Gene Summary

Gene:E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2
Aliases: E2F-2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F1 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds specifically to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner, and it exhibits overall 46% amino acid identity to E2F1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor E2F2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: E2F2 (cancer-related)

Di Fiore R, Drago-Ferrante R, Pentimalli F, et al.
MicroRNA-29b-1 impairs in vitro cell proliferation, self‑renewal and chemoresistance of human osteosarcoma 3AB-OS cancer stem cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(5):2013-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common type of bone cancer, with a peak incidence in the early childhood. Emerging evidence suggests that treatments targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs) within a tumor can halt cancer and improve patient survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the maintenance of the CSC phenotype, thus, identification of CSC-related miRNAs would provide information for a better understanding of CSCs. Downregulation of miRNA-29 family members (miR-29a/b/c; miR‑29s) was observed in human OS, however, little is known about the functions of miR-29s in human OS CSCs. Previously, during the characterization of 3AB-OS cells, a CSC line selected from human OS MG63 cells, we showed a potent downregulation of miR-29b. In this study, after stable transfection of 3AB-OS cells with miR-29b-1, we investigated the role of miR-29b-1 in regulating cell proliferation, sarcosphere-forming ability, clonogenic growth, chemosensitivity, migration and invasive ability of 3AB-OS cells, in vitro. We found that, miR-29b-1 overexpression consistently reduced both, 3AB-OS CSCs growth in two- and three-dimensional culture systems and their sarcosphere- and colony-forming ability. In addition, while miR-29b-1 overexpression sensitized 3AB-OS cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis, it did not influence their migratory and invasive capacities, thus suggesting a context-depending role of miR-29b-1. Using publicly available databases, we proceeded to identify potential miR-29b target genes, known to play a role in the above reported functions. Among these targets we analyzed CD133, N-Myc, CCND2, E2F1 and E2F2, Bcl-2 and IAP-2. We also analyzed the most important stemness markers as Oct3/4, Sox2 and Nanog. Real-time RT-PCR and western-blot analyses showed that miR-29b-1 negatively regulated the expression of these markers. Overall, the results show that miR-29b-1 suppresses stemness properties of 3AB-OS CSCs and suggest that developing miR-29b-1 as a novel therapeutic agent might offer benefits for OS treatment.

Mehrotra M, Medeiros LJ, Luthra R, et al.
Identification of putative pathogenic microRNA and its downstream targets in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(10):1995-2005 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are tumors of T/null-cell lineage characterized by uniform CD30 expression. The 2008 World Health Organization classification subdivided ALCLs into 2 groups: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive (established entity) and ALK-negative (proposed new entity) ALCL. The genetic basis for the pathogenesis of newly categorized ALK- ALCL is poorly understood. In this study, we used microRNA microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in ALK+ and ALK- ALCL. ALK- ALCL showed significantly higher expression of miR-155 (0.888 ± 0.228) compared with ALK+ ALCL (0.0565 ± 0.009) on microarray and by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in ALK- ALCL compared with ALK+ ALCL (P < .05) with a strong correlation between the 2 platforms (R = 0.9, P < .0003). A novel in situ hybridization method allows direct visualization of expression patterns and relative quantitation of miR-155 (mean score, 2.3 versus 1.3; P = .01) for the first time in tissue sections of ALCL. Among computationally predicted targets of miR-155, we identified ZNF652 (r = -0.57, P = .05), BACH1 (r = 0.88, P = .02), RBAK (r = 0.81, P = .05), TRIM32 (r = 0.92, P = .01), E2F2 (r = 0.81, P = .05), and TP53INP1 (r = -0.31, P = .03) as genes whose expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction correlated significantly with the level of miR-155 in ALCL tumor tissue.

Buza N, Xu F, Wu W, et al.
Recurrent chromosomal aberrations in intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization study.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a distinct smooth muscle neoplasm with a potential of clinical aggressiveness due to its ability to extend into intrauterine and extrauterine vasculature. In this study, chromosomal alterations analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 9 cases of IVL. The analysis was informative in all cases with multiple copy number losses and/or gains observed in each tumor. The most frequent recurrent loss of 22q12.3-q13.1 was observed in 6 tumors (66.7%), followed by losses of 22q11.23-q13.31, 1p36.13-p33, 2p25.3-p23.3, and 2q24.2-q32.2 and gains of 6p22.2, 2q37.3 and 10q22.2-q22.3, in decreasing order of frequency. Copy number variants were identified at 14q11.2, 15q11.1-q11.2, and 15q26.2. Genes mapping to the regions of loss include CHEK2, EWS, NF2, PDGFB, and MAP3K7IP1 on chromosome 22q, HEI10 on chromosome 14q, and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B, E2F2, ARID1A KPNA6, EIF3S2 , PTCH2, and PIK3R3 on chromosome 1p. Regional losses on chromosomes 22q and 1p and gains on chromosomes 12q showed overlaps with those previously observed in uterine leiomyosarcomas. In addition, presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations implies a higher level of genetic instability. Follow-up polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing analysis of MED12 gene revealed absence of G> A transition at nucleotides c.130 or c.131 in all 9 cases, a frequent mutation found in uterine leiomyoma and its variants. In conclusion, this is the first report of high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of IVL by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. The presence of high frequencies of recurrent regional loss involving several chromosomes is an important finding and likely related to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Bollig-Fischer A, Marchetti L, Mitrea C, et al.
Modeling time-dependent transcription effects of HER2 oncogene and discovery of a role for E2F2 in breast cancer cell-matrix adhesion.
Bioinformatics. 2014; 30(21):3036-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
MOTIVATION: Oncogenes are known drivers of cancer phenotypes and targets of molecular therapies; however, the complex and diverse signaling mechanisms regulated by oncogenes and potential routes to targeted therapy resistance remain to be fully understood. To this end, we present an approach to infer regulatory mechanisms downstream of the HER2 driver oncogene in SUM-225 metastatic breast cancer cells from dynamic gene expression patterns using a succession of analytical techniques, including a novel MP grammars method to mathematically model putative regulatory interactions among sets of clustered genes.
RESULTS: Our method highlighted regulatory interactions previously identified in the cell line and a novel finding that the HER2 oncogene, as opposed to the proto-oncogene, upregulates expression of the E2F2 transcription factor. By targeted gene knockdown we show the significance of this, demonstrating that cancer cell-matrix adhesion and outgrowth were markedly inhibited when E2F2 levels were reduced. Thus, validating in this context that upregulation of E2F2 represents a key intermediate event in a HER2 oncogene-directed gene expression-based signaling circuit. This work demonstrates how predictive modeling of longitudinal gene expression data combined with multiple systems-level analyses can be used to accurately predict downstream signaling pathways. Here, our integrated method was applied to reveal insights as to how the HER2 oncogene drives a specific cancer cell phenotype, but it is adaptable to investigate other oncogenes and model systems.
AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Accessibility of various tools is listed in methods; the Log-Gain Stoichiometric Stepwise algorithm is accessible at http://www.cbmc.it/software/Software.php.

Hollern DP, Honeysett J, Cardiff RD, Andrechek ER
The E2F transcription factors regulate tumor development and metastasis in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(17):3229-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
While the E2F transcription factors (E2Fs) have a clearly defined role in cell cycle control, recent work has uncovered new functions. Using genomic signature methods, we predicted a role for the activator E2F transcription factors in the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-polyomavirus middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. To genetically test the hypothesis that the E2Fs function to regulate tumor development and metastasis, we interbred MMTV-PyMT mice with E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 knockout mice. With the ablation of individual E2Fs, we noted alterations of tumor latency, histology, and vasculature. Interestingly, we noted striking reductions in metastatic capacity and in the number of circulating tumor cells in both the E2F1 and E2F2 knockout backgrounds. Investigating E2F target genes that mediate metastasis, we found that E2F loss led to decreased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa), Bmp4, Cyr61, Nupr1, Plod 2, P4ha1, Adamts1, Lgals3, and Angpt2. These gene expression changes indicate that the E2Fs control the expression of genes critical to angiogenesis, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix, tumor cell survival, and tumor cell interactions with vascular endothelial cells that facilitate metastasis to the lungs. Taken together, these results reveal that the E2F transcription factors play key roles in mediating tumor development and metastasis in addition to their well-characterized roles in cell cycle control.

Wong TY, Li F, Lin SM, et al.
Celecoxib increases miR-222 while deterring aromatase-expressing breast tumor growth in mice.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:426 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in women. Inhibiting the synthesis of estrogen is effective in treating patients with estrogen-responsive breast cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that use of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors is associated with reduced breast cancer risk.
METHODS: In the present study, we employed an established mouse model for postmenopausal breast cancer to evaluate the potential mechanisms of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Aromatase-expressing MCF-7 cells were transplanted into ovariectomized athymic mice. The animals were given celecoxib at 1500 ppm or aspirin at 200 ppm by oral administration with androstenedione injection.
RESULTS: Our results showed that both COX inhibitors could suppress the cancer xenograft growth without changing the plasma estrogen level. Protein expression of ERα, COX-2, Cyclin A, and Bcl-xL were reduced in celecoxib-treated tumor samples, whereas only Bcl-xL expression was suppressed in those treated with aspirin. Among the breast cancer-related miRNAs, miR-222 expression was elevated in samples treated with celecoxib. Further studies in culture cells verified that the increase in miR-222 expression might contribute to ERα downregulation but not the growth deterrence of cells.
CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggested that both celecoxib and aspirin could prevent breast cancer growth by regulating proteins in the cell cycle and apoptosis without blocking estrogen synthesis. Besides, celecoxib might affect miR expression in an undesirable fashion.

Chen X, Paranjape T, Stahlhut C, et al.
Targeted resequencing of the microRNAome and 3'UTRome reveals functional germline DNA variants with altered prevalence in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(16):2125-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a major cause of cancer deaths, yet there have been few known genetic risk factors identified, the best known of which are disruptions in protein coding sequences (BRCA1 and 2). Recent findings indicate that there are powerful genetic markers of cancer risk outside of these regions, in the noncoding mRNA control regions. To identify additional cancer-associated, functional non-protein-coding sequence germline variants associated with ovarian cancer risk, we captured DNA regions corresponding to all validated human microRNAs and the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of ~6000 cancer-associated genes from 31 ovarian cancer patients. Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3'UTR of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/FLT1, E2F2 and PCM1 oncogenes were highly enriched in ovarian cancer patients compared with the 1000 Genome Project. Sequenom validation in a case-control study (267 cases and 89 controls) confirmed a novel variant in the PCM1 3'UTR is significantly associated with ovarian cancer (P=0.0086). This work identifies a potential new ovarian cancer locus and further confirms that cancer resequencing efforts should not ignore the study of noncoding regions of cancer patients.

Lee MY, Moreno CS, Saavedra HI
E2F activators signal and maintain centrosome amplification in breast cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(14):2581-99 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Centrosomes ensure accurate chromosome segregation by directing spindle bipolarity. Loss of centrosome regulation results in centrosome amplification, multipolar mitosis and aneuploidy. Since centrosome amplification is common in premalignant lesions and breast tumors, it is proposed to play a central role in breast tumorigenesis, a hypothesis that remains to be tested. The coordination between the cell and centrosome cycles is of paramount importance to maintain normal centrosome numbers, and the E2Fs may be responsible for regulating these cycles. However, the role of E2F activators in centrosome amplification is unclear. Because E2Fs are deregulated in Her2(+) cells displaying centrosome amplification, we addressed whether they signal this abnormal process. Knockdown of E2F1 or E2F3 in Her2(+) cells decreased centrosome amplification without significantly affecting cell cycle progression, whereas the overexpression of E2F1, E2F2, or E2F3 increased centrosome amplification in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Our results revealed that E2Fs affect the expression of proteins, including Nek2 and Plk4, known to influence the cell/centrosome cycles and mitosis. Downregulation of E2F3 resulted in cell death and delays/blocks in cytokinesis, which was reversed by Nek2 overexpression. Nek2 overexpression enhanced centrosome amplification in Her2(+) breast cancer cells silenced for E2F3, revealing a role for the E2F activators in maintaining centrosome amplification in part through Nek2.

Baiz D, Dapas B, Farra R, et al.
Bortezomib effect on E2F and cyclin family members in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(3):795-803 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the effects of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BZB) on E2Fs and related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
METHODS: The mRNA levels of the E2F family members (pro-proliferative: E2F1-3 and anti-proliferative: E2F4-8) and of their related genes cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) were evaluated in two HCC cell lines following a single BZB administration. mRNA levels of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes were also measured in both cell lines after BZB treatment. The BZB concentration (40 nmol/L) used was chosen to stay well below the maximal amount/cm² recommended for in vivo application, and 2 d incubation was chosen as this time point has been found optimal to detect BZB effects in our previous studies. The HCC cell lines, HepG2 and JHH6, were chosen as they display different phenotypes, hepatocyte-like for HepG2 and undifferentiated for JHH6, thus representing an in vitro model of low and high aggressive forms of HCC, respectively. The mRNA levels of the target genes were measured by two-color microarray-based gene expression analysis, performed according to Agilent Technologies protocol and using an Agilent Scan B. For the E2F family members, mRNA levels were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using small interfering RNA's, the effects of E2F8 depletion on cell number was also evaluated.
RESULTS: After BZB treatment, microarray analysis of the undifferentiated JHH6 revealed a significant decrease in the expression of the pro-proliferative E2F member E2F2. Quantitative RT-PCR data were in keeping with the microarray analysis, and showed a significant increase and decrease in E2F8 and E2F2 mRNA levels, respectively. In contrast, BZB treatment of the hepatocyte-like HCC cell line HepG2 had a significant impact on mRNA levels of 5 of the 8 E2F members. In particular, mRNA levels of the pro-proliferative E2F members E2F1, E2F2, and of the anti-proliferative member E2F8, decreased over 80%. Notably, a reduction in E2F8 expression in HepG2 and JHH6 cells following siRNA treatment had no impact on cell proliferation. As observed with JHH6, BZB treatment of HepG2 cells induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of an anti-proliferative E2F member, E2F6 in this case. As was observed with E2F's, more dramatic changes in mRNA levels of the E2F related genes cyclins and Cdks and EMT genes were observed after BZB treatment of HepG2 compared to JHH6.
CONCLUSION: The differential expression of E2Fs and related genes induced by BZB in diverse HCC cell phenotypes contribute to bortezomib's mechanism of action in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Suzuki DE, Nakahata AM, Okamoto OK
Knockdown of E2F2 inhibits tumorigenicity, but preserves stemness of human embryonic stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev. 2014; 23(11):1266-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumorigenicity of human pluripotent stem cells is a major threat limiting their application in cell therapy protocols. It remains unclear, however, whether suppression of tumorigenic potential can be achieved without critically affecting pluripotency. A previous study has identified hyperexpressed genes in cancer stem cells, among which is E2F2, a gene involved in malignant transformation and stem cell self-renewal. Here we tested whether E2F2 knockdown would affect the proliferative capacity and tumorigenicity of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Transient E2F2 silencing in hESC significantly inhibited expression of the proto-oncogenes BMI1 and HMGA1, in addition to proliferation of hESC, indicated by a higher proportion of cells in G1, fewer cells in G2/M phase, and a reduced capacity to generate hESC colonies in vitro. Nonetheless, E2F2-silenced cells kept expression of typical pluripotency markers and displayed differentiation capacity in vitro. More importantly, E2F2 knockdown in hESC significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo, which was considerably smaller than tumors generated from control hESC, although displaying typical teratoma traits, a major indicator of pluripotency retention in E2F2-silenced cells. These results suggest that E2F2 knockdown can inhibit hESC proliferation and tumorigenicity without significantly harming stemness, providing a rationale to future protocols aiming at minimizing risks related to therapeutic application of cells and/or products derived from human pluripotent cells.

Zhan L, Huang C, Meng XM, et al.
Promising roles of mammalian E2Fs in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cell Signal. 2014; 26(5):1075-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
In mammalian cells, E2F family of transcription factors (E2Fs) traditionally modulates assorted cellular functions related to cell cycle progression, proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Eight members, E2F1 E2F8 have been recognized of this family so far, and the members of this family are generally divided into activator E2F (E2F1--E2F3a), repressor E2F (E2F3b--E2F5) and inhibitor E2F (E2F6--E2F8) subclasses based on their structur-e and function. Studies have showed that the mammalian E2F family members represent a recent evolutionary adaptation to malignancies besides hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and a growing body of evidence has validated that the individual members of the family develop a close relationship with HCC. E2F1 was identified to play overlapping roles in HCC, while E2F2--E2F8 (except E2F6 and E2F7) showed to be tumor-promoter in HCC. However, the mechanism underlying the mammalian E2Fs associated with HCC is still unknown and needs further research. The aim of this review is to sum up the collective knowledge of E2F family and the roles of each member of this family in HCC. Moreover, we will discuss some novel therapeutic target for HCC based on the complicated functions of mammalian E2Fs.

Andrechek ER
HER2/Neu tumorigenesis and metastasis is regulated by E2F activator transcription factors.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(2):217-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
HER2/Neu is amplified and overexpressed in a large proportion of human breast cancers, but the signaling pathways that contribute to tumor development and metastatic progression are not completely understood. Using gene expression data and pathway signatures, we predicted a role for activator E2F transcription factors in Neu-induced tumors. This was genetically tested by interbreeding Neu transgenics with knockouts of the three activator E2Fs. Loss of any E2F delayed Neu-induced tumor onset. E2F1 loss accelerated tumor growth, while E2F2 and E2F3 loss did not. Strikingly, it was observed that loss of E2F1 or E2F2 significantly reduced the metastatic capacity of the tumor and this was associated with a reduction in circulating tumor cells in the E2F2 knockout. Gene expression analysis between the tumors in the various E2F-mutant backgrounds revealed that there was extensive compensation by other E2F family members in the individual knockouts, underscoring the importance of the E2Fs in HER2/Neu-induced tumors. Extension to HER2-positive (HER2+) human breast cancer revealed a number of HER2+ subtypes based on E2F activity with differences in relapse-free survival times. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the E2F transcription factors are integral to HER2+ tumor development and progression.

Wu L, de Bruin A, Wang H, et al.
Selective roles of E2Fs for ErbB2- and Myc-mediated mammary tumorigenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(1):119-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Previous studies have demonstrated that cyclin D1, an upstream regulator of the Rb/E2F pathway, is an essential component of the ErbB2/Ras (but not the Wnt/Myc) oncogenic pathway in the mammary epithelium. However, the role of specific E2fs for ErbB2/Ras-mediated mammary tumorigenesis remains unknown. Here, we show that in the majority of mouse and human primary mammary carcinomas with ErbB2/HER2 overexpression, E2f3a is up-regulated, raising the possibility that E2F3a is a critical effector of the ErbB2 oncogenic signaling pathway in the mammary gland. We examined the consequence of ablating individual E2fs in mice on ErbB2-triggered mammary tumorigenesis in comparison to a comparable Myc-driven mammary tumor model. We found that loss of E2f1 or E2f3 led to a significant delay in tumor onset in both oncogenic models, whereas loss of E2f2 accelerated mammary tumorigenesis driven by Myc-overexpression. Furthermore, southern blot analysis of final tumors derived from conditionally deleted E2f3(-/loxP) mammary glands revealed that there is a selection against E2f3(-/-) cells from developing mammary carcinomas, and that such selection pressure is higher in the presence of ErbB2 activation than in the presence of Myc activation. Taken together, our data suggest oncogenic activities of E2F1 and E2F3 in ErbB2- or Myc-triggered mammary tumorigenesis, and a tumor suppressor role of E2F2 in Myc-mediated mammary tumorigenesis.

Nguyen-Vu T, Vedin LL, Liu K, et al.
Liver × receptor ligands disrupt breast cancer cell proliferation through an E2F-mediated mechanism.
Breast Cancer Res. 2013; 15(3):R51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Liver × receptors (LXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors and have established functions as regulators of cholesterol, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism and inflammatory responses. Published reports of anti-proliferative effects of synthetic LXR ligands on breast, prostate, ovarian, lung, skin, and colorectal cancer cells suggest that LXRs are potential targets in cancer prevention and treatment.
METHODS: To further determine the effects of LXR ligands and identify their potential mechanisms of action in breast cancer cells, we carried out microarray analysis of gene expression in four breast cancer cell lines following treatments with the synthetic LXR ligand GW3965. Differentially expressed genes were further subjected to gene ontology and pathway analyses, and their expression profiles and associations with disease parameters and outcomes were examined in clinical samples. Response of E2F target genes were validated by real-time PCR, and the posited role of E2F2 in breast cancer cell proliferation was tested by RNA interference experiments.
RESULTS: We observed cell line-specific transcriptional responses as well as a set of common responsive genes. In the common responsive gene set, upregulated genes tend to function in the known metabolic effects of LXR ligands and LXRs whereas the downregulated genes mostly include those which function in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and other cell proliferation-related processes. Transcription factor binding site analysis of the downregulated genes revealed an enrichment of E2F binding site sequence motifs. Correspondingly, E2F2 transcript levels are downregulated following LXR ligand treatment. Knockdown of E2F2 expression, similar to LXR ligand treatment, resulted in a significant disruption of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell proliferation. Ligand treatment also decreased E2F2 binding to cis-regulatory regions of target genes. Hierarchical clustering of breast cancer patients based on the expression profiles of the commonly downregulated LXR ligand-responsive genes showed a strong association of these genes with patient survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that LXR ligands target gene networks, including those regulated by E2F family members, are critical for tumor biology and disease progression and merit further consideration as potential agents in the prevention and treatment of breast cancers.

Xanthoulis A, Tiniakos DG
E2F transcription factors and digestive system malignancies: how much do we know?
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(21):3189-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
E2F family of transcription factors regulates various cellular functions related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Its individual members have traditionally been classified into activators and repressors, based on in vitro studies. However their contribution in human cancer is more complicated and difficult to predict. We review current knowledge on the expression of E2Fs in digestive system malignancies and its clinical implications for patient prognosis and treatment. E2F1, the most extensively studied member and the only one with prognostic value, exhibits a tumor-suppressing activity in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinoma, and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whereas in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma may function as a tumor-promoter. In the latter malignancies, E2F1 immunohistochemical expression has been correlated with higher tumor grade and worse patient survival, whereas in esophageal, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas is a marker of increased patient survival. E2F2 has only been studied in colorectal cancer, where its role is not considered significant. E2F4's role in colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinogenesis is tumor-promoting. E2F8 is strongly upregulated in human HCC, thus possibly contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Adenoviral transfer of E2F as gene therapy to sensitize pancreatic cancer cells for chemotherapeutic agents has been used in experimental studies. Other therapeutic strategies are yet to be developed, but it appears that targeted approaches using E2F-agonists or antagonists should take into account the tissue-dependent function of each E2F member. Further understanding of E2Fs' contribution in cellular functions in vivo would help clarify their role in carcinogenesis.

Gaire RK, Smith L, Humbert P, et al.
Discovery and analysis of consistent active sub-networks in cancers.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2013; 14 Suppl 2:S7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Gene expression profiles can show significant changes when genetically diseased cells are compared with non-diseased cells. Biological networks are often used to identify active subnetworks (ASNs) of the diseases from the expression profiles to understand the reason behind the observed changes. Current methodologies for discovering ASNs mostly use undirected PPI networks and node centric approaches. This can limit their ability to find the meaningful ASNs when using integrated networks having comprehensive information than the traditional protein-protein interaction networks. Using appropriate scoring functions to assess both genes and their interactions may allow the discovery of better ASNs. In this paper, we present CASNet, which aims to identify better ASNs using (i) integrated interaction networks (mixed graphs), (ii) directions of regulations of genes, and (iii) combined node and edge scores. We simplify and extend previous methodologies to incorporate edge evaluations and lessen their sensitivity to significance thresholds. We formulate our objective functions using mixed integer programming (MIP) and show that optimal solutions may be obtained. We compare the ASNs obtained by CASNet and similar other approaches to show that CASNet can often discover more meaningful and stable regulatory ASNs. Our analysis of a breast cancer dataset finds that the positive feedback loops across 7 genes, AR, ESR1, MYC, E2F2, PGR, BCL2 and CCND1 are conserved across the basal/triple negative subtypes in multiple datasets that could potentially explain the aggressive nature of this cancer subtype. Furthermore, comparison of the basal subtype of breast cancer and the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastoma ASNs shows that an ASN in the vicinity of IL6 is conserved across the two subtypes. This result suggests that subtypes of different cancers can show molecular similarities indicating that the therapeutic approaches in different types of cancers may be shared.

Lin PC, Chiu YL, Banerjee S, et al.
Epigenetic repression of miR-31 disrupts androgen receptor homeostasis and contributes to prostate cancer progression.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(3):1232-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Androgen receptor signaling plays a critical role in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Yet, the regulation of androgen receptor signaling remains elusive. Even with stringent androgen deprivation therapy, androgen receptor signaling persists. Here, our data suggest that there is a complex interaction between the expression of the tumor suppressor miRNA, miR-31, and androgen receptor signaling. We examined primary and metastatic prostate cancer and found that miR-31 expression was reduced as a result of promoter hypermethylation, and importantly, the levels of miR-31 expression were inversely correlated with the aggressiveness of the disease. As the expression of androgen receptor and miR-31 was inversely correlated in the cell lines, our study further suggested that miR-31 and androgen receptor could mutually repress each other. Upregulation of miR-31 effectively suppressed androgen receptor expression through multiple mechanisms and inhibited prostate cancer growth in vivo. Notably, we found that miR-31 targeted androgen receptor directly at a site located in the coding region, which was commonly mutated in prostate cancer. In addition, miR-31 suppressed cell-cycle regulators including E2F1, E2F2, EXO1, FOXM1, and MCM2. Together, our findings suggest a novel androgen receptor regulatory mechanism mediated through miR-31 expression. The downregulation of miR-31 may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to the evolution and progression of prostate cancer. We provide implications for epigenetic treatment and support clinical development of detecting miR-31 promoter methylation as a novel biomarker.

Wu N, Xiao L, Zhao X, et al.
miR-125b regulates the proliferation of glioblastoma stem cells by targeting E2F2.
FEBS Lett. 2012; 586(21):3831-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in regulating cancer stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, but the expression prolife of miRNAs in glioma stem cells (GSCs) has not been addressed. Here, we found that CD133 positive GSCs possess a unique miRNAs profile compared to CD133 negative glioblastoma cells. miR-125b, as one of neuronal miRNAs, is the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs and overexpression of miR-125b inhibits the proliferation of CD133 positive GSCs and reduces the expression of "stem" marker. Furthermore, two binding sites for miR-125b are identified in the 3'UTR of E2F2 and overexpression of miR-125b in CD133 positive GSCs represses the endogenous level of E2F2 protein. This study demonstrated that miR-125b plays important roles in regulating the proliferation of GSCs by directly targeting E2F2.

Xanthoulis A, Kotsinas A, Tiniakos D, et al.
The relationship between E2F family members and tumor growth in colorectal adenocarcinomas: A comparative immunohistochemical study of 100 cases.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(6):471-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mammalian E2F family of transcription factors comprises a group of 8 proteins, which either activate or repress transcription of numerous target genes, playing a role in cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. We have collectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of E2F1, E2F2, and E2F4 transcription factors and their relation to cell kinetic parameters using serial section analysis in a series of 100 cases of human colorectal adenocarcinomas. E2F1 and E2F4 expressed nuclear immunopositivity in all cases. The range of their expression was 2% to 80% (mean 21% ± 15%) and 2% to 90% (mean 66% ± 20%), respectively. E2F2 was expressed in 41 cases at low levels (range, 1% to 5%, mean 2% ± 9%). A statistically significant direct association between E2F4 and cell proliferation, as expressed by high levels of Ki-67 labeling index, was shown. A mutually exclusive immunostaining pattern between E2F1 and E2F4 and a direct correlation of E2F1 and apoptosis were also highlighted. Our results point to a possible direct tumor-promoting role for E2F4 in the context of colorectal carcinogenesis. The inverse immunohistochemical relationship between E2F1 and E2F4 indicates a possible mechanistic interlink in colorectal cancer. Low expression of E2F2 may reflect functional redundancy between members of the E2F family, in this case between E2F1 and E2F2.

Kim SG, Kim AS, Jeong JH, et al.
4-hexylresorcinol stimulates the differentiation of SCC-9 cells through the suppression of E2F2, E2F3 and Sp3 expression and the promotion of Sp1 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(2):677-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
The dormancy-inducing factors of bacteria inhibit tumor cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of the dormancy-inducing factor 4-hexylresorcinol (4-HR) using real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) in SCC-9 cells (tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells). Treatment with 4-HR suppressed the growth of SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We used a DNA microarray to identify genes that showed a significant change in expression upon 4-HR administration in SCC-9 cells. Among the differentially expressed genes, the protein expression of several cell proliferation related factors, including E2F1, E2F2, E2F3, E2F4, E2F5, E2F6, Sp1 and Sp3, were determined by western blot analyses. Treatment with 4-HR strongly suppressed E2F2 and slightly suppressed E2F3 but did not change the expression of E2F1, E2F4, E2F5 and E2F6 relative to no treatment. Furthermore, 4-HR increased Sp1 expression in a dose-dependent manner and decreased Sp3 expression. Therefore, the ratio of Sp1 to Sp3, an important driving force of epithelial cell differentiation, was drastically increased. Consistent with this observation, 4-HR increased the expression of the epithelial cell differentiation markers involucrin and keratin 10. Together, our results indicate that 4-HR induces the differentiation of SCC-9 via the modulation of the E2F-mediated signaling pathway.

Vui-Kee K, Mohd Dali AZ, Mohamed Rose I, et al.
Molecular markers associated with nonepithelial ovarian cancer in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens by genome wide expression profiling.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2012; 28(5):243-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nonepithelial ovarian cancer (NEOC) is a rare cancer that is often misdiagnosed as other malignant tumors. Research on this cancer using fresh tissues is nearly impossible because of its limited number of samples within a limited time provided. The study is to identify potential genes and their molecular pathways related to NEOC using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples. Total RNA was extracted from eight archived NEOCs and seven normal ovaries. The RNA samples with RNA integrity number >2.0, purity >1.7 and cycle count value <28 cycles were hybridized to the Illumina Whole-Genome DASL assay (cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation). We analyzed the results using the GeneSpring GX11.0 and FlexArray software to determine the differentially expressed genes. Microarray results were validated using an immunohistochemistry method. Statistical analysis identified 804 differentially expressed genes with 443 and 361 genes as overexpressed and underexpressed in cancer, respectively. Consistent findings were documented for the overexpression of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, E2F transcription factor 2, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, except for the down-regulated gene, early growth response 1 (EGR1). The immunopositivity staining for EGR1 was found in the majority of cancer tissues. This finding suggested that the mRNA level of a transcript did not always match with the protein expression in tissues. The current gene profile can be the platform for further exploration of the molecular mechanism of NEOC.

Lu M, Liu Z, Yu H, et al.
Combined effects of E2F1 and E2F2 polymorphisms on risk and early onset of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51 Suppl 1:E132-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
Deregulated expression of most members of the E2F family has been detected in many human cancers. We examined the association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of E2F transcription factors 1 and 2 (E2F1 and E2F2) with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) in 1,096 SCCHN patients and 1,090 cancer-free controls. We genotyped 10 selected SNPs in E2F1 and E2F2, including those at the near 5'-untranslated region (UTR), microRNA (miRNA)-binding sites at the near 3'-UTR and tagSNPs according to bioinformatics analysis. Although none of the selected SNPs alone was significantly associated with risk of SCCHN, there was a statistically significantly increased risk of SCCHN associated with the combined risk genotypes (i.e., rs3213182 AA, rs3213183 GG, rs3213180 GG, rs321318121 GG, rs2742976 GT+TT, rs6667575 GA+AA, rs3218203 CC, rs3218148 AA, rs3218211 CC, and rs3218123 GT+TT). Compared with those with 0-4 risk genotypes, an increased risk was observed for those who carried 5-8 risk genotypes (adjusted OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.86-1.26) and 9-10 risk genotypes (adjusted OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.14-2.30) in a dose-response manner (P = 0.045). Furthermore, the joint effect was more pronounced among patients with oropharyngeal cancer, younger adults (≤57 yr old), men, non-smokers, non-drinkers, and individuals with family history of cancer in first-degree relatives. Additionally, we also observed that those with 5-10 risk genotypes had an earlier SCCHN onset than those with 0-4 risk genotypes, particularly for non-smokers and/or non-drinkers. We concluded that E2F1 and E2F2 genetic variants may jointly play important roles in head and neck carcinogenesis.

Fragliasso V, Chiodo Y, Ferrari-Amorotti G, et al.
Phosphorylation of serine 21 modulates the proliferation inhibitory more than the differentiation inducing effects of C/EBPα in K562 cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2012; 113(5):1704-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) is a transcription factor required for differentiation of myeloid progenitors. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells expressing the constitutively active FLT3-ITD receptor tyrosine kinase, MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation of serine 21 (S21) inhibits the ability of C/EBPα to induce granulocytic differentiation. To assess whether this post-translational modification also modulates the activity of C/EBPα in BCR/ABL-expressing cells, we tested the biological effects of wild-type and mutant C/EBPα mimicking phosphorylated or non-phosphorylatable serine 21 (S21D and S21A, respectively) in K562 cells ectopically expressing tamoxifen-regulated C/EBPα-ER chimeric proteins. We show here that S21D C/EBPα-ER induced terminal granulocytic differentiation of K562 cells almost as well as wild-type C/EBPα-ER, while S21A C/EBPα-ER was less efficient. Furthermore, wild-type C/EBPα suppressed the proliferation and colony formation of K562 cells vigorously, while S21D and S21A C/EBPα mutants had more modest anti-proliferative effects. Both mutants were less effective than wild-type C/EBPα in suppressing endogenous E2F-dependent transactivation and bound less E2F-2 and/or E2F-3 proteins in anti-C/EBPα immunoprecipitates. Together, these findings suggest that mutation of S21 more than its phosphorylation inhibits the anti-proliferative effects of C/EBPα due to reduced interaction with or impaired regulation of the activity of E2F proteins. By contrast, phosphorylation of serine 21 appears to have a modest role in modulating the differentiation-inducing effects of C/EBPα in K562 cells.

Tesser-Gamba F, Petrilli AS, de Seixas Alves MT, et al.
MAPK7 and MAP2K4 as prognostic markers in osteosarcoma.
Hum Pathol. 2012; 43(7):994-1002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a class of cancer originating from the bone, affecting mainly children and young adults. Cytogenetic studies showed the presence of rearrangements and recurrent gains in specific chromosomal regions, indicating the possible involvement of genes located in these regions during the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. These studies investigated expression of 10 genes located in the chromosomal region involved in abnormalities in osteosarcoma, 1p36, 17p, and chromosome 19. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression profile of genes located in regions involved in chromosomal rearrangements in osteosarcoma. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expression of 10 genes located in 1p36.3 (MTHFR, ERRFI1, FGR, E2F2), 17p (MAPK7, MAP2K4), and chromosome 19 (BBC3, FOSB, JUND, and RRAS), in 70 samples taken from 30 patients (30 prechemotherapy, 30 postchemotherapy, and 10 metastases specimens) and 10 healthy bones as a control sample. The most interesting results showed a strong association between the expression levels of MAPK7 and MAP2K4 genes and clinical parameters of osteosarcoma. Overexpression of these genes was significantly associated to a poor response to treatment (P = .0001 and P = .0049, respectively), tumor progression, and worse overall survival (P = .0052 and P = .0085, respectively), suggesting that MAPK7 and MAP2K4 could play an important role in osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. Thus, these genes could be good markers in assessing response to treatment and development of osteosarcoma.

van der Watt PJ, Ngarande E, Leaner VD
Overexpression of Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 importin proteins in cancer derives from deregulated E2F activity.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e27723 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
The Karyopherin superfamily comprises nuclear transport proteins, involved in the shuttling of certain cargo proteins into and out of the nucleus. Karyopherin β1 (Kpnβ1) and Karyopherin α2 (Kpnα2) are importin proteins, which work in concert to transport their cargo into the nucleus. We previously identified increased expression of Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 in cervical tumours compared to normal epithelium and in transformed cells compared to their normal counterparts. This study therefore aimed to identify the transcription regulatory mechanisms associated with high Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 levels in cancer cells. Kpnβ1 (-2013 to +100) and Kpnα2 (-1900 to +69) promoter fragments were separately cloned into the reporter vector, pGL3-basic, and luciferase assays revealed both as significantly more active in cancer and transformed cells compared to normal. A series of deletion constructs identified the -637 to -271 Kpnβ1 and -180 to -24 Kpnα2 promoter regions as responsible for the differential promoter activity, and a number of highly conserved E2F binding sites were identified within these regions. Mutation analysis confirmed the requirement of E2F sites for promoter activity, and ChIP analysis confirmed E2F2/Dp1 binding to the Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 promoters in vivo. Dp1 inhibition resulted in decreased levels of the respective proteins, confirming the role of E2F in the overexpression of Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 proteins in cancer. E2F activity is known to be deregulated in cervical cancer cells due to the inhibition of its repressor, Rb, by HPV E7. The inhibition of E7 using siRNA resulted in decreased Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 promoter activities, as did the overexpression of Rb. In conclusion, this study is a first to show that elevated Kpnβ1 and Kpnα2 expression in cancer cells correlates with altered transcriptional regulation associated with deregulated E2F/Rb activities.

Permuth-Wey J, Chen Z, Tsai YY, et al.
MicroRNA processing and binding site polymorphisms are not replicated in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(8):1793-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in microRNA-related genes have been associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk in two reports, yet associated alleles may be inconsistent across studies.
METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of previously identified SNPs by combining genotype data from 3,973 invasive EOC cases and 3,276 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We also conducted imputation to obtain dense coverage of genes and comparable genotype data for all studies. In total, 226 SNPs within 15 kb of 4 miRNA biogenesis genes (DDX20, DROSHA, GEMIN4, and XPO5) and 23 SNPs located within putative miRNA binding sites of 6 genes (CAV1, COL18A1, E2F2, IL1R1, KRAS, and UGT2A3) were genotyped or imputed and analyzed in the entire dataset.
RESULTS: After adjustment for European ancestry, no overall association was observed between any of the analyzed SNPs and EOC risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Common variants in these evaluated genes do not seem to be strongly associated with EOC risk.
IMPACT: This analysis suggests earlier associations between EOC risk and SNPs in these genes may have been chance findings, possibly confounded by population admixture. To more adequately evaluate the relationship between genetic variants and cancer risk, large sample sizes are needed, adjustment for population stratification should be carried out, and use of imputed SNP data should be considered.

Hwang SJ, Suh MJ, Yoon JH, et al.
Identification of characteristic molecular signature of Müllerian inhibiting substance in human HPV-related cervical cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 39(4):811-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), also known as anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily that plays an important role in the mesenchymal-epithelial interaction, cell growth and proliferation, extracellular matrix production and tissue remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that MIS suppressed ovarian cancer cell growth and suggested large-scale genetic elements that could be responsible for anti-neoplastic effects of MIS on ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of MIS type II receptor (MISRII) in the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16-related cervical cancer cell lines CaSki and SiHa, and a non-HPV-related cervical cancer cell line, C33A. We also showed that MIS inhibited growth of cervical cancer cells, and induced cellular apoptosis of C33A. In addition, we identified a characteristic molecular signature of MIS in CaSki cells by using whole genome expression analysis. Of the 1,690 genes that showed significant expression changes by MIS, 21 genes were related to cell cycle; 13 genes to apoptosis; and 52 genes to the cancer pathway. On performing a search for cell cycle pathways in the KEGG pathway database, several gene expressions at the G1/S checkpoint were found. In particular, the expression of p16 and p107 increased and that of E2F2 and E2F3 decreased at an early stage, whereas the expression of E2F4 and E2F5 decreased at a later stage after MIS treatment. These data suggest that MIS produces activity against HPV16-related cervical cancers in vitro, and MIS may also be an effective targeted therapy for HPV16-related cervical cancer. Genetic data obtained here could be useful in determining the treatment strategy of MISR-expressing cervical tumors in the future.

Seol MA, Chu IS, Lee MJ, et al.
Genome-wide expression patterns associated with oncogenesis and sarcomatous transdifferentation of cholangiocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms of CC (cholangiocarcinoma) oncogenesis and progression are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes related to CC oncogenesis and sarcomatous transdifferentiation.
METHODS: Genes that were differentially expressed between CC cell lines or tissues and cultured normal biliary epithelial (NBE) cells were identified using DNA microarray technology. Expressions were validated in human CC tissues and cells.
RESULTS: Using unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the cell line and tissue samples, we identified a set of 342 commonly regulated (>2-fold change) genes. Of these, 53, including tumor-related genes, were upregulated, and 289, including tumor suppressor genes, were downregulated (<0.5 fold change). Expression of SPP1, EFNB2, E2F2, IRX3, PTTG1, PPARγ, KRT17, UCHL1, IGFBP7 and SPARC proteins was immunohistochemically verified in human and hamster CC tissues. Additional unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of sarcomatoid CC cells compared to three adenocarcinomatous CC cell lines revealed 292 differentially upregulated genes (>4-fold change), and 267 differentially downregulated genes (<0.25 fold change). The expression of 12 proteins was validated in the CC cell lines by immunoblot analysis and immunohistochemical staining. Of the proteins analyzed, we found upregulation of the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins VIM and TWIST1, and restoration of the methylation-silenced proteins LDHB, BNIP3, UCHL1, and NPTX2 during sarcomatoid transdifferentiation of CC.
CONCLUSION: The deregulation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and methylation-related genes may be useful in identifying molecular targets for CC diagnosis and prognosis.

Fujiwara K, Yuwanita I, Hollern DP, Andrechek ER
Prediction and genetic demonstration of a role for activator E2Fs in Myc-induced tumors.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(5):1924-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advances in genomic signatures have begun to dissect breast cancer heterogeneity and application of these signatures will allow the prediction of which pathways are important in tumor development. Here we used genomic signatures to predict involvement of specific E2F transcription factors in Myc-induced tumors. We genetically tested this prediction by interbreeding Myc transgenics with mice lacking various activator E2F alleles. Tumor latency decreased in the E2F1 mutant background and significantly increased in both the E2F2 and E2F3 mutants. Investigating the mechanism behind these changes revealed a reduction in apoptosis in the E2F1 knockout strain. E2F2 and E2F3 mutant backgrounds alleviated Myc proliferative effects on the pregnant mammary gland, reducing the susceptible tumor target population. Gene expression data from tumors revealed that the E2F2 knockout background resulted in fewer tumors with EMT, corresponding with a reduction in probability of Ras activation. In human breast cancer we found that a low probability of E2F2 pathway activation was associated with increased relapse-free survival time. Together these data illustrate the predictive utility of genomic signatures in deciphering the heterogeneity within breast cancer and illustrate the unique genetic requirements for individual E2Fs in mediating tumorigenesis in both mouse models and human breast cancer.

Shi T, Mazumdar T, Devecchio J, et al.
cDNA microarray gene expression profiling of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibition in human colon cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(10) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hedgehog (HH) signaling plays a critical role in normal cellular processes, in normal mammalian gastrointestinal development and differentiation, and in oncogenesis and maintenance of the malignant phenotype in a variety of human cancers. Increasing evidence further implicates the involvement of HH signaling in oncogenesis and metastatic behavior of colon cancers. However, genomic approaches to elucidate the role of HH signaling in cancers in general are lacking, and data derived on HH signaling in colon cancer is extremely limited.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify unique downstream targets of the GLI genes, the transcriptional regulators of HH signaling, in the context of colon carcinoma, we employed a small molecule inhibitor of both GLI1 and GLI2, GANT61, in two human colon cancer cell lines, HT29 and GC3/c1. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated accumulation of GANT61-treated cells at the G1/S boundary. cDNA microarray gene expression profiling of 18,401 genes identified Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) both common and unique to HT29 and GC3/c1. Analyses using GenomeStudio (statistics), Matlab (heat map), Ingenuity (canonical pathway analysis), or by qRT-PCR, identified p21(Cip1) (CDKN1A) and p15(Ink4b) (CDKN2B), which play a role in the G1/S checkpoint, as up-regulated genes at the G1/S boundary. Genes that determine further cell cycle progression at G1/S including E2F2, CYCLIN E2 (CCNE2), CDC25A and CDK2, and genes that regulate passage of cells through G2/M (CYCLIN A2 [CCNA2], CDC25C, CYCLIN B2 [CCNB2], CDC20 and CDC2 [CDK1], were down-regulated. In addition, novel genes involved in stress response, DNA damage response, DNA replication and DNA repair were identified following inhibition of HH signaling.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study identifies genes that are involved in HH-dependent cellular proliferation in colon cancer cells, and following its inhibition, genes that regulate cell cycle progression and events downstream of the G1/S boundary.

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