MAP3K8

Gene Summary

Gene:MAP3K8; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8
Aliases: COT, EST, ESTF, TPL2, AURA2, MEKK8, Tpl-2, c-COT
Location:10p11.23
Summary:This gene is an oncogene that encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and can activate both the MAP kinase and JNK kinase pathways. This protein was shown to activate IkappaB kinases, and thus induce the nuclear production of NF-kappaB. This protein was also found to promote the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2 during T lymphocyte activation. This gene may also utilize a downstream in-frame translation start codon, and thus produce an isoform containing a shorter N-terminus. The shorter isoform has been shown to display weaker transforming activity. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MAP3K8 (cancer-related)

Latger-Cannard V, Philippe C, Bouquet A, et al.
Haematological spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations in nine unrelated families with RUNX1 mutations from the French network on inherited platelet disorders.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2016; 11:49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Less than 50 patients with FPD/AML (OMIM 601309) have been reported as of today and there may an underestimation. The purpose of this study was to describe the natural history, the haematological features and the genotype-phenotype correlations of this entity in order to, first, screen it better and earlier, before leukaemia occurrence and secondly to optimize appropriate monitoring and treatment, in particular when familial stem cell transplantation is considered.
METHODS: We have investigated 41 carriers of RUNX1 alteration belonging to nine unrelated French families with FPD/AML and two syndromic patients, registered in the French network on rare platelet disorders from 2005 to 2015.
RESULTS: Five missense, one non-sense, three frameshift mutations and two large deletions involving several genes including RUNX1 were evidenced. The history of familial leukaemia was suggestive of FPD/AML in seven pedigrees, whereas an autosomal dominant pattern of lifelong thrombocytopenia was the clinical presentation of two. Additional syndromic features characterized two large sporadic deletions. Bleeding tendency was mild and thrombocytopenia moderate (>50 x10(9)/L), with normal platelet volume. A functional platelet defect consistent with a δ-granule release defect was found in ten patients regardless of the type of RUNX1 alteration. The incidence of haematological malignancies was higher when the mutated RUNX1 allele was likely to cause a dominant negative effect (19/34) in comparison with loss of function alleles (3/9). A normal platelet count does not rule out the diagnosis of FPD/AML, since the platelet count was found normal for three mutated subjects, a feature that has a direct impact in the search for a related donor in case of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
CONCLUSIONS: Platelet dysfunction suggestive of defective δ-granule release could be of values for the diagnosis of FPD/AML particularly when the clinical presentation is an autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size in the absence of familial malignancies. The genotype-phenotype correlations might be helpful in genetic counselling and appropriate optimal therapeutic management.

Chauhan K, Arun A, Singh S, et al.
Bivalent Approach for Homodimeric Estradiol Based Ligand: Synthesis and Evaluation for Targeted Theranosis of ER(+) Breast Carcinomas.
Bioconjug Chem. 2016; 27(4):961-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The synthesis of estradiol based bivalent ligand [(EST)2DT] is reported and its potential for targeted imaging and therapy of ER(+) tumors has been evaluated. For the purpose, ethinylestradiol was functionalized with an azidoethylamine moiety via click chemistry. The resultant derivative was reacted in a bivalent mode with DTPA-dianhydride to form the multicoordinate chelating agent, (EST)2DT which displayed capability to bind (99m)Tc. The radiolabeled complex, (99m)Tc-(EST)2DT was obtained in >99% radiochemical purity and 20-48 GBq/μmol of specific activity. RBA assay revealed ∼15% binding with estrogen receptor. Evaluation of ligand on ER(+)-cell line (MCF-7) suggested enhanced and ER-mediated uptake. In vivo assays displayed early tracer accumulation in MCF-7 xenografts with tumor to muscle ratio ∼6 in 2 h and negligible uptakes in nontargeted organs. MTT assay performed on ER(+) and ER(-) cell lines displayed selective inhibition of ER(+) cancer cell growth with IC50 = 14.3 μM which was comparable to tamoxifen. The anticancer activity of the ligand is possibly due to the increase in ERβ and suppression of ERα protein levels in gene transcription. The studies reveal the potential of (EST)2DT as diagnostic imaging agent with the additional benefits in therapy.

Takagi M, Miki Y, Miyashita M, et al.
Intratumoral estrogen production and actions in luminal A type invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(1):45-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
The great majority of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is estrogen-dependent luminal A type carcinoma but the details of estrogen actions and its intratumoral metabolism have not been well studied compared to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). We first immunolocalized estrogen-related enzymes including estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) 1/2, and aromatase. We then evaluated the tissue concentrations of estrogens in ILC and IDC and subsequently estrogen-responsive gene profiles in these tumors in order to explore the possible differences and/or similarity of intratumoral estrogen environment of these two breast cancer subtypes. The status of STS and 17βHSD1 was significantly lower in ILCs than IDCs (p = 0.022 and p < 0.0001), but that of EST and 17βHSD2 vice versa (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0106). In ILCs, tissue concentrations of estrone and estradiol were lower than those in IDCs (p = 0.0709 and 0.069). In addition, the great majority of estrogen response genes tended to be lower in ILCs. Among those genes above, FOXP1 was significantly higher in ILCs than in IDCs (p = 0.002). FOXP1 expression was reported to be significantly higher in relapse-free IDC patients treated with tamoxifen. Therefore, tamoxifen may be considered an option of endocrine therapy for luminal A type ILC patients. This is the first study to demonstrate the detailed and comprehensive status of intratumoral production and metabolism of estrogens and the status of estrogen response genes in luminal A-like ILC with comparison to those in luminal A-like IDCs.

Esber N, Cherbonnier C, Resche-Rigon M, et al.
Anti-Tumoral Effects of Anti-Progestins in a Patient-Derived Breast Cancer Xenograft Model.
Horm Cancer. 2016; 7(2):137-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a hormone-dependent disease in which estrogen signaling targeting drugs fail in about 10 % due to resistance. Strong evidences highlighted the mitogen role of progesterone, its ligands, and the corresponding progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms in mammary carcinoma. Several PR antagonists have been synthesized; however, some of them are non-selective and led to side or toxic effects. Herein, we evaluated the anti-tumor activity of a commercially available PR modulator, ulipristal acetate (UPA), and a new selective and passive PR antagonist "APR19" in a novel preclinical approach based on patient-derived breast tumor (HBCx-34) xenografted in nude mice. As opposed to P4 that slightly reduces tumor volume, UPA and APR19 treatment for 42 days led to a significant 30 % reduction in tumor weight, accompanied by a significant 40 % retardation in tumor growth upon UPA exposure while a 1.5-fold increase in necrotic areas was observed in APR19-treated tumors. Interestingly, PR expression was upregulated by a 2.5-fold factor in UPA-treated tumors while APR19 significantly reduced expression of both PR and estrogen receptor α, indicating a potential distinct molecular mechanism among PR antagonists. Cell proliferation was clearly reduced in UPA group compared to vehicle conditions, as revealed by the significant reduction in Ki-67, Cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Likewise, an increase in activated, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression was also demonstrated upon UPA exposure. Collectively, our findings provide direct in vivo evidence for anti-progestin-mediated control of human breast cancer growth, given their anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities, supporting a potential role in breast cancer therapy.

Sturm D, Orr BA, Toprak UH, et al.
New Brain Tumor Entities Emerge from Molecular Classification of CNS-PNETs.
Cell. 2016; 164(5):1060-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive, poorly differentiated embryonal tumors occurring predominantly in young children but also affecting adolescents and adults. Herein, we demonstrate that a significant proportion of institutionally diagnosed CNS-PNETs display molecular profiles indistinguishable from those of various other well-defined CNS tumor entities, facilitating diagnosis and appropriate therapy for patients with these tumors. From the remaining fraction of CNS-PNETs, we identify four new CNS tumor entities, each associated with a recurrent genetic alteration and distinct histopathological and clinical features. These new molecular entities, designated "CNS neuroblastoma with FOXR2 activation (CNS NB-FOXR2)," "CNS Ewing sarcoma family tumor with CIC alteration (CNS EFT-CIC)," "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration (CNS HGNET-MN1)," and "CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR alteration (CNS HGNET-BCOR)," will enable meaningful clinical trials and the development of therapeutic strategies for patients affected by poorly differentiated CNS tumors.

Matrat M, Guida F, Mattei F, et al.
Welding, a risk factor of lung cancer: the ICARE study.
Occup Environ Med. 2016; 73(4):254-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to welding activity in ICARE, a population-based case-control study.
METHODS: Analyses were restricted to men (2276 cases, 2780 controls). Welding exposure was assessed through detailed questionnaires, including lifelong occupational history. ORs were computed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for lifelong cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos.
RESULTS: Among the regular welders, welding was associated with a risk of lung cancer (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), which increased with the duration (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.9 when duration >10 years), and was maximum 10-20 years since last welding. The risk was more pronounced in case of gas welding (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3), when the workpiece was covered by paint, grease, or other substances (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.4) and when it was cleaned with chemical substances before welding. No statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed among occasional welders.
CONCLUSIONS: Although these results should be confirmed, we showed that type of welding and mode of workpiece preparation are important determinants of the lung cancer risk in regular welders.

Yu H, Hageman Blair R
A FRAMEWORK FOR ATTRIBUTE-BASED COMMUNITY DETECTION WITH APPLICATIONS TO INTEGRATED FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS.
Pac Symp Biocomput. 2016; 21:69-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding community structure in networks has received considerable attention in recent years. Detecting and leveraging community structure holds promise for understanding and potentially intervening with the spread of influence. Network features of this type have important implications in a number of research areas, including, marketing, social networks, and biology. However, an overwhelming majority of traditional approaches to community detection cannot readily incorporate information of node attributes. Integrating structural and attribute information is a major challenge. We propose a exible iterative method; inverse regularized Markov Clustering (irMCL), to network clustering via the manipulation of the transition probability matrix (aka stochastic flow) corresponding to a graph. Similar to traditional Markov Clustering, irMCL iterates between "expand" and "inflate" operations, which aim to strengthen the intra-cluster flow, while weakening the inter-cluster flow. Attribute information is directly incorporated into the iterative method through a sigmoid (logistic function) that naturally dampens attribute influence that is contradictory to the stochastic flow through the network. We demonstrate advantages and the exibility of our approach using simulations and real data. We highlight an application that integrates breast cancer gene expression data set and a functional network defined via KEGG pathways reveal significant modules for survival.

Molinier-Frenkel V, Mestivier D, Castellano F
Alterations of the immunosuppressive IL4I1 enzyme activity induced by naturally occurring SNP/mutations.
Genes Immun. 2016; 17(2):148-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immunosuppressive phenylalanine oxidase interleukin 4-induced gene 1 (IL4I1), primarily produced by antigen-presenting cells, inhibits T-cell proliferation and promotes the generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in vitro. Highly expressed by tumour-associated macrophages from human cancers, IL4I1 has a potential role in immune evasion from the anti-tumour immune response. We have reviewed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations described for the exon 4 of the IL4I1 isoform 1, which is expressed in lymphoid tissue. Two of them were expressed in an exogenous system to analyse their effect on the enzymatic activity. The N92D SNP leads to a hyperactive enzyme, while the R102G mutation is hypomorphic. Moreover, we show that IL4I1 activity is not only directed against phenylalanine, as initially described, but also at a lower level against arginine. These data pave the way to more extensive analyses of the mutational state of IL4I1 in pathological conditions such as cancer, where its participation in immune system dysfunctions may have therapeutic implications.

Daly AF, Lysy PA, Desfilles C, et al.
GHRH excess and blockade in X-LAG syndrome.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016; 23(3):161-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described form of inheritable pituitary gigantism that begins in early childhood and is usually associated with markedly elevated GH and prolactin secretion by mixed pituitary adenomas/hyperplasia. Microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 including the GPR101 gene cause X-LAG syndrome. In individual cases random GHRH levels have been elevated. We performed a series of hormonal profiles in a young female sporadic X-LAG syndrome patient and subsequently undertook in vitro studies of primary pituitary tumor culture following neurosurgical resection. The patient demonstrated consistently elevated circulating GHRH levels throughout preoperative testing, which was accompanied by marked GH and prolactin hypersecretion; GH demonstrated a paradoxical increase following TRH administration. In vitro, the pituitary cells showed baseline GH and prolactin release that was further stimulated by GHRH administration. Co-incubation with GHRH and the GHRH receptor antagonist, acetyl-(d-Arg(2))-GHRH (1-29) amide, blocked the GHRH-induced GH stimulation; the GHRH receptor antagonist alone significantly reduced GH release. Pasireotide, but not octreotide, inhibited GH secretion. A ghrelin receptor agonist and an inverse agonist led to modest, statistically significant increases and decreases in GH secretion, respectively. GHRH hypersecretion can accompany the pituitary abnormalities seen in X-LAG syndrome. These data suggest that the pathology of X-LAG syndrome may include hypothalamic dysregulation of GHRH secretion, which is in keeping with localization of GPR101 in the hypothalamus. Therapeutic blockade of GHRH secretion could represent a way to target the marked hormonal hypersecretion and overgrowth that characterizes X-LAG syndrome.

Szablewski V, Ingen-Housz-Oro S, Baia M, et al.
Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center Lymphomas Expressing BCL2 Protein Frequently Harbor BCL2 Gene Break and May Present 1p36 Deletion: A Study of 20 Cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(1):127-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
The classification of cutaneous follicular lymphoma (CFL) into primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) or secondary cutaneous follicular lymphoma (SCFL) is challenging. SCFL is suspected when tumor cells express BCL2 protein, reflecting a BCL2 translocation. However, BCL2 expression is difficult to assess in CFLs because of numerous BCL2+ reactive T cells. To investigate these issues and to further characterize PCFCL, we studied a series of 25 CFLs without any extracutaneous disease at diagnosis, selected on the basis of BCL2 protein expression using 2 BCL2 antibodies (clones 124 and E17) and BOB1/BCL2 double immunostaining. All cases were studied using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization with BCL2, BCL6, IGH, IGK, IGL breakapart, IGH-BCL2 fusion, and 1p36/1q25 dual-color probes. Nineteen CFLs were BCL2 positive, and 6 were negative. After a medium follow-up of 24 (6 to 96) months, 5 cases were reclassified as SCFL and were excluded from a part of our analyses. Among BCL2+ PCFCLs, 60% (9/15) demonstrated a BCL2 break. BCL2-break-positive cases had a tendency to occur in the head and neck and showed the classical phenotype of nodal follicular lymphoma (CD10+, BCL6+, BCL2+, STMN+) compared with BCL2-break-negative PCFCLs. Del 1p36 was observed in 1 PCFCL. No significant clinical differences were observed between BCL2+ or BCL2- PCFCL. In conclusion, we show that a subset of PCFCLs harbor similar genetic alterations, as observed in nodal follicular lymphomas, including BCL2 breaks and 1p36 deletion. As BCL2 protein expression is usually associated with the presence of a BCL2 translocation, fluorescence in situ hybridization should be performed to confirm this hypothesis.

Denicolaï E, Tabouret E, Colin C, et al.
Molecular heterogeneity of glioblastomas: does location matter?
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(1):902-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastomas in adults are highly heterogeneous tumors that can develop throughout the brain. To date no predictive-location marker has been identified. We previously derived two glioblastoma cell lines from cortical and periventricular locations and demonstrated distinct transcriptomic profiles. Based on these preliminary results, the aim of this study was to correlate glioblastoma locations with the expression of ten selected genes (VEGFC, FLT4, MET, HGF, CHI3L1, PROM1, NOTCH1, DLL3, PDGFRA, BCAN). Fifty nine patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas were retrospectively included. Tumors were classified into cortical and periventricular locations, which were subsequently segregated according to cerebral lobes involved: cortical fronto-parietal (C-FP), cortical temporal (C-T), periventricular fronto-parietal (PV-FP), periventricular temporal (PV-T), and periventricular occipital (PV-O). Gene expression levels were determined using RT-qPCR. Compared to cortical glioblastomas, periventricular glioblastomas were characterized by a higher expression of two mesenchymal genes, VEGFC (p = 0.001) and HGF (p = 0.001). Among cortical locations, gene expressions were homogeneous. In contrast, periventricular locations exhibited distinct expression profiles. PV-T tumors were associated with higher expression of two proneural and cancer stem cell genes, NOTCH1 (p = 0.028) and PROM1 (p = 0.033) while PV-FP tumors were characterized by high expression of a mesenchymal gene, CHI3L1 (p = 0.006). Protein expression of NOTCH1 was correlated with RNA expression levels. PV-O glioblastomas were associated with lower expression of VEGFC (p = 0.032) than other periventricular locations, whereas MET overexpression remained exceptional. These data suggest a differential gene expression profile according to initial glioblastoma location.

Laurent C, Delas A, Gaulard P, et al.
Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: two distinct clinicopathological variants with different outcomes.
Ann Oncol. 2016; 27(2):306-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma associated with breast implant (i-ALCL) has been recently recognized as a distinct entity. Among 43 830 lymphomas registered in the French Lymphopath network since 2010, 300 breast lymphomas comprising 25 peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) were reviewed. Among PTCL, ALK-negative ALCL was the most frequent and all of them were associated with breast implants.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Since 2010, all i-ALCL cases were collected from different institutions through Lymphopath. Immuno-morphologic features, molecular data and clinical outcome of 19 i-ALCLs have been retrospectively analyzed.
RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 61 years and the median length between breast implant and i-ALCL was 9 years. Most implants were silicone-filled and textured. Implant removal was performed in 17 out of 19 patients with additional treatment based on mostly CHOP or CHOP-like chemotherapy regimens (n = 10/19) or irradiation (n = 1/19). CHOP alone or ABVD following radiation without implant removal have been given in two patients. The two clinical presentations, i.e. effusion and less frequently tumor mass correlated with distinct histopathologic features: in situ i-ALCL (anaplastic cell proliferation confined to the fibrous capsule) and infiltrative i-ALCL (pleomorphic cells massively infiltrating adjacent tissue with eosinophils and sometimes Reed-Sternberg-like cells mimicking Hodgkin lymphoma). Malignant cells were CD30-positive, showed a variable staining for EMA and were ALK negative. Most cases had a cytotoxic T-cell immunophenotype with variable T-cell antigen loss and pSTAT3 nuclear expression. T-cell receptor genes were clonally rearranged in 13 out of 13 tested cases. After 18 months of median follow-up, the 2-year overall survival for in situ and infiltrative i-ALCL was 100% and 52.5%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In situ i-ALCLs have an indolent clinical course and generally remain free of disease after implant removal. However, infiltrative i-ALCLs could have a more aggressive clinical course that might require additional therapy to implant removal.

Pujals A, Favre L, Pioche-Durieu C, et al.
Constitutive autophagy contributes to resistance to TP53-mediated apoptosis in Epstein-Barr virus-positive latency III B-cell lymphoproliferations.
Autophagy. 2015; 11(12):2275-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with various lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphomas. We have previously demonstrated that treating wild-type TP53-expressing B cell lines with the TP53 pathway activator nutlin-3 induced apoptosis in EBV-negative and EBV-positive latency I cells whereas EBV-positive latency III cells remained much more apoptosis-resistant. Here, we report a constitutively high level of autophagy in these resistant cells which express high levels of the proautophagic protein BECN1/Beclin 1 based, at least in part, on the activation of the NFKB signaling pathway by the viral protein LMP1. Following treatment with nutlin-3, several autophagy-stimulating genes were upregulated both in EBV-negative and EBV-positive latency III cells. However the process of autophagy was only triggered in the latter and was associated with an upregulation of SESN1/sestrin 1 and inhibition of MTOR more rapid than in EBV-negative cells. A treatment with chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, potentiated the apoptotic effect of nutlin-3, particularly in those EBV-positive cells which were resistant to apoptosis induced by nutlin-3 alone, thereby showing that autophagy participates in this resistant phenotype. Finally, using immunohistochemical staining, clinical samples from various B cell lymphoproliferations with the EBV-positive latency II or III phenotype were found to harbor a constitutively active autophagy.

Li X, Liu C, Ip BC, et al.
Tumor progression locus 2 ablation suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma development by inhibiting hepatic inflammation and steatosis in mice.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:138 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), a serine-threonine kinase, functions as a critical regulator of inflammatory pathways and mediates oncogenic events. The potential role of Tpl2 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development remains unknown.
METHODS: Both wild-type and Tpl2 knockout male mice were initiated by a hepatic carcinogen (diethylnitrosamine, i.p. with a single dose of 25 mg.kg(-1))at 2 weeks of age, and then were given the high carbohydrate diet feeding to induce hepatic steatosis, inflammation, adenoma and HCC for 24 weeks.
RESULTS: Tpl2 knockout mice had significantly lower incidences of liver tumor and developed hepatocellular adenoma only, which is contrast to wild-type mice where they all developed HCC. Tpl2 knockout mice had significantly down-regulated phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, and levels of mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, Il-18, Mcp-1 and Nalp3), which correlated with the reduced incidence and number of hepatic inflammatory foci. Furthermore, Tpl2 ablation resulted in decreased hepatic steatosis and expression of de novo lipogenesis related markers (ACC, SCD1, SREBP1C and AKT phosphorylation), as well as reduction of endoplasmic reticulum stress biomarkers PERK and eIF-2a.
CONCLUSION: The study revealed for the first time that Tpl2 plays a significant role in promoting HCC development by its pro-inflammatory effect, which suggested that Tpl2 could be a molecular target for HCC prevention.

Gooskens SL, Kenny C, Lazaro A, et al.
The clinical phenotype of YWHAE-NUTM2B/E positive pediatric clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):143-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) although uncommon, is the second most frequent renal malignancy of childhood. Until now, the sole recurrent genetic aberration identified in CCSKs is t(10;17)(q22;p13), which gives rise to a fusion transcript of YWHAE and NUTM2B/E. So far, the clinical relevance of this fusion transcript is unknown. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the clinical phenotype of t(10;17)(q22;p13) positive CCSKs. Snap-frozen tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues or RNA previously extracted from CCSK samples throughout European, North-American and Japanese study groups were screened by RT-PCR for the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E transcript. Clinical characteristics, tumor characteristics, and outcome of patients with and without the fusion transcript were studied. The cohort comprised 51 previously published cases to which were added 139 internationally collected CCSK samples. RNA from 57 of these additionally collected cases was of sufficient quality to be successfully screened for the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E transcript. In total, seven of the 108 cases harbored the fusion transcript. Patients with tumors containing the fusion transcript were relatively young (median age 10 months), had associated low median tumor volumes and stage I disease was not observed in these patients. Two of seven patients relapsed and one of seven patients died of disease. Ranges of values were not overtly different between patients with and without the fusion transcript; however, the number of fusion transcript positive cases turned out to be too small to permit reliable statistical analysis. The current study did not identify an explicit clinical phenotype of CCSK cases harboring the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusion transcript.

Calderaro J, Nault JC, Balabaud C, et al.
Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas developed in the setting of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(1):43-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular adenoma is considered to occur exclusively in non-fibrotic livers. It is a heterogeneous entity and a molecular classification is now widely accepted. The most frequent hepatocellular adenoma subtype, namely inflammatory adenoma, harbor somatic activating mutations of genes involved in the interleukin-6 pathway that lead to high C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A expression. The aim of our study was to investigate a series of benign hepatocellular neoplasms developed on cirrhotic livers and characterized by an unequivocal histological diagnosis. We performed a clinical, pathological, and molecular study of 10 benign hepatocellular neoplasms developed in three patients with cirrhosis. Markers allowing hepatocellular adenoma classification were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Samples were sequenced for CTNNB1, HNF1A, IL6ST, GNAS, STAT3, and TERT (promoter) mutations. A control series of 32 classical macronodules developed in cirrhosis related to various etiologies was screened by immunohistochemistry and gene sequencing. The three patients had cirrhosis related to metabolic syndrome and/or alcohol intake; two had a single tumor, while the third developed more than 30 lesions. Microscopic examination showed well-differentiated neoplasms sharing features with inflammatory adenoma including inflammatory infiltrates, sinusoidal dilatation, and dystrophic vessels. Sequencing revealed classical hotspot somatic mutations (IL6ST, n=8; STAT3, n=1; and GNAS, n=1) known to be responsible for IL-6/JAK/STAT pathway activation. Two classical high-grade macronodules demonstrated high serum amyloid A and/or C-reactive protein expression, without gene mutations. Altogether, our findings support the existence of rare inflammatory adenoma developed in cirrhosis.

Esber N, Le Billan F, Resche-Rigon M, et al.
Ulipristal Acetate Inhibits Progesterone Receptor Isoform A-Mediated Human Breast Cancer Proliferation and BCl2-L1 Expression.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140795 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The progesterone receptor (PR) with its isoforms and ligands are involved in breast tumorigenesis and prognosis. We aimed at analyzing the respective contribution of PR isoforms, PRA and PRB, in breast cancer cell proliferation in a new estrogen-independent cell based-model, allowing independent PR isoforms analysis. We used the bi-inducible human breast cancer cell system MDA-iPRAB. We studied the effects and molecular mechanisms of action of progesterone (P4) and ulipristal acetate (UPA), a new selective progesterone receptor modulator, alone or in combination. P4 significantly stimulated MDA-iPRA expressing cells proliferation. This was associated with P4-stimulated expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2-L1 and enhanced recruitment of PRA, SRC-1 and RNA Pol II onto the +58 kb PR binding motif of the BCL2-L1 gene. UPA decreased cell proliferation and repressed BCL2-L1 expression in the presence of PRA, correlating with PRA and SRC1 but not RNA Pol II recruitment. These results bring new information on the mechanism of action of PR ligands in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation through PRA in an estrogen independent model. Evaluation of PR isoforms ratio, as well as molecular signature studies based on PRA target genes could be proposed to facilitate personalized breast cancer therapy. In this context, UPA could be of interest in endocrine therapy. Further confirmation in the clinical setting is required.

Gruosso T, Garnier C, Abelanet S, et al.
MAP3K8/TPL-2/COT is a potential predictive marker for MEK inhibitor treatment in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8583 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a silent disease with a poor prognosis that urgently requires new therapeutic strategies. In low-grade ovarian tumours, mutations in the MAP3K BRAF gene constitutively activate the downstream kinase MEK. Here we demonstrate that an additional MAP3K, MAP3K8 (TPL-2/COT), accumulates in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSCs) and is a potential prognostic marker for these tumours. By combining analyses on HGSC patient cohorts, ovarian cancer cells and patient-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that MAP3K8 controls cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating key players in G1/S transition and adhesion dynamics. In addition, we show that the MEK pathway is the main pathway involved in mediating MAP3K8 function, and that MAP3K8 exhibits a reliable predictive value for the effectiveness of MEK inhibitor treatment. Our data highlight key roles for MAP3K8 in HGSC and indicate that MEK inhibitors could be a useful treatment strategy, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, for this disease.

Bollard J, Massoma P, Vercherat C, et al.
The axon guidance molecule semaphorin 3F is a negative regulator of tumor progression and proliferation in ileal neuroendocrine tumors.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36731-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastro-intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are rare neoplasms, frequently metastatic, raising difficult clinical and therapeutic challenges due to a poor knowledge of their biology. As neuroendocrine cells express both epithelial and neural cell markers, we studied the possible involvement in GI-NETs of axon guidance molecules, which have been shown to decrease tumor cell proliferation and metastatic dissemination in several tumor types. We focused on the role of Semaphorin 3F (SEMA3F) in ileal NETs, one of the most frequent subtypes of GI-NETs.SEMA3F expression was detected in normal neuroendocrine cells but was lost in most of human primary tumors and all their metastases. SEMA3F loss of expression was associated with promoter gene methylation. After increasing endogenous SEMA3F levels through stable transfection, enteroendocrine cell lines STC-1 and GluTag showed a reduced proliferation rate in vitro. In two different xenograft mouse models, SEMA3F-overexpressing cells exhibited a reduced ability to form tumors and a hampered liver dissemination potential in vivo. This resulted, at least in part, from the inhibition of mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways.This study demonstrates an anti-tumoral role of SEMA3F in ileal NETs. We thus suggest that SEMA3F and/or its cellular signaling pathway could represent a target for ileal NET therapy.

Tauziede-Espariat A, Maues de Paula A, Pages M, et al.
Primary Leptomeningeal Gliomatosis in Children and Adults: A Morphological and Molecular Comparative Study With Literature Review.
Neurosurgery. 2016; 78(3):343-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PLG) is a poorly recognized tumor of the central nervous system.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of PLG.
METHODS: Results of our multicentric retrospective study of 6 PLG cases (3 pediatric and 3 adult) were compared with literature data.
RESULTS: The mean age was 54.7 years for adults and 8.7 years for children, with 3 males and 3 females. Clinical symptoms were nonspecific. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses showed a high protein level often associated with pleocytosis but without neoplastic cells. On neuroimaging, diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement and hydrocephalus were observed, except in 1 case. PLG was mostly misinterpreted as infectious or tumoral meningitis. The first biopsy was negative in 50% of cases. Histopathologically, PLG cases corresponded to 1 oligodendroglioma without 1p19q codeletion and 5 astrocytomas without expression of p53. No immunostaining for IDH1R132H and no mutations of IDH1/2 and H3F3A genes were found. Overall survival was highly variable (2-82 months) but seems to be increased in children treated with chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: This study shows the difficulties of PLG diagnosis. The challenge is to achieve an early biopsy to establish a diagnosis and to begin a treatment, but the prognosis remains poor. PLG seems to have a different molecular and immunohistochemical pattern compared with intraparenchymal malignant gliomas.

Thevenon J, Bourredjem A, Faivre L, et al.
Unraveling the intrafamilial correlations and heritability of tumor types in MEN1: a Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines study.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2015; 173(6):819-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MEN1, which is secondary to the mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Most studies demonstrated the absence of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. The existence of a higher risk of death in the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines-cohort associated with a mutation in the JunD interacting domain suggests heterogeneity across families in disease expressivity. This study aims to assess the existence of modifying genetic factors by estimating the intrafamilial correlations and heritability of the six main tumor types in MEN1.
METHODS: The study included 797 patients from 265 kindred and studied seven phenotypic criteria: parathyroid and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and pituitary, adrenal, bronchial, and thymic (thNET) tumors and the presence of metastasis. Intrafamilial correlations and heritability estimates were calculated from family tree data using specific validated statistical analysis software.
RESULTS: Intrafamilial correlations were significant and decreased along parental degrees distance for pituitary, adrenal and thNETs. The heritability of these three tumor types was consistently strong and significant with 64% (s.e.m.=0.13; P<0.001) for pituitary tumor, 65% (s.e.m.=0.21; P<0.001) for adrenal tumors, and 97% (s.e.m.=0.41; P=0.006) for thNETs.
CONCLUSION: The present study shows the existence of modifying genetic factors for thymus, adrenal, and pituitary MEN1 tumor types. The identification of at-risk subgroups of individuals within cohorts is the first step toward personalization of care. Next generation sequencing on this subset of tumors will help identify the molecular basis of MEN1 variable genetic expressivity.

Copie-Bergman C, Cuillière-Dartigues P, Baia M, et al.
MYC-IG rearrangements are negative predictors of survival in DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy: a GELA/LYSA study.
Blood. 2015; 126(22):2466-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) carries an unfavorable outcome. We explored the prognostic value of the MYC translocation partner gene in a series of MYC-R de novo DLBCL patients enrolled in first-line prospective clinical trials (Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte/Lymphoma Study Association) and treated with rituximab-anthracycline-based chemotherapy. A total of 774 DLBCL cases characterized for cell of origin by the Hans classifier were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with BCL2, BCL6, MYC, immunoglobulin (IG)K, and IGL break-apart and IGH/MYC, IGK/MYC, and IGL/MYC fusion probes. MYC-R was observed in 51/574 (8.9%) evaluable DLBCL cases. MYC-R cases were predominantly of the germinal center B-cell-like subtype 37/51 (74%) with no distinctive morphologic and phenotypic features. Nineteen cases were MYC single-hit and 32 cases were MYC double-hit (MYC plus BCL2 and/or BCL6) DLBCL. MYC translocation partner was an IG gene in 24 cases (MYC-IG) and a non-IG gene (MYC-non-IG) in 26 of 50 evaluable cases. Noteworthy, MYC-IG patients had shorter overall survival (OS) (P = .0002) compared with MYC-negative patients, whereas no survival difference was observed between MYC-non-IG and MYC-negative patients. In multivariate analyses, MYC-IG predicted poor progression-free survival (P = .0051) and OS (P = .0006) independently from the International Prognostic Index and the Hans classifier. In conclusion, we show in this prospective randomized trial that the adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R is correlated to the MYC-IG translocation partner gene in DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy. These results may have an important impact on the clinical management of DLBCL patients with MYC-R who should be routinely characterized according to MYC partner gene. These trials are individually registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00144807, #NCT01087424, #NCT00169143, #NCT00144755, #NCT00140660, #NCT00140595, and #NCT00135499.

Le Loarer F, Watson S, Pierron G, et al.
SMARCA4 inactivation defines a group of undifferentiated thoracic malignancies transcriptionally related to BAF-deficient sarcomas.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(10):1200-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
While investigating cohorts of unclassified sarcomas by RNA sequencing, we identified 19 cases with inactivation of SMARCA4, which encodes an ATPase subunit of BAF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Clinically, the cases were all strikingly similar, presenting as compressive mediastino-pulmonary masses in 30- to 35-year-old adults with a median survival time of 7 months. To help define the nosological relationships of these tumors, we compared their transcriptomic profiles with those of SMARCA4-mutated small-cell carcinomas of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHTs), SMARCB1-inactivated malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) and lung carcinomas (of which 10% display SMARCA4 mutations). Gene profiling analyses demonstrated that these tumors were distinct from lung carcinomas but related to MRTs and SCCOHTs. Transcriptome analyses, further validated by immunohistochemistry, highlighted strong expression of SOX2, a marker that supports the differential diagnosis of these tumors from SMARCA4-deficient lung carcinomas. The prospective recruitment of cases confirmed this new category of 'SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas' as readily recognizable in clinical practice, providing opportunities to tailor their therapeutic management.

Khaznadar Z, Boissel N, Agaugué S, et al.
Defective NK Cells in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients at Diagnosis Are Associated with Blast Transcriptional Signatures of Immune Evasion.
J Immunol. 2015; 195(6):2580-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies that may be sensitive to the NK cell antitumor response. However, NK cells are frequently defective in AML. In this study, we found in an exploratory cohort (n = 46) that NK cell status at diagnosis of AML separated patients in two groups with a different clinical outcome. Patients with a deficient NK cell profile, including reduced expression of some activating NK receptors (e.g., DNAX accessory molecule-1, NKp46, and NKG2D) and decreased IFN-γ production, had a significantly higher risk of relapse (p = 0.03) independently of cytogenetic classification in multivariate analysis. Patients with defective NK cells showed a profound gene expression decrease in AML blasts for cytokine and chemokine signaling (e.g., IL15, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, and CXCR4), Ag processing (e.g., HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, and CD74) and adhesion molecule pathways (e.g., PVR and ICAM1). A set of 388 leukemic classifier genes defined in the exploratory cohort was independently validated in a multicentric cohort of 194 AML patients. In total, these data evidenced the interplay between NK cells and AML blasts at diagnosis allowing an immune-based stratification of AML patients independently of clinical classifications.

Ramzan M, Sturm N, Decaens T, et al.
Liver-infiltrating CD8(+) lymphocytes as prognostic factor for tumour recurrence in hepatitis C virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Liver Int. 2016; 36(3):434-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver inflammation and immune/inflammatory response promote hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune status of HCV-related cirrhosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCV-HCC) as compared to HCV patients without hepatocellular carcinoma.
METHOD: Immune markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD56, TCRγδ, FoxP3) and gene expression profiles (CD8α, CD8β, FoxP3, IL-6, IFN-γ, perforin, RANTES) were analysed in a test cohort by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR analysis on serial non-tumorous and tumorous tissues.
RESULTS: Immune micro-environment was more inflammatory in HCV-HCC than HCV cirrhotic livers. The number of CD3(+) , CD4(+) , CD8(+) and CD20(+) liver-infiltrating lymphocytes was significantly higher, whereas the number of CD56(+) cells was significantly lower in HCV-HCC compared to HCV cirrhotic parenchyma. These differences were restricted to fibrous septa for CD4(+) and CD20(+) cells and to nodular parenchyma for CD8(+) cells. Gene expressions of CD8α, FoxP3 and RANTES were also significantly higher in HCV-HCC than in HCV cirrhosis. Interestingly, in a large cohort of 63 HCV-HCC patients. The number of CD8(+) cells ≥100/field was associated with significant higher tumour recurrence (P = 0.003) and lower overall survival (P = 0.05) at 5 years.
CONCLUSION: High densities of liver-infiltrating lymphocytes in HCV-HCC cirrhotic parenchyma prevail inflammatory conditions and could contribute to tumorigenesis and tumour recurrence. These results could contribute towards better clinical evaluation of patients susceptible for HCC recurrence after curative surgery.

Moutal A, Honnorat J, Massoma P, et al.
CRMP5 Controls Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation and Survival through Notch-Dependent Signaling.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(17):3519-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Collapsin response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) belongs to a family of five cytosolic proteins that play a major role in nervous system development. This protein was first described in cancer-induced autoimmune processes, causing neurodegenerative disorders (paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes). CRMP5 expression has been reported to serve as a biomarker for high-grade lung neuroendocrine carcinomas; however, its functional roles have not been examined in any setting of cancer pathophysiology. In this study, we report two different CRMP5 expression patterns observed in human glioblastoma (GBM) biopsies that establish connections between CRMP5 expression, Notch receptor signaling, and GBM cell proliferation. We demonstrated that elevated CRMP5 promotes Notch receptor expression and Akt activation in human tumor cell lines, GBM stem cells, and primary tumor biopsies. We have shown that the high CRMP5 and Notch expression in GBM xenograft is related to stem cells. This suggests that high CRMP5 expression pattern in GBM biopsies encompasses a subset of stem cells. Mechanistically, CRMP5 functioned by hijacking Notch receptors from Itch-dependent lysosomal degradation. Our findings suggest that CRMP5 serves as a major mediator of Notch signaling and Akt activation by controlling the degradation of the Notch receptor, with implications for defining a biomarker signature in GBM that correlates with and may predict patient survival.

Heim S, Sill M, Jones DT, et al.
Papillary Tumor of the Pineal Region: A Distinct Molecular Entity.
Brain Pathol. 2016; 26(2):199-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a neuroepithelial brain tumor, which might pose diagnostic difficulties and recurs often. Little is known about underlying molecular alterations. We therefore investigated chromosomal copy number alterations, DNA methylation patterns and mRNA expression profiles in a series of 24 PTPRs. Losses of chromosome 10 were identified in all 13 PTPRs examined. Losses of chromosomes 3 and 22q (54%) as well as gains of chromosomes 8p (62%) and 12 (46%) were also common. DNA methylation profiling using Illumina 450k arrays reliably distinguished PTPR from ependymomas and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. PTPR could be divided into two subgroups based on methylation pattern, PTPR group 2 showing higher global methylation and a tendency toward shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.06). Genes overexpressed in PTPR as compared with ependymal tumors included SPDEF, known to be expressed in the rodent subcommissural organ. Notable SPDEF protein expression was encountered in 15/19 PTPRs as compared with only 2/36 ependymal tumors, 2/19 choroid plexus tumors and 0/23 samples of other central nervous system (CNS) tumor entities. In conclusion, PTPRs show typical chromosomal alterations as well as distinct DNA methylation and expression profiles, which might serve as useful diagnostic tools.

Sahay D, Leblanc R, Grunewald TG, et al.
The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(24):20604-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas.

Chaoui A, Kavo A, Baral V, et al.
Subnuclear re-localization of SOX10 and p54NRB correlates with a unique neurological phenotype associated with SOX10 missense mutations.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(17):4933-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX10 is a transcription factor with well-known functions in neural crest and oligodendrocyte development. Mutations in SOX10 were first associated with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease (WS4; deafness, pigmentation defects and intestinal aganglionosis). However, variable phenotypes that extend beyond the WS4 definition are now reported. The neurological phenotypes associated with some truncating mutations are suggested to be the result of escape from the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway; but, to date, no mechanism has been suggested for missense mutations, of which approximately 20 have now been reported, with about half of the latter shown to be redistributed to nuclear bodies of undetermined nature and function in vitro. Here, we report that p54NRB, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression during many cellular processes including differentiation, interacts synergistically with SOX10 to regulate several target genes. Interestingly, this paraspeckle protein, as well as two other members of the Drosophila behavior human splicing (DBHS) protein family, co-localize with SOX10 mutants in nuclear bodies, suggesting the possible paraspeckle nature of these foci or re-localization of the DBHS members to other subnuclear compartments. Remarkably, the co-transfection of wild-type and mutant SOX10 constructs led to the sequestration of wild-type protein in mutant-induced foci. In contrast to mutants presenting with additional cytoplasmic re-localization, those exclusively found in the nucleus alter synergistic activity between SOX10 and p54NRB. We propose that such a dominant negative effect may contribute to or be at the origin of the unique progressive and severe neurological phenotype observed in affected patients.

Delfau-Larue MH, Klapper W, Berger F, et al.
High-dose cytarabine does not overcome the adverse prognostic value of CDKN2A and TP53 deletions in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2015; 126(5):604-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
We revisited the prognostic value of frequently detected somatic gene copy number alterations (CNAs) in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients treated first line with immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), with or without high-dose cytarabine, in the randomized European MCL Younger trial. DNA extracted from tumor material of 135 patients (median age, 56 years) was analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and/or quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragments. As expected, MYC (18%) was the more frequently gained, whereas RB1 (26%), ATM (25%), CDKN2A (p16) (25%), and TP53 (22%) were the more frequently deleted. Whether adjusted for MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) or not, deletions of RB1, CDKN2A, TP53, and CDKN1B were associated with shorter overall survival (OS), similarly in both treatment arms, whereas CNAs in MYC, ATM, CDK2, CDK4, and MDM2 had no prognostic value. Additive effects were seen for CDKN2A (hazard ratio, 2.3; P = .007, MIPI-adjusted) and TP53 deletions (hazard ratio, 2.4; P = .007), reflected in a dismal outcome with simultaneous deletions (median OS, 1.8 years) compared with single deletions (median OS, 4.3 and 5.1 years) or without these deletions (median OS, 7 years), again similarly in both treatment arms. The additive prognostic effects of CDKN2A and TP53 deletions were independent of the Ki-67 index. Despite immunochemotherapy, high-dose cytarabine, and ASCT, younger MCL patients with deletions of CDKN2A (p16) and TP53 show an unfavorable prognosis and are candidates for alternative therapeutic strategies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00209222.

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