Gene Summary

Gene:DDB2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2
Aliases: XPE, DDBB, UV-DDB2
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that is necessary for the repair of ultraviolet light-damaged DNA. This protein is the smaller subunit of a heterodimeric protein complex that participates in nucleotide excision repair, and this complex mediates the ubiquitylation of histones H3 and H4, which facilitates the cellular response to DNA damage. This subunit appears to be required for DNA binding. Mutations in this gene cause xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E, a recessive disease that is characterized by an increased sensitivity to UV light and a high predisposition for skin cancer development, in some cases accompanied by neurological abnormalities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA damage-binding protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • CDKN1A
  • Melanoma
  • Models, Molecular
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Smoking
  • Chromosome 11
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Melanocytes
  • Histones
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Repair
  • Base Sequence
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Apoptosis
  • Transcription
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Protein Binding
  • Signal Transduction
  • HeLa Cells
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Lung Cancer
  • Pyrimidine Dimers
  • Mutation
  • Genotype
  • Fibroblasts
  • Skin Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • DNA
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cullin Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DDB2 (cancer-related)

Barbieux C, Bacharouche J, Soussen C, et al.
DDB2 (damaged-DNA binding 2) protein: a new modulator of nanomechanical properties and cell adhesion of breast cancer cells.
Nanoscale. 2016; 8(9):5268-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
DDB2, known for its role in DNA repair, was recently shown to reduce mammary tumor invasiveness by inducing the transcription of IκBα, an inhibitor of NF-κB activity. Since cellular adhesion is a key event during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to the invasive capacities of breast tumor cells, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of DDB2 in this process. Thus, using low and high DDB2-expressing MDA-MB231 and MCF7 cells, respectively, in which DDB2 expression was modulated experimentally, we showed that DDB2 overexpression was associated with a decrease of adhesion abilities on glass and plastic areas of breast cancer cells. Then, we investigated cell nanomechanical properties by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in the Young's Modulus value and the adhesion force in MDA-MB231 and MCF7 cells, whether DDB2 was expressed or not. The cell stiffness decrease observed in MDA-MB231 and MCF7 expressing DDB2 was correlated with a loss of the cortical actin-cytoskeleton staining. To understand how DDB2 regulates these processes, an adhesion-related gene PCR-Array was performed. Several adhesion-related genes were differentially expressed according to DDB2 expression, indicating that important changes are occurring at the molecular level. Thus, this work demonstrates that AFM technology is an important tool to follow cellular changes during tumorigenesis. Moreover, our data revealed that DDB2 is involved in early events occurring during metastatic progression of breast cancer cells and will contribute to define this protein as a new marker of metastatic progression in this type of cancer.

Liu J, Sun L, Xu Q, et al.
Association of nucleotide excision repair pathway gene polymorphisms with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis risks.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(6):6972-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polymorphisms of NER genes could change NER ability, thereby altering individual susceptibility to GC. We systematically analyzed 39 SNPs of 8 key genes of NER pathway in 2686 subjects including 898 gastric cancer (GC), 851 atrophic gastritis (AG) and 937 controls (CON) in northern Chinese. SNP genotyping were performed using Sequenom MassARRAY platform. The results demonstrated that DDB2 rs830083 GG genotype was significantly associated with increased GC risk compared with wild-type CC (OR=2.32, P= 6.62 × 10-9); XPC rs2607775 CG genotype conferred a 1.73 increased odds of GC risk than non-cancer subjects compared with wild-type CC (OR=1.73, P= 3.04 × 10-4). The combined detection of these two polymorphisms demonstrated even higher GC risk (OR=3.05). Haplotype analysis suggested that DDB2 rs2029298-rs326222-rs3781619-rs830083 GTAG haplotype was significantly associated with disease risk in each step of CON→AG→GC development (AG vs. CON: OR=2.88, P= 7.51 × 10-7; GC vs. AG: OR=2.90, P=5.68 × 10-15; GC vs. CON: OR=8.42, P=2.22 × 10-15); DDB2 GTAC haplotype was associated with reduced risk of GC compared with CON (OR=0.63, P= 8.31 × 10-12). XPC rs1870134-rs2228000-rs2228001-rs2470352-rs2607775 GCAAG haplotype conferred increased risk of GC compared with AG (OR=1.88, P= 6.98 × 10-4). XPA rs2808668 and drinking, DDB2 rs326222, rs3781619, rs830083 and smoking demonstrated significant interactions in AG; XPC rs2607775 had significant interaction with smoking in GC. In conclusion, NER pathway polymorphisms especially in "damage incision" step were significantly associated with GC risk and had interactions with environment factors. The detection of NER pathway polymorphisms such as DDB2 and XPC might be applied in the prediction of GC risk and personalized prevention in the future. NER pathway polymorphisms especially in "damage incision" step were significantly associated with GC risk and had interactions with environment factors, which might be applied in the prediction of GC risk and personalized prevention in the future.

Yao S, Haddad SA, Hu Q, et al.
Genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk in African American women in the AMBER consortium.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(9):2118-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Studies of genetic variations in vitamin D-related pathways and breast cancer risk have been conducted mostly in populations of European ancestry, and only sparsely in African Americans (AA), who are known for a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed 24,445 germline variants in 63 genes from vitamin D-related pathways in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium, including 3,663 breast cancer cases and 4,687 controls. Odds ratios (OR) were derived from logistic regression models for overall breast cancer, by estrogen receptor (ER) status (1,983 ER positive and 1,098 ER negative), and for case-only analyses of ER status. None of the three vitamin D-related pathways were associated with breast cancer risk overall or by ER status. Gene-level analyses identified associations with risk for several genes at a nominal p ≤ 0.05, particularly for ER- breast cancer, including rs4647707 in DDB2. In case-only analyses, vitamin D metabolism and signaling pathways were associated with ER- cancer (pathway-level p = 0.02), driven by a single gene CASR (gene-level p = 0.001). The top SNP in CASR was rs112594756 (p = 7 × 10(-5), gene-wide corrected p = 0.01), followed by a second signal from a nearby SNP rs6799828 (p = 1 × 10(-4), corrected p = 0.03). In summary, several variants in vitamin D pathways were associated with breast cancer risk in AA women. In addition, CASR may be related to tumor ER status, supporting a role of vitamin D or calcium in modifying breast cancer phenotypes.

Zhao F, Shang Y, Zeng C, et al.
Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in NER pathway and susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(9):11579-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
In our study, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, XPA, XPC and DDB2 gene polymorphisms in the risk of pancreatic cancer. Between May 2012 and May 2014, a total of 246 patients with who were newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed primary pancreatic cancer and 246 controls were selected into our study. Genotyping of ERCC1 rs3212986 and rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, ERCC5 rs873601, XPA rs2808668, XPC rs2228000, XPC rs2228001 and DDB2 rs2029298 were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). By conditional logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying with TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 and GG genotype of ERCC2 rs13181 were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer when compared with wide-type genotype, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 2.40 (1.29-4.52) and 2.27 (1.26-4.15), respectively. We found that individuals carrying with GT+TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 and TG+GG genotype of ERCC2 rs1318 gene polymorphisms were correlated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer in smokers when compared with non-smokers, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.89 (1.05-3.40) and 1.88 (1.06-3.34), respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs1318 gene polymorphisms contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer, especially in smokers.

Xie X, Wang M, Mei J, et al.
Pyruvate kinase M2 interacts with DNA damage-binding protein 2 and reduces cell survival upon UV irradiation.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 467(2):427-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2) is highly expressed in many solid tumors and associated with metabolism reprogramming and proliferation of tumors. Here, we report that PKM2 can bind to DNA Damage-Binding Protein 2 (DDB2), which is necessary for global nucleotide excision repair of UV induced DNA damage. The binding is promoted by UV irradiation and K433 acetylation of PKM2. Over expression of PKM2 facilitates phosphorylation of DDB2 and impairs DDB2-DDB1 binding. Furthermore, knocking down of PKM2 increases cell survival upon UV irradiation, while over expression of PKM2 reduces cell survival and over expression of DDB2-DDB1 reverts this effect. These results reveal a previously unknown regulation of PKM2 on DDB2 and provide a possible mechanism for UV induced tumorigenesis.

Qiao S, Guo W, Liao L, et al.
DDB2 is involved in ubiquitination and degradation of PAQR3 and regulates tumorigenesis of gastric cancer cells.
Biochem J. 2015; 469(3):469-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
DDB2 (damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2) is the product of the xeroderma pigmentosum group E gene which is involved in the initiation of nucleotide excision repair via an ubiquitin ligase complex together with DDB1 and CUL4A (cullin 4A). PAQR3 (progestin and adipoQ receptor family member III) is a newly discovered tumour suppressor that is implicated in the development of many types of human cancers. In the present paper, we report that DDB2 is involved in ubiquitination and degradation of PAQR3. DDB2 is able to interact with PAQR3 in vivo and in vitro. Both overexpression and knockdown experiments reveal that the protein expression level, protein stability and polyubiquitination of PAQR3 are changed by DDB2. Negative regulation of EGF (epidermal growth factor)- and insulin-induced signalling by PAQR3 is also altered by DDB2. At the molecular level, Lys(61) of PAQR3 is targeted by DDB2 for ubiquitination. The cell proliferation rate and migration of gastric cancer cells are inhibited by DDB2 knockdown and such effects are abrogated by PAQR3 knockdown, indicating that the effect of DDB2 on the cancer cells is mediated by PAQR3. Collectively, our studies not only pinpoint that DDB2 is a post-translational regulator of PAQR3, but also indicate that DDB2 may play an active role in tumorigenesis via regulating PAQR3.

Zhao R, Cui T, Han C, et al.
DDB2 modulates TGF-β signal transduction in human ovarian cancer cells by downregulating NEDD4L.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(16):7838-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
The expression of DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) has been linked to the prognosis of ovarian cancer and its underlying transcription regulatory function was proposed to contribute to the favorable treatment outcome. By applying gene microarray analysis, we discovered neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-Like (NEDD4L) as a previously unidentified downstream gene regulated by DDB2. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DDB2 can bind to the promoter region of NEDD4L and recruit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 histone methyltransferase to repress NEDD4L transcription by enhancing histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at the NEDD4L promoter. Given that NEDD4L plays an important role in constraining transforming growth factor β signaling by targeting activated Smad2/Smad3 for degradation, we investigated the role of DDB2 in the regulation of TGF-β signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Our data indicate that DDB2 enhances TGF-β signal transduction and increases the responsiveness of ovarian cancer cells to TGF-β-induced growth inhibition. The study has uncovered an unappreciated regulatory mode that hinges on the interaction between DDB2 and NEDD4L in human ovarian cancer cells. The novel mechanism proposes the DDB2-mediated fine-tuning of TGF-β signaling and its downstream effects that impinge upon tumor growth in ovarian cancers.

Phelps D, Bondra K, Seum S, et al.
Inhibition of MDM2 by RG7388 confers hypersensitivity to X-radiation in xenograft models of childhood sarcoma.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015; 62(8):1345-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Curative therapy for childhood sarcoma presents challenges when complete resection is not possible. Ionizing radiation (XRT) is used as a standard modality at diagnosis or recurrence for childhood sarcoma; however, local recurrence is still problematic. Most childhood sarcomas are TP53 wild type at diagnosis, although approximately 5-10% have MDM2 amplification or overexpression.
PROCEDURES: The MDM2 inhibitor, RG7388, was examined alone or in combination with XRT (20Gy given in 2 Gy daily fractions) to immune-deficient mice bearing Rh18 (embryonal) or a total of 30 Gy in 2 Gy fractions to mice bearing Rh30 (alveolar) rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts. RG7388 was administered by oral gavage using two schedules (daily ×5; schedule 1 or once weekly; schedule 2). TP53-responsive gene products (p21, PUMA, DDB2, and MIC1) as well as markers of apoptosis were analyzed.
RESULTS: RG7388 showed no significant single agent antitumor activity. Twenty Grays XRT induced complete regressions (CR) of Rh18 with 100 percent tumor regrowth by week 7, but no tumor regrowth at 20 weeks when combined with RG7388. RG7388 enhanced time to recurrence combined with XRT in Rh30 xenografts compared to 30 Gy XRT alone. RG7388 did not enhance XRT-induced local skin toxicity. Combination treatments induced TP53 responsive genes more rapidly and to a greater magnitude than single agent treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: RG7388 enhanced the activity of XRT in both rhabdomyosarcoma models without increasing local XRT-induced skin toxicity. Changes in TP53-responsive genes were consistent with the synergistic activity of RG7388 and XRT in the Rh18 model.

Kabátková M, Zapletal O, Tylichová Z, et al.
Inhibition of β-catenin signalling promotes DNA damage elicited by benzo[a]pyrene in a model of human colon cancer cells via CYP1 deregulation.
Mutagenesis. 2015; 30(4):565-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Interestingly, this pathway has been recently implicated in transcriptional control of cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 1 enzymes, which are responsible for bioactivation of a number of dietary carcinogens. In the present study, we investigated the impact of inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin pathway on metabolism and genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a highly mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and an efficient ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is known as a primary regulator of CYP1 expression, in cellular models derived from colorectal tumours. We observed that a synthetic inhibitor of β-catenin, JW74, significantly increased formation of BaP-induced DNA adducts in both colorectal adenoma and carcinoma-derived cell lines. Using the short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting β-catenin, we then found that β-catenin knockdown in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells significantly enhanced formation of covalent DNA adducts by BaP and histone H2AX phosphorylation, as detected by (32)P-postlabelling technique and immunocytochemistry, respectively, and it also induced expression of DNA damage response genes, such as CDKN1A or DDB2. The increased formation of DNA adducts formed by BaP upon β-catenin knockdown corresponded with enhanced production of major BaP metabolites, as well as with an increased expression/activity of CYP1 enzymes. Finally, using siRNA-mediated knockdown of CYP1A1, we confirmed that this enzyme plays a major role in formation of BaP-induced DNA adducts in HCT116 cells. Taken together, the present results indicated that the siRNA-mediated inhibition of β-catenin signalling, which is aberrantly activated in a majority of colorectal cancers, modulated genotoxicity of dietary carcinogen BaP in colon cell model in vitro, via a mechanism involving up-regulation of CYP1 expression and activity.

Sokolenko AP, Preobrazhenskaya EV, Aleksakhina SN, et al.
Candidate gene analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative high-risk Russian breast cancer patients.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 359(2):259-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Twenty one DNA repair genes were analyzed in a group of 95 BC patients, who displayed clinical features of hereditary disease predisposition but turned out to be negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding region as well as for founder disease-predisposing alleles in CHEK2, NBN/NBS1 and ATM genes. Full-length sequencing of CHEK2 and NBN/NBS1 failed to identify non-founder mutations. The analysis of TP53 revealed a woman carrying the R282W allele; further testing of additional 108 BC patients characterized by a very young age at onset (35 years or earlier) detected one more carrier of the TP53 germ-line defect. In addition, this study confirmed non-random occurrence of PALB2 truncating mutations in Russian hereditary BC patients. None of the studied cases carried germ-line defects in recently discovered hereditary BC genes, BRIP1, FANCC, MRE11A and RAD51C. The analysis of genes with yet unproven BC-predisposing significance (BARD1, BRD7, CHEK1, DDB2, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, PARP1, PARP2, RAD51, RNF8, WRN) identified single women carrying a protein-truncating allele, WRN R1406X. DNA sequencing of another set of 95 hereditary BC cases failed to reveal additional WRN heterozygous genotypes. Since WRN is functionally similar to the known BC-predisposing gene, BLM, it deserves to be analyzed in future hereditary BC studies. Furthermore, this investigation revealed a number of rare missense germ-line variants, which are classified as probably protein-damaging by online in silico tools and therefore may require further consideration.

Asnaghi L, Alkatan H, Mahale A, et al.
Identification of multiple DNA copy number alterations including frequent 8p11.22 amplification in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(12):8604-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Little is known about the molecular alterations that drive formation and growth of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). We therefore sought to identify genetic changes that could be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets.
METHODS: The DNA extracted from 10 snap-frozen cSCC tumor specimens and 2 in situ carcinomas was analyzed using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), and further examined with NanoString and quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: The number of regions of DNA loss ranged from 1 to 23 per tumor, whereas gains and amplifications ranged from 1 to 15 per tumor. Most large regions of chromosomal gain and loss were confirmed by NanoString karyotype analysis. The commonest alteration was amplification of 8p11.22 in 9 tumors (75%), and quantitative PCR analysis revealed 100-fold or greater overexpression of ADAM3A mRNA from 8p11.22 locus. In addition, recurring losses were observed at 14q13.2 and 22q11.23, both lost in 5 (42%) of the 12 tumors, and at 12p13.31, lost in 4 (33%) of the 12 samples. Of the eight loci associated with the DNA damage repair syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum, three showed loss of at least one allele in our aCGH analysis, including XPA (9q22.33, one tumor), XPE/DDB2 (11p11.2, one tumor) and XPG/ERCC5 (13q33.1, three tumors).
CONCLUSIONS: Conjunctival SCC contains a range of chromosomal alterations potentially important in tumor formation and growth. Amplification of 8p11.22 and overexpression of ADAM3A suggests a potential role for this protease. Our findings also suggest that defects in DNA repair loci are important in sporadic cSCC.

Ben Rekaya M, Laroussi N, Messaoud O, et al.
A founder large deletion mutation in Xeroderma pigmentosum-Variant form in Tunisia: implication for molecular diagnosis and therapy.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:256245 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum Variant (XP-V) form is characterized by a late onset of skin symptoms. Our aim is the clinical and genetic investigations of XP-V Tunisian patients in order to develop a simple tool for early diagnosis. We investigated 16 suspected XP patients belonging to ten consanguineous families. Analysis of the POLH gene was performed by linkage analysis, long range PCR, and sequencing. Genetic analysis showed linkage to the POLH gene with a founder haplotype in all affected patients. Long range PCR of exon 9 to exon 11 showed a 3926 bp deletion compared to control individuals. Sequence analysis demonstrates that this deletion has occurred between two Alu-Sq2 repetitive sequences in the same orientation, respectively, in introns 9 and 10. We suggest that this mutation POLH NG_009252.1: g.36847_40771del3925 is caused by an equal crossover event that occurred between two homologous chromosomes at meiosis. These results allowed us to develop a simple test based on a simple PCR in order to screen suspected XP-V patients. In Tunisia, the prevalence of XP-V group seems to be underestimated and clinical diagnosis is usually later. Cascade screening of this founder mutation by PCR in regions with high frequency of XP provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of XP-V in Tunisia and North Africa.

Sehgal M, Singh TR
Systems biology approach for mutational and site-specific structural investigation of DNA repair genes for xeroderma pigmentosum.
Gene. 2014; 543(1):108-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic skin disorder caused due to the extreme sensitivity for ultraviolet (UV) radiations. On its exposure, DNA acquires damages leading to skin and often neurological abnormalities. The DNA repair implicated in fixing UV-induced damages is NER and mutations in genes involved in NER and TLS form the basis of XP. The analyses of such mutations are vital for understanding XP and involved cancer genetics to facilitate the identification of crucial biomarkers and anticancer therapeutics. We detected the deleterious nsSNPs and examined them at structure-level by altering the structure, estimating secondary structure, solvent accessibility and performing site specific analysis. Crucial phosphorylation sites were also identified for their role in the disorder. These mutational and structural analyses offer valuable insight to the fundamental association of genetic mutations with phenotypic variations in XP and will assist experimental biologists to evaluate the mutations and their impact on genome.

Han C, Zhao R, Liu X, et al.
DDB2 suppresses tumorigenicity by limiting the cancer stem cell population in ovarian cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(5):784-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Ovarian cancer is an extremely aggressive disease associated with a high percentage of tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor relapse is crucial for effective therapy of ovarian cancer. DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) is a DNA repair factor mainly involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, a novel role was identified for DDB2 in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer cells and the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Overexpressing DDB2 in human ovarian cancer cells suppressed its capability to recapitulate tumors in athymic nude mice. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DDB2 is able to reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) population characterized with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in ovarian cancer cells, probably through disrupting the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Low DDB2 expression correlates with poor outcomes among patients with ovarian cancer, as revealed from the analysis of publicly available gene expression array datasets. Given the finding that DDB2 protein expression is low in ovarian tumor cells, enhancement of DDB2 expression is a promising strategy to eradicate CSCs and would help to halt ovarian cancer relapse.
IMPLICATIONS: DDB2 status has prognostic potential, and elevating its expression eradicates CSCs and could reduce ovarian cancer relapse.

Lee WJ, Kim SC, Lee SJ, et al.
Investigating the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens by a gene set analysis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86700 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Based on the process of carcinogenesis, carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or non-genotoxic. In contrast to non-genotoxic carcinogens, many genotoxic carcinogens have been reported to cause tumor in carcinogenic bioassays in animals. Thus evaluating the genotoxicity potential of chemicals is important to discriminate genotoxic from non-genotoxic carcinogens for health care and pharmaceutical industry safety. Additionally, investigating the difference between the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens could provide the foundation for a mechanism-based classification for unknown compounds. In this study, we investigated the gene expression of HepG2 cells treated with genotoxic or non-genotoxic carcinogens and compared their mechanisms of action. To enhance our understanding of the differences in the mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens, we implemented a gene set analysis using 12 compounds for the training set (12, 24, 48 h) and validated significant gene sets using 22 compounds for the test set (24, 48 h). For a direct biological translation, we conducted a gene set analysis using Globaltest and selected significant gene sets. To validate the results, training and test compounds were predicted by the significant gene sets using a prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM). Finally, we obtained 6 gene sets, including sets enriched for genes involved in the adherens junction, bladder cancer, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, peroxisome and RNA degradation. Among the 6 gene sets, the bladder cancer and p53 signaling pathway sets were significant at 12, 24 and 48 h. We also found that the DDB2, RRM2B and GADD45A, genes related to the repair and damage prevention of DNA, were consistently up-regulated for genotoxic carcinogens. Our results suggest that a gene set analysis could provide a robust tool in the investigation of the different mechanisms of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and construct a more detailed understanding of the perturbation of significant pathways.

Zhao R, Han C, Eisenhauer E, et al.
DNA damage-binding complex recruits HDAC1 to repress Bcl-2 transcription in human ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(3):370-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Elevated expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 is believed to be one of the contributing factors to an increased relapse rate associated with multiple cisplatin-resistant cancers. DNA damage-binding protein complex subunit 2 (DDB2) has recently been revealed to play an important role in sensitizing human ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis through the downregulation of Bcl-2, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly defined. Here, it is report that DDB2 functions as a transcriptional repressor for Bcl-2 in combination with DDB1. Quantitative ChIP and EMSA analysis revealed that DDB2 binds to a specific cis-acting element at the 5'-end of Bcl-2 P1 promoter. Overexpression of DDB2 resulted in marked losses of histone H3K9,14 acetylation along the Bcl-2 promoter and enhancer regions, concomitant with a local enrichment of HDAC1 to the Bcl-2 P1 core promoter in ovarian cancer cells. Coimmunoprecipitation and in vitro binding analyses identified a physical interaction between DDB1 and HDAC1, whereas downregulation of HDAC1 significantly enhanced Bcl-2 promoter activity. Finally, in comparison with wild-type DDB2, mutated DDB2, which is unable to repress Bcl-2 transcription, mediates a compromised apoptosis upon cisplatin treatment. Taken together, these data support a model wherein DDB1 and DDB2 cooperate to repress Bcl-2 transcription. DDB2 recognizes and binds to the Bcl-2 P1 promoter, and HDAC1 is recruited through the DDB1 subunit associated with DDB2 to deacetylate histone H3K9,14 across Bcl-2 regulatory regions, resulting in suppressed Bcl-2 transcription.
IMPLICATIONS: Increasing the expression of DDB complex may provide a molecular strategy for cancer therapy.

Nasir M, Ahmad N, Sieber CM, et al.
In silico characterization of a novel pathogenic deletion mutation identified in XPA gene in a Pakistani family with severe xeroderma pigmentosum.
J Biomed Sci. 2013; 20:70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a rare skin disorder characterized by skin hypersensitivity to sunlight and abnormal pigmentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic cause of a severe XP phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and in silico characterization of any identified disease-associated mutation.
RESULTS: The XP complementation group was assigned by genotyping of family for known XP loci. Genotyping data mapped the family to complementation group A locus, involving XPA gene. Mutation analysis of the candidate XP gene by DNA sequencing revealed a novel deletion mutation (c.654del A) in exon 5 of XPA gene. The c.654del A, causes frameshift, which pre-maturely terminates protein and result into a truncated product of 222 amino acid (aa) residues instead of 273 (p.Lys218AsnfsX5). In silico tools were applied to study the likelihood of changes in structural motifs and thus interaction of mutated protein with binding partners. In silico analysis of mutant protein sequence, predicted to affect the aa residue which attains coiled coil structure. The coiled coil structure has an important role in key cellular interactions, especially with DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2), which has important role in DDB-mediated nucleotide excision repair (NER) system.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the fact of genetic and clinical heterogeneity in XP. The study also predicts the critical role of DDB2 binding region of XPA protein in NER pathway and opens an avenue for further research to study the functional role of the mutated protein domain.

Hannah J, Zhou PB
The CUL4A ubiquitin ligase is a potential therapeutic target in skin cancer and other malignancies.
Chin J Cancer. 2013; 32(9):478-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Cullin 4A (CUL4A) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that directly affects DNA repair and cell cycle progression by targeting substrates including damage-specific DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC), chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (Cdt1), and p21. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that Cul4a-deficient mice have greatly reduced rates of ultraviolet-induced skin carcinomas. On a cellular level, Cul4a-deficient cells have great capacity for DNA repair and demonstrate a slow rate of proliferation due primarily to increased expression of DDB2 and p21, respectively. This suggests that CUL4A promotes tumorigenesis (as well as accumulation of skin damage and subsequent premature aging) by limiting DNA repair activity and expediting S phase entry. In addition, CUL4A has been found to be up-regulated via gene amplification or overexpression in breast cancers, hepatocellular carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, childhood medulloblastomas, and malignant pleural mesotheliomas. Because of its oncogenic activity in skin cancer and up-regulation in other malignancies, CUL4A has arisen as a potential candidate for targeted therapeutic approaches. In this review, we outline the established functions of CUL4A and discuss the E3 ligase's emergence as a potential driver of tumorigenesis.

Ennen M, Klotz R, Touche N, et al.
DDB2: a novel regulator of NF-κB and breast tumor invasion.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(16):5040-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DNA repair protein damaged DNA-binding 2 (DDB2) has been implicated in promoting cell-cycle progression by regulating gene expression. DDB2 is selectively overexpressed in breast tumor cells that are noninvasive, but not in those that are invasive. We found that its overexpression in invasive human breast tumor cells limited their motility and invasiveness in vitro and blocked their ability to colonize lungs in vivo, defining a new function for DDB2 in malignant progression. DDB2 overexpression attenuated the activity of NF-κB and the expression of its target matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP9). Mechanistic investigations indicated that DDB2 decreased NF-κB activity by upregulating expression of IκBα by binding the proximal promoter of this gene. This effect was causally linked to invasive capacity. Indeed, knockdown of DDB2-induced IκBα gene expression restored NF-κB activity and MMP9 expression, along with the invasive properties of breast tumor cells overexpressing DDB2. Taken together, our findings enlighten understanding of how breast cancer cells progress to an invasive phenotype and underscore potential clinical interest in DDB2 as a prognostic marker or therapeutic target in this setting.

Wyss AB, Herring AH, Avery CL, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, cigarette smoking, and the risk of head and neck cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(8):1428-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is associated with increased head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. Tobacco-related carcinogens are known to cause bulky DNA adducts. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes encode enzymes that remove adducts and may be independently associated with HNC, as well as modifiers of the association between smoking and HNC.
METHODS: Using population-based case-control data from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (CHANCE) Study (1,227 cases and 1,325 controls), race-stratified (White, African American), conventional, and hierarchical logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs with 95% intervals (I) for the independent and joint effects of cigarette smoking and 84 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 15 NER genes on HNC risk.
RESULTS: The odds of HNC were elevated among ever cigarette smokers and increased with smoking duration and frequency. Among Whites, rs4150403 on ERCC3 was associated with increased HNC odds (AA+AG vs. GG; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01-1.61). Among African Americans, rs4253132 on ERCC6 was associated with decreased HNC odds (CC+CT vs. TT; OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86). Interactions between ever cigarette smoking and three SNPs (rs4253132 on ERCC6, rs2291120 on DDB2, and rs744154 on ERCC4) suggested possible departures from additivity among Whites.
CONCLUSIONS: We did not find associations between some previously studied NER variants and HNC. We did identify new associations between two SNPs and HNC and three suggestive cigarette-SNP interactions to consider in future studies.
IMPACT: We conducted one of the most comprehensive evaluations of NER variants, identifying a few SNPs from biologically plausible candidate genes associated with HNC and possibly interacting with cigarette smoking.

De Luca P, Moiola CP, Zalazar F, et al.
BRCA1 and p53 regulate critical prostate cancer pathways.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013; 16(3):233-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Loss or mutations of the BRCA1 gene are associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers and with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Previously, we identified GADD153 as a target of BRCA1 protein, which increases doxorubicin sensitivity in human p53 -/- PCa cells (PC3). Considering that p53 is a crucial target in cancer therapy, in this work we investigated p53 role in the regulation of transcription of GADD153.
METHODS: We performed reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blot and luciferase assays to analyze GADD153 and/or BRCA1 expression in response to ultraviolet or doxorubicin exposure in PC3 p53 stable-transfected cells and LNCaP (p53+/+) cells. BRCA1 protein recruitment to GADD153 promoter was studied by chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR. To assess expression of BRCA1 and/or p53 target genes, we used a panel of stable-transfected PCa cell lines. We finally analyzed these genes in vivo using BRCA1-depleted PCa xenograft models.
RESULTS: We found that GADD153 was highly induced by doxorubicin in PC3 cells; however, this response was totally abolished in LNCaP (p53wt) and in p53-restituted PC3 cells. Furthermore, BRCA1 protein associates to GADD153 promoter after DNA damage in the presence of p53. Additionally, we demonstrated that BRCA1 and/or p53 modulate genes involved in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation (cyclin D1, BLM, BRCA2, DDB2, p21(WAF1/CIP1), H3F3B, GADD153, GADD45A, FEN1, CCNB2), EMT (E-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, fibronectin, slug, snail) and Hedgehog pathways (SHH, IHH, DHH, Gli1, PATCH1). Furthermore, xenograft studies demonstrated that BRCA1 knockdown in PC3 cells increased tumor growth and modulated these genes in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Although BRCA1 induces GADD153 in a p53 independent manner, p53 abolished GADD153 induction in response to DNA damage. In addition, several important PCa targets are modulated by BRCA1 and p53. Altogether, these data might be important to understand the therapy response of PCa patients.

Roy N, Bommi PV, Bhat UG, et al.
DDB2 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(12):3771-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide because of its metastasis to other essential organs. Metastasis of colon cancer involves a complex set of events, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that increases invasiveness of the tumor cells. Here, we show that the xeroderma pigmentosum group E (XPE) gene product, damaged DNA-binding protein (DDB)-2, is downregulated in high-grade colon cancers, and it plays a dominant role in the suppression of EMT of the colon cancer cells. Depletion of DDB2 promotes mesenchymal phenotype, whereas expression of DDB2 promotes epithelial phenotype. DDB2 constitutively represses genes that are the key activators of EMT, indicating that DDB2 is a master regulator of EMT of the colon cancer cells. Moreover, we observed evidence that DDB2 functions as a barrier for EMT induced by hypoxia and TGF-β. Also, we provide evidence that DDB2 inhibits metastasis of colon cancer. The results presented here identify a transcriptional regulatory pathway of DDB2 that is directly linked to the mechanisms that suppress metastasis of colon cancer.

Barckhausen C, Roos WP, Naumann SC, Kaina B
Malignant melanoma cells acquire resistance to DNA interstrand cross-linking chemotherapeutics by p53-triggered upregulation of DDB2/XPC-mediated DNA repair.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(15):1964-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is a cancer characterized by high chemoresistance although p53 is rarely mutated. Here, we show that p53 wild-type melanoma cells acquire resistance to cell death induced by fotemustine (FM), which is a representative of alkylating DNA interstrand cross-linking agents used in melanoma therapy. We show that drug-induced resistance is a result of p53-dependent upregulation of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) and damaged DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), which stimulate the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) arising from O(6)-chloroethylguanine. Consequently, TP53 mutated cells are unable to repair ICLs, leading to prolonged ATM, ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) activation, and finally apoptosis. The roles of p53 and NER in ICL-triggered cell death were confirmed by knockdown of p53 and XPC. Upregulation of XPC and DDB2 in p53wt cells following a single drug treatment is a robust and sustained response that lasts for up to 1 week. Pretreatment with an inducing dose followed by a high and toxic dose of FM provoked an adaptive response as the killing outcome of the challenge dose was reduced. Upregulation of XPC and DDB2 was also observed in a melanoma mouse xenograft model following systemic administration of FM. Additionally, XPC and DDB2 induction occurred upon treatment with other cross-linking anticancer drugs, such as cisplatin and mafosfamide, indicating it is a general response of cancer cells to this group of chemotherapeutics. Collectively, the data indicate that p53-dependent upregulation of XPC and DDB2 is a key mechanism upon genotoxic stress, whereby melanoma cells acquire resistance towards DNA cross-linking agents. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of upregulation of NER following a single dose of a DNA interstrand cross-linker, which is a robust and long-lasting effect that impacts the killing response of cancer cells to subsequent treatments.

Yang HJ, Kim N, Seong KM, et al.
Investigation of radiation-induced transcriptome profile of radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells using RNA-seq.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e59319 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Radioresistance is a main impediment to effective radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite several experimental and clinical studies of resistance to radiation, the precise mechanism of radioresistance in NSCLC cells and tissues still remains unclear. This result could be explained by limitation of previous researches such as a partial understanding of the cellular radioresistance mechanism at a single molecule level. In this study, we aimed to investigate extensive radiation responses in radioresistant NSCLC cells and to identify radioresistance-associating factors. For the first time, using RNA-seq, a massive sequencing-based approach, we examined whole-transcriptome alteration in radioresistant NSCLC A549 cells under irradiation, and verified significant radiation-altered genes and their chromosome distribution patterns. Also, bioinformatic approaches (GO analysis and IPA) were performed to characterize the radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. We found that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and inflammatory processes could be meaningfully related to regulation of radiation responses in radioresistant A549 cells. Based on the results of bioinformatic analysis for the radiation-induced transcriptome alteration, we selected seven significant radiation-altered genes (SESN2, FN1, TRAF4, CDKN1A, COX-2, DDB2 and FDXR) and then compared radiation effects in two types of NSCLC cells with different radiosensitivity (radioresistant A549 cells and radiosensitive NCI-H460 cells). Interestingly, under irradiation, COX-2 showed the most significant difference in mRNA and protein expression between A549 and NCI-H460 cells. IR-induced increase of COX-2 expression was appeared only in radioresistant A549 cells. Collectively, we suggest that COX-2 (also known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2)) could have possibility as a putative biomarker for radioresistance in NSCLC cells.

Li C, Yin M, Wang LE, et al.
Polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair genes predict melanoma survival.
J Invest Dermatol. 2013; 133(7):1813-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Melanoma is the most highly malignant skin cancer, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in melanoma susceptibility. In this analysis of 1,042 melanoma patients, we evaluated whether genetic variants of NER genes may predict survival outcome of melanoma patients. We used genotyping data of 74 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in eight core NER genes from our genome-wide association study (including two in XPA, 14 in XPC, three in XPE, four in ERCC1, 10 in ERCC2, eight in ERCC3, 14 in ERCC4, and 19 in ERCC5) and evaluated their associations with prognosis of melanoma patients. Using the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found a predictive role of XPE rs28720291, ERCC5 rs4150314, XPC rs2470458, and ERCC2 rs50871 SNPs in the prognosis of melanoma patients (rs28720291: AG vs. GG, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR)=11.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-40.9, P=0.0003; rs4150314: AG vs. GG, adjHR=4.76, 95% CI 1.09-20.8, P=0.038; rs2470458: AA vs. AG/GG, adjHR=2.11, 95% CI 1.03-4.33, P=0.040; and rs50871: AA vs. AC/CC adjHR=2.27, 95% CI 1.18-4.35, P=0.015). Patients with an increasing number of unfavorable genotypes had markedly increased death risk. Genetic variants of NER genes, particularly XPE rs28720291, ERCC5 rs4150314, XPC rs2470458, and ERCC2 rs50871, may independently or jointly modulate survival outcome of melanoma patients. Because our results were based on a median follow-up of 3 years without multiple test corrections, additional large prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Roy N, Elangovan I, Kopanja D, et al.
Tumor regression by phenethyl isothiocyanate involves DDB2.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2013; 14(2):108-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is a promising cancer chemopreventive agent commonly found in edible cruciferous vegetables. It has been implicated also for therapy, and is in clinical trial for lung cancer. Here, we provide evidence that the tumor suppressive effect of PEITC is related to its ability to induce expression of damaged DNA binding protein 2 (DDB2), a DNA repair protein involved also in apoptosis and premature senescence. DDB2 expression is attenuated in a wide variety of cancers including the aggressive colon cancers. We show that, in colon cancer cells, reactive oxygen species, which are induced by PEITC, augment expression of DDB2 through the p38MAPK/JNK pathway, independently of p53. PEITC-induced expression of DDB2 is critical for inhibition of tumor progression by PEITC. Tumors derived from DDB2-deficient colon cancer cells are refractory to PEITC-treatments, resulting from deficiencies in apoptosis and senescence. The DDB2-proficient tumors, on the other hand, respond effectively to PEITC. The results show that PEITC can be used to induce expression of DDB2, and that expression of DDB2 is critical for effective response of tumors to PEITC.

Roy N, Bagchi S, Raychaudhuri P
Damaged DNA binding protein 2 in reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation and premature senescence.
Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(9):11012-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Premature senescence induced by DNA damage or oncogene is a critical mechanism of tumor suppression. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the induction of premature senescence response. Several pathological disorders such as cancer, aging and age related neurological abnormalities have been linked to ROS deregulation. Here, we discuss how Damaged DNA binding Protein-2 (DDB2), a nucleotide excision repair protein, plays an important role in ROS regulation by epigenetically repressing the antioxidant genes MnSOD and Catalase. We further revisit a model in which DDB2 plays an instrumental role in DNA damage induced ROS accumulation, ROS induced premature senescence and inhibition of skin tumorigenesis.

Chang SW, Su CH, Chen HH, et al.
DDB2 is a novel AR interacting protein and mediates AR ubiquitination/degradation.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012; 44(11):1952-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Damaged DNA-binding protein 2 (DDB2), a protein that binds damaged DNA, is a DDB1 and CUL4-associated factor. This study is the first to demonstrate that DDB2 is a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein; and mediating contact with AR and CUL4A-DDB1 complex for AR ubiquitination/degradation. DNA damage induces both p53 and DDB2 gene expression those two can inhibit AR expression. The former reduces AR via transcription regulation but the latter via proteosome degradation. Thereby DDB2 can inhibit cell growth rate in AR-expressing cells (LNCaP) but not in AR-null cells (PC3). Hence DDB2 may be a potential regimen for prostate cancer treatment, especially in androgen-refractory patients harboring high amount of AR who cannot be cured by androgen ablation.

Carson C, Omolo B, Chu H, et al.
A prognostic signature of defective p53-dependent G1 checkpoint function in melanoma cell lines.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012; 25(4):514-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Melanoma cell lines and normal human melanocytes (NHM) were assayed for p53-dependent G1 checkpoint response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage. Sixty-six percent of melanoma cell lines displayed a defective G1 checkpoint. Checkpoint function was correlated with sensitivity to IR with checkpoint-defective lines being radio-resistant. Microarray analysis identified 316 probes whose expression was correlated with G1 checkpoint function in melanoma lines (P≤0.007) including p53 transactivation targets CDKN1A, DDB2, and RRM2B. The 316 probe list predicted G1 checkpoint function of the melanoma lines with 86% accuracy using a binary analysis and 91% accuracy using a continuous analysis. When applied to microarray data from primary melanomas, the 316 probe list was prognostic of 4-yr distant metastasis-free survival. Thus, p53 function, radio-sensitivity, and metastatic spread may be estimated in melanomas from a signature of gene expression.

Lindgren T, Stigbrand T, Riklund K, et al.
Gene expression profiling in MOLT-4 cells during gamma-radiation-induced apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):689-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to identify the temporal changes in gene expression in MOLT-4, a leukemia cell line, in response to radiation and to present a comprehensive description of the pathways and processes that most significantly relate to the cellular biological responses. A global gene expression profile of 24,500 genes was performed on MOLT-4 tumor cells following exposure to 5 Gy of ionizing radiation ((60)Co) using a bead chip array (Illumina). Signaling pathways and processes significantly altered following irradiation were explored using MetaCore. Cellular viability [3-(4,5 dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide], activation of cell cycle checkpoints [fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)], and induction of apoptosis (FACS, caspase assays) were evaluated to correlate these biological responses to the gene expression changes. Totally, 698 different genes displayed a significantly altered expression following radiation, and out of these transcripts, all but one showed increased expression. One hour following irradiation, the expression was changed only for a few genes. Striking changes appeared at later time-points. From 3 to 24 h post-irradiation, a significant fraction of the genes with altered expression were found to be involved in cell cycle checkpoints and their regulation (CDKN1A), DNA repair (GADD45A, DDB2, XPC), apoptosis induction (DR5, FasR, Apo-2L, Bax), and T-cell activation/proliferation (CD70, OX40L). Irradiated MOLT-4 cells were arrested at the G2-checkpoint, followed by a decrease in cell viability, most pronounced 48 h after exposure. The cell death was executed by induced apoptosis and was visualized by an increase in subG1 cells and an increased activation of initiator (caspase-8 and caspase-9) and execution (caspase-3) caspases. Activation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis correlated well in time with the changes in gene expression of those genes important for these biological processes. Activation of the apoptotic signaling pathways in MOLT-4 cells following irradiation includes components from the intrinsic as well as the extrinsic apoptotic pathways. This study indicates that the altered gene expression pattern induced by irradiation is important for the sequential steps observed in MOLT-4 cells during apoptosis induction.

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