CD99

Gene Summary

Gene:CD99; CD99 molecule
Aliases: MIC2, HBA71, MIC2X, MIC2Y, MSK5X
Location:Xp22.33 and Yp11.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in leukocyte migration, T-cell adhesion, ganglioside GM1 and transmembrane protein transport, and T-cell death by a caspase-independent pathway. In addition, the encoded protein may have the ability to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton and may also act as an oncosuppressor in osteosarcoma. This gene is found in the pseudoautosomal region of chromosomes X and Y and escapes X-chromosome inactivation. There is a related pseudogene located immediately adjacent to this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CD99 antigen
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
-CD99 and Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive View Publications70
Bone Cancer (primary)CD99 and Bone Cancer View Publications55
Soft Tissue SarcomaCD99 and Soft Tissue Cancers View Publications36
Kidney CancerCD99 and Kidney Cancer View Publications31
Vulvar CancerCD99 and Vulvar Cancer View Publications9
Wilms TumourCD99 and Wilms Tumour View Publications7
Ewing's SarcomaMIC2 expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Ewing's Sarcoma
Unlike most other small blue cell tumors of childhood, Ewing's sarcoma and pPNET strongly express the MIC2(CD99) antigen. Therefore MIC2 analysis can be a useful part of the panel of tests used in the differential diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma / pPNET.
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Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

MIC2 expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Ewing's Sarcoma

Unlike most other small blue cell tumors of childhood, Ewing's sarcoma and pPNET strongly express the MIC2(CD99) antigen. Therefore MIC2 analysis can be a useful part of the panel of tests used in the differential diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma / pPNET.

See also: Ewing's Sarcoma - Clinical and Research information

Latest Publications

Ishiguro M, Yuki M, Fukushige T, et al.
Molecular cytogenetic characterization of two established ESFT cell lines.
Hum Cell. 2017; 30(1):41-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Askin's tumor (Ewing`s sarcoma family of tumors: ESFT) is the most common type of malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue in children and young adults, and morphologically is a member of a group of small round cell tumors. We report, here, on the establishment of two human ESFT cell lines, FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4, from the iliac and the chest wall, respectively, the cells of both cell lines were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. Histologically, both original and xenograft tumors and cultured cells were composed of small round cells with positive immunoreactivity for CD99 and Nkx2.2. Molecular biological examination demonstrated chimeric transcripts of EWSR1 exon 7 to FLI1 exon 6 in FU-PNET-3 cells, and EWSR1 exon 10 to FLI1 exon 6 in FU-PNET-4 cells. Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosome translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) and some secondary changes in both cultured cells. These histological, molecular biological, and cytogenetical findings indicate ESFT in both cell lines. ESFT is well studied, but its recurrent fusion genes are heterogeneous and its biological behaviors are unclear. The FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4 cell lines have been well examined and may become useful tools for studying the genetic and biological behavioral properties of ESFT.

Machado I, Navarro L, Pellin A, et al.
Defining Ewing and Ewing-like small round cell tumors (SRCT): The need for molecular techniques in their categorization and differential diagnosis. A study of 200 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 22:25-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and Ewing-like tumors remains problematic. Certain ESFT with morphological and immunohistochemical (IHC) profiles lack the EWSR1-ETS transcript. To improve diagnostic accuracy we investigated the presence of several specific transcripts in 200 small round cell tumors (SRCT) displaying ESFT morphology and immunophenotype in which EWSR1 FISH analysis was non-informative or negative.
DESIGN: 200 tumors (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) were analyzed by RT-PCR. All tumors were tested for EWSR1-ETS, EWSR1/WT1, PAX3/7-FOX01 or SYT/SSX transcripts, and the negative tumors were subsequently analyzed for CIC/DUX4, BCOR/CCNB3 and CIC/FOX04 transcripts.
RESULTS: 133 (66.5%) ESFT displayed one of the above EWSR1-ETS translocations. Three cases (1.5%) revealed the SYT-SSX transcript for Synovial sarcoma, and one (0.5%) a EWSR1-WT1 transcript for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell tumor. The CIC-DUX4 translocation was found in six Ewing-like tumors (3%) with CD99 positivity. The BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusion was observed in 5 tumors (2.5%) displaying round or spindle cells with strong CCNB3 IHC expression in 3 tumors. Moreover, RT-PCR failed to detect any gene fusion transcripts in 19 tumors (9.5%) and were considered "undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma" (SRCS). Molecular biology results were non-informative in 33 SRCTs (16.5%) due to RNA degradation through inadequate fixation and/or decalcification.
CONCLUSION: Our analysis of 200 SRCTs confirms the molecular heterogeneity of neoplasms with ESFT morphology and highlight that molecular studies with RT-PCR including new emerging gene fusion transcripts are mandatory for the diagnosis when EWSR1 FISH is negative or non-informative. The incidence of CIC-DUX4, BCOR-CCNB3 and CIC-FOX04 transcripts was relatively low. A small group of Ewing-like sarcomas or undifferentiated SRCS remains unclassified. Adopting appropriate tissue fixation and processing protocols is important to avoid degradation of fixed/embedded tissue when no frozen tumor is available.

Chen S, Deniz K, Sung YS, et al.
Ewing sarcoma with ERG gene rearrangements: A molecular study focusing on the prevalence of FUS-ERG and common pitfalls in detecting EWSR1-ERG fusions by FISH.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(4):340-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) are characterized by a canonical fusion involving EWSR1 gene and a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as FLI1 and ERG. In fact, ERG gene rearrangements represent the second most common molecular alteration, with EWSR1-ERG being identified in 5-10% of cases, while only a handful of reports document a FUS-ERG fusion. In this study, we focus on ES with ERG gene abnormalities, specifically to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of FUS-ERG fusions in a large cohort of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) and compare to the eight reported FUS-positive ES. Among the 85 SBRCTs tested, seven (8.2%) cases harbored FUS gene rearrangements; six fused to ERG and one with FEV. During this investigation we came across a number of ERG-rearranged ES lacking both EWSR1 and FUS abnormalities by FISH. In one case, RNA sequencing identified an EWSR1-ERG transcript despite the negative EWSR1 rearrangements by FISH. Additional 3-color FISH fusion assay demonstrated the fusion of EWSR1 and ERG signals in all four cases negative for break-apart EWSR1 FISH. These results emphasize a potential pitfall of relying on EWSR1 FISH assay alone for diagnosis of ES. In cases with classic morphology and/or strong CD99 and ERG immunoreactivity, additional molecular testing should be applied, such as ERG FISH or RT-PCR/next generation sequencing, for a more definitive diagnosis. Although our study group is small, there were no differences noted between the clinical, morphologic features and immunoprofile of the different subsets of ERG-rearranged SBRCTs.

Yoshida A, Goto K, Kodaira M, et al.
CIC-rearranged Sarcomas: A Study of 20 Cases and Comparisons With Ewing Sarcomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(3):313-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CIC gene rearrangement exists in a subset of small round cell sarcomas. As the nosologic relationship of these sarcomas to Ewing sarcomas remains undetermined, we examined 20 CIC-rearranged sarcomas to compare their clinicopathologic features with those of Ewing sarcomas. The CIC-rearranged sarcomas were from a group of 14 men and 6 women with a median age of 24.5 years. The primary tumor sites included the limbs, trunk wall, internal trunk, lung, cerebrum, and pharynx. A comparison of the demographic and clinical characteristics of the 20 patients with CIC-rearranged sarcomas with those of the 53 near-consecutive patients with EWSR1-rarranged Ewing sarcomas showed that there were no differences with respect to their ages and sexes. Although none of the CIC-rearranged sarcomas arose in the bone, 40% of the Ewing sarcomas primarily affected the skeleton. The overall survival of patients with Ewing sarcomas was significantly better than that for patients with CIC-rearranged sarcomas. A histologic comparison of the CIC-rearranged sarcomas with 20 EWSR1-rearranged Ewing sarcomas showed significantly higher degrees of lobulation, nuclear pleomorphism, the prominence of the nucleoli, spindle cell elements, and myxoid changes in the CIC-rearranged sarcomas. Distinguishing immunohistochemical features included heterogenous CD99 reactivity, nuclear WT1 expression, and calretinin expression in the CIC-rearranged sarcomas and NKX2.2 expression in the Ewing sarcomas. CIC-rearranged sarcomas are distinct from Ewing sarcomas clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically, and they should be considered a separate entity rather than being grouped within the same family of tumors.

Sugita S, Arai Y, Tonooka A, et al.
A novel CIC-FOXO4 gene fusion in undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma: a genetically distinct variant of Ewing-like sarcoma.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(11):1571-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas (SRCSs) grouped under the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) can be a challenging situation for pathologists. Recent studies have revealed that some groups of Ewing-like sarcoma show typical ESFT morphology but lack any EWSR1-ETS gene fusions. Here we identified a novel gene fusion, CIC-FOXO4, in a case of Ewing-like sarcoma with a t(X;19)(q13;q13.3) translocation. The patient was a 63-year-old man who had an asymptomatic, 30-mm, well-demarcated, intramuscular mass in his right posterior neck, and imaging findings suggested a diagnosis of high-grade sarcoma. He was treated with complete resection and subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. He was alive without local recurrence or distant metastasis 6 months after the operation. Histologic examination revealed SRCS with abundant desmoplastic fibrous stroma suggesting a desmoplastic small round cell tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed weak to moderate and partial staining for MIC2 (CD99) and WT1, respectively. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing revealed a gene fusion, and the genomic rearrangement between the CIC and FOXO4 genes was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Aside from the desmoplastic stroma, the CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma showed morphologic and immunohistochemical similarity to ESFT and Ewing-like sarcomas, including the recently described CIC-DUX4 fusion sarcoma. Although clinicopathologic analysis with additional cases is necessary, we conclude that CIC-FOXO4 fusion sarcoma is a new type of Ewing-like sarcoma that has a specific genetic signature. These findings have important implications for the differential diagnosis of SRCS.

Specht K, Sung YS, Zhang L, et al.
Distinct transcriptional signature and immunoprofile of CIC-DUX4 fusion-positive round cell tumors compared to EWSR1-rearranged Ewing sarcomas: further evidence toward distinct pathologic entities.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):622-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Round cell sarcomas harboring CIC-DUX4 fusions have recently been described as highly aggressive soft tissue tumors of children and young adults. Due to partial morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap with Ewing sarcoma (ES), CIC-DUX4-positive tumors have generally been classified as ES-like and managed similarly; however, a systematic comparison at the molecular and immunohistochemical levels between these two groups has not yet been conducted. Based on an initial observation that CIC-DUX4-positive tumors show nuclear immunoreactivity for WT1 and ETS transcription factors, FLI1 and ERG, we performed a detailed immunohistochemical and molecular analysis including these markers, to further investigate the relationship between CIC-DUX4 tumors and ES. The study group included 21 CIC-DUX4-positive sarcomas and 20 EWSR1-rearranged ES. Immunohistochemically, CIC-DUX4 sarcomas showed membranous CD99 positivity in 18 (86%) cases, but only 5 (24%) with a diffuse pattern, while WT1 and FLI1 were strongly positive in all cases. ERG was positive in 18% of cases. All ES expressed CD99 and FLI1, while ERG positivity was only seen in EWSR1-ERG fusion positive ES. WT1 was negative in all ES. Expression profiling validated by q-PCR revealed a distinct gene signature associated with CIC-DUX4 fusion, with upregulation of ETS transcription factors (ETV4, ETV1, and ETV5) and WT1, among top overexpressed genes compared to ES, other sarcomas and normal tissue. In conclusion, the distinct gene signature and immunoprofile of CIC-DUX4 sarcomas suggest a distinct pathogenesis from ES. The consistent WT1 expression may provide a useful clue in the diagnosis in the context of round cell sarcomas negative for EWSR1 rearrangement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Amaral AT, Manara MC, Berghuis D, et al.
Characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells from ewing sarcoma patients. Pathogenetic implications.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e85814 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ewing Sarcoma (EWS) is a mesenchymal-derived tumor that generally arises in bone and soft tissue. Intensive research regarding the pathogenesis of EWS has been insufficient to pinpoint the early events of Ewing sarcomagenesis. However, the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) is currently accepted as the most probable cell of origin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an initial study regarding a deep characterization of MSC obtained specifically from EWS patients (MSC-P), we compared them with MSC derived from healthy donors (MSC-HD) and EWS cell lines. We evaluated the presence of the EWS-FLI1 gene fusion and EWSR1 gene rearrangements in MSC-P. The presence of the EWS transcript was confirmed by q-RT-PCR. In order to determine early events possibly involved in malignant transformation, we used a multiparameter quantitative strategy that included both MSC immunophenotypic negative/positive markers, and EWS intrinsic phenotypical features. Markers CD105, CD90, CD34 and CD45 were confirmed in EWS samples.
RESULTS: We determined that MSC-P lack the most prevalent gene fusion, EWSR1-FLI1 as well as EWSR1 gene rearrangements. Our study also revealed that MSC-P are more alike to MSC-HD than to EWS cells. Nonetheless, we also observed that EWS cells had a few overlapping features with MSC. As a relevant example, also MSC showed CD99 expression, hallmark of EWS diagnosis. However, we observed that, in contrast to EWS cells, MSC were not sensitive to the inhibition of CD99.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results suggest that MSC from EWS patients behave like MSC-HD and are phenotypically different from EWS cells, thus raising important questions regarding MSC role in sarcomagenesis.

White JC, Halligan GE, de Chadarévian JP, et al.
Unusual genetic aberrations including a deletion of KLF6 tumor suppressor gene revealed by integrated cytogenetic approaches in a pediatric ewing sarcoma.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(1):e51-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma is the third most common sarcoma in children and young adults. Its characteristic chromosomal rearrangement results in a chimerical EWSR1-ETS transcription factor. Secondary genetic alterations are very common. Membranous expression of CD99 is seen in almost all tumors. We report 2 unusual cytogenetic findings in a pediatric Ewing sarcoma, an insertion of the MIC2 gene encoding CD99 from Xp to 10p and a submicroscopic deletion of the well-known tumor supressor gene KLF6. The latter has not been described previously in pediatric neoplasms. Molecular pathways in tumorigenesis and genetic complexity in cancer are discussed.

Rekhi B, Vogel U, Basak R, et al.
Clinicopathological and molecular spectrum of ewing sarcomas/PNETs, including validation of EWSR1 rearrangement by conventional and array FISH technique in certain cases.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(3):503-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Over the years, a wide clinicopathological spectrum has been identified within Ewing family of tumors (EFTs). As these tumors are chemosensitive, their correct and timely identification is necessary. The aims of this study were (1) to present the diverse clinicopathological and molecular profile of EFTs in our settings, (2) to identify a pragmatic approach for diagnosing EFTs, especially for application of ancillary techniques, namely RT-PCR for specific transcripts (EWS-FLI1, EWS-ERG) and FISH for EWSR1 gene rearrangement, in certain cases and (3) to show the utility of tissue microarray in establishing a new FISH test. Fifty-eight EFTs were identified in 38 males and 20 females within an age-range of 1-65 years (median, 16), mostly in lower extremities (14) (24.1 %). Therapeutically, most patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent surgery. Histopathologically, diagnosis of EFTs was initially offered in 41/58 (70.6 %) tumors. On review, 59 % tumors showed diffuse pattern, while 41 % displayed rosettes. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were mostly diffusely positive for CD99 (48/52) (92.3 %); FLI-1 (17/18) (94.4 %); variably for BCL2 (16/18) (88.8 %), synaptophysin (6/20) (35 %), S100-P (2/7) (28.5 %), CD56 (2/5) (40 %), NSE (2/5) (40 %), calponin (3/4) (75 %), EMA (5/24) (20.8 %) and CK (3/24) (12.5 %), the latter two mostly focally. Fifty five tumors were EWS-FLI1 positive, while a single tumor was EWS-ERG positive. Sensitivity for PCR was 61 %. EWSR1 rearrangement was detected by FISH in 12/13 Ewing sarcomas/PNETs. Sensitivity for EWSR1 test was 92.3 % and specificity was 100 %. Thirty-eight tumors, including 14 molecular confirmed EFTs and 21 other tumors were tested for EWSR1 rearrangement. Among 21 unrelated tumors, EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in few myoepithelial tumors, occasional desmoplastic small round cell tumor and an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Further, a tissue microarray with a separate set of 8 EFTs, confirmed at another laboratory was analysed for validation of EWSR1 rearrangement test. 23/28 (82.1 %) tissue cores of the tissue microarray, stained by FISH were interpretable, including EWSR1 rearrangement, detected in 20/28 tissue cores; not detected in 3 liver cores and uninterpretable in 5 (17.8 %) cores. Classical EFTs can be diagnosed with diffuse, membranous CD99 positivity, intranuclear FLI1 positivity and LCA negativity in malignant round cells. In unconventional cases, it is indispensable to reveal the concomitant fusion m-RNA by RT-PCR. In case of negative molecular results, it is necessary to prove EWSR1 rearrangement by FISH. These tests should be interpreted with clinicopathological correlation. Tissue microarrays for FISH are useful during validation of a new test, especially when sarcomas like EFTs show less genetic heterogeneity within tumor cells.

Franzetti GA, Laud-Duval K, Bellanger D, et al.
MiR-30a-5p connects EWS-FLI1 and CD99, two major therapeutic targets in Ewing tumor.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(33):3915-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma is a pediatric bone tumor characterized in 85% of cases by the fusion between EWS and FLI1 genes that results in the expression of the EWS-FLI1 aberrant transcription factor. Histologically, the Ewing tumor expresses high levels of the CD99 membrane glycoprotein. It has been recently described that CD99 expression contributes to the Ewing tumor oncogenesis by modulating growth and differentiation of tumor cells. Different studies have also shown that overexpression of EWS-FLI1 induces CD99 expression in non-Ewing cells. At the opposite, the knockdown of EWS-FLI1 expression by siRNA approaches has no significant effect on CD99 mRNA level in Ewing cells. Here, by in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that while EWS-FLI1 inhibition has only slight effects on the amount of CD99 transcript, it induces a dramatic decrease of the CD99 protein expression level, hence suggesting post-transcriptional regulations, possibly mediated by microRNAs. To further investigate this issue, we identified a set of 91 miRNAs that demonstrate EWS-FLI1 modulation, three of them being predicted to bind CD99 3' untranslated region (30'UTR). Among these, we show that miR-30a-5p has the ability to interact with the 30'UTR region of CD99 and to regulate its expression. Moreover, the re-expression of miRNA-30a-5p in Ewing cell line induces decreased cell proliferation and invasion. In this study, we therefore show that miR-30a-5p constitutes a major functional link between EWS-FLI1 and CD99, two critical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in Ewing sarcoma.

Vural C, Uluoğlu O, Akyürek N, et al.
The evaluation of CD99 immunoreactivity and EWS/FLI1 translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization in central PNETs and Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2011; 17(3):619-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs) are indicated by malignant, small, round and blue cell tumors of the bone and soft tissue. Gene rearrangements between EWS gene on chromosome 22q12 and members of the ETS gene family are common in and specific to ESFTs. Another defining characteristic of ESFTs is their membranous expression of the CD99. In contrast, such translocations and immunoreactivity are not found in central primitive neuroectodermal tumors (cPNETs). The aim of this study was to investigate the detection of EWS/FLI1 translocations and CD99 immunoreactivity in order to evaluate their clinicopathological features and their roles in the differential diagnosis of these tumors. In this study, we investigated CD99 immunoreactivity using immunohistochemistry and Ewing's sarcoma / Friend leukaemia virus integration 1 (EWS/FLI1) translocation using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method in 23 cases. CD99 expression was detected in 10/11 (90%) ESFT cases and 2/7 cPNET cases. In 18 cases EWS/FLI1 translocation was examined using the FISH method. The EWS/FLI1 translocations were detected in 7/8 (87.5%) ESFTs cases, whereas non of 8 cPNET cases were detected with this translocation. One case could not be classified as either central or peripheral, showed EWS/FLI1 translocation. There was a statistically significant difference in CD99 expression (p = 0.0013) and EWS/FLI1 translocation (p = 0,002) between cPNETs and ESFTs cases. In conclusion, CD99 expression and EWS/FLI1 translocation are specific and sensitive markers in the diagnosis of ESFTs. However, these were often not found in cases of cPNET. Therefore, in the diagnosis of ESFTs, clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical parameters should always be evaluated together.

Angel JR, Alfred A, Sakhuja A, et al.
Ewing's sarcoma of the kidney.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2010; 15(3):314-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are small, round-cell tumors of neural crest origin classically found in the central nervous system (CNS) but more recently characterized in the periphery. Peripherally located PNETs (pPNETs) are members of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (EFTs). Renal localization of pPNETs is very rare, is found in young adults, and is characterized by an aggressive clinical course and poor prognosis. We present the case of a young man with renal pPNET characterized by psuedorosette formation, cluster of differentiation 99 (CD 99+), focally positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), with cytogenetic findings of the translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) and the unique abnormality of trisomy 7. To our knowledge, we report the first case of trisomy 7 and PNET.

Manduch M, Dexter DF, Ellis PM, et al.
Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the posterior mediastinum with t(11;22)(q24;q12).
Tumori. 2008 Nov-Dec; 94(6):888-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family of tumors is part of a rare group of malignant neoplasms with small round-cell morphology. We describe a 24-year-old woman who presented with non-specific back pain. A chest radiograph and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extraosseous, dumbbell-shaped mass of the posterior mediastinum with extension into the spinal canal. The patient underwent a left posterolateral thoracotomy and a T3-5 laminectomy with subsequent multi-agent chemotherapy. Histopathologic examination of the tumor demonstrated sheets of primitive small round malignant cells that showed no visible differentiation. Neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for CD99 and vimentin and were negative for chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD31, CD34, calcitonin, desmin, low-molecular weight cytokeratins, wide-spectrum cytokeratins, leukocyte common antigen, S-100 protein, and thyroid transcription factor-1. The neoplasm was diagnosed as a Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and cytogenetic studies confirmed a t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation and an associated trisomy of chromosome 2, supporting the histologic diagnosis. Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rare neoplasms that should be distinguished from other small round-cell tumors by morphology and ancillary laboratory techniques. Although rare, they need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of primary mediastinal tumors.

Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Guillou L, Chibon F, et al.
Superficial primitive Ewing's sarcoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of 14 cases.
Mod Pathol. 2009; 22(1):87-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Superficial primitive Ewing's sarcomas are rare and have been reported to be of favorable prognosis compared to conventional deep-seated tumors. In the skin and subcutis, the diagnosis is often difficult, and performing molecular cytogenetic techniques may be helpful. We performed a retrospective analysis of 14 cases of superficial Ewing's sarcomas, all confirmed by molecular cytogenetics. Clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, molecular cytogenetic, therapeutic, and follow-up data are reported. There were 11 female and 3 male patients aged from 12 to 77 years (median: 17 years). Seven tumors occurred in the extremities, five in the trunk wall, and two in the head. Tumor size ranged from 1 to 5 cm (median, 3 cm). They were all small round-cell proliferations with a strong membranous positivity for CD99. Ewing's sarcoma translocations/fusion gene transcripts were detected in eight cases, both by FISH and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Four tumors were positive by RT-PCR alone (FISH not done in three cases and not interpretable in one case), and two cases were positive by FISH alone (RT-PCR not done). Surgical resection was performed in all patients. Chemotherapy was given in ten patients and radiotherapy in six. At last medical examination (median follow-up, 47 months), two patients who underwent surgical resection alone had died from the tumor. Our results confirm that superficial Ewing's sarcomas are of good prognosis. Given the difficulty of the diagnosis and the importance of an adapted treatment, a confirmation of the diagnosis by molecular or cytogenetic techniques is recommended when dealing with a superficial tumor.

Wang H, Zheng J, Wang YP, et al.
Molecular detection of EWS-Ets fusion transcripts and their clinicopathologic significance in Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2005; 118(16):1323-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) is often difficult to distinguish from other small round cell tumors. The EWS-Ets gene fusions that result from chromosomal translocations in this tumor provide potential molecular diagnostic markers. To apply these molecular markers to commonly available archival materials, we evaluated the feasibility of detecting EWS-Ets including EWS-Fli1 and EWS-ERG fusion transcripts in paraffin-embedded tissues and its diagnostic value for detecting ES/pPNET.
METHODS: Thirteen paraffin-embedded samples of ES/pPNETs were retrieved from archives. Thirteen cases of other tumors with small round cell features (including rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, small cell carcinoma, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor) were used as negative controls. Beta-actin and beta2-microglobulin were used as internal controls. A nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay was performed to detect the EWS-Fli1 and EWS-ERG fusion transcripts.
RESULTS: Beta-actin and beta2-microglobulin were detected in 10/13 and 13/13 ES/pPNETs, respectively. EWS-Fli1 fusion transcripts were detected in 11 of 13 (85%) ES/pPNETs. Three chimeric transcripts, all EWS-Fli1, were detected in ES/pPNET samples. Among 11 EWS-Fli1-positive cases, 7 cases had a type I fusion transcript involving fusion of EWS exon 7 with Fli1 exon 6, 2 cases had a type II fusion transcript involving EWS exon 7 with Fli1 exon 5, and 2 cases expressed fusion transcripts involving EWS exon 7 and Fli1 exon 8. Type I EWS-Fli1 fusion predominated over other types. Fusion types could not be distinguished in the remaining 2 cases. Thirteen negative controls did not show detectable chimeric messages. There was a significant relationship between EWS-Fli1 fusion transcripts and CD99 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular detection of EWS-Fli1 fusion transcripts in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material by nested RT-PCR is feasible and is useful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ES/pPNETs.

Khoury JD
Ewing sarcoma family of tumors.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2005; 12(4):212-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) comprises morphologically heterogeneous tumors that are characterized by nonrandom chromosomal translocations involving the EWS gene and one of several members of the ETS family of transcription factors. The translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) is the most common and leads to the formation of the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein, which contributes to ESFT pathogenesis by modulating the expression of target genes. Tumors may be composed of small uniform cells with minimal morphologic evidence of differentiation, or they may be composed of larger, less uniform cells with varying degrees of neuroectodermal differentiation. CD99 expression is identified in nearly all ESFT and constitutes a useful positive marker when used as part of a panel of immunostains that can help rule out other differential diagnostic considerations. Molecular diagnostic tests commonly used to detect the presence of ESFT-specific translocations include RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Current therapy for patients with ESFT includes chemotherapy and surgery with or without radiation therapy. At present, the most significant prognostic factor for patients with ESFT is whether the disease is localized or metastatic.

Bismar TA, Basturk O, Gerald WL, et al.
Desmoplastic small cell tumor in the pancreas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2004; 28(6):808-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Desmoplastic small cell tumor (DSCT) is a distinct type of small blue cell tumors and is characterized by the unique karyotypic aberration involving the fusion of the Ewing's sarcoma (EWS) gene and Wilms' tumor (WT1) gene. Typically, it grows along serosal surfaces; however, in some cases, the tumor presents as a dominant mass in an internal organ. Examples of DSCT forming a primary mass in ovary, testes, and brain have been described, but its presentation as a primary pancreatic mass has not been reported previously. The case reported here is a 31-year-old woman who presented with a 14-cm mass in the pancreas. There were smaller nodules on the peritoneal surfaces that were regarded clinically as metastasis from a primary pancreatic tumor. During the frozen section, the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma of pancreatic origin was rendered and patient underwent subtotal pancreatectomy. On microscopic examination, the tumor was composed of large nests and broad bands of small blue cells, separated by fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemical stains showed positivity of the tumor cells for cytokeratins (AE1:AE3 and CAM5.2), neuron specific enolase, desmin and WT1, whereas chromogranin, S-100, and CD99 were negative. Since this immunoprofile is characteristic of DSCT, molecular analysis was performed which revealed the presence of EWS-WT1 gene fusion characteristic of DSCT. This case shows that in addition to primary pancreatic tumors characterized by prominent cellularity such as solid pseudopapillary tumors, acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma, endocrine tumors, and other small blue cell tumors, the differential diagnosis of cellular, stroma-poor neoplasia in the pancreas also includes DSCT. This case is also another demonstrative example of how DSCT may form a dominant mass in intraabdominal organs.

Sezer O, Jugovic D, Blohmer JU, et al.
CD99 positivity and EWS-FLI1 gene rearrangement identify a breast tumor in a 60-year-old patient with attributes of the Ewing family of neoplasms.
Diagn Mol Pathol. 1999; 8(3):120-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rearrangements of the EWS gene with ETS transcription factor genes as a result of chromosomal translocation and high expression levels of CD99MIC2 characterize the Ewing family of tumors (EFT). This group of rather undifferentiated neoplasms affects bone and soft tissue in children and young adults mostly between 5 and 30 years of age (median, 15 years). This study reports a case of a CD99MIC2 positive small round cell tumor in the breast of a 60-year-old woman in whom a t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal aberration was identified by cytogenetic analysis. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequence analysis revealed expression of a chimera transcript in which EWS exon 10 was fused to FLI1 exon 6. Previously, this gene fusion has been reported to occur in approximately 3% of EFT. The specific gene rearrangement of EWS intron 10 was confirmed on Southern blot of genomic DNA. This study further contributes to the growing list of unusual neoplasms in adults that carry genotypic and phenotypic traits of the EFT.

Hattinger CM, Rumpler S, Strehl S, et al.
Prognostic impact of deletions at 1p36 and numerical aberrations in Ewing tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999; 24(3):243-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma, peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and Askin tumors are referred to as Ewing tumors (ETs), and are characterized by high MIC2 expression and a t(11;22)(q24;q12) or other rearrangements involving 22q12. In addition to these constant aberrations, facultative numerical and structural aberrations have been reported: gains of chromosomes 8 and 12, the unbalanced translocation t(1;16), and deletions at the short arm of chromosome 1. To evaluate the frequency and to study the biological impact of these facultative aberrations, we analyzed tumor specimens from 58 ET patients by classical cytogenetics and/or in situ hybridization techniques and compared these data with clinical parameters. Gains of chromosomes 8 and 12 were detected in 55% (32/58) and 24% (14/58) of the cases, respectively. Loss of chromosome 16 or der (16)t(1;16) chromosomes were found in 20% (10/51); deletions at 1p36 were observed in 18% (9/51) of the cases evaluated. The presence of these aberrations did not correlate with age and sex of the patients, with the location of the primary tumor or with the extent of disease at diagnosis by chi-square analysis and Fisher's exact test. Patients with tumors harboring gains of chromosome 8 showed a slightly better clinical outcome (n = 14/30, P = 0.17), whereas gains of chromosome 12 did not influence the clinical outcome (n = 7/30, P = 0.63). However, Kaplan and Meier analysis revealed that deletions at the short arm of chromosome 1 were associated with an unfavorable outcome in patients with localized disease (n = 6/22; P = 0.004).

Hasegawa SL, Davison JM, Rutten A, et al.
Primary cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma: immunophenotypic and molecular cytogenetic evaluation of five cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 1998; 22(3):310-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous small blue cell tumors are relatively uncommon and include primary lesions of either adnexal or neuroendocrine differentiation, as well as metastatic disease. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma/malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor (MPNET) rarely may occur as a primary, superficially based neoplasm in children and young adults. We describe a series of five cases of Ewing's sarcoma/malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor occurring as a primary cutaneous malignancy supported diagnostically both by immunohistochemical stains and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). All five cases occurred as a solitary dermal nodule and were located in the lower extremities (3 cases), the axilla (1 case), and the flank (1 case). Three of the cases were clinically polypoid. Four of the five patients were female, and age at presentation ranged form 8 to 50 years of age (median, 18 years). All five tumors consisted of nodular proliferations of monomorphous, small blue cells with round, vesicular nuclei, and scant to moderate cytoplasm that were uniformly immunoreactive for the CD99 cell surface glycoprotein in a characteristic membranous pattern. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of paraffin-embedded tissue revealed that three of four tumors were positive for a chromosomal translocation involving the EWS locus at 22q12, seen in more than 90% of cases of Ewing's sarcoma/malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor. One case was not analyzable. All five patients were treated using local excision, and two patients additionally received postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Clinical follow-up is available in three cases (median duration, 33 months) and to date none has shown evidence of either local recurrence or metastasis. Because similar cases reported in the literature have likewise had favorable clinical courses after excision, primary cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma/malignant primitive neuroectodermal tumor may represent a clinically favorable subset of this otherwise highly aggressive neoplasm.

Latest Publications: CD99 (cancer-related)

Liu J, Keisling MP, Samkari A, et al.
Malignant glioma with primitive neuroectodermal tumor-like component (MG-PNET): novel microarray findings in a pediatric patient.
Clin Neuropathol. 2016 Nov/Dec; 35(6):353-367 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors exhibiting dual features of malignant glioma (MG) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) are rare and diagnostically challenging. Previous studies have shown that MG-PNET carry MYCN or MYC gene amplifications within the PNET component concomitant with glioma-associated alterations, most commonly 10q loss, in both components [9]. Here we confirm and extend the profile of molecular genetic findings in a MG-PNET involving the left frontal lobe of a 12-year-old male. Histologically, the PNET-like component showed morphological features akin to anaplastic medulloblastoma highlighted by widespread immunoreactivity for βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) and nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein, and to a lesser degree, Neu-N, synaptophysin, and CD99, whereas the gliomatous component was demarcated by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) labeling. Immunohistochemical labeling with an anti-H3K27M mutant-specific antibody was not detectable in either gliomatous and/or PNET-like areas. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) study on touch preparations from frozen tumor and formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded histological sections showed amplification of MYC in both PNET-like and gliomatous areas. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis revealed that the tumor carried gains of multiple chromosomes and chromosome arms, losses of multiple chromosomes and chromosome arms, gains of multiple chromosomal segments (not limited to amplification of chromosomal segments 4q12 including PDGFRA, and 8q24.21 including MYC), and a hitherto unreported chromothripsis-like abnormality on chromosome 8. No mutations were identified for IDH1, IDH2, or BRAF genes by sequence analysis. The molecular genetic findings support the presence of a CNS-PNET as an integral part of the tumor coupled with overlapping genetic alterations found in both adult and pediatric high-grade gliomas/glioblastoma. Collectively, microarray data point to a complex underpinning of genetic alterations associated with the MG-PNET tumor phenotype.
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Ishiguro M, Yuki M, Fukushige T, et al.
Molecular cytogenetic characterization of two established ESFT cell lines.
Hum Cell. 2017; 30(1):41-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Askin's tumor (Ewing`s sarcoma family of tumors: ESFT) is the most common type of malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue in children and young adults, and morphologically is a member of a group of small round cell tumors. We report, here, on the establishment of two human ESFT cell lines, FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4, from the iliac and the chest wall, respectively, the cells of both cell lines were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. Histologically, both original and xenograft tumors and cultured cells were composed of small round cells with positive immunoreactivity for CD99 and Nkx2.2. Molecular biological examination demonstrated chimeric transcripts of EWSR1 exon 7 to FLI1 exon 6 in FU-PNET-3 cells, and EWSR1 exon 10 to FLI1 exon 6 in FU-PNET-4 cells. Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosome translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) and some secondary changes in both cultured cells. These histological, molecular biological, and cytogenetical findings indicate ESFT in both cell lines. ESFT is well studied, but its recurrent fusion genes are heterogeneous and its biological behaviors are unclear. The FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4 cell lines have been well examined and may become useful tools for studying the genetic and biological behavioral properties of ESFT.

Ito M, Ishikawa M, Kitajima M, et al.
A case report of CIC-rearranged undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma in the cerebrum.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44(10):828-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
CIC-rearranged undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma (CIC-rearranged USRCS) is a recently established type of Ewing-like small round cell sarcomas, characterized by CIC gene rearrangement, most commonly CIC-DUX4 fusion. This report presents the second case of CIC-rearranged USRCS arising primarily in the cerebrum. A 64-year-old otherwise healthy woman presented with a 1 × 1 cm sized hemorrhagic subcortical tumor in the left temporo-parietal lobe. The tumor repeatedly recurred, and the patient underwent three surgeries, chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide, and radiotherapy, as well as gamma knife surgery. Systemic examination revealed no other extracranial masses. Imprint cytology revealed small to moderate-sized round-to-ovoid tumor cells with mild pleomorphism and variations in size and shape. The nuclei contained finely granular chromatin, and some had easily-recognizable nucleoli. The tumor exhibited a mainly cytoplasmic pattern of CD99 immunostaining, rather than a diffuse membranous pattern. The tumor also exhibited diffuse positivity for calretinin and p16, as well as partial positivity for WT1 (nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern) and D2-40. FISH assessment showed CIC split signals. In conclusion, CIC-rearranged USRCSs can occur primarily in the cerebrum. It would be impossible to diagnose them through cytology alone, but cytology would be useful to rule out other small round cell brain tumors including gliomas, lymphomas, carcinomas, and germinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis including tests for CD99, calretinin, and WT1 would help to suggest CIC-rearranged USRCSs and distinguish them from Ewing sarcomas. Additionally, immunohistochemistry for p16 might be useful in the diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:828-832. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Comino-Méndez I, Tejera ÁM, Currás-Freixes M, et al.
ATRX driver mutation in a composite malignant pheochromocytoma.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(6):272-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Approximately 40% of PCCs/PGLs are due to germline mutations in one of 16 susceptibility genes, and a further 30% are due to somatic alterations in 5 main genes. Recently, somatic ATRX mutations have been found in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-associated hereditary PCCs/PGLs. In the present study we applied whole-exome sequencing to the germline and tumor DNA of a patient with metastatic composite PCC and no alterations in known PCC/PGL susceptibility genes. A somatic loss-of-function mutation affecting ATRX was identified in tumor DNA. Transcriptional profiling analysis classified the tumor within cluster 2 of PCCs/PGLs (without SDH gene mutations) and identified downregulation of genes involved in neuronal development and homeostasis (NLGN4, CD99 and CSF2RA) as well as upregulation of Drosha, an important gene involved in miRNA and rRNA processing. CpG island methylator phenotype typical of SDH gene-mutated tumors was ruled out, and SNP array data revealed a unique profile of gains and losses. Finally, we demonstrated the presence of alternative lengthening of telomeres in the tumor, probably associated with the failure of ATRX functions. In conclusion, somatic variants affecting ATRX may play a driver role in sporadic PCC/PGL.

Machado I, Navarro L, Pellin A, et al.
Defining Ewing and Ewing-like small round cell tumors (SRCT): The need for molecular techniques in their categorization and differential diagnosis. A study of 200 cases.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 22:25-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) and Ewing-like tumors remains problematic. Certain ESFT with morphological and immunohistochemical (IHC) profiles lack the EWSR1-ETS transcript. To improve diagnostic accuracy we investigated the presence of several specific transcripts in 200 small round cell tumors (SRCT) displaying ESFT morphology and immunophenotype in which EWSR1 FISH analysis was non-informative or negative.
DESIGN: 200 tumors (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded) were analyzed by RT-PCR. All tumors were tested for EWSR1-ETS, EWSR1/WT1, PAX3/7-FOX01 or SYT/SSX transcripts, and the negative tumors were subsequently analyzed for CIC/DUX4, BCOR/CCNB3 and CIC/FOX04 transcripts.
RESULTS: 133 (66.5%) ESFT displayed one of the above EWSR1-ETS translocations. Three cases (1.5%) revealed the SYT-SSX transcript for Synovial sarcoma, and one (0.5%) a EWSR1-WT1 transcript for Desmoplastic Small Round Cell tumor. The CIC-DUX4 translocation was found in six Ewing-like tumors (3%) with CD99 positivity. The BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusion was observed in 5 tumors (2.5%) displaying round or spindle cells with strong CCNB3 IHC expression in 3 tumors. Moreover, RT-PCR failed to detect any gene fusion transcripts in 19 tumors (9.5%) and were considered "undifferentiated small round cell sarcoma" (SRCS). Molecular biology results were non-informative in 33 SRCTs (16.5%) due to RNA degradation through inadequate fixation and/or decalcification.
CONCLUSION: Our analysis of 200 SRCTs confirms the molecular heterogeneity of neoplasms with ESFT morphology and highlight that molecular studies with RT-PCR including new emerging gene fusion transcripts are mandatory for the diagnosis when EWSR1 FISH is negative or non-informative. The incidence of CIC-DUX4, BCOR-CCNB3 and CIC-FOX04 transcripts was relatively low. A small group of Ewing-like sarcomas or undifferentiated SRCS remains unclassified. Adopting appropriate tissue fixation and processing protocols is important to avoid degradation of fixed/embedded tissue when no frozen tumor is available.

Enein AA, Rahman HA, Sharkawy NE, et al.
Significance of CD99 expression in T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(2):117-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD99 was first isolated as an antigen on the T acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. It has been shown to participate in T cell adhesion and is widely expressed on a variety of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types.
AIM OF WORK: Detection of the expression pattern of CD99 on leukemic and normal T cells and assessing the possibility of its use as a tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of T-ALL cases.
METHODOLOGY: We used flow cytometry technique to determine the expression level of CD99 in 62 newly diagnosed T-ALL patients. Patients were followed up for the presence of minimal residual disease on day 15 and day 42 post-therapy. 20 age and sex matched healthy controls were enrolled in our study.
RESULTS: CD99 was expressed in all T-ALL patients, with a higher median expression level when compared to controls (58.5% versus 1.38%, p< 0.001). On day 42 post-therapy, 100% of follow up patients who had initial CD99 expression ≤ 50% had no minimal residual disease, while only 45.5% of those who had initial CD99 expression > 50% had no minimal residual disease (P= 0.03). There was no significant influence of CD99 expression on the 1-year overall survival probability (P= 0.82).
CONCLUSION: CD99 could be used to complement current strategy relying on TdT for diagnosis and monitoring of minimal residual disease during the post-therapy follow up of T-ALL patients. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Chebib I, Jo VY
Round cell sarcoma with CIC-DUX4 gene fusion: Discussion of the distinctive cytomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features in the differential diagnosis of round cell tumors.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2016; 124(5):350-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Undifferentiated round cell sarcomas are a heterogeneous group, and include tumors that resemble the Ewing sarcoma family. Although a subset defined by recurrent CIC-DUX4 gene fusion has been recently characterized, data regarding the cytomorphologic features are currently limited. Two recent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases prompted review of the spectrum of round cell tumors in the differential diagnosis to determine distinctive diagnostic features.
METHODS: Two genetically confirmed FNA cases were identified. Cytomorphologic features were evaluated on FNA smears and hematoxylin and eosin-stained cell block and concurrent needle biopsy sections, and immunohistochemical studies performed on cell block and biopsy sections were reviewed.
RESULTS: The 2 patients were a 24-year-old man with a posterior mediastinal mass and a 69-year-old woman with a gluteal mass. FNA smears were cellular with tumor cells present in large groups and singly dispersed. Tumor cells had large, round-to-ovoid, hyperchromatic nuclei with irregular membranes, frequent large nucleoli, and a moderate amount of vacuolated cytoplasm. Both cases demonstrated necrosis, and one case had prominent myxoid stroma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated focal-to-multifocal CD99 positivity and diffuse nuclear staining for WT1; staining for cytokeratin, desmin, S-100, CD34, CD45, and TdT were negative. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated CIC-DUX4 fusion in both cases.
CONCLUSIONS: CIC-DUX4 round cell sarcoma differs from Ewing sarcoma in that it has more atypical cytologic features and lacks the diffuse membranous CD99 staining pattern characteristic of Ewing sarcoma. The differential diagnosis is broad, and requires the judicious use of ancillary studies. Focal-to-multifocal CD99 immunoreactivity and diffuse nuclear WT1 positivity is characteristic of CIC-DUX4 sarcoma, and should prompt molecular testing. Cancer Cytopathol 2016;124:350-61. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Han Y, Zhang Q, Yu X, et al.
Immunohistochemical detection of STAT6, CD34, CD99 and BCL-2 for diagnosing solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13166-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs)/hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) are uncommon mesenchymal neoplasms of fibroblastic type that can arise anywhere in the body. Recently, NGFI-A binding protein 2 (NAB2)-signal transducer and the activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) fusion gene were discovered as a hallmark of SFTs/HPCs by using whole-exome, and transcriptome sequencing; consequently, the fusion gene can be rapidly detected by STAT6 immunohistochemistry. In this study, 53 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues were performed using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against STAT6, CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2. Nuclear STAT6 positive staining was present in 51 cases (51/53, sensitivity 96.2%), which were usually diffuse (4+ in 14 cases; 3+ in 13 cases; 2+ in 9 cases; 1+ in 15 cases) and intense (strong in 17 cases; moderate in 22 cases; and weak in 12 cases) staining. CD34 was positive in 47 cases (47/53, sensitivity 88.7%), CD99 was positive in 50 cases (50/53, sensitivity 94.3%) and Bcl-2 was positive in 51 cases (51/53, sensitivity 96.2%). There is no difference among categories such as age, sex, location, tumor size, or estimated dignity in immunohistochemical staining of STAT6, CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2. The nuclear STAT6 being positive is a helpful and highly sensitive marker in diagnosis of SFTs/HPCs. Considering immunohistochemical STAT6, CD34, CD99 and Bcl-2 findings together can provide more supportive diagnostic information.

Chen S, Deniz K, Sung YS, et al.
Ewing sarcoma with ERG gene rearrangements: A molecular study focusing on the prevalence of FUS-ERG and common pitfalls in detecting EWSR1-ERG fusions by FISH.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(4):340-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetics of Ewing sarcoma (ES) are characterized by a canonical fusion involving EWSR1 gene and a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as FLI1 and ERG. In fact, ERG gene rearrangements represent the second most common molecular alteration, with EWSR1-ERG being identified in 5-10% of cases, while only a handful of reports document a FUS-ERG fusion. In this study, we focus on ES with ERG gene abnormalities, specifically to investigate the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of FUS-ERG fusions in a large cohort of small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs) and compare to the eight reported FUS-positive ES. Among the 85 SBRCTs tested, seven (8.2%) cases harbored FUS gene rearrangements; six fused to ERG and one with FEV. During this investigation we came across a number of ERG-rearranged ES lacking both EWSR1 and FUS abnormalities by FISH. In one case, RNA sequencing identified an EWSR1-ERG transcript despite the negative EWSR1 rearrangements by FISH. Additional 3-color FISH fusion assay demonstrated the fusion of EWSR1 and ERG signals in all four cases negative for break-apart EWSR1 FISH. These results emphasize a potential pitfall of relying on EWSR1 FISH assay alone for diagnosis of ES. In cases with classic morphology and/or strong CD99 and ERG immunoreactivity, additional molecular testing should be applied, such as ERG FISH or RT-PCR/next generation sequencing, for a more definitive diagnosis. Although our study group is small, there were no differences noted between the clinical, morphologic features and immunoprofile of the different subsets of ERG-rearranged SBRCTs.

Yoshida A, Goto K, Kodaira M, et al.
CIC-rearranged Sarcomas: A Study of 20 Cases and Comparisons With Ewing Sarcomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(3):313-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CIC gene rearrangement exists in a subset of small round cell sarcomas. As the nosologic relationship of these sarcomas to Ewing sarcomas remains undetermined, we examined 20 CIC-rearranged sarcomas to compare their clinicopathologic features with those of Ewing sarcomas. The CIC-rearranged sarcomas were from a group of 14 men and 6 women with a median age of 24.5 years. The primary tumor sites included the limbs, trunk wall, internal trunk, lung, cerebrum, and pharynx. A comparison of the demographic and clinical characteristics of the 20 patients with CIC-rearranged sarcomas with those of the 53 near-consecutive patients with EWSR1-rarranged Ewing sarcomas showed that there were no differences with respect to their ages and sexes. Although none of the CIC-rearranged sarcomas arose in the bone, 40% of the Ewing sarcomas primarily affected the skeleton. The overall survival of patients with Ewing sarcomas was significantly better than that for patients with CIC-rearranged sarcomas. A histologic comparison of the CIC-rearranged sarcomas with 20 EWSR1-rearranged Ewing sarcomas showed significantly higher degrees of lobulation, nuclear pleomorphism, the prominence of the nucleoli, spindle cell elements, and myxoid changes in the CIC-rearranged sarcomas. Distinguishing immunohistochemical features included heterogenous CD99 reactivity, nuclear WT1 expression, and calretinin expression in the CIC-rearranged sarcomas and NKX2.2 expression in the Ewing sarcomas. CIC-rearranged sarcomas are distinct from Ewing sarcomas clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically, and they should be considered a separate entity rather than being grouped within the same family of tumors.

Owosho AA, Ko E, Rosenberg HI, et al.
Primary Ewing Family of Tumors of the Jaw Has a Better Prognosis Compared to Tumors of Extragnathic Sites.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016; 74(5):973-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw is rare. The aim of this study was to describe new cases of primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw and investigate reported prognostic factors of Ewing sarcoma in this series and treatment outcome.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw were treated at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) from 1992 through 2013. Clinical data, pathology reports, treatment prescribed, treatment regimens, outcome, and follow-up information were reviewed.
RESULTS: Five of 6 patients were female and 5 cases were in the mandible. No patient presented with metastatic disease at diagnosis. All cases were positive for CD99, and 3 patients with genetic confirmation were positive for EWS-FLI1 fusion or EWSR1 gene rearrangement. All patients received induction multiagent chemotherapy and surgical resection and 2 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Total (grade IV) or nearly total (grade III) tumor necrosis in 3 of 5 patients (60%) assessed for histologic response to chemotherapy indicated intense sensitivity. All patients were alive and free of disease, with no history of local recurrence, at a median follow-up period of 6.5 years.
CONCLUSION: Patients with primary Ewing sarcoma of the jaw have a good prognosis and metastasis is an uncommon occurrence at initial presentation.

Mashriqi N, Gujjarlapudi JK, Sidhu J, et al.
Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix, a diagnostic dilemma: a case report and review of the literature.
J Med Case Rep. 2015; 9:255 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Ewing's sarcoma belongs to a spectrum of neoplastic diseases known as Ewing's family of tumors. This family of tumors is usually seen in osseous sites. Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix is extremely rare, with only 18 cases reported in the English literature. The immunohistochemical profile of Ewing's sarcoma overlaps with other malignancies like small cell carcinoma. The rarity and complex pathologic picture of Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix creates the potential for misdiagnosis. Hence, we believe this case needs to be reported to add to the available literature.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old white Caucasian woman presented with vaginal bleeding. A pelvic examination revealed a cystic lesion arising from her cervix. Examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasm, with sheets of small hyperchromatic cells, staining weakly for neuroendocrine markers. She was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma and started on concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. However, additional positive immunostaining for CD99 was strongly suggestive of Ewing's sarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ESWR1 gene rearrangement, confirming Ewing's sarcoma. Our patient underwent surgery, which confirmed stage IIB Ewing's sarcoma. She received adjuvant chemotherapy but died from progressive metastatic disease after four cycles.
CONCLUSION: With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix can be a potentially curable disease. However, owing to overlapping clinical and histopathological features, the diagnosis poses a challenge to oncologists and pathologists. This article guides pathologists to consider Ewing's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of small cell carcinoma with weak staining for neuroendocrine markers. This literature review will benefit oncologists encountering this rare entity.

Trabelsi S, Mama N, Chourabi M, et al.
Meningeal Hemangiopericytomas and Meningomas: a Comparative Immunohistochemical and Genetic Study.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):6871-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHPC) is a vascular tumor arising from pericytes. Most intracranial MHPCs resemble meningiomas (MNGs) in their clinical presentation and histological features and may therefore be misdiagnosed, despite important differences in prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report 8 cases of MHPC and 5 cases of MNG collected from 2007 to 2011 from the Neuro-Surgery and Histopathology departments. All 13 samples were re reviewed by two independent pathologists and investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mesenchymal, epithelial and neuro-glial markers. Additionally, we screened all tumors for a large panel of chromosomal alterations using multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA). Presence of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene was inferred by immunohistochemical staining for STAT6.
RESULTS: Compared with MNG, MHPCs showed strong VIM (100% of cases), CD99 (62%), bcl-2 (87%), and p16 (75%) staining but only focal positivity with EMA (33%) and NSE (37%). The p21 antibody was positive in 62% of MHPC and less than 1% in all MNGs. MLPA data did not distinguish HPC from MNG, with PTEN loss and ERBB2 gain found in both. By contrast, STAT6 nuclear staining was observed in 3 MHPC cases and was absent from MNG.
CONCLUSIONS: MNG and MHPC comprise a spectrum of tumors that cannot be easily differentiated based on histopathology. The presence of STAT6 nuclear positivity may however be a useful diagnostic marker.

Ertoy Baydar D, Kosemehmetoglu K, Aydin O, et al.
Primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of kidney with variant histomorphologic features: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:186 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The authors present two cases of primary sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) of the kidney. Both patients had a mass in the upper part of the left kidney without any primary extrarenal neoplastic lesions. Grossly, the tumors were solid masses both measuring 7.5 cm in the greatest diameter. Histologically, one of the lesions exhibited a predominantly lobular growth of round or oval small uniform epithelioid cells in variable cellularity. Circular zones of crowded tumor cells alternating with hypocellular collagenous tissue in a concentric fashion around entrapped native renal tubules were distinctive. The second case was distinctive with significant cytological atypia in the neoplastic cells and prominent reactive proliferations in the trapped renal tubules. Immunohistochemically, vimentin, bcl-2 and MUC4 were diffusely positive in both. They were negative for S-100 protein, CD34, and desmin, whereas CD99 were positive in one lesion. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assay using dual staining probes detected EWSR1-CREB3L1 fusion in each lesion, which is characteristic molecular findings of SEF. One patient presented widespread distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. In the other, no tumor deposits were detected other than primary. Both patients have been alive with 30 and 10 month follow-ups, respectively. These tumors are 6th and 7th cases of primary renal SEF in the literature confirmed by FISH study, which exhibit unique and remarkable histomorphologic features.

Ichiyanagi O, Ito H, Takai S, et al.
A GRIA2 and PAX8-positive renal solitary fibrous tumor with NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:155 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm composed of mesenchymal-derived spindle cells. Although SFT occurs anywhere in the body, they most frequently affects the thoracic region. Here, we reported an extremely rare case of an extrathoracic SFT occurring primarily in the kidney. To our knowledge, little information has been described on the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and genetics of renal SFT.A 41-year old Japanese female came to our hospital for further examination of a left kidney mass detected incidentally with ultrasound. Extensive investigation of the tumor, including physical, laboratory, and image examinations led to a clinical diagnosis of renal cancer (cT1aN0M0), which were in most parts imbedded in the lower polar parenchyma. The patient underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. The mass was diagnosed pathologically as SFT originating from the kidney, but not as renal carcinoma. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shape cells distributed variably in dense collagenous stroma and had a focal hemangiopericytomatous staghorn-like vascular pattern. Mitotic figures, atypical structures, necrosis and hemorrhage were not identified. No adjuvant therapies were given postoperatively. The patient has been free of tumor recurrence for 25 months since the surgery. IHC revealed that the tumor diffusely expressed CD34, CD99, Bcl2, PAX8, NAB2, STAT6, and GRIA2. The tumor stained negatively for desmin, S-100, c-Kit, CK-AE1/AE3, CDK4 and MDM2. A NAB2-SATA6 gene fusion was detected in tumor cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing, and an in situ proximity ligation brightfield assay. The gene fusion occurred as an 831 bp truncation of exon 2 in NAB2 connected to the beginning of exon 3 in STAT6. We have reported a case of GRIA2 and PAX8-positive SFT occurring primarily in the kidney with such NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion for the first time. Diffuse expression of PAX8 in the tumor might present with a renal origin. Reportedly, benign histology of SFT cannot necessarily predict favorable clinical prognosis. Genetic alterations recently identified in SFT could possibly refer to risk stratification for tumor recurrence. However, malignant preponderance of extrathoracic SFT over thoracic SFT remains unexplained so far. Long-term follow-up after surgery should be performed in the present case.

Rekhi B, Chinnaswamy G, Vora T, et al.
Primary Ewing sarcoma of vulva, confirmed with molecular cytogenetic analysis: A rare case report with diagnostic and treatment implications.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015 Jul-Sep; 58(3):341-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary vulvar Ewing sarcoma (ES)/PNET is an uncommonly documented tumor, especially with molecular results. A 10-year-old girl presented with left vulvar swelling, a year ago. Her abdominopelvic ultrasound revealed a 12 cm × 8 cm sized, mixed echogenic blood-filled lesion in the left vulva; radiologically considered as a hematoma. Vulvectomy revealed a multinodular grey-brown tumor, microscopically comprising malignant round cells. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells diffusely expressed MIC2/CD99 and Fli1 and subsequently displayed EWSR1 rearrangement, confirming diagnosis of ES/PNET. Subsequently, PET-CT scan revealed residual local lesion with lung metastases. The patient was induced on EFT 2001 chemotherapy protocol. Three months after chemotherapy completion, there was no metabolically active disease on PET scan. Four months later, MRI disclosed recurrent primary and metastatic pulmonary lesions. She was planned for scar excision and adjuvant radiotherapy, but unfortunately defaulted further treatment. This forms the eighth case of primary vulvar ES/PNET confirmed with molecular cytogenetic result, underscoring therapeutic value of objective diagnosis in such cases.

Yan M, Shield-Artin K, Byrne D, et al.
Comparative microRNA profiling of sporadic and BRCA1 associated basal-like breast cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:506 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While a number of studies have examined miRNA profiles across the molecular subtypes of breast cancer, it is unclear whether BRCA1 basal-like cancers have a specific miRNA profile. This study aims to compare grade independent miRNA expression in luminal cancers, sporadic and BRCA1 basal-type breast cancers. It also aims to ascertain an immunohistochemical profile regulated by BRCA1 specific miRNAs for potential diagnostic use.
METHODS: miRNA expression was assessed in 11 BRCA1 basal, 16 sporadic basal, 17 luminal grade 3 cancers via microarrays. The expression of Cyclin D1, FOXP1, FIH-1, pan-ERβ, NRP1 and CD99, predicted to be regulated by BRCA1 specific miRNAs by computer prediction algorithms, was assessed via immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 35 BRCA1 and 52 sporadic basal-like cancers. Assessment of cyclin D1, FOXP1, NRP1 and CD99 expression was repeated on a validation cohort of 82 BRCA1 and 65 sporadic basal-like breast cancers.
RESULTS: Unsupervised clustering of basal cancers resulted in a "sporadic" cluster of 11 cancers, and a "BRCA1" cluster of 16 cancers, including a subgroup composed entirely of 10 BRCA1 cancers. Compared with sporadic basal cancers, BRCA1 cancers showed reduced positivity for proteins predicted to be regulated by miRNAs: FOXP1 (6/20[30 %] vs. 37/49[76 %], p < 0.001), cyclin D1 (8/22[36 %] vs. 30/46[65 %], p = 0.025), NRP1 (2/20[10 %] vs. 23/46[50 %], p = 0.002). This was confirmed in the validation cohort (all p < 0.001). Negative staining for 2 or more out of FOXP1, cyclin D1 and NRP1 predicts germline BRCA1 mutation with a sensitivity of 92 %, specificity of 44 %, positive predictive value of 38 % and a negative predictive value of 94 %.
CONCLUSION: Sporadic and BRCA1 basal-like cancers have grade independent miRNA expression profiles. Furthermore miRNA driven differences in the expression of proteins in BRCA1 basal cancers may be detected via immunohistochemistry. These findings may have important diagnostic implications, as immunohistochemical assessment of basal cancers, in addition to the patient's family and clinical history, may potentially identify patients who may benefit from BRCA1 gene testing.

Grilli A, Sciandra M, Terracciano M, et al.
Integrated approaches to miRNAs target definition: time-series analysis in an osteosarcoma differentiative model.
BMC Med Genomics. 2015; 8:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in the fine regulation of several cellular processes by inhibiting their target genes at post-transcriptional level. Osteosarcoma (OS) is a tumor thought to be related to a molecular blockade of the normal process of osteoblast differentiation. The current paper explores temporal transcriptional modifications comparing an osteosarcoma cell line, Saos-2, and clones stably transfected with CD99, a molecule which was found to drive OS cells to terminally differentiate.
METHODS: Parental cell line and CD99 transfectants were cultured up to 14 days in differentiating medium. In this setting, OS cells were profiled by gene and miRNA expression arrays. Integration of gene and miRNA profiling was performed by both sequence complementarity and expression correlation. Further enrichment and network analyses were carried out to focus on the modulated pathways and on the interactions between transcriptome and miRNome. To track the temporal transcriptional modification, a PCA analysis with differentiated human MSC was performed.
RESULTS: We identified a strong (about 80 %) gene down-modulation where reversion towards the osteoblast-like phenotype matches significant enrichment in TGFbeta signaling players like AKT1 and SMADs. In parallel, we observed the modulation of several cancer-related microRNAs like miR-34a, miR-26b or miR-378. To decipher their impact on the modified transcriptional program in CD99 cells, we correlated gene and microRNA time-series data miR-34a, in particular, was found to regulate a distinct subnetwork of genes with respect to the rest of the other differentially expressed miRs and it appeared to be the main mediator of several TGFbeta signaling genes at initial and middle phases of differentiation. Integration studies further highlighted the involvement of TGFbeta pathway in the differentiation of OS cells towards osteoblasts and its regulation by microRNAs.
CONCLUSIONS: These data underline that the expression of miR-34a and down-modulation of TGFbeta signaling emerge as pivotal events to drive CD99-mediated reversal of malignancy and activation of differentiation in OS cells. Our results describe crucial and specific interacting actors providing and supporting their relevance as potential targets for therapeutic differentiative strategies.

Monument MJ, Grossmann AH, Baker CC, et al.
Molecular Confirmation of Ewing Sarcoma in an 85-Year-Old Woman.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2015; 23(6):500-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of a Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor in an 85-year-old woman who presented with an enlarging circumscribed left flank mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3 × 5 × 10 cm heterogeneous mass arising from the 10th rib. Computed tomography demonstrated a small nodule in the right middle lobe and bilateral pleural effusions. The patient underwent computed tomography-guided biopsy followed by open biopsy. The tumor cells were characterized by loosely cohesive sheets of tumor cells with uniform nuclei, and scant, granular, eosinophilic cytoplasm with indistinct cell membranes. Frequent mitoses, apoptosis, and necrosis were present. The cells were positive for CD99 with a strong concentric staining pattern. Epithelial, hematopoietic, and neural markers were all negative. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and demonstrated EWSR1 (22q12) gene rearrangement. Sanger sequencing of the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction product from the patient's tumor demonstrated the EWSR1-FLI1 type 1 fusion. Following diagnosis the patient elected to proceed with localized radiation and declined chemotherapy. She developed progressive lung disease and subsequently died of her disease a year after her initial diagnosis. Ewing sarcoma is predominantly a pediatric disease and uncommon in patients older than 40 years of age. To the best of our knowledge, this is the oldest documented case of Ewing sarcoma, diagnosed using modern molecular techniques.

Wu H, Meng YH, Lu P, et al.
Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma in abdominal cavity: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(4):4213-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we present a rare and difficult case of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS) in abdominal cavity. A 47-year-old female presented as left upper abdominal pain for 6 months and abdominal distention for 1 month. CT examination showed a solid mass in the left upper intra-abdomen. Grossly, the tumor was found in the mesenterium of colon with the size of 7.5 × 6.5 × 3.5 cm, and was solid and gray-yellowish in the cut surface. Focal myxomatous appearance was observed. Microscopically, stromal myxoid change together with prominant infiltrated lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils were found in the tumor, and the tumor cells were round, epithelioid with vesicular nuclei, large prominant nucleoli and high mitotic rate. Immunohistochemically, strong diffused positive for vimentin, desmin, ALK (nuclear membrane staining pattern) and AAT, focally positive for CD99 and CD30, were showed, Ki67 index was about 20%; Especially, WT-1 and D240 were focally expressed in this tumor. FISH analysis showed rearrangement of ALK, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was used to detect the fusion location of the RANBP2 and ALK gene. The diagnosis of EMIS was made based on its location, typical morphology, the immunohistochemical features especially the nuclear membranous immunostaining of ALK and rearrangement of RANBP2-ALK. The tumor showed higher aggressive behaviors and a poor prognosis. The differential diagnosis and other treatments of EMIS are also discussed in the present study. This finding may increase the case information of EMIS.

Bishop JA, Alaggio R, Zhang L, et al.
Adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumors of the head and neck: a pitfall in the differential diagnosis of basaloid and myoepithelial carcinomas.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(9):1267-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ewing sarcoma family tumors (EFTs) of the head and neck are rare and may be difficult to diagnose, as they display significant histologic overlap with other more common undifferentiated small blue round cell malignancies. Occasionally, EFTs may exhibit overt epithelial differentiation in the form of diffuse cytokeratin immunoexpression or squamous pearls, resembling the so-called adamantinoma-like EFTs and being challenging to distinguish from bona fide carcinomas. Furthermore, the presence of EWSR1 gene rearrangement correlated with strong keratin expression may suggest a myoepithelial carcinoma. Herein, we analyze a series of 7 adamantinoma-like EFTs of the head and neck, most of them being initially misdiagnosed as carcinomas because of their anatomic location and strong cytokeratin immunoexpression, and subsequently reclassified as EFT by molecular techniques. The tumors arose in the sinonasal tract (n=2), parotid gland (n=2), thyroid gland (n=2), and orbit (n=1), in patients ranging in age from 7 to 56 years (mean, 31 y). Microscopically, they departed from the typical EFT morphology by growing as nests with peripheral nuclear palisading and prominent interlobular fibrosis, imparting a distinctly basaloid appearance. Moreover, 2 cases exhibited overt keratinization in the form of squamous pearls, and 1 sinonasal tumor demonstrated areas of intraepithelial growth. All cases were positive for CD99, pancytokeratin, and p40. A subset of cases showed synaptophysin, S100 protein, and/or p16 reactivity, further confounding the diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays showed EWSR1 and FLI1 rearrangements in all cases. Our results reinforce that a subset of head and neck EFTs may show strong cytokeratin expression or focal keratinization, and are therefore histologically indistinguishable from more common true epithelial neoplasms. Thus, CD99 should be included in the immunopanel of a round cell malignancy regardless of strong cytokeratin expression or anatomic location, and a strong and diffuse CD99 positivity should prompt molecular testing for the presence of EWSR1 gene rearrangements.

Ohlmann CH, Brecht IB, Junker K, et al.
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the kidney: clinicopathologic and molecular study of a rare neoplasm at a novel location.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2015; 19(4):221-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare fibrosarcoma variant with specific histomorphology and consistent translocation (EWSR1-CREB3L1/2). To date, 110 cases have been reported; only 15 originated within the abdomen. With only 2 cases reported parallel to our study and one case briefly mentioned in a previous series, primary renal SEF is exceptionally rare but might be underrecognized. We herein describe 2 cases affecting a 23-year-old woman and a 43-year-old man. Tumor size was 22 and 4.2 cm, respectively. Patient 1 developed skeletal and multiple pulmonary metastases. She died of disease 82 months later, despite aggressive multimodality therapy. Patient 2 has no evidence of recurrence or metastasis (8 months after surgery). Histologic examination showed similar appearance with monotonous bland medium-sized epithelioid cells with rounded slightly vesicular nuclei and clear cytoplasm imparting a carcinoma-like appearance set within a highly sclerotic hyaline fibrous stroma. The tumor cells were arranged in nests, single cell cords, trabeculae, or solid sheets with frequent entrapment of renal tubules and glomeruli. Immunohistochemistry showed strong expression of vimentin, bcl2, CD99, and MUC4, whereas cytokeratin and other markers were negative. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a translocation involving the EWSR1 gene locus in case 2. Molecular analysis in case 1 was not successful due to poor signal quality. To our knowledge, this is the second report documenting primary renal SEF. Awareness of this entity would help avoid misinterpretation as clear cell carcinoma, sclerosing perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, Xp.11 translocation carcinoma, and other more frequent neoplasms at this site.

Kim SB, Lee SH, Gu MJ
Esophageal subepithelial lesion diagnosed as malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(18):5739-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 21-year-old male visited our hospital with a complaint of aggravating dysphagia and odynophagia for a few days. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed huge bulging mucosa with an intact surface causing luminal narrowing at 35 cm from the incisor teeth. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed an about 35 mm sized irregular margined in-homogenous hypoechoic lesion with an obscure layer of origin. Endoscopic ultrasonography fine needle aspiration revealed spindle cell proliferation without immunoreactivity for CD117, SMA, and cytokeratin. The patient underwent excision of the subepithelial lesion at the distal esophagus. On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was composed of short fascicles of oval to spindle cells with eosinophilic and clear cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei. The tumor cells were positive for S-100 and SOX10 and negative for CD117, SMA, HMB-45, melan-A, cytokeratin, and CD99. The split-apart signal was detected in EWSR1 on FISH, suggesting a malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor. At the time of writing, the patient is on radiation therapy at the operated site of esophagus and doing well, with no recurrence for three months. Malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor is a rare gastrointestinal tumor with features of clear cell sarcoma, without melanocytic differentiation, and shows a poor prognosis. This is the first reported case of malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumor arising as subepithelial lesion in the esophagus.

Funakoshi T, Sato T, Hosokawa R, et al.
Application of electron microscopic analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization technique for the successful diagnosis of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.
J Dermatol. 2015; 42(9):893-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of soft tissue tumors is often challenging. Immunohistochemical investigation, let alone routine histopathological investigation, may not allow definitive diagnosis in some cases. To overcome such difficulties, more advanced techniques need to be adopted. Herein, we report an extremely rare 56-year-old Japanese female case of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (ES), successfully diagnosed by electron microscopy (EM) using formalin-fixed sections and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The patient had a 2-year history of a tumor growing on the leg. In routine histopathology, invasive proliferation of tumor cells was observed in the dermis. Tumor cells were round and uniform with large hyperchromatic nuclei, which were positively stained for CD56, VS38c, Ki-67, MIC2 and vimentin, but not for pan-keratin AE1 + AE3, cytokeratin 20, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. As these findings were not conclusive to make the final diagnosis, EM specimens were prepared from formalin-fixed sections and subjected to investigation. Cell surface projections and dense core granules were detected, suggestive of either Merkel cell carcinoma or extraskeletal ES. Subsequent FISH analysis identified reciprocal translocation of the ESWR1 gene, enabling the final diagnosis of extraskeletal ES. This study provides useful information enabling the diagnosis of this uncommon soft tissue tumor.

Angelini DF, Ottone T, Guerrera G, et al.
A Leukemia-Associated CD34/CD123/CD25/CD99+ Immunophenotype Identifies FLT3-Mutated Clones in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(17):3977-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We evaluated leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIP) and their correlation with fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) and nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutational status in order to contribute a better identification of patients at highest risk of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bone marrow samples from 132 patients with AML were analyzed by nine-color multiparametric flow cytometry. We confirmed the presence of the mutation in diagnostic samples and in sorted cells by conventional RT-PCR and by patient-specific RQ-PCR.
RESULTS: Within the CD34(+) cell fraction, we identified a discrete population expressing high levels of the IL3 receptor α-chain (CD123) and MIC-2 (CD99) in combination with the IL2 receptor α-chain (CD25). The presence of this population positively correlated with the internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutation in the FLT3 gene (r = 0.71). Receiver operating characteristics showed that, within the CD34(+) cell fraction a percentage of CD123/CD99/CD25(+) cells ≥11.7% predicted FLT3-ITD mutations with a specificity and sensitivity of >90%. CD34/CD123/CD99/CD25(+) clones were also detectable at presentation in 3 patients with FLT3 wild-type/NPM1(+) AML who relapsed with FLT3-ITD/NPM1(+) AML. Quantitative real-time PCR designed at relapse for each FLT3-ITD in these three cases confirmed the presence of low copy numbers of the mutation in diagnostic samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the CD34/CD25/CD123/CD99(+) LAIP is strictly associated with FLT3-ITD-positive cells.

Leow WQ, Sng I
Sinonasal haemangiopericytoma: histomorphology and differential diagnoses.
Malays J Pathol. 2015; 37(1):53-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 39-year-old female presented with a fleshy nasal polyp occluding the left nasal cavity, associated with haemopurulent discharge. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the paranasal cavities revealed a large polypoid tumour arising from the left middle turbinate and obstructing the left maxillary sinus ostium. However, no bony or intracranial involvement was identified. A biopsy revealed a tumour with small blue round cell morphology. The tumour cells showed diffuse strong membranous CD99 positivity and patchy CD34 positivity. Ancillary cytogenetic tests for the EWSR1 and SS18/SYT gene translocations were negative. In view of the non-invasive nature of the tumour and the low cell proliferative index (Ki-67) of 5%, a medial maxillectomy resection was performed. The resection revealed additional areas with spindle-cell morphology and focal haemangiopericytic vasculature. The tumour continued to show immunoreactivity to CD99 and CD34, as well as Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA) and Muscle Specific Actin (MSA). The overall findings are in keeping with a sinonasal haemangiopericytoma. With clear surgical resection margins, the patient is on routine follow-up and is currently disease-free.

Oost EE, Charles A, Choong CS, et al.
Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in patients with probable or confirmed germline DICER1 mutations.
Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2015; 34(3):266-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DICER1 gene encodes an endoribonuclease involved in the production of mature microRNAs which regulates gene expression through several mechanisms. Recent studies have demonstrated somatic mutations in DICER1 in approximately 60% of ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Furthermore, patients with germline mutations in DICER1 are predisposed to developing a range of rare neoplasms including ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors most of which have been classified as Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. However, the histologic features of these tumors have not been reported in detail. We describe the morphologic and immunophenotypic findings of 4 sex cord-stromal tumors arising in patients with proven or likely germline DICER1 mutations including 3 individuals from 1 family. Three tumors showed similar appearances characterized by marked architectural and cytologic heterogeneity including sertoliform, juvenile granulosa cell tumor-like, and unclassifiable elements. The remaining case mainly showed heterologous mucinous epithelial and neuroendocrine differentiation with only a minor intermediate-grade Sertoli cell component. This tumor and one of the 3 former cases arose in related patients with identical germline DICER1 mutations indicating that additional factors influence tumor morphology. All tumors were positive for steroidogenic factor-1 and FOXL2 on immunohistochemical analysis, whereas there was more variable expression of inhibin, calretinin, CD56, CD99, and hormone receptors. The present small series suggests that some ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor associated with germline DICER1 mutations may show distinctive histologic features in particular admixed Sertoli cell and juvenile granulosa cell tumor-like features. Larger studies are required to establish whether heterologous elements are also a more common feature of these tumors.

Magro G, Brancato F, Musumeci G, et al.
Cyclin D1 is a useful marker for soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in children and adolescents: A comparative immunohistochemical study with rhabdomyosarcoma.
Acta Histochem. 2015 May-Jun; 117(4-5):460-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin D1 amplification and/or overexpression contribute to the loss of the regulatory circuits that govern G1-S transition phase of the cell cycle, playing pivotal roles in different human malignant tumors, including breast, colon, prostate cancer, lymphoma, melanoma and neuroblastoma. In vitro studies have shown that cyclin D1 is overexpressed in Ewing's sarcoma (EWS)/peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (pPNET), but not in rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Only a few immunohistochemical studies are available on cyclin D1 expression in EWS/pPNET, which confirmed its expression only in a limited number of cases. The aim of the present study was a comparative immunohistochemical analysis of the expression and distribution of cyclin D1 in a large series of pediatric/adolescent soft tissue EWS/pPNETs and rhabdomyosarcomas (both embryonal and alveolar subtypes) to assess its potential usefulness in their differential diagnosis. Notably cyclin D1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all cases (20/20) of EWS/pPNET, while it was lacked in all cases (15/15) of rhabdomyosarcomas. Immunohistochemical overexpression of cyclin D1 in EWS/pPNET is a novel finding which could be exploitable as a diagnostic immunomarker for this tumor. Although highly sensitive, cyclin D1 is not specific for EWS/pPNET, and thus it should not be evaluated alone but in the context of a wide immunohistochemical panel. Accordingly, we first emphasize that when pathologists are dealing with a small round blue cell tumor of soft tissues in pediatric/adolescent patients, a strong and diffuse nuclear expression of cyclin D1 is of complementary diagnostic value to CD99 and FLI-1 in confirming diagnosis of EWS/pPNET and in ruling out rhabdomyosarcoma.

Righi A, Gambarotti M, Longo S, et al.
Small cell osteosarcoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 36 cases.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2015; 39(5):691-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small round cell osteosarcoma is a very rare type of osteosarcoma, histologically mimicking other small round cell malignancies of bone, most notably Ewing sarcoma. To distinguish small cell osteosarcoma from other primary small cell malignancies of bone, we evaluated the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of CD99 and SATB2, a marker of osteoblastic differentiation. Second, we analyzed EWSR1 and FUS gene aberrations using fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to assess whether small cell osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma share the same genetic alteration analysis. Thirty-six cases of primitive small cell osteosarcoma of bone were included in this study. All the cases of small cell osteosarcoma showed strong nuclear expression of SATB2 associated with negativity for CD99 antibody or weak, cytoplasmic staining in few neoplastic cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was negative for EWS-FLI1 type 1-2, EWS-ERG type 1, and CIC-DUX4 in the 10 available cases of small cell osteosarcoma analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was feasible with a readable signal in 13 cases of small cell osteosarcoma, and none of these cases showed any EWSR1 and FUS gene rearrangements. In conclusion, it appears extremely useful to combine IHC analysis of SATB2 and CD99 with molecular analysis of Ewing sarcoma-associated genetic aberrations, to differentiate small cell osteosarcoma from other small round cell malignancies of bone. The strong IHC expression of SATB2 associated with CD99 immunonegativity and the absence of EWSR1 and FUS gene rearrangements in small cell osteosarcoma argues against the existence of a morphologic/genetic continuum with Ewing sarcoma.

Machado I, López-Soto MV, Rubio L, et al.
Soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma with rhabdoid-like features and EWSR1 rearrangement: Fine needle aspiration cytology with histologic correlation.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2015; 43(5):421-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new case of soft tissue myoepithelial carcinoma (MEC) with rhabdoid-like differentiation is presented including cytologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic features. A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the Hospital with nodular mass involving the lower part of the abdominal wall. Fine-needle aspiration cytology showed a round cell tumor with abundant cytoplasm in the myxoid background. The nuclei were uniform, round to ovoid, with finely distributed chromatin, nucleoli, and pale, vacuolated, or eosinophilic cytoplasm with rhabdoid-like appearance resembling a soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor. The surgically removed tumor was poorly demarcated, yellow, soft, and myxoid. The histopathology revealed sheets of poorly differentiated round malignant cells with focal myxoid stroma and rhabdoid-like morphology. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CK (AE1/AE3), EMA, S100, vimentin, CD99, and SMA; however desmin, CD34, and gliofibrilar acid protein (GFAP) were negative. Tumor cells revealed loss of INI1 expression. The EWSR1 gene rearrangement was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), but molecular biology failed to detect EWSR1/ETS, EWSR1/NR4A3, EWSR1/DDIT3, EWSR1/ATF1, EWSR1-POU5F1, EWSR1/ZNF444, EWSR1-PBX1 gene fusions. The final diagnosis was soft tissue malignant myoepithelioma with rhabdoid changes and EWSR1 gene rearrangement. The differential diagnosis included soft tissue malignant rhabdoid tumor, cellular extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, proximal epithelioid sarcoma, and other soft tissue tumor with EWSR1 rearrangement. To our knowledge, this is the first case of MEC with rhabdoid features and description of fine-needle aspiration cytology.

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