Gene Summary

Gene:MAP3K8; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8
Aliases: COT, EST, ESTF, TPL2, AURA2, MEKK8, Tpl-2, c-COT
Summary:This gene is an oncogene that encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and can activate both the MAP kinase and JNK kinase pathways. This protein was shown to activate IkappaB kinases, and thus induce the nuclear production of NF-kappaB. This protein was also found to promote the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2 during T lymphocyte activation. This gene may also utilize a downstream in-frame translation start codon, and thus produce an isoform containing a shorter N-terminus. The shorter isoform has been shown to display weaker transforming activity. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MAP3K8 (cancer-related)

Sautès-Fridman C, Petitprez F, Calderaro J, Fridman WH
Tertiary lymphoid structures in the era of cancer immunotherapy.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2019; 19(6):307-325 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) are ectopic lymphoid organs that develop in non-lymphoid tissues at sites of chronic inflammation including tumours. Key common characteristics between secondary lymphoid organogenesis and TLS neogenesis have been identified. TLSs exist under different maturation states in tumours, culminating in germinal centre formation. The mechanisms that underlie the role of TLSs in the adaptive antitumour immune response are being deciphered. The description of the correlation between TLS presence and clinical benefit in patients with cancer, suggesting that TLSs could be a prognostic and predictive factor, has drawn strong interest into investigating the role of TLSs in tumours. A current major challenge is to exploit TLSs to promote lymphocyte infiltration, activation by tumour antigens and differentiation to increase the antitumour immune response. Several approaches are being developed using chemokines, cytokines, antibodies, antigen-presenting cells or synthetic scaffolds to induce TLS formation. Strategies aiming to induce TLS neogenesis in immune-low tumours and in immune-high tumours, in this case, in combination with therapeutic agents dampening the inflammatory environment and/or with immune checkpoint inhibitors, represent promising avenues for cancer treatment.

Newman S, Fan L, Pribnow A, et al.
Clinical genome sequencing uncovers potentially targetable truncations and fusions of MAP3K8 in spitzoid and other melanomas.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(4):597-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spitzoid melanoma is a specific morphologic variant of melanoma that most commonly affects children and adolescents, and ranges on the spectrum of malignancy from low grade to overtly malignant. These tumors are generally driven by fusions of ALK, RET, NTRK1/3, MET, ROS1 and BRAF

D'Angelo F, Ceccarelli M, Tala, et al.
The molecular landscape of glioma in patients with Neurofibromatosis 1.
Nat Med. 2019; 25(1):176-187 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor predisposition syndrome in which glioma is one of the prevalent tumors. Gliomagenesis in NF1 results in a heterogeneous spectrum of low- to high-grade neoplasms occurring during the entire lifespan of patients. The pattern of genetic and epigenetic alterations of glioma that develops in NF1 patients and the similarities with sporadic glioma remain unknown. Here, we present the molecular landscape of low- and high-grade gliomas in patients affected by NF1 (NF1-glioma). We found that the predisposing germline mutation of the NF1 gene was frequently converted to homozygosity and the somatic mutational load of NF1-glioma was influenced by age and grade. High-grade tumors harbored genetic alterations of TP53 and CDKN2A, frequent mutations of ATRX associated with Alternative Lengthening of Telomere, and were enriched in genetic alterations of transcription/chromatin regulation and PI3 kinase pathways. Low-grade tumors exhibited fewer mutations that were over-represented in genes of the MAP kinase pathway. Approximately 50% of low-grade NF1-gliomas displayed an immune signature, T lymphocyte infiltrates, and increased neo-antigen load. DNA methylation assigned NF1-glioma to LGm6, a poorly defined Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 wild-type subgroup enriched with ATRX mutations. Thus, the profiling of NF1-glioma defined a distinct landscape that recapitulates a subset of sporadic tumors.

Bayard Q, Meunier L, Peneau C, et al.
Cyclin A2/E1 activation defines a hepatocellular carcinoma subclass with a rearrangement signature of replication stress.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5235 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclins A2 and E1 regulate the cell cycle by promoting S phase entry and progression. Here, we identify a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subgroup exhibiting cyclin activation through various mechanisms including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) insertions, enhancer hijacking and recurrent CCNA2 fusions. Cyclin A2 or E1 alterations define a homogenous entity of aggressive HCC, mostly developed in non-cirrhotic patients, characterized by a transcriptional activation of E2F and ATR pathways and a high frequency of RB1 and PTEN inactivation. Cyclin-driven HCC display a unique signature of structural rearrangements with hundreds of tandem duplications and templated insertions frequently activating TERT promoter. These rearrangements, strongly enriched in early-replicated active chromatin regions, are consistent with a break-induced replication mechanism. Pan-cancer analysis reveals a similar signature in BRCA1-mutated breast and ovarian cancers. Together, this analysis reveals a new poor prognosis HCC entity and a rearrangement signature related to replication stress.

Vargas G, Bouchet M, Bouazza L, et al.
ERRα promotes breast cancer cell dissemination to bone by increasing RANK expression in primary breast tumors.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(7):950-964 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone is the most common metastatic site for breast cancer. Estrogen-related-receptor alpha (ERRα) has been implicated in cancer cell invasiveness. Here, we established that ERRα promotes spontaneous metastatic dissemination of breast cancer cells from primary mammary tumors to the skeleton. We carried out cohort studies, pharmacological inhibition, gain-of-function analyses in vivo and cellular and molecular studies in vitro to identify new biomarkers in breast cancer metastases. Meta-analysis of human primary breast tumors revealed that high ERRα expression levels were associated with bone but not lung metastases. ERRα expression was also detected in circulating tumor cells from metastatic breast cancer patients. ERRα overexpression in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells promoted spontaneous bone micro-metastases formation when tumor cells were inoculated orthotopically, whereas lung metastases occurred irrespective of ERRα expression level. In vivo, Rank was identified as a target for ERRα. That was confirmed in vitro in Rankl stimulated tumor cell invasion, in mTOR/pS6K phosphorylation, by transactivation assay, ChIP and bioinformatics analyses. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of ERRα reduced primary tumor growth, bone micro-metastases formation and Rank expression in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptomic studies and meta-analysis confirmed a positive association between metastases and ERRα/RANK in breast cancer patients and also revealed a positive correlation between ERRα and BRCA1

Girard E, Eon-Marchais S, Olaso R, et al.
Familial breast cancer and DNA repair genes: Insights into known and novel susceptibility genes from the GENESIS study, and implications for multigene panel testing.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1962-1974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (OR

Yang J, Trépo E, Nahon P, et al.
PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants as risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma across various etiologies and severity of underlying liver diseases.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(3):533-544 [PubMed] Related Publications
Few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim was to test the association between nine SNPs and HCC occurrence. SNPs in genes linked to HCC (DEPDC5, GRIK1, KIF1B, STAT4, MICA, DLC1, DDX18) or to liver damage (PNPLA3-rs738409, TM6SF2-rs58542926) in GWAS were genotyped in discovery cohorts including 1,020 HCC, 2,021 controls with chronic liver disease and 2,484 healthy individuals and replication was performed in prospective cohorts of cirrhotic patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD, n = 249) and hepatitis C (n = 268). In the discovery cohort, PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 SNPs were associated with HCC (OR = 1.67 [CI95%:1.16-2.40], p = 0.005; OR = 1.45 [CI95%:1.08-1.94], p = 0.01) after adjustment for fibrosis, age, gender and etiology. In contrast, STAT4-rs7574865 was associated with HCC only in HBV infected patients (p = 0.03) and the other tested SNP were not linked with HCC risk. PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants were independently associated with HCC in patients with ALD (OR = 3.91 [CI95%:2.52-6.06], p = 1.14E-09; OR = 1.79 [CI95%:1.25-2.56], p = 0.001) but not with other etiologies. PNPLA3 SNP was also significantly associated with HCC developed on a nonfibrotic liver (OR = 2.19 [CI95%:1.22-3.92], p = 0.007). The association of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 with HCC risk was confirmed in the prospective cohort with ALD. A genetic score including PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 minor alleles showed a progressive significant increased risk of HCC in ALD patients. In conclusion, PNPLA3-rs738409 and TM6SF2-rs58542926 are inherited risk variants of HCC development in patients with ALD in a dose dependent manner. The link between PNPLA3 and HCC on nonfibrotic liver suggests a direct role in liver carcinogenesis.

Tonon L, Fromont G, Boyault S, et al.
Mutational Profile of Aggressive, Localised Prostate Cancer from African Caribbean Men Versus European Ancestry Men.
Eur Urol. 2019; 75(1):11-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Causes of high mortality of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry living in the French West Indies are still debated, between suspicions of environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. We report an integrated genomic study of 25 tumour tissues from radical prostatectomy of aggressive (defined by International Society of Urological Pathology ≥3) prostate cancer patients (10 African Caribbean and 15 French Caucasian) using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, whole-genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing. The results show that African Caribbean tumours are characterised by a more frequent deletion at 1q41-43 encompassing the DNA repair gene PARP1, and a higher proportion of intrachromosomal rearrangements including duplications associated with CDK12 truncating mutations. Transcriptome analyses show an overexpression of genes related to androgen receptor activity in African Caribbean tumours, and of PVT1, a long non-coding RNA located at 8q24 that confirms the strong involvement of this region in prostate tumours from men of African ancestry. Patient summary: Mortality of prostate cancer is higher in African Caribbean men than in French Caucasian men. Specificities of the former could be explained by genomic events linked with key genes such as DNA damage pathway genes PARP1, CDK12, and the oncogenic long non-coding RNA gene PVT1 at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility locus.

Krishnaswamy S, Bukhari I, Mohammed AK, et al.
Identification of the splice variants of Recepteur d'Origine nantais (RON) in lung cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2018; 679:335-340 [PubMed] Related Publications
RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a transmembrane protein directly involved in suppression of inflammation and its aberrant expression linked to cancers and metastasis. Efforts to block deregulated RON signaling in tumors using small molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies have been complicated by the presence of unknown number/types of isoforms of RON, which, despite being structurally similar, localize differently and mediate varied functions. Current study was designed to identify the splice variants of RON transcripts formed by skipping of sequences between exons 9 and 14 for better understanding of isoform specific RON signaling in cancers. PCR amplification and bi-directional sequencing of a 901 bp cDNA sequence located between exons 9 to 14 of RON from lung cancer cell lines revealed the presence of two splicing variants formed by skipping of exons 11 and 11-13. Each of these transcripts was found in more than one cell line. Expressed sequence tag (EST) database search indicated that the splicing variant lacking exons 11-13 was a novel one. Here we conclude that the splice variants of RON lacking exon 11 and exons 11-13 were detected in several lung cancer cell lines. Novel variant formed by skipping exons 11-13, the sequence of which code for transmembrane region, is predicted to code for a truncated isoform that may be secreted out. Tumors may antagonize the ligand dependent anti-inflammatory function of wild-type RON by secreting out the ligand binding isoforms.

Svrcek M, Borralho Nunes P, Villanacci V, et al.
Clinicopathological and Molecular Specificities of Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Related Colorectal Neoplastic Lesions: The Role of Inflammation.
J Crohns Colitis. 2018; 12(12):1486-1498 [PubMed] Related Publications
Compared with the general population, patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Molecular mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis in the setting of IBD are not well understood. However, modern molecular investigative tools have facilitated the identification of features that help distinguish IBD-related carcinoma from sporadic carcinoma. Moreover, with advances in endoscopic technology and improved understanding of the natural history, the management of colorectal neoplastic lesions in IBD patients has evolved. This review discusses the clinicopathological and molecular features of colorectal neoplastic lesions complicating IBD. Chronic inflammation is believed to promote the development of neoplasia, partly by producing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species [ROS and NOS], which may interact with genes involved in carcinogenetic pathways. Furthermore, alterations in microbiota and in the innate and adaptive immune responses might contribute to this process, particularly by initiating, regulating, and sustaining chronic inflammation. Earlier detection and better characterization of neoplastic colorectal lesions complicating IBD and a better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis in this setting should facilitate improvements in the risk stratification of patients with longstanding IBD and in the management of dysplastic and malignant colorectal lesions that arise in this setting.

Barritault M, Meyronet D, Ducray F
Molecular classification of adult gliomas: recent advances and future perspectives.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2018; 30(6):375-382 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular classification of adult gliomas.
RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, five main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and histone H3.3 mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the integration of additional biomarkers, in particular CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas, TERT promoter mutations, EGFR amplification, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss in IDH-wildtype astrocytomas, and FGFR1 mutations in midline gliomas. Histone H3.3 G34R/V defines a distinct subgroup of hemispheric IDH-wildtype high-grade gliomas occurring in young patients and FGFR gene fusions characterize a subgroup of IDH-wildtype glioblastomas that could benefit from specific treatment approaches. RNA sequencing may identify targetable gene fusions in circumscribed gliomas lacking classical BRAF alterations. In chordoid gliomas, recurrent PRKCA mutations could serve as a new diagnostic marker. Among comprehensive molecular analysis methods, DNA methylation profiling appears as a particularly powerful approach to identify new molecular subgroups of gliomas and to classify difficult cases.
SUMMARY: The classification of adult gliomas may be improved by the integration of additional biomarkers and/or by comprehensive molecular analysis, in particular DNA methylation profiling. The most relevant approach, however, remains to be established.

Pujol P, Vande Perre P, Faivre L, et al.
Guidelines for reporting secondary findings of genome sequencing in cancer genes: the SFMPP recommendations.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2018; 26(12):1732-1742 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
In oncology, the expanding use of multi-gene panels to explore familial cancer predisposition and tumor genome analysis has led to increased secondary findings discoveries (SFs) and has given rise to important medical, ethical, and legal issues. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics published a policy statement for managing SFs for a list of genes, including 25 cancer-related genes. Currently, there are few recommendations in Europe. From June 2016 to May 2017, the French Society of Predictive and Personalized Medicine (SFMPP) established a working group of 47 experts to elaborate guidelines for managing information given on the SFs for genes related to cancers. A subgroup of ethicists, lawyers, patients' representatives, and psychologists provided ethical reflection, information guidelines, and materials (written consent form and video). A subgroup with medical expertise, including oncologists and clinical and molecular geneticists, provided independent evaluation and classification of 60 genes. The main criteria were the "actionability" of the genes (available screening or prevention strategies), the risk evaluation (severity, penetrance, and age of disease onset), and the level of evidence from published data. Genes were divided into three classes: for class 1 genes (n = 36), delivering the information on SFs was recommended; for class 2 genes (n = 5), delivering the information remained questionable because of insufficient data from the literature and/or level of evidence; and for class 3 genes (n = 19), delivering the information on SFs was not recommended. These guidelines for managing SFs for cancer-predisposing genes provide new insights for clinicians and laboratories to standardize clinical practices.

de Foucher T, Sbeih M, Uzan J, et al.
Identification of micro-RNA expression profile related to recurrence in women with ESMO low-risk endometrial cancer.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):131 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Actual European pathological classification of early-stage endometrial cancer (EC) may show insufficient accuracy to precisely stratify recurrence risk, leading to potential over or under treatment. Micro-RNAs are post-transcriptional regulators involved in carcinogenic mechanisms, with some micro-RNA patterns of expression associated with EC characteristics and prognosis. We previously demonstrated that downregulation of micro-RNA-184 was associated with lymph node involvement in low-risk EC (LREC). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether micro-RNA signature in tumor tissues from LREC women can be correlated with the occurrence of recurrences.
METHODS: MicroRNA expression was assessed by chip analysis and qRT-PCR in 7 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) LREC primary tumors from women whose follow up showed recurrences (R+) and in 14 FFPE LREC primary tumors from women whose follow up did not show any recurrence (R-), matched for grade and age. Various statistical analyses, including enrichment analysis and a minimum p-value approach, were performed.
RESULTS: The expression levels of micro-RNAs-184, -497-5p, and -196b-3p were significantly lower in R+ compared to R- women. Women with a micro-RNA-184 fold change < 0.083 were more likely to show recurrence (n = 6; 66%) compared to those with a micro-RNA-184 fold change > 0.083 (n = 1; 8%), p = 0.016. Women with a micro-RNA-196 fold change < 0.56 were more likely to show recurrence (n = 5; 100%) compared to those with a micro-RNA-196 fold change > 0.56 (n = 2; 13%), p = 0.001.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the great interest of micro-RNA-184 as a prognostic tool to improve the management of LREC women.

Bidaux G, Gordienko D, Shapovalov G, et al.
4TM-TRPM8 channels are new gatekeepers of the ER-mitochondria Ca
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018; 1865(7):981-994 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calcium (Ca

Nault JC, Couchy G, Caruso S, et al.
Argininosuccinate synthase 1 and periportal gene expression in sonic hedgehog hepatocellular adenomas.
Hepatology. 2018; 68(3):964-976 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic alterations define different molecular subclasses of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) linked with risk factors, histology and clinical behavior. Recently, Argininosuccinate Synthase 1 (ASS1), a major periportal protein, was proposed as a marker of HCA with a high risk of hemorrhage. We aimed to assess the significance of ASS1 expression through the scope of the HCA molecular classification. ASS1 expression was evaluated using RNAseq, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Immunohistochemistry. ASS1 and glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) expression were analyzed in vitro after modulation of GLI1 expression. Using RNAseq in 27 HCA and five nontumor liver samples, ASS1 expression was highly correlated with GLI1 expression (P<0.0001, R=0.75). In the overall series of 408 HCA, ASS1 overexpression was significantly associated with sonic hedgehog HCA (shHCA) compared to other molecular subgroups (P<0.0001), suggesting that sonic hedgehog signaling controls ASS1 expression. GLI1 expression silencing by siRNA induced a downregulation of ASS1 in PLC/PFR5 and SNU878 cell lines. In 390 HCA, we showed that ASS1 expression belonged to the periportal expression program that was maintained in shHCA but down-regulated in all the other HCA subtypes. In contrast, HCA with β-catenin activation showed an activation of a perivenous program. Despite the significant association between GLI1 and ASS1 expression, ASS1 mRNA expression was not associated with specific clinical features. At the protein level using immunohistochemistry, prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS) was strongly and specifically overexpressed in shHCA.
CONCLUSION: ASS1 is associated with sonic hedgehog activation as part of a periportal program expressed in shHCA, a molecular subgroup defined by INHBE-GLI1 gene fusion. (Hepatology 2018).

Serra P, Petat A, Maury JM, et al.
Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is associated with RAS/TP53 mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.
Lung Cancer. 2018; 118:62-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The systematic assessment of anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in lung adenocarcinomas is becoming standard practice. However, the assessment of PD-L1 expression on small tissue specimens needs to be evaluated and the association with other features more thoroughly analyzed.
METHODS: This retrospective single center study evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the SP263 anti-PD-L1 antibody on tissue microarrays (TMA) of 152 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas, using a 25% positivity threshold. The positive cases and 50 randomly chosen negative cases in tissue microarray (TMA) were reassessed on whole tissue sections. The results were correlated to clinical, histopathological and to molecular data obtained through the screening of 214 mutations in 26 genes (LungCarta panel, Agena Biosciences).
RESULTS: Among 152 primary lung adenocarcinomas, 19 cases (13%) showed PD-L1 expression. The agreement between TMA and whole tissue sections was 89%, specificity was 97%. PD-L1 expression was correlated to RAS mutations (p = .04), RAS/TP53 co-mutations (p = .01) and to the solid or acinar subtype (p = .048).
CONCLUSIONS: With the SP263 PD-L1 antibody, small samples appear as a reliable means to evaluate the PD-L1 status in lung adenocarcinoma. The association between PD-L1 expression and RAS/TP53 mutations may have clinical relevance to predict the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints inhibitors.

Verrier F, Dubois d'Enghien C, Gauthier-Villars M, et al.
Mutiple DICER1-related lesions associated with a germline deep intronic mutation.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018; 65(6):e27005 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline DICER1 pathogenic variants predispose to numerous benign and malignant tumors. In this report, we describe DICER1 gene analysis in an adolescent diagnosed with multinodular goiter, ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, and lung cyst. DICER1 mutational screening at the DNA level failed to detect any pathogenic variant. Subsequent messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis revealed a 132 nucleotide intronic sequence exonization. This truncating event was caused by a deep intronic mutation generating a de novo acceptor splice site. This study demonstrates that some undetected DICER1 mutations should be investigated at the mRNA level.

Moktefi A, Pouessel D, Liu J, et al.
Reappraisal of HER2 status in the spectrum of advanced urothelial carcinoma: a need of guidelines for treatment eligibility.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(8):1270-1281 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) may represent a therapeutic target, its evaluation in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder does not rely on a standardized scoring system by immunohistochemistry or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), as reflected by various methodology in the literature and clinical trials. Our aim was to improve and standardize HER2 amplification detection in bladder cancer. We assessed immunohistochemical criteria derived from 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAPs) guidelines for breast cancer and investigated intratumoral heterogeneity in a retrospective multicentric cohort of 188 patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 178 primary tumors and 126 lymph node metastases, eligible cases (moderate/strong, complete/incomplete membrane staining) were assessed by FISH. HER2 overexpression was more frequent with 2013 ASCO/CAP than 2007 ASCO/CAP guidelines (p < 0.0001). The rate of positive HER2 FISH was similar between primary tumor and lymph node metastases (8%). Among positive FISH cases, 48% were associated with moderate/strong incomplete membrane staining that were not scored eligible for FISH by 2007 ASCO/CAP criteria. Among 3+ immunohistochemistry score cases, 67% were associated with HER2-positive FISH. Concordance between primary tumors and matched lymph node metastases was moderate for immunohistochemistry (κ = 0.54 (CI 95%, 0.41-0.67)) and FISH (κ = 0.50 (CI 95%, 0.20-0.79)). HER2-positive FISH was more frequent in micropapillary carcinomas (12%) and carcinoma with squamous differentiation (11%) than in pure conventional carcinoma (6%). Intratumoral heterogeneity for HER2 immunohistochemistry was observed in 7% primary tumor and 6% lymph node metastases; 24% positive HER2 FISH presented intratumoral heterogeneity. Our study suggests that HER2 evaluation should include an immunohistochemistry screening step with eligibility for FISH including incomplete/complete and moderate/strong membrane staining. Spatial or temporal intratumoral heterogeneity prompts to perform evaluation on both tumor and lymph node, and for each histological variant observed.

Viganò E, Gunawardana J, Mottok A, et al.
Somatic IL4R mutations in primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma lead to constitutive JAK-STAT signaling activation.
Blood. 2018; 131(18):2036-2046 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is a distinct subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma thought to arise from thymic medullary B cells. Gene mutations underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the disease are incompletely characterized. Here, we describe novel somatic

Lasolle H, Alix E, Bonnefille C, et al.
Centralization errors in comparative genomic hybridization array analysis of pituitary tumor samples.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(6):320-328 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reliable interpretation of comparative genomic hybridization array (aCGH) results requires centralization and normalization of the data. We evaluated the reliability of aCGH centralization by comparing aCGH results (with classical centralization-normalization steps) to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results. In addition, we propose a method to correct centralization bias. Sixty-six pituitary tumors were analyzed (Agilent aCGH + SNP 4 × 180K microarray). For each tumor, the FISH-based log

Nepal C, O'Rourke CJ, Oliveira DVNP, et al.
Genomic perturbations reveal distinct regulatory networks in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Hepatology. 2018; 68(3):949-963 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma remains a highly heterogeneous malignancy that has eluded effective patient stratification to date. The extent to which such heterogeneity can be influenced by individual driver mutations remains to be evaluated. Here, we analyzed genomic (whole-exome sequencing, targeted exome sequencing) and epigenomic data from 496 patients and used the three most recurrently mutated genes to stratify patients (IDH, KRAS, TP53, "undetermined"). Using this molecular dissection approach, each subgroup was determined to possess unique mutational signature preferences, comutation profiles, and enriched pathways. High-throughput drug repositioning in seven patient-matched cell lines, chosen to reflect the genetic alterations specific for each patient group, confirmed in silico predictions of subgroup-specific vulnerabilities linked to enriched pathways. Intriguingly, patients lacking all three mutations ("undetermined") harbored the most extensive structural alterations, while isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant tumors displayed the most extensive DNA methylome dysregulation, consistent with previous findings.
CONCLUSION: Stratification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients based on occurrence of mutations in three classifier genes (IDH, KRAS, TP53) revealed unique oncogenic programs (mutational, structural, epimutational) that influence pharmacologic response in drug repositioning protocols; this genome dissection approach highlights the potential of individual mutations to induce extensive molecular heterogeneity and could facilitate advancement of therapeutic response in this dismal disease. (Hepatology 2018).

Castellano F, Molinier-Frenkel V
An Overview of l-Amino Acid Oxidase Functions from Bacteria to Mammals: Focus on the Immunoregulatory Phenylalanine Oxidase IL4I1.
Molecules. 2017; 22(12) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
l-amino acid oxidases are flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes present in all major kingdom of life, from bacteria to mammals. They participate in defense mechanisms by limiting the growth of most bacteria and parasites. A few mammalian LAAOs have been described, of which the enzyme "interleukin-4 induced gene 1" (IL4I1) is the best characterized. IL4I1 mainly oxidizes l-phenylalanine. It is a secreted enzyme physiologically produced by antigen presenting cells of the myeloid and B cell lineages and T helper type (Th) 17 cells. Important roles of IL4I1 in the fine control of the adaptive immune response in mice and humans have emerged during the last few years. Indeed, IL4I1 inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production and facilitates naïve CD4⁺ T-cell differentiation into regulatory T cells in vitro by limiting the capacity of T lymphocytes to respond to clonal receptor stimulation. It may also play a role in controlling the germinal center reaction for antibody production and limiting Th1 and Th17 responses. IL4I1 is expressed in tumor-associated macrophages of most human cancers and in some tumor cell types. Such expression, associated with its capacity to facilitate tumor growth by inhibiting the anti-tumor T-cell response, makes IL4I1 a new potential druggable target in the field of immunomodulation in cancer.

De Cola A, Franceschini M, Di Matteo A, et al.
N6L pseudopeptide interferes with nucleophosmin protein-protein interactions and sensitizes leukemic cells to chemotherapy.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 412:272-282 [PubMed] Related Publications
NPM1 is a multifunctional nucleolar protein implicated in several processes such as ribosome maturation and export, DNA damage response and apoptotic response to stress stimuli. The NPM1 gene is involved in human tumorigenesis and is found mutated in one third of acute myeloid leukemia patients, leading to the aberrant cytoplasmic localization of NPM1. Recent studies indicated that the N6L multivalent pseudopeptide, a synthetic ligand of cell-surface nucleolin, is also able to bind NPM1 with high affinity. N6L inhibits cell growth with different mechanisms and represents a good candidate as a novel anticancer drug for a number of malignancies of different histological origin. In this study we investigated whether N6L treatment could drive antitumor effect in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines. We found that N6L binds NPM1 at the N-terminal domain, co-localizes with cytoplasmic, mutated NPM1, and interferes with its protein-protein associations. N6L toxicity appears to be p53 dependent but interestingly, the leukemic cell line harbouring the mutated form of NPM1 is more resistant to treatment, suggesting that NPM1 cytoplasmic delocalization confers protection from p53 activation. Moreover, we show that N6L sensitizes AML cells to doxorubicin and cytarabine treatment. These studies suggest that N6L may be a promising option in combination therapies for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.

Letouzé E, Shinde J, Renault V, et al.
Mutational signatures reveal the dynamic interplay of risk factors and cellular processes during liver tumorigenesis.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8(1):1315 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Genomic alterations driving tumorigenesis result from the interaction of environmental exposures and endogenous cellular processes. With a diversity of risk factors, liver cancer is an ideal model to study these interactions. Here, we analyze the whole genomes of 44 new and 264 published liver cancers and we identify 10 mutational and 6 structural rearrangement signatures showing distinct relationships with environmental exposures, replication, transcription, and driver genes. The liver cancer-specific signature 16, associated with alcohol, displays a unique feature of transcription-coupled damage and is the main source of CTNNB1 mutations. Flood of insertions/deletions (indels) are identified in very highly expressed hepato-specific genes, likely resulting from replication-transcription collisions. Reconstruction of sub-clonal architecture reveals mutational signature evolution during tumor development exemplified by the vanishing of aflatoxin B1 signature in African migrants. Finally, chromosome duplications occur late and may represent rate-limiting events in tumorigenesis. These findings shed new light on the natural history of liver cancers.

Petit A, Trinquand A, Chevret S, et al.
Oncogenetic mutations combined with MRD improve outcome prediction in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2018; 131(3):289-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
Risk stratification in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is mainly based on minimal residual disease (MRD) quantification. Whether oncogenetic mutation profiles can improve the discrimination of MRD-defined risk categories was unknown. Two hundred and twenty FRALLE2000T-treated patients were tested retrospectively for

Kaidar-Person O, Meattini I, Jain P, et al.
Discrepancies between biomarkers of primary breast cancer and subsequent brain metastases: an international multicenter study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 167(2):479-483 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Discordances between the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), expression between primary breast tumors and their subsequent brain metastases (BM) were investigated in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: We collected retrospective data from 11 institutions in 8 countries in a predefined-standardized format. Receptor status (positive or negative) was determined according to institutional guidelines (immunohistochemically and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization). The study was subject to each institution's ethical research committee.
RESULTS: A total of 167 breast cancer patients with BM were included. 25 patients out of 129 with a complete receptor information from both primary tumor and BM (ER, PR, HER2) available, had a change in receptor status: 7 of 26 (27%) ER/PR-positive/HER2-negative primaries (3 gained HER2; 4 lost expression of ER/PR); 10 of 31 (32%) ER/PR-positive/HER2-positive primaries (4 lost ER/PR only; 3 lost HER2 only; 3 lost both ER/PR and HER2); one of 33 (3%) ER/PR-negative receptor/HER2-positive primaries (gained ER); and 7 of 39 (18%) triple-negative primaries (5 gained ER/PR and 2 gained HER2).
CONCLUSIONS: The majority of breast cancer patients with BM in this series had primary HER2-enriched tumors, followed by those with a triple-negative profile. One out of 5 patients had a receptor discrepancy between the primary tumor and subsequent BM. Therefore, we advise receptor status assessment of BM in all breast cancer patients with available histology as it may have significant implications for therapy.

Izquierdo C, Joubert B, Ducray F
Anaplastic gliomas in adults: an update.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2017; 29(6):434-442 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review summarizes recent advances on the oncogenesis, classification and treatment of adult anaplastic gliomas.
RECENT FINDINGS: According to the 2016 WHO classification, three main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse anaplastic gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked mutation status, gene expression, DNA methylation and genomic profiling. Both newly diagnosed 1p/19q codeleted and 1p/19q-intact anaplastic gliomas benefit from the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy. However, in 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic gliomas, Procarbazine, CCNU and Vincristine chemotherapy seems more effective than temozolomide. At recurrence, 1p/19q-intact anaplastic gliomas do not benefit from the addition of bevacizumab to temozolomide. The use of poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) inhibitors may be another way of specifically targeting IDH-mutant gliomas in addition to specific inhibitors, demethylating agents and anti-IDH vaccines. v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-mutant anaplastic xanthoastrocytomas and gangliogliomas may benefit from BRAF and mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors.
SUMMARY: Molecular characterization is mandatory for integrated diagnosis and appropriate management of adult anaplastic gliomas. Both 1p/19q codeleted and 1p/19q-intact anaplastic diffuse gliomas benefit from early chemotherapy. At recurrence, preliminary data suggest a potential role for targeted therapies in specific molecular subgroups.

Aubatin A, Sako N, Decrouy X, et al.
IL4-induced gene 1 is secreted at the immune synapse and modulates TCR activation independently of its enzymatic activity.
Eur J Immunol. 2018; 48(1):106-119 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amino-acid catabolizing enzymes produced by mononuclear phagocytes play a central role in regulating the immune response. The mammalian phenylalanine-catabolizing enzyme IL4-induced gene 1 (IL4I1) inhibits effector T lymphocyte proliferation and facilitates regulatory T-cell development. IL4I1 expression by macrophages of various human tumors may affect patient prognosis as it facilitates tumor escape from the T-cell response in murine models. Its enzymatic activity appears to participate in its effects, but some actions of IL4I1 remain unclear. Here, we show that the presence of IL4I1 during T-cell activation decreases early signaling events downstream of TCR stimulation, resulting in global T-cell inhibition which is more pronounced when there is CD28 costimulation. Surprisingly, the enzymatic activity of IL4I1 is not involved. Focal secretion of IL4I1 into the immune synaptic cleft and its binding to CD3

Oza AM, Tinker AV, Oaknin A, et al.
Antitumor activity and safety of the PARP inhibitor rucaparib in patients with high-grade ovarian carcinoma and a germline or somatic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: Integrated analysis of data from Study 10 and ARIEL2.
Gynecol Oncol. 2017; 147(2):267-275 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: An integrated analysis was undertaken to characterize the antitumor activity and safety profile of the oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor rucaparib in patients with relapsed high-grade ovarian carcinoma (HGOC).
METHODS: Eligible patients from Study 10 (NCT01482715) and ARIEL2 (NCT01891344) who received a starting dose of oral rucaparib 600mg twice daily (BID) with or without food were included in these analyses. The integrated efficacy population included patients with HGOC and a deleterious germline or somatic BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation who received at least two prior chemotherapies and were sensitive, resistant, or refractory to platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed confirmed objective response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DOR) and progression-free survival (PFS). The integrated safety population included patients with HGOC who received at least one dose of rucaparib 600mg BID, irrespective of BRCA1/2 mutation status and prior treatments.
RESULTS: In the efficacy population (n=106), ORR was 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.8-63.5); 8.5% and 45.3% of patients achieved complete and partial responses, respectively. Median DOR was 9.2months (95% CI, 6.6-11.6). In the safety population (n=377), the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were nausea, asthenia/fatigue, vomiting, and anemia/hemoglobin decreased. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-emergent AE was anemia/hemoglobin decreased. Treatment-emergent AEs led to treatment interruption, dose reduction, and treatment discontinuation in 58.6%, 45.9%, and 9.8% of patients, respectively. No treatment-related deaths occurred.
CONCLUSIONS: Rucaparib has antitumor activity in advanced BRCA1/2-mutated HGOC and a manageable safety profile.

Shincy JS, Panagal M, Jereena J, et al.
Computational Identification of microRNA-17-3p in Breast Cancer Cells.
Microrna. 2017; 6(3):208-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in the RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are well conserved in both plants and animals, and are thought to be a vital and evolutionarily ancient component of gene regulation and also act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. It is known that Express Sequence Tags (EST) are a short sub-sequence of cDNA sequence, which contain information of condition or tissue specific transcripts (coding and non-coding) of an organism.
METHODS: In the present study, we have applied the bioinformatics tools to identify miRNA from breast cancer using EST resource. Through bioinformatics approach, the presence of an EST encoding hsa-miR-17- 3p of breast cancer was identified.
RESULTS: Further studies reveal that hsa-miR-17 is confirmed in the breast cancer specific EST sequence among the predicted miRNAs secondary structure. Moreover, miR-17-3p could be responsible for a tumor suppression, which plays a major role in human breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Further studies are required to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind miR-17-3p involves in the suppression of breast cancer cells. Interestingly, our target analysis suggesting that all the targets involved in multiple signaling pathways in different cell regulations moreover, we need to have more number of in vitro and in vivo studies that prove miR-17-3p as candidate microRNA for breast cancer cells.

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