Gene Summary

Gene:DNMT3B; DNA methyltransferase 3 beta
Aliases: ICF, ICF1, M.HsaIIIB
Summary:CpG methylation is an epigenetic modification that is important for embryonic development, imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Studies in mice have demonstrated that DNA methylation is required for mammalian development. This gene encodes a DNA methyltransferase which is thought to function in de novo methylation, rather than maintenance methylation. The protein localizes primarily to the nucleus and its expression is developmentally regulated. Mutations in this gene cause the immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome. Eight alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. The full length sequences of variants 4 and 5 have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription
  • Azacitidine
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Base Sequence
  • Apoptosis
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Histones
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Leukaemia
  • Down-Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase 1
  • DNA Methylation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Turkey
  • Neurons
  • DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases
  • Risk Factors
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Epigenetics
  • Germ Cell Tumours
  • Genotype
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gene Silencing
  • CpG Islands
  • Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Liver Cancer
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Chromosome 20
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DNMT3B (cancer-related)

Shen WC, Lai YC, Li LH, et al.
Methylation and PTEN activation in dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells promotes osteogenesis and reduces oncogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, traits distinguishing stem cells, have not been well characterized and compared in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp (DP-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM-MSCs). Here, we report DP-MSCs exhibit increased osteogenic potential, possess decreased adipogenic potential, form dentin pulp-like complexes, and are resistant to oncogenic transformation when compared to BM-MSCs. Genome-wide RNA-seq and differential expression analysis reveal differences in adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation pathways, bone marrow neoplasm pathway, and PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Higher PTEN expression in DP-MSCs than in BM-MSCs is responsible for the lineage commitment and tumorigenesis differences in both cells. Additionally, the PTEN promoter in BM-MSCs exhibits higher DNA methylation levels and repressive mark H3K9Me2 enrichment when compared to DP-MSCs, which is mediated by increased DNMT3B and G9a expression, respectively. The study demonstrates how several epigenetic factors broadly affect lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, which should be considered when developing therapeutic uses of stem cells.

Zhao L, Shou H, Chen L, et al.
Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on epigenetic modification in ovarian cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3209-3218 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic modifications are closely related to oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on epigenetic modification in ovarian cancer cells. Cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and apoptosis were respectively determined using Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8), wound healing, Transwell and flow cytometric assays. Methylation levels were determined using methylation specific PCR (MSP). Related‑factor expression was detected by conducting real‑time‑qPCR (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting. The results revealed that cell proliferation was inhibited by ginsenoside Rg3 (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) in a time‑dependent manner (12, 24 and 48 h). Ginsenoside Rg3 (50, 100 and 200 µg/ml) was selected to treat cells in various experiments. When ovarian cells were treated with ginsenoside Rg3, cell apoptosis was observed to be promoted, while cell metastasis and invasion were inhibited at 48 h. The results of the present study revealed that in the promoter regions of p53, p16 and hMLH1, the methylation levels decreased, while the mRNA and protein levels significantly increased. The activities of DNMTs and mRNA as well as protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b were decreased by Rg3. The data also demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of acetyl‑H3 K14/K9 and acetyl‑H4 K12/K5/K16 were increased by Rg3. Hence, ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited ovarian cancer cell viability, migration and invasion as well as promoted cell apoptosis.

Ai L, Mu S, Sun C, et al.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells endow stem-like qualities to multiple myeloma cells by inducing piRNA-823 expression and DNMT3B activation.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are two important cellular components in the tumor microenvironment, which may modify the cancer phenotype and affect patient survival. However, the crosstalk between MDSCs and multiple myeloma stem cells (MMSCs) are relatively poorly understood.
METHODS: The frequencies of granulocytic-MDSCs (G-MDSCs) in MM patients were detected by flow cytometry and their association with the disease stage and patient survival were analyzed. RT-PCR, flow cytometry, western blot and sphere formation assays were performed to investigate the effects of G-MDSCs, piRNA-823 and DNA methylation on the maintenance of stemness in MM. Then a subcutaneous tumor mouse model was constructed to analyze tumor growth and angiogenesis after G-MDSCs induction and/or piRNA-823 knockdown in MM cells.
RESULTS: Our clinical dataset validated the association between high G-MDSCs levels and poor overall survival in MM patients. In addition, for the first time we showed that G-MDSCs enhanced the side population, sphere formation and expression of CSCs core genes in MM cells. Moreover, the mechanism study showed that G-MDSCs triggered piRNA-823 expression, which then promoted DNA methylation and increased the tumorigenic potential of MM cells. Furthermore, silencing of piRNA-823 in MM cells reduced the stemness of MMSCs maintained by G-MDSCs, resulting in decreased tumor burden and angiogenesis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data established a cellular, molecular, and clinical network among G-MDSCs, piRNA-823, DNA methylation and CSCs core genes, suggesting a new anti-cancer strategy targeting both G-MDSCs and CSCs in MM microenvironment.

He D, Wang X, Zhang Y, et al.
DNMT3A/3B overexpression might be correlated with poor patient survival, hypermethylation and low expression of ESR1/PGR in endometrioid carcinoma: an analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2019; 132(2):161-170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is involved in numerous biologic events and associates with transcriptional gene silencing, playing an important role in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. ESR1/PGR frequently undergoes de novo methylation and loss expression in a wide variety of tumors, including breast, colon, lung, and brain tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR) loss in endometrial cancer have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3A/3B (DNMT3A/3B) in endometrial cancer to investigate whether the methylation catalyzed by DNMT3A/3B contributes to low ER/PR expression.
METHODS: The clinicopathologic information and RNA-Seq expression data of DNMT3A/3B of 544 endometrial cancers were derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) uterine cancer cohort in May 2018. RNA-Seq level of DNMT3A/3B was compared between these clinicopathologic factors with t-test or one-way analysis of variance.
RESULTS: DNMT3A/3B was overexpressed in endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) and was even higher in non-endometrioid carcinoma (NEEC) (DNMT3A, EEC vs. NEEC: 37.6% vs. 69.9%, t = -7.440, P < 0.001; DNMT3B, EEC vs. NEEC: 42.4% vs. 72.8%, t = -6.897, P < 0.001). In EEC, DNMT3A overexpression was significantly correlated with the hypermethylation and low expression of the ESR1 and PGR (P < 0.05). The same trend was observed in the DNMT3B overexpression subgroup. In the ESR1/PGR low-expression subgroups, as much as 83.1% of ESR1 and 59.5% of PGR were hypermethylated, which was significantly greater than the ESR1/PGR high-expression subgroups (31.3% and 11.9%, respectively). However, the above phenomena were absent in NEEC, while DNMT3A/3B overexpression, ESR1/PGR hypermethylation, and low ER/PR expression occurred much more often. In univariate analysis, DNMT3A/3B overexpressions were significantly correlated with worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, only DNMT3A was an independent predictor of disease-free survival (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: DNMT3A/3B expression increases progressively from EEC to NEEC and is correlated with poor survival. The mechanisms underlying low ER/PR expression might be distinct in EEC vs. NEEC. In EEC, methylation related to DNMT3A/3B overexpression might play a major role in ER/PR downregulation.

Ma S, Zhang WL, Leckey BD, et al.
X-ray irradiation induced Disabled-2 gene promoter de-methylation enhances radiosensitivity of non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Disabled-2 (Dab2) is known as a tumor suppressor as well as a Wnt pathway inhibitor. We previously reported that Dab2 was down-regulated due to gene promoter hypermethylation in lung cancer. Here, we aim to study if X-ray irradiation can induce de-methylation of the Dab2 gene and subsequently up-regulate its expression, and also to attempt to suppress the malignant biological behavior of and enhance the radiosensitivity in lung cancer cells with hypermethylation of the Dab2 gene.
METHODS: Immunostaining was performed to investigate the relationship between Dab2 expression and lung cancer clinicopathological characteristics. Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) was used to evaluate the methylation status of lung cancer cells with or without X-ray treatment. Real-time PCR and western Blot were performed to investigate the expression of Dab2, Wnt pathway factors, DNMTs and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Colony Formation, matrigel invasion and xenograft experiment were performed to evaluate the malignant biological behavior of lung cancer cells with irradiation.
RESULTS: The result of immunostaining of Dab2 in lung cancer tissues showed that decreased Dab2 expression was positively correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced TNM stage and poor prognosis. X-ray treatment significantly up-regulated Dab2 expression and inhibited Wnt factors in LK2 cells (with hypermethylation of the Dab2 gene promoter, P < 0.05), but not in SPC-A-1 cells (with hypomethylation of the Dab2 gene promoter); however, the effect could be reversed by Dab2 or Axin knockdown (P < 0.05). Decreased expression of DNMT1, DNMT3b and MeCP2 could be detected in both LK2 and SPC-A-1 cells compared to non-irradiated cells (P < 0.05). Both in vitro studies and in vivo xenograft tumor growth demonstrated that X-ray could significantly inhibit the proliferation and invasion of LK2 but not SPC-A-1 cells (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: In general, X-ray-induced up-regulation of Dab2 and inhibition of the Wnt pathway may be mediated by de-methylation of a hypermethylated Dab2 gene promoter. X-ray treatment significantly inhibits proliferation and invasion of lung cancer cells with hypermethylation of the Dab2 gene promoter, but is less effective in lung cancer cells with hypomethylation of the Dab2 gene promoter. These results indicate that the methylation status of the Dab2 gene promoter might be a potential predictor of the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells.

Jin J, Guo T, Guo Y, et al.
Methylation‑associated silencing of miR‑128 promotes the development of esophageal cancer by targeting COX‑2 in areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(2):644-654 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancer types in the world, with a widely varying incidence between different regions. Zinc deficiency (ZD) is very common in high‑risk areas for esophageal cancer. Dietary ZD is reported to be associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the current study, the effects of ZD on tumorigenesis and expression of inflammatory factors were investigated in mice. It was identified that a ZD diet advanced ESCC and increased the expression of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) prior to the occurrence of ESCC in mice. ZD significantly enhanced DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and increased the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B. Furthermore, the expression of miR‑128 was downregulated by methylation, and COX‑2, a direct target of miR‑128, was upregulated with the reduction in miR‑128. Upregulation of miR‑128 inhibited the cell cycle, proliferation and metastasis, and the expression of COX‑2, cyclin D1 and retinoblastoma protein (Rb). Furthermore, the relative expression level of miR‑128 was negatively associated with COX‑2 in ESCC tissues. Collectively, these findings indicate that methylation‑associated silencing of miR‑128 promotes the development of esophageal cancer through upregulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and Rb by targeting COX‑2 in ZD regions with a high incidence of esophageal cancer.

Zhang Y, Charlton J, Karnik R, et al.
Targets and genomic constraints of ectopic Dnmt3b expression.
Elife. 2018; 7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation plays an essential role in mammalian genomes and expression of the responsible enzymes is tightly controlled. Deregulation of the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B is frequently observed across cancer types, yet little is known about its ectopic genomic targets. Here, we used an inducible transgenic mouse model to delineate rules for abnormal DNMT3B targeting, as well as the constraints of its activity across different cell types. Our results explain the preferential susceptibility of certain CpG islands to aberrant methylation and point to transcriptional state and the associated chromatin landscape as the strongest predictors. Although DNA methylation and H3K27me3 are usually non-overlapping at CpG islands, H3K27me3 can transiently co-occur with DNMT3B-induced DNA methylation. Our genome-wide data combined with ultra-deep locus-specific bisulfite sequencing suggest a distributive activity of ectopically expressed Dnmt3b that leads to discordant CpG island hypermethylation and provides new insights for interpreting the cancer methylome.

Zhou Z, Li HQ, Liu F
DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors and their Therapeutic Potential.
Curr Top Med Chem. 2018; 18(28):2448-2457 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine, catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), is associated with not only various cancers by silencing of tumor suppressor genes but also other diseases. The DNMTs, especially the DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, are often overexpressed in various cancer tissues and cell lines. DNMTs are important epigenetic targets for drug development since the DNA methylation is reversible. This review summarizes an array of nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of DNMTs, as well as their biological activities. Among these inhibitors, the nucleoside analogue azacytidine and its deoxy derivative decitabine are both irreversible DNMT inhibitors and approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome.

Gao L, He RQ, Wu HY, et al.
Expression Signature and Role of miR-30d-5p in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Comprehensive Study Based on in Silico Analysis of Public Databases and in Vitro Experiments.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(5):1964-1987 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to probe the clinico-pathological significance and the underlying mechanism of miR-30d-5p expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: We initially examined the level of miR-30d-5p expression in NSCLC and non-cancer tissues using RT-qPCR. Then, a series of validation analyses including a meta-analysis of data from microarray chips in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), data mining of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and an integrated meta-analysis incorporating GEO microarray chips, TCGA data, in-house RT-qPCR and literature studies were performed to examine the clinico-pathological value of miR-30d-5p expression in NSCLC. In vitro experiments were further conducted to investigate the impact of miR-30d-5p on NSCLC cell growth. The molecular mechanism by which miR-30d-5p regulates the pathogenesis of NSCLC was probed through a bioinformatics analysis of its target genes. Moreover, dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the targeting regulatory relationship between miR-30d-5p and CCNE2.
RESULTS: Based on results from RT-qPCR, GEO meta-analysis, TCGA data mining and the integrated meta-analysis incorporating GEO microarray chips, TCGA data, in-house RT-qPCR and literature studies, miR-30d-5p expression was decreased in NSCLC tissues, and patients with NSCLC who presented with lower miR-30d-5p expression tended to display an advanced clinical progression. Significant pathways including the Mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway, cell cycle pathway and cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway (all P< 0.05) revealed potential roles of the target genes of miR-30d-5p in the oncogenesis of NSCLC. Results from in vitro experiments indicated that miR-30d-5p could attenuate proliferation and viability of NSCLC cells. Among the 12 identified hub genes, nine genes including E2F3, CCNE2, SKP2, CDK6, TFDP1, LDHA, GOT2, DNMT3B and ST6GALNAC1 were validated by Pearson's correlation test and the human protein atlas (HPA) database as targets of miR-30d-5p with higher probability. Specifically, dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that CCNE2 was directly targeted by miR-30d-5p.
CONCLUSION: In summary, miR-30d-5p expression is decreased in NSCLC, and it might play the role as tumor suppressor in NSCLC by regulating target genes.

Jahangiri R, Jamialahmadi K, Gharib M, et al.
Expression and clinicopathological significance of DNA methyltransferase 1, 3A and 3B in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients.
Gene. 2019; 685:24-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Progression of tamoxifen resistance remained as a crucial obstacle to treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast carcinoma patients. Recent studies demonstrated the importance of DNA methylation pattern on tamoxifen refractory. This study aimed to investigate the protein expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of DNA methyltransferase 1, 3A and 3B, as leading factors in regulation of DNA methylation process, in breast carcinoma patients with adjuvant tamoxifen therapy. Seventy two Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) breast tumor tissues of tamoxifen sensitive (TAMS) and tamoxifen resistance (TAM-R) patients were recruited for immunohistochemical experiments. DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b expressions were observed in 86, 72.2 and 100% of tamoxifen resistance patients, respectively. Data analysis indicated that DNMTs were overexpressed in TAM-R tumors (P < 0.05). In TAM-S subgroup, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B expression was associated with high histologic grade (P = 0.049, P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). DNMT3B expression was also correlated with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.034). In TAM-R subgroup, DNMT1 expression associated with extracapsular nodal extension (P = 0.019). DNMT3A and DNMT3B expression showed a significant association with high histologic grade (P = 0.001) and DNMT3A expression was also associated with HER-2 status (P = 0.027). Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that overexpression of DNMT3B remained as an independent and unfavorable prognostic factor for disease free survival (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results suggest that DNMTs could be an effective factor in development of tamoxifen resistance in breast tumors.

Soda K
Polyamine Metabolism and Gene Methylation in Conjunction with One-Carbon Metabolism.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent investigations have revealed that changes in DNA methylation status play an important role in aging-associated pathologies and lifespan. The methylation of DNA is regulated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b) in the presence of

Khazayel S, Mokarram P, Mohammadi Z, et al.
Derivative of Stevioside; CPUK02; Restores ESR1 Gene Methylation in MDA-MB 231
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(8):2117-2123 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: CPUK02 (15-Oxosteviol benzyl ester) is a new ent-kaurenoid derivative of stevioside and exhibits strong anti-cancer activity. Nowadays, the pattern of epigenetic in cancer has been topic of many studies and DNA methylation targeting represents a relevant strategy for cancer treatment. Since, no study conducted to this mechanism, we attempt to evaluate whether CPUK02 induce its anti-cancer effects via alteration the level of mRNA DNMT3B, DNMT3A expression and ESR1 methylation pattern in breast cancer cells line. Methods: MCF-7 (ER +) and MDA-MB231 (ER-) cell lines were treated for 24, 48 hours with 1 μM CPUK02 and 5-AZA-CdR (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor). Quantitative expression of DNMT3B and DNMT3A genes and ESR1 promoter methylation was assessed by Real-Time PCR and MS-PCR, respectively. Results: CPUK02 restored ESR1 promoter unmethylated allele in MDA-MB 231 cells. Also treatment with CPUK02 decreased the expression of both DNMT3A and DNMT3B genes like 5-AZA. The expression of DNMT genes were diminished by half compared with control cells. Conclusions: These results showed that CPUK02 has an anticancer effect on MDA-MB 231 cells which this effect can be done through several pathways.

Wang B, Li D, Rodriguez-Juarez R, et al.
A suppressive role of guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 inhibited by DNA methylation in the growth of anti-estrogen resistant breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):817 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Although the endocrine therapy that targets estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling has been well established as an effective adjuvant treatment for patients with ERα-positive breast cancers, long-term exposure may eventually lead to the development of acquired resistance to the anti-estrogen drugs, such as fulvestrant and tamoxifen. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying antiestrogen resistance and identification of the key molecules involved may help in overcoming antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer.
METHODS: The whole-genome gene expression and DNA methylation profilings were performed using fulvestrant-resistant cell line 182
RESULTS: Among 9 candidate genes, GNB4 was identified and validated by qRT-PCR as a potential target silenced by DNA methylation via DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). We generated stable 182
CONCLUSION: GNB4 is important for growth of breast cancer cells and a potential target for treatment.

Cao Y, Guo C, Yin Y, et al.
Lysine‑specific demethylase 2 contributes to the proliferation of small cell lung cancer by regulating the expression of TFPI‑2.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(1):733-740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of lysine‑specific demethylase 2 (LSD2) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and explore its underlying regulatory mechanism. Cell growth was tested by MTT assay and mRNA and protein expression was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q‑PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to investigate the degree of H3K4me2 enrichment in the promoter region of tissue factor pathway inhibitor‑2 (TFPI‑2). SCLC tissues and cell lines presented significantly higher expression of LSD2 and DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) and lower expression of TFPI‑2 compared with the controls. In H1417 cells LSD2 overexpression increased the mRNA and protein expression of DNMT3B, while inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of TFPI‑2. Following transfection with short interfering (si) RNA‑DNMT3B, the expression of TFPI‑2 increased in H1417 cells. The results of ChIP demonstrated that compared with the controls, H3K4me1 enrichment in the TFPI‑2 promoter region was to a lower degree in the H1417 cells with LSD2 overexpression and a higher degree in the H1417 cells with LSD2 silencing. MTT assays revealed that LSD2 overexpression significantly promoted the growth of H69, DMS‑114 and H1417 cells, which was contradictory to the effect on LSD2 silencing. Compared with the LSD2 overexpression cells, SCLC cells with simultaneous overexpression of LSD2 and TFPI‑2 demonstrated a decreased proliferation. These results suggest that LSD2 achieves a promoting effect on SCLC by indirectly regulating TFPI‑2 expression through the mediation of DNMT3B expression or through the regulation of the demethylation of H3K4me1 in the promoter region of the TFPI‑2 gene.

Li W, Yi J, Zheng X, et al.
miR-29c plays a suppressive role in breast cancer by targeting the TIMP3/STAT1/FOXO1 pathway.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: miR-29c has been associated with the progression of many cancers. However, the function and mechanism of miR-29c have not been well investigated in breast cancers.
Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess expression of miR-29c and DNMT3B mRNA. Western blot and immunochemistry were used to examine the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) protein in breast cancer cells and tissues. The functional roles of miR-29c in breast cancer cells such as proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation, and 3D growth were evaluated using MTT, transwell chambers, soft agar, and 3D Matrigel culture, respectively. In addition, the luciferase reporter assay was used to check if miR-29c binds the 3'UTR of DNMT3B. The effects of miR-29c on the DNMT3B/TIMP3/STAT1/FOXO1 pathway were also examined using Western blot and methyl-specific qPCR. The specific inhibitor of STAT1, fludarabine, was used to further check the mechanism of miR-29c function in breast cancer cells. Studies on cell functions were carried out in DNMT3B siRNA cell lines.
Results: The expression of miR-29c was decreased with the progression of breast cancers and was closely associated with an overall survival rate of patients. Overexpression of miR-29c inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation, and growth in 3D Matrigel while knockdown of miR-29c promoted these processes in breast cancer cells. In addition, miR-29c was found to bind 3'UTR of DNMT3B and inhibits the expression of DNMT3B, which was elevated in breast cancers. Moreover, the protein level of TIMP3 was reduced whereas methylation of TIMP3 was increased in miR-29c knockdown cells compared to control. On the contrary, the protein level of TIMP3 was increased whereas methylation of TIMP3 was reduced in miR-29c-overexpressing cells compared to control. Knockdown of DNMT3B reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Finally, our results showed that miR-29c exerted its function in breast cancers by regulating the TIMP3/STAT1/FOXO1 pathway.
Conclusion: The results suggest that miR-29c plays a significant role in suppressing the progression of breast cancers and that miR-29c may be used as a biomarker of breast cancers.

Bibaki E, Tsitoura E, Vasarmidi E, et al.
miR-185 and miR-29a are similarly expressed in the bronchoalveolar lavage cells in IPF and lung cancer but common targets DNMT1 and COL1A1 show disease specific patterns.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(5):7105-7112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and lung cancer (LC) constitute two progressively devastating lung diseases with common risk factors including aging and smoking. There is an increasing interest in the investigation of common pathogenic mechanisms between IPF and LC with therapeutic implications. Several oncomirs, microRNAs associated with malignancy, are also linked with IPF. miR‑29a and miR‑185 downregulation is probably involved both in carcinogenesis and fibrogenesis. We have previously observed miR‑29a and miR‑185 downregulation in IPF cells from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in this study we investigated their expression in LC BAL cells. Common targets of miR‑29a and miR‑185 such as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)1, DNMT3b, COL1A1, AKT1 and AKT2 were measured. Potential correlations with pulmonary function tests, smoking status and endobronchial findings were investigated. Similar levels of miR‑29a and miR‑185 were detected in IPF and LC while their common targets AKT1 and DNMT3b were not found to differ, suggesting potential pathogenetic similarities at the level of key epigenetic regulators. By conrast, COL1A1 mRNA levels were increased in IPF suggesting a disease‑specific mRNA signature. Notably, DNMT1 was downregulated in the LC group and its expression was further reduced in the presence of increasing malignant burden as it was implied by the endobronchial findings.

Zhou Y, Zheng X, Lu J, et al.
Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 Inhibits the Warburg Effect Via Modulating DNMT3A/ MiR-532-3p/HK2 Pathway in Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(6):2548-2559 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Warburg effect is one of the main energy metabolism features supporting cancer cell growth. 20(S)-Rg3 exerts anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancer partly by inhibiting the Warburg effect. microRNAs are important regulators of the Warburg effect. However, the microRNA regulatory network mediating the anti-Warburg effect of 20(S)-Rg3 was largely unknown.
METHODS: microRNA deep sequencing was performed to identify the 20(S)-Rg3-influenced microRNAs in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. miR-532-3p was overexpressed by mimic532-3p transfection in SKOV3 and A2780 cells or inhibited by inhibitor532-3p transfection in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells to examine the changes in HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption, lactate production and cell growth. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the direct binding of miR-532-3p to HK2. The methylation status in the promoter region of pre-miR-532-3p gene was examined by methylation-specific PCR. Expression changes of key molecules controlling DNA methylation including DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and TET1-3 were examined in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells. DNMT3A was overexpressed in 20(S)-Rg3-treated cells to examine its influence on miR-532-3p level, HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production.
RESULTS: Deep sequencing results showed that 11 microRNAs were increased and 9 microRNAs were decreased by 20(S)-Rg3 in SKOV3 cells, which were verified by qPCR. More than 2-fold increase of miR-532-3p was found in 20(S)-Rg3-treated SKOV3 cells. Forced expression of miR-532-3p reduced HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. Inhibition of miR-532-3p antagonized the suppressive effect of 20(S)-Rg3 on HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production in ovarian cancer cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-532-3p directly suppressed HK2 rather than PKM2. miR-532-3p level was controlled by the methylation in the promoter region of its host gene. 20(S)-Rg3 inhibited DNMT3A expression while exerted insignificant effect on DNMT1, DNMT3B and TET1-3. 20(S)-Rg3 reversed DNMT3A-mediated methylation in the promoter of the host gene of miR-532-3p, and thus elevated miR-532-3p level followed by suppression of HK2 and PKM2 expression, glucose consumption and lactate production.
CONCLUSIONS: 20(S)-Rg3 modulated microRNAs to exert the anti-tumor effect in ovarian cancer. 20(S)-Rg3 lessened the DNMT3A-mediated methylation and promoted the suppression of miR-532-3p on HK2 to antagonize the Warburg effect of ovarian cancer cells.

Chen HQ, Zhao J, Li Y, et al.
Gene expression network regulated by DNA methylation and microRNA during microcystin-leucine arginine induced malignant transformation in human hepatocyte L02 cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2018; 289:42-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying epigenetic regulation mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, microcystin-LR (L: lysine, R: arginine, MC-LR) was used to induce the malignant transformation of human hepatocyte L02 cell line. The profile of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) and DNA methylation were detected through high-throughput sequencing. Compared with control group, the expression of 826 genes and 187 miRNAs changed significantly in MC-LR treated group. DNA methylation sequencing analysis showed that 2592 CpG sites differentially methylated in promoter or the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of genes, while DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3a) and DNA methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3b) were dramatically up-regulated. Functional analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that significantly changed mRNAs and microRNAs were mainly involved in the formation of cancer, proliferation, invasion, migration and metabolism. MiRNA-mRNA network and mRNA-mRNA network analysis showed that hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-331-3p, hsa-miR-26a-5p, hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, coiled-coil domain containing 180 (CCDC180), melanoma antigen gene family member D1 (MAGED1), membrane spanning 4-domains A7 (MS4A7), hephaestin like 1 (HEPHL1), BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-like motif containing, cell death inducer (BLID), matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13), guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5), adipogenesis regulatory factor (ADIRF), formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHDC1), protein kinase CAMP-dependent type II regulatory subunit beta (PRKAR2B), nodium leak channel, non-selective (NALCN), myosin light chain kinase 3 (MYLK3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and zinc finger protein 704 (ZNF704) were key miRNAs and genes in the malignant transformation induced by MC-LR in L02 cells. Moreover, we found that expression of MYLK3, EGFR and ZNF704 were regulated by DNA methylation and miRNAs, and these genes affected the cell cycle and cell division. Our study suggested that characteristic gene alterations regulated by DNA methylation and miRNA could play an important role in environmental MC-LR induced hepatic carcinogenesis.

Bi L, Zhou B, Li H, et al.
A novel miR-375-HOXB3-CDCA3/DNMT3B regulatory circuitry contributes to leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):182 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies due to sophisticated genetic mutations and epigenetic dysregulation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs, are important regulators of gene expression in all biological processes, including leukemogenesis. Recently, miR-375 has been reported to be a suppressive miRNA in multiple types of cancers, but its underlying anti-leukemia activity in AML is largely unknown.
METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of miR-375 and HOXB3 in leukemic cells and normal controls. Targets of miR-375 were confirmed by western blot and luciferase assay. Phenotypic effects of miR-375 overexpression and HOXB3 knockdown were assessed using viability (trypan blue exclusion assay), colony formation/replating, as well as tumor xenograft assays in vivo.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-375 was substantially decreased in leukemic cell lines and primary AML blasts compared with normal controls, because DNA hypermethylation of precursor-miR-375 (pre-miR-375) promoter was discovered in leukemic cells but not in normal controls. Lower expression of miR-375 predicted poor outcome in AML patients. Furthermore, forced expression of miR-375 not only decreased proliferation and colony formation in leukemic cells but also reduced xenograft tumor size and prolonged the survival time in a leukemia xenograft mouse model. Mechanistically, overexpression of miR-375 reduced HOXB3 expression and repressed the activity of a luciferase reporter through binding 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) of HOXB3 mRNA. Overexpression of HOXB3 partially blocked miR-375-induced arrest of proliferation and reduction of colony number, suggesting that HOXB3 plays an important role in miR-375-induced anti-leukemia activity. Knockdown of HOXB3 by short hairpin RNAs reduced the expression of cell division cycle associated 3 (CDCA3), which decreased cell proliferation. Furthermore, HOXB3 induced DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) expression to bind in the pre-miR-375 promoter and enhanced DNA hypermethylation of pre-miR-375, leading to the lower expression of miR-375.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we have identified a miR-375-HOXB3-CDCA3/DNMT3B regulatory circuitry which contributes to leukemogenesis and suggests a therapeutic strategy of restoring miR-375 expression in AML.

Perepelyuk M, Sacko K, Thangavel K, Shoyele SA
Evaluation of MUC1-Aptamer Functionalized Hybrid Nanoparticles for Targeted Delivery of miRNA-29b to Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer.
Mol Pharm. 2018; 15(3):985-993 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and pharmacokinetic study of mucin1-aptamer functionalized miRNA-29b-loaded hybrid nanoparticles (MAFMILHNs) in lung tumor-bearing SCID mice. MAFMILHNs were manufactured using an isoelectric point based nanotechnology. They were then fully characterized for particle size, loading capacity, zeta potential, and encapsulation efficiency. The ability of MAFMILHNs to downregulate oncoprotein DNMT3B both at the cellular level and in vivo was monitored using Western blot, while the effect of the downregulation of DNMT3B on tumor growth was assessed using bioluminescence. Results indicate that the presence of MUC1-aptamer conjugated to the surface of the nanoparticles enhanced the selective delivery of miRNA-29b to tumor cells and tissues. Further, the downregulation of DNMT3B by MAFMILHNs resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth in mouse models.

Peng Z, Zhou W, Zhang C, et al.
Curcumol Controls Choriocarcinoma Stem-Like Cells Self-Renewal via Repression of DNA Methyltransferase (DNMT)- and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC)-Mediated Epigenetic Regulation.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:461-472 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Cancer stem cells (CSCs), in choriocarcinoma and other carcinomas, possess the ability of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. We previous isolated choriocarcinoma cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs), which hold the stemness characteristics of CSCs. Epigenetic modifications have emerged as drivers in tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms of CSCs are largely unknown, and new drug therapies are needed to break the persistence of CSCs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of DNMTs, HDACs, and stemness-genes. DNMTs and HDACs silencing and overexpressing lentivirus were transfected into JEG-3 cells to investigate the epigenetic functions in CSLCs. In vivo expression of curcumol effects of CSLCs on DNMTs and HDACs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Expression of DNMT1, DNMT3b, HDAC1, and HDAC3 were increased in choriocarcinoma CSLCs. Consistent with the inhibitory effect of 5-AzaC and TSA on CSLCs, DNMT/HDAC knockdown displayed significant repression of self-renewal in CSLCs. Curcumol inhibited the stemness ability of CSLCs in vitro and in vivo, and the inhibitory effect we observed was mediated in part through repressing activity of DNMTs and HDACs. Importantly, curcumol showed a better effect than DNMT and HDAC inhibitors combined in eliminating CSLCs. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that DNMT- and HDAC-mediated epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the biology of choriocarcinoma CSLCs, and curcumol has the potential to be a new drug to fight CSLCs, warranting further investigation of epigenetic-based therapies.

Chen B, Wang J, Gu X, et al.
The DNMT3B -579G>T Polymorphism Is Significantly Associated With the Risk of Gastric Cancer but not Lung Cancer in Chinese Population.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 16(6):1259-1265 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The -149C>T and -579G>T, 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in de novo methyltransferase 3B gene promoter, have been previously reported to potentially alter the promoter activity and to influence cancer risk. However, the results from previous studies remain conflicting rather than conclusive. In view of this, we conducted a case-control study and then a meta-analysis to examine the association between these 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with risk of lung and gastric cancer in Chinese population. The genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and confirmed by sequencing. In this case-control study, no significant association with lung or gastric cancer risk was observed for -149C>T, while -579G>T was significantly correlated with the risk of gastric cancer but not lung cancer. Moreover, haplotype analysis showed that haplotype -149T/-579 T, which carried the risk -579 T allele, significantly increased the susceptibility to gastric cancer. However, none of the haplotypes was associated with the risk of lung cancer. The following meta-analysis involved only Chinese population and further confirmed the significant association of -579G>T with gastric cancer but not lung cancer and suggested no significant association between -149C>T and risk of lung or gastric cancer. Collectively, DNMT3B -579G>T polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer risk in Chinese population, and the -579G>T may be used as a genetic biomarker to predict the risk of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

Mazzoccoli L, Robaina MC, Apa AG, et al.
MiR-29 silencing modulates the expression of target genes related to proliferation, apoptosis and methylation in Burkitt lymphoma cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(3):483-497 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a B-cell lymphoma frequently diagnosed in children. It is characterized by MYC translocations, which lead to the constitutive expression of the MYC oncogene. MYC contributes to miR-29 repression through an E-box MYC binding site on the miR-29b-1/miR-29a promoter region. We evaluated the role of miR-29a/b/c and their predicted targets in BL pathogenesis.
METHODS: Mature sequences of miR-29a/b/c were transfected to the BL cell lines BL41 and Raji, and evaluated for DNMT3B, MCL1, BIM, CDK6, AKT and TCL1 protein expression as well as for MCL-1 and CDK6 mRNA expression. BL cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) and evaluated for miR29 expressions and methylation status. DNMT3B inhibition was performed by DNMT3B siRNA.
RESULTS: Ectopic expression of miR-29s in BL cells decreased CDK6, DNMT3B, TCL1 and MCL-1 protein levels, but CDK6 and MCL-1 mRNA expression was unaffected by miR-29. Decitabine enhanced miR-29 expression levels and decreased CDK6 protein expression. Additionally, inhibition of DNMT3B by siRNA increased miR-29a/b expression. Notably, the miR-29a/b1 and miR-29b2/c promoter genes showed methylated CpG sequences that were demethylated after decitabine treatments. Furthermore, MYC-negative tumours had higher levels of miR-29 expression compared with MYC-translocated cases, suggesting that MYC regulates miR-29 in BL tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a significant role for miR-29s in BL pathogenesis in altering the expression of targets involved in critical cancer pathways, such as cell cycle control, apoptosis inhibition and DNA methylation. Moreover, methylation-mediated miR-29 epigenetic silencing may occur during BL development.

Lipka DB, Witte T, Toth R, et al.
RAS-pathway mutation patterns define epigenetic subclasses in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):2126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative disorder of early childhood characterized by mutations activating RAS signaling. Established clinical and genetic markers fail to fully recapitulate the clinical and biological heterogeneity of this disease. Here we report DNA methylome analysis and mutation profiling of 167 JMML samples. We identify three JMML subgroups with unique molecular and clinical characteristics. The high methylation group (HM) is characterized by somatic PTPN11 mutations and poor clinical outcome. The low methylation group is enriched for somatic NRAS and CBL mutations, as well as for Noonan patients, and has a good prognosis. The intermediate methylation group (IM) shows enrichment for monosomy 7 and somatic KRAS mutations. Hypermethylation is associated with repressed chromatin, genes regulated by RAS signaling, frequent co-occurrence of RAS pathway mutations and upregulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, suggesting a link between activation of the DNA methylation machinery and mutational patterns in JMML.

Yang L, Hou J, Cui XH, et al.
RG108 induces the apoptosis of endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell lines by inhibiting the expression of DNMT3B and demethylation of HMLH1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(22):5056-5064 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The effects of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor RG108 on the proliferation and apoptosis of endometrial cancer was investigated, and whether its mechanism was related to the inhibition of DNMT3B, thereby affecting the human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) methylation status and its expression, was further studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Culture of human endometrial cancer Ishikawa cell lines: cells grew adhering to the wall in Roswell Park Memorial Institute-1640 (RPMI-1640) medium (supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 2 mM L-glutamic acid). After the cells were treated with RG108, the changes in cell viability were detected via methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The effect of RG108 on cell cycle was detected via flow cytometry, and its effect on cell apoptosis was detected via flow cytometry and TUNEL. Moreover, the methylation status of hMLH1gene in endometrial cancer cells was detected via methylation specific-PCR (MSP), and the changes in DNMT3Band hMLH1 expressions were detected via RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.
RESULTS: MTT results showed that RG108 inhibited the cell viability in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry revealed that RG108 blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase and promoted the apoptosis, and TUNEL assay further proved that RG108 promoted the apoptosis. It was found in the detection via MSP that the methylated hMLH1 gene was significantly reduced after 72 h of treatment with RG108. Besides, RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that RG108 inhibited the DNMT3B expression and activated the hMLH1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: The demethylation drug RG108 can significantly inhibit the proliferation of endometrial cancer cells, block the cell cycle in the G2/M phase and induce the cell apoptosis, which is a new candidate drug in the treatment of endometrial cancer. RG108 realizes the hMLH1 demethylation and increases the hMLH1 expression through inhibiting the expression of DNMT3B.

Wang LH, Huang J, Wu CR, et al.
Downregulation of miR‑29b targets DNMT3b to suppress cellular apoptosis and enhance proliferation in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(2):2113-2120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As one of the most aggressive types of tumor, pancreatic cancer is a principal cause of tumor‑associated mortality. Negative associations between microRNA‑29 (miR‑29) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 3a and 3b have been demonstrated to be associated with the carcinogenesis of a number of types of cancer; however, this has not been completely elucidated in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, pancreatic cancer tissues (n=15) and corresponding paracancerous tissues (n=15) were obtained and the results of reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated decreased expression of miR‑29b and enhanced mRNA expression of DNMT3b in pancreatic cancer tissues, compared with the corresponding paracancerous tissues. Increased protein expression of DNMT3b was demonstrated by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the negative association between miR‑29b and DNMT3b was noted in pancreatic cancer tissues, and luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR‑29b was able to directly target DNMT3b in vitro. Notably, miR‑29b overexpression was able to decrease cell viability and to promote the apoptosis by targeting DNMT3b, and the knockdown of DNMT3b exhibited consistent results in vitro and in vivo. The results of the present study suggested that miR‑29b, as a tumor suppressor, may be a novel target for the development of treatments for pancreatic cancer.

Yindom LM, Mendy M, Bodimeade C, et al.
KIR content genotypes associate with carriage of hepatitis B surface antigen, e antigen and HBV viral load in Gambians.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(11):e0188307 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes over 800,000 deaths worldwide annually, mainly in low income countries, and incidence is rising rapidly in the developed world with the spread of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Natural Killer (NK) cells protect against viral infections and tumours by killing abnormal cells recognised by Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR). Thus genes and haplotypes encoding these receptors may be important in determining both outcome of initial hepatitis infection and subsequent chronic liver disease and tumour formation. HBV is highly prevalent in The Gambia and the commonest cause of liver disease. The Gambia Liver Cancer Study was a matched case-control study conducted between September 1997 and January 2001 where cases with liver disease were identified in three tertiary referral hospitals and matched with out-patient controls with no clinical evidence of liver disease.
METHODS: We typed 15 KIR genes using the polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) in 279 adult Gambians, 136 with liver disease (HCC or Cirrhosis) and 143 matched controls. We investigated effects of KIR genotypes and haplotypes on HBV infection and associations with cirrhosis and HCC.
RESULTS: Homozygosity for KIR group A gene-content haplotype was associated with HBsAg carriage (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-10.0) whilst telomeric A genotype (t-AA) was associated with reduced risk of e antigenaemia (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.0-0.6) and lower viral loads (mean log viral load 5.2 vs. 6.9, pc = 0.022). One novel telomeric B genotype (t-ABx2) containing KIR3DS1 (which is rare in West Africa) was also linked to e antigenaemia (OR 8.8, 95% CI 1.3-60.5). There were no associations with cirrhosis or HCC.
CONCLUSION: Certain KIR profiles may promote clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen whilst others predispose to e antigen carriage and high viral load. Larger studies are necessary to quantify the effects of individual KIR genes, haplotypes and KIR/HLA combinations on long-term viral carriage and risk of liver cancer. KIR status could potentially inform antiviral therapy and identify those at increased risk of complications for enhanced surveillance.

Mavragani CP, Nezos A, Sagalovskiy I, et al.
Defective regulation of L1 endogenous retroelements in primary Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus: Role of methylating enzymes.
J Autoimmun. 2018; 88:75-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether altered DNA methylation contributes to the inappropriate expression of LINE-1 (L1) retroelements in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
METHODS: Minor salivary glands (MSG) were obtained from 42 patients with primary SS [23 without adverse predictors for lymphoma development (SS-low risk), 7 SS-high risk and 12 complicated by B-cell lymphoma (SS-lymphoma)] and 17 sicca controls (SC). Additionally, kidney biopsy specimens and PBMCs were obtained from 23 and 73 lupus patients, respectively. Relative mRNA expression was quantified for full-length L1 transcripts, along with mediators of methylation. In an independent set of 44 MSG samples (11 SS-low risk, 10 SS-high risk, 15 SS-lymphoma and 8 SC), methylation levels of the L1 promoter were determined by bisulphite pyrosequencing.
RESULTS: A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between L1 transcripts and gene products that mediate de novo and constitutive DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)3B, DNMT1, and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), in both SS MSG and lupus renal tissues. A significant negative correlation was observed between expression of L1 and lymphoid-specific helicase (LSH, encoded by HELLS) in both SS MSG and SLE kidney tissues, as well as between DNMT3A transcripts and L1 expression in SLE kidney tissues and PBMCs. Reduced levels of L1 promoter methylation along with increased DNMT3B, DNMT1, and MeCP2, but reduced LSH levels were detected in SS-low risk patients compared to both SS-lymphoma and SC. The SS-lymphoma group was also characterized by a profound decrease of MeCP2 and DNMT3B compared to SC.
CONCLUSION: Our data support a contributory role of altered methylation mechanisms in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune disorders and related lymphoproliferative processes and suggest that LSH and DNMT3A should be investigated as candidate upstream mediators of decreased L1 promoter methylation and increased L1 expression.

Shen N, Jiang L, Li Q, et al.
The epigenetic effect of microRNA in BCR-ABL1‑positive microvesicles during the transformation of normal hematopoietic transplants.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):3278-3284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetics have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the progression of multiple cancers. Our previous study has demonstrated that microvesicles (MVs) derived from K562 cells could malignantly transform normal hematopoietic cells. The aim of this section was to elucidate the epigenetic effects of RNA in K562-MVs. We altered some epigenetic RNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-106b-5p and lincPOU3F3) in K562-MVs and followed the process of transformation. Global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) levels were observed respectively. Our findings revealed that increased miR-106a/b in K562-MVs accelerated the transformation process (8.33±0.94 vs. 13.29±1.28 days; P<0.01) whereas decreased lincPOU3F3 delayed the transformation (17.83±0.29 days; P<0.05). The targets of miR-106a/b and lincPOU3F3 in the recipient cells were DNMT3a and DNMT3b. We found that lincPOU3F3 directly increased the DNMT3a/b while miR-106a/b only in part by targeting RB. However, global DNA methylation and special gene methylation was altered due to the concurrent regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b. Consequently, we demonstrated that tumor-derived MVs represent a notable intercellular epigenetic communication between cancer cells and recipient cells.

Feng X, Wang J, Gu X, et al.
Association of DNMT3B -283T>C polymorphism with risk of lung and gastric cancer: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(2):195-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the association of DNMT3B -283T>C polymorphism with the risk of lung or gastric cancer, which was followed by a meta-analysis.
METHODS: The genotyping of -283T>C was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and was confirmed by sequencing.
RESULTS: The results of this case-control study showed that -283T>C was not associated with the risk of lung or gastric cancer, and further stratified analysis according to age, gender, smoking status, and alcohol status confirmed the present finding. However, data from a meta-analysis in the Asian population revealed a significant association between -283T>C and lung cancer risk in the allelic model (C vs. T: odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.55, p = 0.01) and two genetic models (CC vs. TC: OR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.04-1.59, p = 0.02; CC vs. TC + TT: OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.06-1.60, p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: These results provided evidence that the DNMT3B -283T>C polymorphism might significantly contribute to the lung cancer risk in the Asian population, but not the gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. DNMT3B, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/DNMT3B.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999