Gene Summary

Gene:IDO1; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
Aliases: IDO, INDO, IDO-1
Summary:This gene encodes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) - a heme enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in tryptophan catabolism to N-formyl-kynurenine. This enzyme acts on multiple tryptophan substrates including D-tryptophan, L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxy-tryptophan, tryptamine, and serotonin. This enzyme is thought to play a role in a variety of pathophysiological processes such as antimicrobial and antitumor defense, neuropathology, immunoregulation, and antioxidant activity. Through its expression in dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages this enzyme modulates T-cell behavior by its peri-cellular catabolization of the essential amino acid tryptophan.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: IDO1 (cancer-related)

Kiyozumi Y, Baba Y, Okadome K, et al.
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 promoter hypomethylation is associated with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):1863-1871 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a primary enzyme that generates immunosuppressive metabolites. It plays a major role in tumor immunology and is a potential immune-based therapeutic target. We have reported that IDO1 protein expression was associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome in esophageal cancer. Recently, it has been reported that IDO1 expression is regulated by methylation of the IDO1 promoter. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IDO1 expression, IDO1 promoter methylation, and clinicopathological features in esophageal cancer. We first confirmed changes in IDO1 expression levels in vitro by treating cells with 5-azacytidine. We then evaluated the relationship between IDO1 expression levels, IDO1 promoter methylation (bisulfite pyrosequencing), and clinicopathological features using 40 frozen samples and 242 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples resected from esophageal cancer patients. We treated cell lines with 5-azacytidine, and the resulting hypomethylation induced significantly higher IDO1 expression (P < .001). In frozen samples, IDO1 expression levels correlated inversely with IDO1 promoter methylation levels (R = -0.47, P = .0019). Furthermore, patients in the IDO1 promoter hypomethylation group (n = 67) had a poor prognosis compared with those in the IDO1 promoter hypermethylation group (n = 175) (overall survival, P = .011). Our results showed that IDO1 promoter hypomethylation regulated IDO1 expression and was associated with a poor prognosis in esophageal cancer patients.

Maletzki C, Scheinpflug P, Witt A, et al.
Targeting Immune-Related Molecules in Cancer Therapy: A Comprehensive
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:4938285 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study investigated the impact of immune-related pathway inhibition, among them indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), alone and together with immune cells on growth and viability of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. A panel of patient-derived CRC cell lines with different molecular characteristics (CpG island methylator phenotype, chromosomal, and microsatellite instability) was included. Initial phenotyping of CRC cell lines (n=17) revealed high abundance of immunosuppressive checkpoint-molecules in general, but an individual profile for IDO. Presence of immune-related molecules was independent of the molecular subtype. Selective treatment of CRC cell lines showing high or low IDO expression (n=2 cell lines each) was performed with single agents and combinations of Indoximod, Curcumin, and Gemcitabine with and without the addition of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in an allogeneic setting. All substances affected CRC cell growth in a cell line specific manner. The combination of Curcumin and Gemcitabine proved to be most effective in tumor cell elimination. Functional read-out analyses identified cellular senescence, after both single and combined treatment. Curcumin alone exerted strong cytotoxic effects by inducing early and late apoptosis. Necrosis was not detectable at all. Addition of lymphocytes generally boosted antitumoral effects of all IDO-inhibitors, with up to 80 % cytotoxicity for the Curcumin treatment. Here, no obvious differences became apparent between individual cell lines. Combined application of Curcumin and low-dose chemotherapy is a promising strategy to kill tumor target cells and to stimulate antitumoral immune responses.

Zhang S, Zhang E, Long J, et al.
Immune infiltration in renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(5):1564-1572 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune infiltration of tumors is closely associated with clinical outcome in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) regulate cancer progression and are appealing therapeutic targets. The purpose of this study was to determine the composition of TIICs in RCC and further reveal the independent prognostic values of TIICs. CIBERSORT, an established algorithm, was applied to estimate the proportions of 22 immune cell types based on gene expression profiles of 891 tumors. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of TIICs and immune checkpoint modulators with overall survival (OS). We found that CD8+ T cells were associated with prolonged OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI].01-.53; P = 0.03) in chromophobe carcinoma (KICH). A higher proportion of regulatory T cells was associated with a worse outcome (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.23-.06; P < 0.01) in renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). In renal papillary cell carcinoma (KIRP), M1 macrophages were associated with a favorable outcome (HR = .43, 95% CI .25-.72; P < 0.01), while M2 macrophages indicated a worse outcome (HR = 2.55, 95% CI 1.45-4.47; P < 0.01). Moreover, the immunomodulator molecules CTLA4 and LAG3 were associated with a poor prognosis in KIRC, and IDO1 and PD-L2 were associated with a poor prognosis in KIRP. This study indicates TIICs are important determinants of prognosis in RCC meanwhile reveals potential targets and biomarkers for immunotherapy development.

Liu H, Wang SH, Chen SC, et al.
Zoledronic acid blocks the interaction between breast cancer cells and regulatory T-cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, inhibits osteoclastogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that ZA has anti-tumor and anti-metastatic properties for breast cancer cells. In a mouse model of ZA-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, ZA administration was found to suppress regulatory T-cells (Tregs) function. Our previous reports also demonstrated ZA acted as an immune modulator to block Tregs. Manipulation of Tregs represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. However, the relationship among ZA, Tregs, and cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of ZA on the interaction of breast cancer cells and Tregs.
METHODS: The anti-tumor effect of ZA on triple negative breast cancer cell lines were validated by XTT, wound healing and apoptosis analysis. A flow cytometry-based assay was used to analyze the immunosuppressive effect of Tregs treated with media conditioned by breast cancer cells, and a transwell assay was used to evaluate the chemotactic migration of Tregs. Differential gene expression profile on MDA-MB-231 treated with ZA (25 μM) was analyzed by. microarrays to describe the molecular basis of actions of ZA for possible direct anti-tumor effects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the effect of ZA on the expression of cytokines/factors by breast cancer cells.
RESULTS: ZA was found to inhibit the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. Media conditioned by the MDA-MB-231 cells promoted the expansion, chemotactic migration, and immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, and these effects were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by ZA treatment, and the attenuation was due to reduced expression of selected breast cancer cell factors (CCL2, CCL5, and IDO).
CONCLUSIONS: ZA can significantly affect the interaction between breast cancer cells and Tregs. Our findings indicate that ZA is a potential therapeutic agent that can be used to reduce cancer aggressiveness by abolishing the supportive role of Tregs.

Lemos H, Huang L, Prendergast GC, Mellor AL
Immune control by amino acid catabolism during tumorigenesis and therapy.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2019; 19(3):162-175 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immune checkpoints arise from physiological changes during tumorigenesis that reprogramme inflammatory, immunological and metabolic processes in malignant lesions and local lymphoid tissues, which constitute the immunological tumour microenvironment (TME). Improving clinical responses to immune checkpoint blockade will require deeper understanding of factors that impact local immune balance in the TME. Elevated catabolism of the amino acids tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) is a common TME hallmark at clinical presentation of cancer. Cells catabolizing Trp and Arg suppress effector T cells and stabilize regulatory T cells to suppress immunity in chronic inflammatory diseases of clinical importance, including cancers. Processes that induce Trp and Arg catabolism in the TME remain incompletely defined. Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and arginase 1 (ARG1), which catabolize Trp and Arg, respectively, respond to inflammatory cues including interferons and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) cytokines. Dying cells generate inflammatory signals including DNA, which is sensed to stimulate the production of type I interferons via the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) adaptor. Thus, dying cells help establish local conditions that suppress antitumour immunity to promote tumorigenesis. Here, we review evidence that Trp and Arg catabolism contributes to inflammatory processes that promote tumorigenesis, impede immune responses to therapy and might promote neurological comorbidities associated with cancer.

Gupta A, Shah K, Oza MJ, Behl T
Reactivation of p53 gene by MDM2 inhibitors: A novel therapy for cancer treatment.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:484-492 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer is an uncontrolled and abnormal growth of cells in the body. Gene that guards the cell cycle and function as tumor suppressor is p53 (also called as the guardian of the genome) which is encoded by the TP53 gene. Various events like DNA damage, heat shock, hypoxia and oncogene over expression, results in activation of p53.Thus, it plays a major role as a regulatory protein which regulates various diverse biological responses, responsible for genetic stability by preventing genome mutation. More than 50% mutations in human cancers along with the increase in expression of murine double minute 2 gene (mdm2), has been found as one of the reason for cancer progression. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is the negative regulator of p53 gene forming an autoregulatory feedback loop controlling each other cellular levels. Murine double minute 2 is unique E3 ubiquitin ligase protein which is responsible for ubiquitination and degradation of p53 gene. Many drugs/compounds have been developed for reactivation of p53 gene by inhibiting MDM2 interaction with p53, using MDM2 antagonism, inhibiting E3 ubiquitination of p53. Many compounds have entered clinical trials in haematological malignancies. This review will throw some light on reactivation of p53 gene by MDM2 and its homologues.

Ledergor G, Weiner A, Zada M, et al.
Single cell dissection of plasma cell heterogeneity in symptomatic and asymptomatic myeloma.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(12):1867-1876 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma, a plasma cell malignancy, is the second most common blood cancer. Despite extensive research, disease heterogeneity is poorly characterized, hampering efforts for early diagnosis and improved treatments. Here, we apply single cell RNA sequencing to study the heterogeneity of 40 individuals along the multiple myeloma progression spectrum, including 11 healthy controls, demonstrating high interindividual variability that can be explained by expression of known multiple myeloma drivers and additional putative factors. We identify extensive subclonal structures for 10 of 29 individuals with multiple myeloma. In asymptomatic individuals with early disease and in those with minimal residual disease post-treatment, we detect rare tumor plasma cells with molecular characteristics similar to those of active myeloma, with possible implications for personalized therapies. Single cell analysis of rare circulating tumor cells allows for accurate liquid biopsy and detection of malignant plasma cells, which reflect bone marrow disease. Our work establishes single cell RNA sequencing for dissecting blood malignancies and devising detailed molecular characterization of tumor cells in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.

Takeya H, Shiota T, Yagi T, et al.
High CD169 expression in lymph node macrophages predicts a favorable clinical course in patients with esophageal cancer.
Pathol Int. 2018; 68(12):685-693 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent findings indicate CD169-positive lymph node sinus macrophages (LySMs) in the regional lymph nodes (RLNs) play an important role in anti-cancer immunity. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between CD169 expression in RLNs and clinicopathologic factors. Higher CD169 expression in LySMs was significantly associated with longer cancer-specific survival (CSS). The density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the cancer nest and CD169 expression on LySMs were positively associated in patients who underwent pretreatment. As CD169 expression is thought to reflect a high interferon signature in RLNs, we tried to identify immunity-related genes that are up-regulated by interferon in macrophages as well as CD169. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) was found to be elevated by interferon, and expression of IDO1 was tested using immunohistochemistry. IDO1 expression on LySMs was positively correlated with CD169 expression; however, there was no significant correlation between IDO1 and clinicopathologic factors. These results suggest that high expression of CD169 in LySMs reflects a high potential for anti-cancer immune responses in esophageal cancer patients and that monitoring CD169 expression would be useful for evaluating the potential of anti-cancer immune reactions.

Conway JR, Kofman E, Mo SS, et al.
Genomics of response to immune checkpoint therapies for cancer: implications for precision medicine.
Genome Med. 2018; 10(1):93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapies, which potentiate the body's natural immune response against tumor cells, have shown immense promise in the treatment of various cancers. Currently, tumor mutational burden (TMB) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression are the primary biomarkers evaluated for clinical management of cancer patients across histologies. However, the wide range of responses has demonstrated that the specific molecular and genetic characteristics of each patient's tumor and immune system must be considered to maximize treatment efficacy. Here, we review the various biological pathways and emerging biomarkers implicated in response to PD-(L)1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) therapies, including oncogenic signaling pathways, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variability, mutation and neoantigen burden, microbiome composition, endogenous retroviruses (ERV), and deficiencies in chromatin remodeling and DNA damage repair (DDR) machinery. We also discuss several mechanisms that have been observed to confer resistance to ICB, such as loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), loss of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I/II expression, and activation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) pathways. Clinical trials testing the combination of PD-(L)1 or CTLA-4 blockade with molecular mediators of these pathways are becoming more common and may hold promise for improving treatment efficacy and response. Ultimately, some of the genes and molecular mechanisms highlighted in this review may serve as novel biological targets or therapeutic vulnerabilities to improve clinical outcomes in patients.

Zhu L, Tu H, Liang Y, Tang D
MiR-218 produces anti-tumor effects on cervical cancer cells in vitro.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is critical in tumor immune escape, we determined to study the regulatory mechanism of miR-218 on IDO1 in cervical cancer.
METHODS: Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was carried out to measure the expression of miR-218. RT-qPCR and Western blot were performed to detect the expression of IDO1 in cervical cancer. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the binding of miR-218 on the IDO1 3'UTR. Cell viability, apoptosis, and related factors were determined using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), Annexin-V/PI (propidium) assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA), RT-qPCR, and Western blot assays after miR-218 mimics has been transfected to HeLa cervical cancer cells.
RESULTS: MiR-218 was downregulated in cervical cancer. The expression of miR-218 was negatively correlated with IDO1 in cervical cancer tissues and cells. IDO1 is a direct target of miR-218. MiR-218 overexpression was found to inhibit cell viability and promoted apoptosis via activating the expression of Cleaved-Caspase-3 and to inhibit the expression of Survivin, immune factors (TGF-β, VEGF, IL-6, PGE2, COX-2), and JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
CONCLUSION: MiR-218 inhibits immune escape of cervical cancer cells by direct downregulating IDO1.

Su S, Zhao J, Xing Y, et al.
Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Overcomes ADCP-Induced Immunosuppression by Macrophages.
Cell. 2018; 175(2):442-457.e23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) critically contribute to the efficacy of anti-tumor therapeutic antibodies. We report here an unexpected finding that macrophages after ADCP inhibit NK cell-mediated ADCC and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancers and lymphomas. Mechanistically, AIM2 is recruited to the phagosomes by FcγR signaling following ADCP and activated by sensing the phagocytosed tumor DNAs through the disrupted phagosomal membrane, which subsequently upregulates PD-L1 and IDO and causes immunosuppression. Combined treatment with anti-HER2 antibody and inhibitors of PD-L1 and IDO enhances anti-tumor immunity and anti-HER2 therapeutic efficacy in mouse models. Furthermore, neoadjuvant trastuzumab therapy significantly upregulates PD-L1 and IDO in the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) of HER2

Li S, Han X, Lyu N, et al.
Mechanism and prognostic value of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(12):3726-3736 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a tryptophan-metabolizing enzyme that is widely distributed in normal or malignant tissues and contributes to immunologic tolerance and immune escape. However, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the characteristics and mechanism of IDO1 expression have not been well defined. In this study, IDO1 expression in tumor cells (T-IDO1) was frequently detected (109/112) by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from HCC patients, and the expression patterns were mostly focal (102/109). Expression of T-IDO1 was significantly associated with the infiltration of CD8+ T cells (P = .043), as well as younger age (<50 years old, P = .02). It was also found that IDO1 had diffuse expression in inflammatory cells in all specimens, which were defined as antigen-presenting cells. Significant correlations among IDO1, IFNG, and CD8A transcriptional levels were observed in freshly resected HCC specimens; moreover, no constitutive IDO1 expression was detected in HCC cell lines until stimulated by interferon-γ through the JAK2-STAT1 signaling pathway, but not type I interferon. Survival analyses showed that increased T-IDO1 and CD8+ T cell infiltration were significantly associated with superior overall survival (OS) (T-IDO1, P = .003; CD8+ T cells, P = .004), and T-IDO1 expression is an independent prognosis factor in both OS and disease-free survival (OS, P = .007; disease-free survival, P = .044). These findings indicated that T-IDO1 expression in HCC is common and is dominantly driven by the host antitumor immune response, which is a favorable prognostic factor in HCC.

Cheng B, Yuan WE, Su J, et al.
Recent advances in small molecule based cancer immunotherapy.
Eur J Med Chem. 2018; 157:582-598 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunotherapy has been increasingly utilized for the treatment of cancer. Currently available cancer immunotherapies mainly involve the use of antibodies, which have advantages in terms of pharmacodynamics such as efficacy and specificity, however, they exhibit disadvantages in regard to the pharmacokinetics including but not limited to poor tissue and tumor penetration, very long half-life, and the lack of oral bioavailability. Also they are immunogenic and may cause undesired side effects. In addition, they are difficult and expensive to produce. In contrast to therapeutic antibodies, small molecule immuno-oncology agents generally have favorable pharmacokinetics, for example, better oral bioavailability, higher tissue and tumor penetration, reasonable half-lives etc. Furthermore, some small molecules are highly selective and efficacious with benign toxicity profiles. Therefore, small molecule immuno-oncology agents have the potential to overcome the drawbacks of therapeutic antibodies, and they can complement existing therapeutic antibodies and may also be used in combination with antibodies to achieve synergistic effects. In this article, we summarize the current advances in the field of small molecule approaches in tumor immunology which include the small molecules in clinical trials and preclinical studies, and the reported crystal structures of small molecules and their target proteins as well as the binding interactions between small molecules and the targets. The tumorigenesis mechanism of different targets (the programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1(PD1/PD-L1), retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-gamma t (RORγt), Chemokine receptor, Stimulator of Interferon Genes (Sting), Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), toll-like receptors (TLR) etc.) are also elucidated.

Sun Q, Li M, Wang X
The Cancer Omics Atlas: an integrative resource for cancer omics annotations.
BMC Med Genomics. 2018; 11(1):63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is an important data resource for cancer biologists and oncologists. However, a lack of bioinformatics expertise often hinders experimental cancer biologists and oncologists from exploring the TCGA resource. Although a number of tools have been developed for facilitating cancer researchers to utilize the TCGA data, these existing tools cannot fully satisfy the large community of experimental cancer biologists and oncologists without bioinformatics expertise.
METHODS: We developed a new web-based tool The Cancer Omics Atlas (TCOA, ) for fast and straightforward querying of TCGA "omics" data.
RESULTS: TCOA provides the querying of gene expression, somatic mutations, microRNA (miRNA) expression, protein expression data based on a single molecule or cancer type. TCOA also provides the querying of expression correlation between gene pairs, miRNA pairs, gene and miRNA, and gene and protein. Moreover, TCOA provides the querying of the associations between gene, miRNA, or protein expression and survival prognosis in cancers. In addition, TCOA displays transcriptional profiles across various human cancer types based on the pan-cancer analysis. Finally, TCOA provides the querying of molecular profiles for 2877 immune-related genes in human cancers. These immune-related genes include those that are established or promising targets for cancer immunotherapy such as CTLA4, PD1, PD-L1, PD-L2, IDO1, LAG3, and TIGIT.
CONCLUSIONS: TCOA is a useful tool that supplies a number of unique and new functions complementary to the existing tools to facilitate exploration of the TCGA resource.

Rolvering C, Zimmer AD, Ginolhac A, et al.
The PD-L1- and IL6-mediated dampening of the IL27/STAT1 anticancer responses are prevented by α-PD-L1 or α-IL6 antibodies.
J Leukoc Biol. 2018; 104(5):969-985 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-27 (IL27) is a type-I cytokine of the IL6/IL12 family and is predominantly secreted by activated macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that IL27 induces STAT factor phosphorylation in cancerous cell lines of different tissue origin. IL27 leads to STAT1 phosphorylation and recapitulates an IFN-γ-like response in the microarray analyses, with up-regulation of genes involved in antiviral defense, antigen presentation, and immune suppression. Like IFN-γ, IL27 leads to an up-regulation of TAP2 and MHC-I proteins, which mediate increased tumor immune clearance. However, both cytokines also upregulate proteins such as PD-L1 (CD274) and IDO-1, which are associated with immune escape of cancer. Interestingly, differential expression of these genes was observed within the different cell lines and when comparing IL27 to IFN-γ. In coculture experiments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells, pre-treatment of the HCC cells with IL27 resulted in lowered IL2 production by anti-CD3/-CD28 activated T-lymphocytes. Addition of anti-PD-L1 antibody, however, restored IL2 secretion. The levels of other T

Miyasato Y, Takashima Y, Takeya H, et al.
The expression of PD-1 ligands and IDO1 by macrophage/microglia in primary central nervous system lymphoma.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2018; 58(2):95-101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent progress in anti-tumor immunotherapy has focused on the significance of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression and resistance to chemo/radio-therapy. Myeloid cells such as macrophages are predominant stromal components in hematological malignancies. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of programmed death-1 (PD-1) ligand expression in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) using PCNSL cell lines and human monocyte-derived macrophages. TK PCNSL cell line-derived soluble factors induced overexpression of PD-1 ligands, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1), and several other cytokines in macrophages. The expression of PD-1 ligands was dependent on the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. PD-L1 and IDO1 were overexpressed by macrophage/microglia in PCNSL tissues, and gene expression profiling indicated that IDO1 expression was positively correlated with the expression of macrophage and lymphocyte markers. Macrophage-derived factors did not influence the proliferation or chemo-sensitivity of cell lines. These data suggest that the expression of immunosuppressive molecules, including PD-1 ligands and IDO1, by macrophage/microglia may be involved in immune evasion of lymphoma cells.

Sun S, Du G, Xue J, et al.
PCC0208009 enhances the anti-tumor effects of temozolomide through direct inhibition and transcriptional regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in glioma models.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2018 Jan-Dec; 32:2058738418787991 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which is highly expressed in human glioblastoma and involved in tumor immune escape and resistance to chemotherapy, is clinically correlated with tumor progression and poor clinical outcomes, and is a promising therapeutic target for glioblastoma. IDO inhibitors are marginally efficacious as single-agents; therefore, combination with other therapies holds promise for cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects and mechanisms of the IDO inhibitor PCC0208009 in combination with temozolomide. The effects of PCC0208009 on IDO activity inhibition, and mRNA and protein expression in HeLa cells were observed. In the mouse glioma GL261 heterotopic model, the effects of PCC0208009 on l-kynurenine/tryptophan (Kyn/Trp), tumor growth, flow cytometry for T cells within tumors, and immunohistochemistry for IDO and Ki67 were examined. In the rat glioma C6 orthotopic model, animal survival, flow cytometry for T cells within tumors, and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and IDO were examined. The results show that PCC0208009 is a highly effective IDO inhibitor, not only directly inhibiting IDO activity but also participating in the gene regulation of IDO expression at the transcription and translation levels. PCC0208009 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effects of temozolomide in GL261 and C6 models, by increasing the percentages of CD3

Wang D, Jiang W, Zhu F, et al.
Modulation of the tumor microenvironment by intratumoral administration of IMO-2125, a novel TLR9 agonist, for cancer immunotherapy.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(3):1193-1203 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of cancer immunotherapy is to prime the host's immune system to recognize and attack malignant tumor cells. IMO‑2125, a Toll‑like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, exhibited potent antitumor effects in the murine syngeneic A20 lymphoma and the CT26 colon carcinoma models. IMO‑2125 exhibited superior A20 antitumor activity when injected intratumorally (i.t.) compared with equivalent subcutaneous doses. In mice bearing dual CT26 grafts, the i.t. injection of right flank tumors elicited infiltration of cluster of differentiation (CD)3+ T lymphocytes into tumors, resulting in the regression of injected and uninjected left flank tumors. Depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+, T‑cells abrogated the IMO‑2125‑mediated antitumor response, suggesting that CD8+ lymphocytes are required for the antitumor activity. In mice harboring right flank CT26 and left flank β‑galactosidase (β‑gal)‑expressing CT26.CL25 grafts, the i.t. administration of IMO‑2125 to the CT26 graft resulted in potent and dose‑dependent antitumor activity against the two grafts. Splenic T‑cells isolated from these mice responded to AH1 antigen (present in the two tumors) and β‑gal antigen (present only in CT26.CL25) in an interferon γ enzyme‑linked immunospot assay, suggesting the clonal expansion of T‑cells directed against antigens from the two tumors. Mice with ablated CT26 tumors by previous IMO‑2125 treatment rejected re‑implanted CT26 tumor cells, but not A20 tumor cells, demonstrating that the initial IMO‑2125 treatment created a long‑lived tumor‑specific immune memory of CT26 antigens. A quantitative increase in CD3+ T lymphocytes in injected A20 tumors and an upregulation of selected checkpoint genes, including indoleamine 2,3‑dioxygenase (IDO)‑1, IDO‑2, programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1); programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1), carcinoembryonic antigen‑related cell adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 4 (OX40), OX40 ligand, T‑cell immunoglobulin and mucin‑domain‑containing 3 protein, lymphocyte‑activation gene 3, cytotoxic T‑lymphocyte‑associated protein 4, were observed following IMO‑2125 treatment. IMO‑2125 also increased immune checkpoint gene expression in injected and uninjected contralateral CT26 tumors, suggesting that the co‑administration of anti‑CTLA‑4, anti‑PD‑1 or anti‑PD‑L1 therapies with IMO‑2125 may provide additional therapeutic efficacy.

Xu PP, Sun C, Cao X, et al.
Immune Characteristics of Chinese Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapies.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 33:94-104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapeutic agents have demonstrated encouraging signs of clinical utility in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The goal of this study is to analyze the immune characteristics of Chinese patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to inform the development of immunotherapies in this patient population. Tumor samples from 211 DLBCL patients were analyzed for cell of origin (COO) and immune characteristics using the NanoString platform as well as MYC protein expression through immunohistochemistry. Lower incidence of the germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype (93/211, 44.1%) was observed in this cohort. Compared to the GCB subtype, the activated B-cell (ABC) subtype was associated with significantly increased expression of multiple pro-inflammatory gene signatures and decreased expression of anti-inflammatory gene signatures. Instead of affecting the pro-inflammatory genes, MYC protein overexpression showed a negative correlation with the expression of T-cell receptor (TCR) and T regulatory genes as well as the OX40 gene. Regardless of COO, higher PD-L1 or IDO1 gene expression correlated with increased expression of T effector and Interferon-γ gene signatures while the expression of multiple oncogenes including ACTR3B, ERBB2, AKT2 and SMARCD1 was down-regulated. Our findings may thus be helpful in guiding further development of immunotherapies for the different subsets of Chinese DLBCL patients.

Banzola I, Mengus C, Wyler S, et al.
Expression of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Induced by IFN-γ and TNF-α as Potential Biomarker of Prostate Cancer Progression.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1051 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Histological analysis of prostatectomy specimens has revealed focal inflammation in early stage lesions of this malignancy. We addressed the role of inflammatory stimuli in the release of PCa-specific, tumor-derived soluble factors (PCa-TDSFs) already reported to be mediators of PCa morbidity, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and interleukin (IL)-6. Inflammation-driven production and functions of PCa-TDFSs were tested "

Pei X, Wang X, Li H
LncRNA SNHG1 regulates the differentiation of Treg cells and affects the immune escape of breast cancer via regulating miR-448/IDO.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2018; 118(Pt A):24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of lncRNA SNHG1 in the immune escape of breast cancer (BC).
METHODS: SNHG1, miR-448 and IL-10 levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR. The protein levels of IDO and Foxp3 were measured by Western blot. SNHG1 and miR-448 interaction was tested by RIP assay and RNA pull-down assay. MiR-448 and IDO interaction was observed by luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: Compared with CD4
CONCLUSION: Interference SNHG1 could inhibit the differentiation of Treg cells by promoting miR-448 expression and reducing IDO level, thereby impeding the immune escape of BC.

Mari L, Hoefnagel SJM, Zito D, et al.
microRNA 125a Regulates MHC-I Expression on Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Cells, Associated With Suppression of Antitumor Immune Response and Poor Outcomes of Patients.
Gastroenterology. 2018; 155(3):784-798 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Immune checkpoint inhibition may affect growth or progression of highly aggressive cancers, such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We investigated the regulation of expression of major histocompatibility complex, class 1 (MHC-I) proteins (encoded by HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) and the immune response to EACs in patient samples.
METHODS: We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction array analyses of OE33 cells and OE19 cells, which express different levels of the ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (TAP1) and TAP2, required for antigen presentation by MHC-I, to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate their expression. We performed luciferase assays to validate interactions between miRNAs and potential targets. We overexpressed candidate miRNAs in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cell lines and performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, and flow cytometry analyses to identify changes in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression; we studied the effects of cytotoxic T cells. We performed miRNA in situ hybridization, RNA-sequencing, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor tissues from 51 untreated patients with EAC in the Netherlands. Clinical and survival data were collected for patients, and EAC subtypes were determined.
RESULTS: We found OE19 cells to have increased levels of 7 miRNAs. Of these, we found binding sites for miRNA 125a (MIR125a)-5p in the 3' untranslated region of the TAP2 mRNA and binding sites for MIR148a-3p in 3' untranslated regions of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C mRNAs. Overexpression of these miRNAs reduced expression of TAP2 in OE33, FLO-1, and OACP4 C cells, and reduced cell-surface levels of MHC-I. OE33 cells that expressed the viral peptide BZLF1 were killed by cytotoxic T cells, whereas OE33 that overexpressed MIR125a-5p or MIR 148a along with BZLF1 were not. In EAC and nontumor tissues, levels of MIR125a-5p correlated inversely with levels of TAP2 protein. High expression of TAP1 by EAC correlated with significantly shorter overall survival times of patients. EACs that expressed high levels of TAP1 and genes involved in antigen presentation also expressed high levels of genes that regulate the adaptive immune response, PD-L1, PD-L2, and IDO1; these EACs had a poor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and associated with shorter overall survival times of patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In studies of EAC cell lines and tumor tissues, we found increased levels of MIR125a-5p and MIR148a-3p to reduce levels of TAP2 and MHC-I, required for antigen presentation. High expression of MHC-I molecules by EAC correlated with markers of an adaptive immune response and significantly shorter overall survival times of patients.

Narayanan S, Kawaguchi T, Yan L, et al.
Cytolytic Activity Score to Assess Anticancer Immunity in Colorectal Cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2018; 25(8):2323-2331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Elevated tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) within the tumor microenvironment is a known positive prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that since cytotoxic T cells release cytolytic proteins such as perforin (PRF1) and pro-apoptotic granzymes (GZMA) to attack cancer cells, a cytolytic activity score (CYT) would be a useful tool to assess anticancer immunity.
METHODS: Genomic expression data were obtained from 456 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). CYT was defined by GZMA and PRF1 expression, and CIBERSORT was used to evaluate intratumoral immune cell composition.
RESULTS: High CYT was associated with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), as well as high levels of activated memory CD4+T cells, gamma-delta T cells, and M1 macrophages. CYT-high CRC patients had improved overall survival (p = 0.019) and disease-free survival (p = 0.016) compared with CYT-low CRC patients, especially in TIL-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that CYT- high associates with improved survival independently after controlling for age, lymphovascular invasion, colonic location, microsatellite instability, and TIL positivity. The levels of immune checkpoint molecules (ICMs)-programmed death-1 (PD-1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM3), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1)-correlated significantly with CYT (p < 0.0001); with improved survival in CYT-high and ICM-low patients, and poorer survival in ICM-high patients.
CONCLUSIONS: High CYT within CRC is associated with improved survival, likely due to increased immunity and cytolytic activity of T cells and M1 macrophages. High CYT is also associated with high expression of ICMs; thus, further studies to elucidate the role of CYT as a predictive biomarker of the efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade are warranted.

Zhang Y, Fu J, Shi Y, et al.
A new cancer immunotherapy via simultaneous DC-mobilization and DC-targeted IDO gene silencing using an immune-stimulatory nanosystem.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(8):2039-2052 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activity of negative immune regulatory molecules, such as indoleamine 2,3-oxygenase (IDO), significantly attenuates DC (Dendritic cells)-mediated immunotherapy. We have previously reported that knockdown of IDO using siRNA can reinstall anti-tumor immunity. However, a DC-targeted siRNA delivery system for in vivo mobilized DCs remains to be developed, while gene silencing in mobilized DCs for cancer immunotherapy has never been explored. In our study, we developed a novel DC-targeted siRNA delivery system, man-GNR-siIDO, using as a nanocarrier of siRNA specific for IDO (siIDO) and mannose (man) as a guide molecule for targeting DCs. We explored the immunostimulatory man-GNR-siIDO nano-construct in DCs mobilized by Flt3-L, a receptor-type tyrosine kinase ligand, for lung cancer immunotherapy. In vivo DC-targeted gene silencing of IDO resulted in robust anti-tumor immunity as evidenced by promoting DC maturation, up-regulating tumor antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and enhancing tumor-specific cytotoxicity. A combinatorial treatment for Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC)-bearing mice, with man-GNR-siIDO and Flt3-L, significantly attenuated tumor growth and delayed tumor formation, suggesting the treatment feasibility of the man-GNR-siIDO system in Flt3-L mobilized DCs in the immunotherapy of lung cancer. Therefore, our study highlights a clinical potential for a first-in-class anti-cancer immunotherapy through simultaneous DC-mobilization and DC-targeted gene silencing of IDO with man-GNR-siIDO and Flt3-L treatments.

Luo B, Que ZJ, Zhou ZY, et al.
Feiji Recipe inhibits the growth of lung cancer by modulating T-cell immunity through indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase pathway in an orthotopic implantation model.
J Integr Med. 2018; 16(4):283-289 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Escape from the body's immune response is a basic characteristic of lung cancer, and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays a key role in mediating immune escape of non-small-cell lung cancer, which leads to recurrence and metastasis. Feiji Recipe, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, has the effect of stabilizing lesions and prolonging survival in patients with lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer properties of Feiji Recipe.
METHODS: An orthotopic transplant model of mouse Lewis lung cancer, with stable expression of IDO gene, was established in C57BL/6 mice. Optical imaging was used to observe the effects of Feiji Recipe in the treatment of lung cancer in vivo. The effects of Feiji Recipe on the proliferation of mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line 2LL, 2LL-enhanced green fluorescent protein (2LL-EGFP) and 2LL-EGFP-IDO were investigated, and the apoptosis of T-cells was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide using flow cytometry. Chemical composition of Feiji Recipe was validated by high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the survival of animals treated with Feiji Recipe was significantly prolonged (P = 0.0074), and the IDO protein level decreased (P = 0.0072); moreover, the percentages of CD4
CONCLUSION: The molecular mechanism of Feiji Recipe in treatment of lung cancer is to restore the function of T-cells in the cancer microenvironment through interfering with the IDO pathway.

Wei L, Zhu S, Li M, et al.
High Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Is Correlated With Microvessel Density and Worse Prognosis in Breast Cancer.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catalyzes the breakdown of the essential amino acid tryptophan into kynurenine, is understood to have a key role in cancer immunotherapy. IDO has also received more attention because of its non-immune functions including regulating angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of IDO on microvessel density (MVD), and to explore its prognostic role in breast cancer. We showed IDO expression was positively correlated with MVD labeled by CD105 (MVD-CD105) rather than MVD labeled by CD31 (MVD-CD31) in breast cancer specimens. Both IDO expression and MVD-CD105 level were associated with initial TNM stage, histological grade, and tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) metastasis in breast cancer. In the prognostic analysis, TDLNs metastasis, an advanced TNM stage (III) and high histological grade (III) significantly predicted shorter survival in univariate analysis. Concentrating on IDO and MVD, the patients with IDO expression or high MVD level had poorer prognosis compared with no IDO expression [

Guastella AR, Michelhaugh SK, Klinger NV, et al.
Investigation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and the intrinsic tumoral component of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism in primary brain tumors.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(2):239-249 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence supporting the role of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) in the pathogenesis of primary brain tumors. Under normal physiological conditions, the KP is the major catabolic pathway for the essential amino acid tryptophan. However, in cancer cells, the KP becomes dysregulated, depletes local tryptophan, and contributes to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
METHODS: We examined the protein expression levels (in 73 gliomas and 48 meningiomas) of the KP rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, IDO2, and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), as well as, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a carcinogenic transcription factor activated by KP metabolites. In addition, we utilized commercially available small-molecules to pharmacologically modulate IDO1, IDO2, TDO2, and AhR in patient-derived glioma and meningioma cell lines (n = 9 each).
RESULTS: We observed a positive trend between the grade of the tumor and the average immunohistochemical staining score for IDO1, IDO2, and TDO2, with TDO2 displaying the strongest immunostaining. AhR immunostaining was present in all grades of gliomas and meningiomas, with the greatest staining intensity noted in glioblastomas. Immunocytochemical staining showed a positive trend between nuclear localization of AhR and histologic grade in both gliomas and meningiomas, suggesting increased AhR activation with higher tumor grade. Unlike enzyme inhibition, AhR antagonism markedly diminished patient-derived tumor cell viability, regardless of tumor type or grade, following in vitro drug treatments.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these results suggest that AhR may offer a novel and robust therapeutic target for a patient population with highly limited treatment options.

Li F, Zhao Y, Wei L, et al.
Tumor-infiltrating Treg, MDSC, and IDO expression associated with outcomes of neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(8):695-705 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells(Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells(MDSCs) represent two immunosuppressive cell populations that are important in the establishment and maintenance of cancer immune tolerance. MDSCs can express IDO and promote immune tolerance via expansion of Treg cell.
METHOD: We use needle biopsy breast cancer tissues prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy(NCT) staining for CD33, Foxp3 and IDO by immunohistochemistry to evaluate whether they were correlated with subsequent treatment responses in breast cancer.
RESULTS: Expressions of IDO, CD33
CONCLUSION: Tumor-infiltrating MDSCs, Tregs, IDO expression and IDO expression in MDSCs were correlated with clinicopathological features, NCT response, and prognosis of breast cancer patients, suggesting that they might be potential markers for clinical outcomes of NCT and help clinical decision-making for improved therapies for breast cancer.

Lee SJ, Jun SY, Lee IH, et al.
CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 expressions in tumor-infiltrating immune cells as prognostic biomarker for patients with MSI-high colon cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(6):1005-1014 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study attempted to reveal the prognostic impact of microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) colon cancer with tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) and immune checkpoint protein expression, which are good candidates for immunotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 89 patients with MSI-H colon cancer who underwent curative surgery at Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital. The expression status of specific inhibitory receptors, such as CD274 (programmed death-ligand 1, PD-L1), PDCD1 (programmed cell death 1, PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and indolamine 2'3'-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), was retrospectively analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC).
RESULTS: Among the 89 patients, CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 expressions in TIICs were observed in 68.6% (61 cases), 13.5% (12), and 28.1% (25) of patients, respectively. Meanwhile, CD274, CTLA4, and IDO1 were expressed in tumor cells of 24.7% (22 cases), 4.5% (4), and 72.0% (64) of patients, respectively. During the median follow-up duration of 39 months, 14 (15.7%) patients experienced disease recurrence. Among the five immune checkpoint proteins, CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 expressions in TIICs were significantly associated with a better disease-free survival (DFS) in a univariate analysis (P = 0.028, 0.037, and 0.030 respectively). Moreover, co-expression of CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 in TIICs showed an even better survival for DFS (P = 0.010). In a multivariate survival analysis, CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 expressions in TIICs remained as independent prognostic factors for a better DFS.
CONCLUSION: CD274, LAG3, and IDO1 expressions in TIICs showed a better prognosis for patients with MSI-H colon cancer. Thus, the potential therapeutic implications of these immune checkpoint molecules should be further investigated.

Singh J, Thota N, Singh S, et al.
Screening of over 1000 Indian patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer with a multi-gene panel: prevalence of BRCA1/2 and non-BRCA mutations.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 170(1):189-196 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast and/or ovarian cancers are among the most common cancers in women across the world. In the Indian population, the healthcare burden of breast and/or ovarian cancers has been steadily rising, thus stressing the need for early detection, surveillance, and disease management measures. However, the burden attributable to inherited mutations is not well characterized.
METHODS: We sequenced 1010 unrelated patients and families from across India with an indication of breast and/or ovarian cancers, using the TruSight Cancer panel which includes 14 genes, strongly associated with risk of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers. Genetic variations were identified using the StrandNGS software and interpreted using the StrandOmics platform.
RESULTS: We were able to detect mutations in 304 (30.1%) cases, of which, 56 mutations were novel. A majority (84.9%) of the mutations were detected in the BRCA1/2 genes as compared to non-BRCA genes (15.1%). When the cases were stratified on the basis of age at diagnosis and family history of cancer, the high rate of 75% of detection of hereditary variants was observed in patients whose age at diagnosis was below 40 years and had first-degree family member(s) affected by breast and/or ovarian cancers. Our findings indicate that in the Indian population, there is a high prevalence of mutations in the high-risk breast cancer genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PALB2.
CONCLUSION: In India, socioeconomic inequality limiting access to treatment is a major factor towards increased cancer burden; therefore, incorporation of a cost-effective and comprehensive multi-gene test will be helpful in ensuring widespread implementation of genetic screening in the clinical practice for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers.

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