, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Use and Lung Cancer Risk in a Japanese Population.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):4063-70 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes may contribute to susceptibility to lung cancer because of their critical involvement in mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the role of CYP2E1 rs2031920 and COMT rs4680 in a case-control study involving 462 lung cancer cases and 379 controls in Japanese. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multiplicative and additive interactions with cigarette smoking or alcohol use were also examined.
RESULTS: Neither CYP2E1 rs2031920 nor COMT rs4680 was associated with lung cancer risk overall. However, smokers with the CC genotype of CYP2E1 rs2031920 (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.26-5.63) presented a higher risk of lung cancer than those with at least one T allele (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.70-4.98) as compared to never-smokers with at least one T allele (reference). Subjects with excessive drinking and the CC genotype of CYP2E1 rs2031920 had a significantly higher risk (OR=2.22, 95% CI =1.39-3.56) than appropriate drinkers with at least one T allele. A similar tendency was observed between COMT rs4680 and either smoking or drinking habits. There were no multiplicative or additive interactions between the polymorphisms and either smoking or alcohol use.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that CYP2E1 rs2031920 and COMT rs4680 are not major contributors to lung cancer risk in our Japanese population. Future studies on the genetics of lung cancer in Japanese and their environment interactions are required.
Fu P, Yang F, Li B, et al.Meta-analysis of CYP2E1 polymorphisms in liver carcinogenesis.
Dig Liver Dis. 2017; 49(1):77-83 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The CYP2E1 protein is a monooxygenase with certain polymorphisms linked to liver cancer. However, results from individual studies remain controversial.
AIMS: To evaluate CYP2E1 polymorphisms in liver carcinogenesis through meta-analysis.
METHODS: All studies about CYP2E1 polymorphisms and liver cancer were retrieved from seven major databases. Original data from each study were pooled and re-analyzed.
RESULTS: Total of 16 articles with 4862 cases were selected, including 1820 cases of liver cancer and 3042 cases of controls. The c1 allelic frequency in the cases and controls was 83.3% and 85.3%, respectively. Five genetic variations were compared: dominant c1c2/c2c2 vs. c1/c1 (OR=0.987 (0.853, 1.141)), homozygous c2c2 vs. c1c1 (OR=0.767 (0.526, 1.119)), heterozygous c1c2 vs. c1c1 (OR=1.005 (0.854, 1.182)), recessive c2c2 vs. c1c2/c2c2 (OR=0.771 (0.530, 1.122)), and different alleles c2 vs. c1 (OR=0.947 (0.828, 1.082)). Pooled data were further analyzed based on ethnicity, control sources, and HWE (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium). These results from stratified groups were similar to that of nonstratified groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis results suggest that there is no evidence for a major role of CYP2E1 polymorphism in liver carcinogenesis, but do not rule out the possibility in certain cases.
Yaming P, Urs AB, Saxena A, Zuberi MRoles of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 Gene Polymorphisms in Oral Submucous Fibrosis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3335-40 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition with a 4 to13% malignant transformation rate. Related to the habit of areca nut chewing it is mainly prevalent in Southeast Asian countries where the habit of betel quid chewing is frequently practised. On chewing, alkaloids and polyphenols are released which undergo nitrosation and give rise to Nnitrosamines which are cytotoxic agents. CYP450 is a microsomal enzyme group which metabolizes various endogenous and exogenous chemicals including those released by areca nut chewing. CYP1A1 plays a central role in metabolic activation of these xenobiotics, whereas CYP2E1 metabolizes nitrosamines and tannins. Polymorphisms in genes that code for these enzymes may alter their expression or function and may therefore affect an individuals susceptibility regarding OSF and oral cancer. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the association of polymorphisms in CYP1A1 m2 and CYP2E1 (RsaI/PstI) sites with risk of OSF among areca nut chewers in the Northern India population. A total of 95 histopathologically confirmed cases of OSF with history of areca nut chewing not less than 1 year and 80, age and sex matched controls without any clinical signs and symptoms of OSF with areca nut chewing habit not less than 1 year were enrolled. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and polymorphisms were analyzed by PCRRFLP method. Gene polymorphism of CYP1A1 at NcoI site was observed to be significantly higher (p = 0.016) in cases of OSF when compared to controls. Association of CYP1A1 gene polymorphism at NcoI site and the risk of OSF (Odd's Ratio = 2.275) was also observed to be significant. However, no such association was observed for the CYP2E1 gene polymorphism (Odd's Ratio = 0.815). Our results suggest that the CYP1A1 gene polymorphism at the NcoI site confers an increased risk for OSF.
The lack of information concerning individual variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes is one of the most important obstacles for designing personalized medicine approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. To assess cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous molecules in an HCC setting, the activity changes of 10 major CYPs in microsomes from 105 normal and 102 HCC liver tissue samples were investigated. We found that CYP activity values expressed as intrinsic clearance (CLint) differed between HCC patients and control subjects. HCC patient samples showed increased CLint for CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 compared to controls. Meanwhile, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, and CYP2C19 CLint values decreased and CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5 activity was unchanged relative to controls. For patients with HCC accompanied by fibrosis or cirrhosis, the same activity changes were seen for the CYP isoforms, except for CYP2D6 which had higher values in HCC patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, CYP2D6*10 (100C>T), CYP2C9*3 (42614 A>C), and CYP3A5*3 (6986A>G) polymorphisms had definite effects on enzyme activities. In the HCC group, the CLint of CYP2D6*10 mutant homozygote was decreased by 95% compared to wild-type samples, and the frequency of this homozygote was 2.8-fold lower than the controls.In conclusion, the activities of CYP isoforms were differentially affected in HCC patients. Genetic polymorphisms of some CYP enzymes, especially CYP2D6*10, could affect enzyme activity. CYP2D6*10 allelic frequency was significantly different between HCC patients and control subjects. These findings may be useful for personalizing the clinical treatment of HCC patients as well as predicting the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accompanied by severe liver dysfunction is a serious disease, which results in altered hepatic clearance. Generally, maintenance doses depend upon drug clearance, so individual dosage regimens should be customized for HCC patients based on the condition of patients. Based on clearance of CYP isoform-specific substrates at the microsomal level (CLM), microsomal protein per gram of liver (MPPGL), liver weight, hepatic blood flow, hepatic clearance values (CLH) for 10 CYPs in HCC patients (n=102) were extrapolated using a predictive bottom-up pharmacokinetic model. Compared with controls, the CLM values for CYP2C9, 2D6, 2E1 were significantly increased in HCC patients. Additionally, CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C19 CLM values decreased while the values for CYP2A6, 2B6, 3A4/5 were unchanged. The MPPGL values in HCC tissues were significantly reduced. CLH values of HCC patients for CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19, and 3A4/5 were significantly reduced, while this for CYP2E1 were markedly increased and those for CYP2C9 and 2D6 did not change. Moreover, disease (fibrosis and cirrhosis) and polymorphisms of the CYP genes have influenced the CLH for some CYPs. Prediction of the effects of HCC on drug clearance may be helpful for the design of clinical studies and the clinical management of drugs in HCC patients.
Pellé L, Cipollini M, Tremmel R, et al.Association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Arch Toxicol. 2016; 90(12):3099-3109 [PubMed
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Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) results from complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Known etiological factors include exposure to ionizing radiations, previous thyroid diseases, and hormone factors. It has been speculated that dietary acrylamide (AA) formed in diverse foods following the Maillard's reaction could be a contributing factor for DTC in humans. Upon absorption, AA is biotransformed mainly by cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to glycidamide (GA). Considering that polymorphisms within CYP2E1 were found associated with endogenous levels of AA-Valine and GA-Valine hemoglobin adducts in humans, we raised the hypothesis that specific CYP2E1 genotypes could be associated with the risk of DTC. Analysis of four haplotype tagging SNPs (ht-SNPs) within the locus in a discovery case-control study (N = 350/350) indicated an association between rs2480258 and DTC risk. This ht-SNP resides within a linkage disequilibrium block spanning intron VIII and the 3'-untranslated region. Extended analysis in a large replication set (2429 controls and 767 cases) confirmed the association, with odds ratios for GA and AA genotypes of 1.24 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.48) and 1.56 (95 % CI, 1.06-2.30), respectively. Functionally, the minor allele was associated with low levels of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein expression as well as lower enzymatic activity in a series of 149 human liver samples. Our data support the hypothesis that inter-individual differences in CYP2E1 activity could modulate the risk of developing DTC suggesting that the exposure to specific xenobiotics, such as AA, could play a role in this process.