Gene Summary

Gene:MMP10; matrix metallopeptidase 10
Aliases: SL-2, STMY2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peptidase M10 family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Proteins in this family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. This secreted protease breaks down fibronectin, laminin, elastin, proteoglycan core protein, gelatins, and several types of collagen. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: MMP10 (cancer-related)

He S, Liu M, Zhang W, et al.
Over expression of p21-activated kinase 7 associates with lymph node metastasis in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(2):203-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: p21-activated kinase 7 is a member of the group II p21-activated kinase (PAK) family which is known to play important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers and the correlation with clinical parameters has never been investigated.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of p21-activated kinase 7 in esophageal squamous cell cancers.
METHODS: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma samples were collected and the expression of p21-activated kinase 7 was detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro cell invasion assay was employed in EC9706 cells and EC9706PAK7 cells. Metastasis related genes were evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western Blot.
RESULTS: In 85 samples, 44 (51.8%) samples showed strong expression and expression of PAK7 was significantly correlated with lymph node stage (p= 0.013) and TNM stage (p= 0.041). In vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion ability of EC9706 PAK7 cells increased 2.5 folds compared with EC9706 cells. PAK7 could enhance the protein levels of Vimentin and MMP10, but reduce E-cadherin, TIMP1 and TIMP2.
CONCLUSION: PAK7 is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell cancer samples and correlated with lymph node metastasis.

Kadeh H, Heydari F, Saravani S, Ghodsi IN
Protein Expression of Stromelysin-2 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(17):7843-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Some matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, there are few studies on association between stromelysin-2 (ST-2) and invasive behavior of HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to investigate Stromelysin-2 expression by immunohistochemistry.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 81 specimens, including 61 HNSCC and 20 non neoplastic epithelium. Sections with 5 micron thickness were prepared and stained with immunohistochemistry technique. Then expression of ST-2 was evaluated according to percentage of stained cells and intensity of staining. Data were analyzed by SPSS (V.21) using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests (P<0.05).
RESULTS: The 61 HNSCC specimens were grades I 36.1%, II 34.4% and III 29.5%. The level of ST-2 expressions were moderate (++) and intensive (+++) in 21.3% and 78.7% of tumors, respectively. The ST-2 expression level was only significant between the tumors with grade I and grade III (P=0.016). Tumors presented ST-2 expression with staining intensity of mild 6.6%, moderate 26.2% and strong 67.2%. Staining intensity of ST-2 in grade I tumors was significantly lower than grade II and grade III (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between grades II and III (P=0.99).
CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, the expression of ST-2 is associated with histopathological grade and tumor differentiation in HNSCCs.

Hsu KS, Guan BJ, Cheng X, et al.
Translational control of PML contributes to TNFα-induced apoptosis of MCF7 breast cancer cells and decreased angiogenesis in HUVECs.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(3):469-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis and functions through the assembly of subnuclear structures known as PML nuclear bodies (NBs). The inflammation-related cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is known to induce PML protein accumulation and PML NB formation that mediate TNFα-induced cell death in cancer cells and inhibition of migration and capillary tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs). In this study, we uncover a novel mechanism of PML gene regulation in which the p38 MAPK and its downstream kinase MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 1 (MNK1) mediate TNFα-induced PML protein accumulation and PML NB formation. The mechanism includes the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) found within the well-conserved 100 nucleotides upstream of the PML initiation codon. The activity of the PML IRES is induced by TNFα in a manner that involves MNK1 activation. It is proposed that the p38-MNK1-PML network regulates TNFα-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and TNFα-mediated inhibition of migration and capillary tube formation in ECs.

Li J, Zhu SC, Li SG, et al.
TKTL1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 74:71-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway, has been demonstrated to promote carcinogenesis through enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Dysregulation of TKTL1 expression also leads to poor prognosis in patients with urothelial and colorectal cancer. However, the expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we measured TKTL1 expression in ESCC cell lines and paraffin-embedded ESCC tumor tissues. Our results revealed that TKTL1 expression was upregulated in all of the four ESCC cell lines and in 61.25% (98/160) of ESCC specimens detected, while only 27.5% (11/40) in normal epithelium. Silencing of TKTL1 expression decreased cell proliferation through inhibiting the expression of MKI67 and cyclins including Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccnd1 and Ccne1. Meanwhile, down-regulation of TKTL1 also associated with increased apoptotic ratio and altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family in ESCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of TKTL1 significantly reduced the invasive potential of ESCC cells through up-regulation of anti-metastasis genes (MTSS1, TIMP2 and CTSK) and down-regulation of pr-metastasis genes (MMP2, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13). Taken together, our results indicate that TKTL1 is associated with a more aggressive behavior in ESCC cells and suppresses its expression or enzyme activity might represents a potential target for developing novel therapies in human ESCCs.

Datar I, Feng J, Qiu X, et al.
RKIP Inhibits Local Breast Cancer Invasion by Antagonizing the Transcriptional Activation of MMP13.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134494 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs) including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP transcription, suggesting a potential mechanism by which RKIP inhibits tumor progression and metastasis.

Thakur S, Nabbi A, Klimowicz A, Riabowol K
Stromal ING1 expression induces a secretory phenotype and correlates with breast cancer patient survival.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:164 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established that levels of the Inhibitor of Growth 1(ING1) tumor suppressor are reduced in a significant proportion of different cancer types. Here we analyzed levels of ING1 in breast cancer patients to determine its prognostic significance as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis.
METHODS: We used automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) to determine the levels of ING1 in the tumor associated stromal cells of 462 breast cancer samples. To better understand how high ING1 levels affect nearby epithelium, we measured the levels of cytokines and secreted matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), using an ELISA based assay in mammary fibroblasts overexpressing ING1. These cells were also used in a 3-dimensional co-culture with MCF7 cells to determine the effect of released MMPs and other cytokines on growing colonies.
RESULTS: We find that high levels of ING1 in stroma are associated with tumor grade (p = 0.001) and size (p = 0.02), and inversely associated with patient survival (p = 0.0001) in luminal, but not in non-luminal cancers, suggesting that high stromal ING1 promotes cancer development. In this group of patients ING1 could also predict patient survival and act as a biomarker (HR = 2.125). While ING1 increased or decreased the expression of different cytokines, ING1 also increased the levels of MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10 by 5-8 fold, and concomitantly decreased levels of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases TIMP2, TIMP3 and TIMP4 by 1.5-3.3 fold, resulting in significant increases in MMP activity as determined by zymography. Co-culturing of MCF7 cells with stromal cells expressing ING1 in 3-dimensional organoid cultures suggested that MCF7 colonies were less well defined, suggesting that secreted MMPs might promote migration.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that stromal ING1 expression can predict the survival of patients with luminal breast cancer. High levels of ING1 in stromal cells can promote the development of breast cancer through increased expression and release of MMPs and down regulation of TIMPs, which may be an underlying mechanism of reduced patient survival.

Khan FH, Pandian V, Ramraj S, et al.
Reorganization of metastamiRs in the evolution of metastatic aggressive neuroblastoma cells.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MetastamiRs have momentous clinical relevance and have been correlated with disease progression in many tumors. In this study, we identified neuroblastoma metastamiRs exploiting unique mouse models of favorable and high-risk metastatic human neuroblastoma. Further, we related their deregulation to the modulation of target proteins and established their association with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Whole genome miRNA microarray analysis identified 74 metastamiRs across the manifold of metastatic tumors. RT-qPCR on select miRNAs validated profile expression. Results from bio-informatics across the ingenuity pathway, miRCancer, and literature data-mining endorsed the expression of these miRNAs in multiple tumor systems and showed their role in metastasis, identifying them as metastamiRs. Immunoblotting and TMA-IHC analyses revealed alterations in the expression/phosphorylation of metastamiRs' targets, including ADAMTS-1, AKT1/2/3, ASK1, AURKβ, Birc1, Birc2, Bric5, β-CATENIN, CASP8, CD54, CDK4, CREB, CTGF, CXCR4, CYCLIN-D1, EGFR, ELK1, ESR1, CFOS, FOSB, FRA, GRB10, GSK3β, IL1α, JUND, kRAS, KRTAP1, MCP1, MEGF10, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP10, MTA2, MYB, cMYC, NF2, NOS3, P21, pP38, PTPN3, CLEAVED PARP, PKC, SDF-1β, SEMA3D, SELE, STAT3, TLR3, TNFα, TNFR1, and VEGF in aggressive cells ex vivo and in a manifold of metastatic tumors in vivo. miRNA mimic (hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-27b, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-20a) and inhibitor (hsa-miR-1224-3p, hsa-miR-1260) approach for select miRNAs revealed the direct influence of the altered metastamiRs in the regulation of identified protein targets. Clinical outcome association analysis with the validated metastamiRs' targets corresponded strongly with poor overall and relapse-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, these results identified a comprehensive list of neuroblastoma metastamiRs, related their deregulation to altered expression of protein targets, and established their association with poor clinical outcomes. The identified set of distinctive neuroblastoma metastamiRs could serve as potential candidates for diagnostic markers for the switch from favorable to high-risk metastatic disease.

García-Irigoyen O, Latasa MU, Carotti S, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase 10 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis in a novel crosstalk with the stromal derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis.
Hepatology. 2015; 62(1):166-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in tissue repair after acute injury, but also participate in cancer by promoting a protumorigenic microenvironment. Previously, we reported on a key role for MMP10 in mouse liver regeneration. Herein, we investigated MMP10 expression and function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced mouse hepatocarcinogenesis. MMP10 was induced in human and murine HCC tissues and cells. MMP10-deficient mice showed less HCC incidence, smaller histological lesions, reduced tumor vascularization, and less lung metastases. Importantly, expression of the protumorigenic, C-X-C chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), was reduced in DEN-induced MMP10-deficient mice livers. Human HCC cells stably expressing MMP10 had increased CXCR4 expression and migratory capacity. Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduced MMP10-stimulated HCC cell migration. Furthermore, MMP10 expression in HCC cells was induced by hypoxia and the CXCR4 ligand, stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1), through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway, involving an activator protein 1 site in MMP10 gene promoter.
CONCLUSION: MMP10 contributes to HCC development, participating in tumor angiogenesis, growth, and dissemination. We identified a new reciprocal crosstalk between MMP10 and the CXCR4/SDF1 axis contributing to HCC progression and metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first report addressing the role of a MMP in hepatocarcinogenesis in the corresponding genetic mouse model.

Du X, Lin BC, Wang QR, et al.
MMP-1 and Pro-MMP-10 as potential urinary pharmacodynamic biomarkers of FGFR3-targeted therapy in patients with bladder cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(24):6324-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify noninvasive pharmacodynamic biomarkers of FGFR3-targeted therapies in bladder cancer to facilitate the clinical development of experimental agent targeting FGFR3.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Potential soluble pharmacodynamic biomarkers of FGFR3 were identified using a combination of transcriptional profiling and biochemical analyses in preclinical models. Two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), MMP-1 and MMP-10, were selected for further studies in human bladder cancer xenograft models treated with a specific anti-FGFR3 monoclonal antibody, R3Mab. Serum and urinary levels of MMP-1 and MMP-10 were determined in healthy donors and patients with bladder cancer. The modulation of MMP-1 and MMP-10 by R3Mab in patients with bladder cancer was further evaluated in a phase I dose-escalation study.
RESULTS: MMP-1 and MMP-10 mRNA and protein were downmodulated by FGFR3 shRNA and R3Mab in bladder cancer cell lines. FGFR3 signaling promoted the expression and secretion of MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 in a MEK-dependent fashion. In bladder cancer xenograft models, R3Mab substantially blocked tumor progression and reduced the protein levels of human MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 in tumor tissues as well as in mouse serum. Furthermore, both MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 were elevated in the urine of patients with advanced bladder cancer. In a phase I dose-escalation trial, R3Mab administration resulted in an acute reduction of urinary MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 levels in patients with bladder cancer.
CONCLUSION: These findings reveal a critical role of FGFR3 in regulating MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 expression and secretion, and identify urinary MMP-1 and pro-MMP-10 as potential pharmacodynamic biomarkers for R3Mab in patients with bladder cancer.

di Martino E, Kelly G, Roulson JA, Knowles MA
Alteration of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion in urothelial cells: an oncogenic mechanism for mutant FGFR3.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(1):138-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Activating mutations of FGFR3 are a common and early event in bladder cancer. Ectopic expression of mutant FGFR3 in normal urothelial cells has both pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic effects at confluence, suggesting that mutant cells are insensitive to cell-cell contact inhibition. Herein, detailed analysis revealed that these cells have reduced cell-cell adhesion, with large intercellular spaces observable at confluence, and diminished cell-substrate adhesion to collagen IV, collagen I, and fibronectin. These phenotypic alterations are accompanied by changes in the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodeling. Silencing of endogenous mutant FGFR3 in bladder cancer cells induced converse changes in transcript levels of CDH16, PLAU, MMP10, EPCAM, TNC, and HAS3, confirming them as downstream gene targets of mutant FGFR3. Overexpression of EPCAM, HAS3, and MMP10 transcripts was found in a large fraction of primary bladder tumors analyzed, supporting their key role in bladder tumorigenesis in vivo. However, no correlation was found between their protein and/or mRNA expression and FGFR3 mutation status in tumor specimens, indicating that these genes may be targeted by several converging oncogenic pathways. Overall, these results indicate that mutant FGFR3 favors the development and progression of premalignant bladder lesions by altering key genes regulating the cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive properties of urothelial cells.
IMPLICATIONS: The ability of mutant FGFR3 to drive transcriptional expression profiles involved in tumor cell adhesion suggests a mechanism for expansion of premalignant urothelial lesions.

Tanis T, Cincin ZB, Gokcen-Rohlig B, et al.
The role of components of the extracellular matrix and inflammation on oral squamous cell carcinoma metastasis.
Arch Oral Biol. 2014; 59(11):1155-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for about 90% of malignant oral lesions, and is identified as the most frequently occurring malignant tumour of oral structures. We aimed to investigate the genes and pathways related with metastasis on Turkish OSCC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed whole genome expression profiling array on an Illumina platform. A total of 24 samples with 12 OSCC and 12-paired controls that had no tumour were included in the study. Hierarchic clustering and heat map were used for data visualisation and p-values assessed to identify differentially expressed genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Ingenuity Pathway Systems (IPA) analysis were performed to consider biologic meaning of differential expression of the genes between tumour and control groups.
RESULTS: We identified 790 probe sets, corresponding to 648 genes that were effective in separating invasive and metastatic OSCC. Consequently, we found statistically relevant expression results on extracellular matrix members on MMPs such as MMP3, MMP10, MMP1 and MMP9; on laminin such as LAMC2, LAMA3 and LAMB3; several genes in the collagen family; and also on chemokines from the inflammation process.
CONCLUSION: Statistically relevant expression changes for MMPs, laminins, collagens, and chemokines, which are components of the extracellular matrix and inflammation process, may be considered as a molecular biomarker for early prediction. Further studies are necessary to determine and understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie OSCC metastasis.

Lee HR, Shin HK, Park SY, et al.
Cilostazol suppresses β-amyloid production by activating a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 via the upregulation of SIRT1-coupled retinoic acid receptor-β.
J Neurosci Res. 2014; 92(11):1581-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The accumulation of plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, results from the sequential cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by activation of β- and γ-secretases. However, the production of Aβ can be avoided by alternate cleavage of APP by α-and γ-secretases. We hypothesized that cilostazol attenuates Aβ production by increasing a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10)/α-secretase activity via SIRT1-coupled retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ) activation in N2a cells expressing human APP Swedish mutation (N2aSwe). To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, the culture medium was switched from medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to medium containing 1% FBS, and cells were cultured for 3∼24 hr. After depletion of FBS in media, N2aSwe cells showed increased accumulations of full-length APP (FL-APP) and Aβ in a time-dependent manner (3-24 hr) in association with decreased ADAM10 protein expression. When pretreated with cilostazol (10-30 μM), FL-APP and Aβ levels were significantly reduced, and ADAM10 and α-secretase activities were restored. Furthermore, the effect of cilostazol on ADAM10 expression was antagonized by pretreating Rp-cAMPS and sirtinol and by SIRT1-gene silencing. In the N2aSwe cells overexpressing the SIRT1 gene, ADAM10, and sAPPα levels were significantly elevated. In addition, like all-trans retinoic acid, cilostazol enhanced the protein expressions of RARβ and ADAM10, and the cilostazol-stimulated ADAM10 elevation was significantly attenuated by LE135 (a RARβ inhibitor), sirtinol, and RARβ-gene silencing. In conclusion, cilostazol suppresses the accumulations of FL-APP and Aβ by activating ADAM10 via the upregulation of SIRT1-coupled RARβ.

Zhang G, Miyake M, Lawton A, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes tumor progression through regulation of angiogenic and apoptotic pathways in cervical tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer invasion and metastasis develops through a series of steps that involve the loss of cell to cell and cell to matrix adhesion, degradation of extracellular matrix and induction of angiogenesis. Different protease systems (e.g., matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs) are involved in these steps. MMP-10, one of the lesser studied MMPs, is limited to epithelial cells and can facilitate tumor cell invasion by targeting collagen, elastin and laminin. Enhanced MMP-10 expression has been linked to poor clinical prognosis in some cancers, however, mechanisms underlying a role for MMP-10 in tumorigenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we report that MMP-10 expression is positively correlated with the invasiveness of human cervical and bladder cancers.
METHODS: Using commercial tissue microarray (TMA) of cervical and bladder tissues, MMP-10 immunohistochemical staining was performed. Furthermore using a panel of human cells (HeLa and UROtsa), in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed in which MMP-10 was overexpressed or silenced and we noted phenotypic and genotypic changes.
RESULTS: Experimentally, we showed that MMP-10 can regulate tumor cell migration and invasion, and endothelial cell tube formation, and that MMP-10 effects are associated with a resistance to apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that increasing MMP-10 expression stimulates the expression of HIF-1α and MMP-2 (pro-angiogenic factors) and PAI-1 and CXCR2 (pro-metastatic factors), and accordingly, targeting MMP-10 with siRNA in vivo resulted in diminution of xenograft tumor growth with a concomitant reduction of angiogenesis and a stimulation of apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings show that MMP-10 can play a significant role in tumor growth and progression, and that MMP-10 perturbation may represent a rational strategy for cancer treatment.

Zhang JJ, Zhu Y, Xie KL, et al.
Yin Yang-1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates an important role of transcription factor Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in human tumorigenesis. However, its function in cancer remains controversial and the relevance of YY1 to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains to be clarified.
METHODS: In this study, we detected YY1 expression in clinical PDAC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. We also detected MUC4 and MMP10 mRNA levels in 108 PDAC samples using qRT-PCR and analyzed the correlations between YY1 and MUC4 or MMP10 expression. The role of YY1 in the proliferation, invasion and metastatic abilities of PDAC cells in vitro was studied by CCK-8 assay, cell migration and invasion assays. In vivo pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis was studied by a xenogenous subcutaneously implant model and a tail vein metastasis model. The potential mechanisms underlying YY1 mediated tumor progression in PDAC were explored by digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing, signal transduction pathways blockage experiments and luciferase assays. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 15.0 software.
RESULTS: We found that the expression of YY1 in PDACs was higher compared with their adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal pancreas tissues. However, PDAC patients with high level overexpression of YY1 had better outcome than those with low level overexpression. YY1 expression levels were statistically negatively correlated with MMP10 expression levels, but not correlated with MUC4 expression levels. YY1 overexpression suppressed, whereas YY1 knockdown enhanced, the proliferation, invasion and metastatic properties of BXPC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo. YY1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that YY1 plays a negative role, i.e. is a tumor suppressor, in PDAC, and may become a valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker of PDAC.

Prasad NB, Fischer AC, Chuang AY, et al.
Differential expression of degradome components in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(7):945-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the cure rate for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is high, the diverse spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma has made it difficult for early diagnosis, particularly the aggressive tumors that are highly associated with mortality. Therefore, molecular markers are needed as an adjunct to current staging methods for diagnosing high-risk lesions, and stratifying those patients with aggressive tumors. To identify such biomarkers, we have examined a comprehensive set of 200 histologically defined squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin samples by using a combination of microarray, QRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. A characteristic and distinguishable profile including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) as well as other degradome components was differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin samples. The expression levels of some of these genes including matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1), matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10), parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1), FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (FOS), interleukin 6 (IL6) and reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK) were significantly differentially expressed (P≤0.02) in squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal skin. Furthermore, based on receiver operating characteristic analyses, the mRNA and protein levels of MMP1 are significantly higher in aggressive tumors compared with non-aggressive tumors. Given that MMPs represent the most prominent family of proteinases associated with tumorigenesis, we believe that they may have an important role in modulating the tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma.

Yadav VR, Sahoo K, Awasthi V
Preclinical evaluation of 4-[3,5-bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid, in a mouse model of lung cancer xenograft.
Br J Pharmacol. 2013; 170(7):1436-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: 4-[3,5-Bis(2-chlorobenzylidene)-4-oxo-piperidine-1-yl]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid CLEFMA is a new anti-cancer molecule. Here, we investigated changes in apoptosis and inflammatory markers during CLEFMA-induced tumour suppression.
EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Lung adenocarcinoma H441 and A549, and normal lung fibroblast CCL151 cell lines were used, along with a xenograft model of H441 cells implanted in mice. Tumour tissues were analysed by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and/or biochemical assays. The ex vivo results were confirmed by performing selected assays in cultured cells.
KEY RESULTS: CLEFMA-induced cell death was associated with cleavage of caspases 3/9 and PARP. In vivo, CLEFMA treatment resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of tumour growth and (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in tumours, along with a reduction in the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. In tumour tissue homogenates, the anti-apoptotic markers (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1(cIAP1), Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and survivin) were inhibited and the pro-apoptotic Bax and BID were up-regulated. Further, CLEFMA decreased translocation of phospho-p65-NF-κB into the nucleus. In vitro, it inhibited the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB. It also reduced the expression of COX-2 in tumours and significantly depressed serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. These effects of CLEFMA were accompanied by a reduced transcription and/or translation of the invasion markers VEGF, MMP9, MMP10, Cyclin D1 and ICAM-1.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Overall, CLEFMA inhibited growth of lung cancer xenografts and this tumour suppression was associated with NF-κB-regulated anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic effects.

Briso EM, Guinea-Viniegra J, Bakiri L, et al.
Inflammation-mediated skin tumorigenesis induced by epidermal c-Fos.
Genes Dev. 2013; 27(18):1959-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are the second most prevalent skin cancers. Chronic skin inflammation has been associated with the development of SCCs, but the contribution of skin inflammation to SCC development remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that inducible expression of c-fos in the epidermis of adult mice is sufficient to promote inflammation-mediated epidermal hyperplasia, leading to the development of preneoplastic lesions. Interestingly, c-Fos transcriptionally controls mmp10 and s100a7a15 expression in keratinocytes, subsequently leading to CD4 T-cell recruitment to the skin, thereby promoting epidermal hyperplasia that is likely induced by CD4 T-cell-derived IL-22. Combining inducible c-fos expression in the epidermis with a single dose of the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) leads to the development of highly invasive SCCs, which are prevented by using the anti-inflammatory drug sulindac. Moreover, human SCCs display a correlation between c-FOS expression and elevated levels of MMP10 and S100A15 proteins as well as CD4 T-cell infiltration. Our studies demonstrate a bidirectional cross-talk between premalignant keratinocytes and infiltrating CD4 T cells in SCC development. Therefore, targeting inflammation along with the newly identified targets, such as MMP10 and S100A15, represents promising therapeutic strategies to treat SCCs.

Sawada G, Ueo H, Matsumura T, et al.
Loss of COP1 expression determines poor prognosisin patients with gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1971-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have suggested conflicting roles for the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 in tumorigenesis, providing evidence that both the oncoprotein c-Jun and the tumor suppressor p53 may be COP1 targets. In the present study, we focused on the clinical significance of COP1 expression in gastric cancer cases and analyzed the malignant behavior of COP1‑knockdown gastric cancer cells in vitro. We analyzed COP1 expression in cancer lesions and the corresponding normal mucosa to demonstrate the clinical significance of COP1 expression in 133 cases of gastric cancer. We also investigated the relationship between COP1 expression and cell proliferation and the association of COP1 with c‑Jun transcriptional target genes, such as MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10. The expression of COP1 mRNA was significantly lower in gastric cancer tissues compared to the corresponding normal mucosa (P=0.049). In multivariate analysis for overall survival, we found that COP1 expression was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Knockdown of COP1 expression in the gastric cancer cell lines MKN‑45 and NUGC4 promoted proliferation, and significant associations between COP1 expression and MMP1, MMP7 and MMP10 were also observed in knockdown assays. In conclusion, the present study suggests that loss of COP1 expression may be a novel indicator for the biological aggressiveness in gastric cancer.

Al-Alem LF, McCord LA, Southard RC, et al.
Activation of the PKC pathway stimulates ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and expression of MMP7 and MMP10.
Biol Reprod. 2013; 89(3):73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Postmenopausal women are at a higher risk of ovarian cancer due, in part, to increased levels of gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Gonadotropins and other stimuli are capable of activating two pathways, PKA and PKC, that are altered in ovarian cancer. To determine the role of LH on ovarian cancer, we explored the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), an LH mimic, and an activator of the PKC pathway, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), on ovarian cancer cell-cycle kinetics and apoptosis in Ovcar3 cells. PMA treatment increased cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and initially increased apoptosis after 4 h before diminishing apoptosis after 8 h. Treatment of ovarian cancer cells with hCG had no effect on these parameters. The PKC pathway is known to differentially regulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Results showed that ovarian cancer cells treated with PMA increased MMP7 and MMP10 mRNA levels after 8 h of treatment, and expression remained high after 12 h before decreasing at 24 h. The mRNA expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (BSG), an activator of MMPs, was unaffected by PMA. Due to the role that MMPs play in migration, we investigated the effect of PMA activation of MMPs on ovarian cancer cell migration. The use of the MMP inhibitor GM6001 blocked the increased migratory effects of PMA on ovarian cancer cells. Together, these studies show that activating the PKC pathway causes significant changes in cell cycle kinetics and selective expression of MMPs that are involved in enhancing ovarian cancer cell proliferation and migration.

Tien JC, Liu Z, Liao L, et al.
The steroid receptor coactivator-3 is required for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):3997-4008 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 plays a key role in enhancing prostate cancer cell proliferation. Although SRC-3 is highly expressed in advanced prostate cancer, its role in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) driven by PTEN mutation is unknown. We documented elevated SRC-3 in human CRPC and in PTEN-negative human prostate cancer. Patients with high SRC-3 and undetectable PTEN exhibited decreased recurrence-free survival. To explore the causal relationship in these observations, we generated mice in which both Pten and SRC-3 were inactivated in prostate epithelial cells (Pten3CKO mice), comparing them with mice in which only Pten was inactivated in these cells (PtenCKO mice). SRC-3 deletion impaired cellular proliferation and reduced tumor size. Notably, while castration of PtenCKO control mice increased the aggressiveness of prostate tumors relative to noncastrated counterparts, deletion of SRC-3 in Pten3CKO mice reversed all these changes. In support of this finding, castrated Pten3CKO mice also exhibited decreased levels of phospho-Akt, S6 kinase (RPS6KB1), and phosphorylated S6 protein (RPS6), all of which mediate cell growth and proliferation. Moreover, these tumors appeared to be more differentiated as evidenced by higher levels of Fkbp5, an AR-responsive gene that inhibits Akt signaling. Lastly, these tumors also displayed lower levels of certain androgen-repressed genes such as cyclin E2 and MMP10. Together, our results show that SRC-3 drives CRPC formation and offer preclinical proof of concept for a transcriptional coactivator as a therapeutic target to abrogate CRPC progression.

Aravindan S, Natarajan M, Herman TS, Aravindan N
Radiation-induced TNFα cross signaling-dependent nuclear import of NFκB favors metastasis in neuroblastoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(6):807-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ascertaining function-specific orchestration of NFκB in response to radiation may reveal a molecular blue-print that dictates induced relapse and metastasis of the neuroblastoma. We recently demonstrated that sustained activation of NFκB caused by ionizing radiation (IR)-initiated TNFα-NFκB feedback signaling leads to radioresistance and recurrence of neuroblastoma. We investigated whether muting IR-triggered or TNFα-dependent second-signaling feedback-dependent NFκB nuclear import results in limiting IR-altered invasion and metastasis. Neuroblastoma cells were exposed to 2 Gy and incubated for 1 h or 24 h. The cells were then treated with an NFκB-targeting peptide blocker, SN50. Upon confirming the blockade in DNA-binding activity, transcription driven transactivation of NFκB and secretion of soluble TNFα, transcriptional alterations of 93 tumor invasion/metastasis genes were assessed by using QPCR profiling and then were selectively validated at the protein level. Exposure to 2 Gy induced 63, 42 and 71 genes in surviving SH-SY5Y, IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells, respectively. Blocking post-translational nuclear import of NFκB comprehensively inhibited both initial activation of genes (62/63, 34/42 and 65/71) triggered by IR and also TNFα-mediated second signaling-dependent sustained (59/63, 32/42 and 71/71) activation of tumor invasion and metastasis signaling molecules. Furthermore, alterations in the proteins MMP9, MMP2, PYK-2, SPA-1, Dnmt3b, Ask-1, CTGF, MMP10, MTA-2, NF-2, E-Cadherin, TIMP-2 and ADAMTS1 and the results of our scratch-wound assay validate the role of post-translational NFκB in IR-regulated invasion/metastasis. These data demonstrate that IR-induced second-phase (post-translational) NFκB activation mediates TNFα-dependent second signaling and further implies that IR induced NFκB in cells that survive after treatment regulates tumor invasion/metastasis signaling.

Sze KM, Chu GK, Lee JM, Ng IO
C-terminal truncated hepatitis B virus x protein is associated with metastasis and enhances invasiveness by C-Jun/matrix metalloproteinase protein 10 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2013; 57(1):131-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Random integration of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA into the host genome is frequent in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and this leads to truncation of the HBV DNA, particularly at the C-terminal end of the HBV X protein (HBx). In this study, we investigated the frequency of this natural C-terminal truncation of HBx in human HCCs and its functional significance. In 50 HBV-positive patients with HCC, full-length HBx was detected in all nontumorous livers. However, full-length HBx was found in only 27 (54%) of the HCC tumors, whereas natural carboxylic acid (COOH)-truncated HBx was found in the remaining 23 (46%) tumors. Upon clinicopathological analysis, the presence of natural COOH-truncated HBx significantly correlated with the presence of venous invasion, a hallmark of metastasis (P = 0.005). Inducible stable expression of the COOH-truncated HBx protein (with 24 amino acids truncated at the C-terminal end) enhanced the cell-invasive ability of HepG2 cells, as compared to full-length HBx, using the Matrigel cell-invasion assay. It also resulted in increased C-Jun transcriptional activity and enhanced transcription of matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10), whereas activation of the MMP10 promoter by COOH-truncated HBx was abolished when the activator protein 1-binding sites on the MMP10 promoter were mutated. Furthermore, silencing of MMP10 by short interfering RNA in HBxΔC1-expressing HepG2 cells resulted in significant reduction of cell invasiveness.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that COOH truncation of HBx, particularly with 24 amino acids truncated at the C-terminal end, plays a role in enhancing cell invasiveness and metastasis in HCC by activating MMP10 through C-Jun.

Petrella BL, Armstrong DA, Vincenti MP
Interleukin-1 beta and transforming growth factor-beta 3 cooperate to activate matrix metalloproteinase expression and invasiveness in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Cancer Lett. 2012; 325(2):220-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytokines present in the tumor microenvironment can promote the invasiveness and metastatic potential of cancer cells. We therefore investigated the effects of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) and transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGFB3) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell line A549. We found that these cytokines synergistically activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10 gene expression in these cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathways. Consistent with this, both cytokines stimulated epithelial to mesenchymal transition and MAPK-dependent invasion through Matrigel™. These studies identify IL-1B and TGFB3 as pro-invasive factors in NSCLC and potential therapeutic targets for tumor progression.

Justilien V, Regala RP, Tseng IC, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-10 is required for lung cancer stem cell maintenance, tumor initiation and metastatic potential.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e35040 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) stimulate tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the extracellular matrix. Here we reveal an unexpected role for Mmp10 (stromelysin 2) in the maintenance and tumorigenicity of mouse lung cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Mmp10 is highly expressed in oncosphere cultures enriched in CSCs and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Mmp10 leads to a loss of stem cell marker gene expression and inhibition of oncosphere growth, clonal expansion, and transformed growth in vitro. Interestingly, clonal expansion of Mmp10 deficient oncospheres can be restored by addition of exogenous Mmp10 protein to the culture medium, demonstrating a direct role for Mmp10 in the proliferation of these cells. Oncospheres exhibit enhanced tumor-initiating and metastatic activity when injected orthotopically into syngeneic mice, whereas Mmp10-deficient cultures show a severe defect in tumor initiation. Conversely, oncospheres implanted into syngeneic non-transgenic or Mmp10(-/-) mice show no significant difference in tumor initiation, growth or metastasis, demonstrating the importance of Mmp10 produced by cancer cells rather than the tumor microenvironment in lung tumor initiation and maintenance. Analysis of gene expression data from human cancers reveals a strong positive correlation between tumor Mmp10 expression and metastatic behavior in many human tumor types. Thus, Mmp10 is required for maintenance of a highly tumorigenic, cancer-initiating, metastatic stem-like cell population in lung cancer. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Mmp10 is a critical lung cancer stem cell gene and novel therapeutic target for lung cancer stem cells.

Li X, Tai HH
Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases mediates thromboxane A2-induced invasion in lung cancer cells.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2012; 12(6):703-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) has been shown to play an important role in multiple aspects of cancer development including regulation of tumor growth, survival and metastasis. Here we report that TP mediates cancer cell invasion by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). TP agonist, I-BOP, significantly elevated MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-10 mRNA levels in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells overexpressing TPα or TPβ. The secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in conditioned media was determined using Western blot analysis and zymographic assay. Signaling pathways of I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were examined in further detail as a model system for MMPs induction. Signaling molecules involved in I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression were identified by using specific inhibitors including small interfering (si)-RNAs of signaling molecules and promoter reporter assay. The results indicate that I-BOP-induced MMP-1 expression is mediated by protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-activator protein-1(AP-1) and ERK-CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) pathways. I-BOP-induced cellular invasiveness of A549 cells expressing TPα or TPβ was determined by invasion assay. GM6001, a general inhibitor of MMPs, decreased basal and I-BOP-induced cell invasion. Knockdown of MMP-1 and MMP-9 by their respective siRNA partially reduced I-BOP-stimulated cell invasion suggesting that other MMPs induced by I-BOP were also involved. Our studies establish the relationship between TP and MMPs in cancer cell invasion and suggest that the thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2))-TP signaling is a potential therapeutic target for cancer invasion and metastasis.

Wu MH, Tsai YT, Hua KT, et al.
Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit macrophage-induced gastric cancer cell migration by attenuating the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10.
J Nutr Biochem. 2012; 23(11):1434-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) improves the treatment of cancer and reduces tumor-associated macrophage count. However, the mechanism of this relationship is still unclear. In this study, macrophages enhanced gastric cancer cell migration ability and induced the differentially expressed matrix metalloproteinase genes (MMP1, MMP3 and MMP10) of N87 as identified by polymerase chain reaction array. Furthermore, DHA and EPA inhibited macrophage-enhanced cancer cell migration and attenuated MMP10 at both the RNA and protein level. The suppression of MMP10 expression was further verified by zymography and antibody blocking experiments. Additionally, DHA and EPA attenuated expression of macrophage-activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) in cancer cells. Attenuation was verified by demonstrating blockade with specific inhibitors and thereby increased MMP10 expression. Accordingly, we hypothesized that macrophage enhances cancer cell migration through ERK and STAT3 phosphorylation and subsequent increased MMP10 expression and that DHA and EPA could attenuate these signals. These findings not only explain the beneficial effects of DHA/EPA, but also point to ERK/STAT3/MMP10 as the potential targets for gastric cancer treatment.

Huang L, Xu Y, Cai G, et al.
Downregulation of S100A4 expression by RNA interference suppresses cell growth and invasion in human colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(4):917-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
S100A4 protein, a member of the S100 superfamily of calcium-binding proteins, is frequently observed in various types of human cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous investigations have demonstrated that the overexpression of S100A4 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC; however, its biological roles in CRC remain unclear. In the present study, we compared the expression of S100A4 at the mRNA and protein levels in six CRC cell lines, and found that the expression levels roughly coincided with their invasiveness. Using RNA interference, we suppressed S100A4 expression in SW620 CRC cells with highly invasive potential and S100A4 high expression. The specific knockdown of S100A4 strongly suppressed cell growth, migration and invasion activities. Furthermore, employing metastasis-related gene mRNA microarrays, we found four genes to be significantly dysregulated (more than 2-fold) after downregulation of S100A4, including three downregulated genes (MMP9, MMP10 and CDH11) and one upregulated gene (TIMP4). Our present results indicate that S100A4 may positively regulate tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis associated with multiple molecules. Thus, the inhibition of S100A4 might be a potentially novel approach to treatment for CRC.

Liu H, Qin YR, Bi J, et al.
Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 is associated with poor survival in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Dis Esophagus. 2012 Sep-Oct; 25(7):656-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrix metallopeptidase 10 (MMP10) is frequently expressed and correlates closely with metastasis and poor prognosis in various human cancers. However, the significance of MMP10 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its role in ESCC progression remains unclear. In this report, upregulation of MMP10 mRNA was detected in 39/60 (65.0%) of primary ESCC tissues compared with their paired nontumor esophageal tissues. Tissue microarray (TMA) study found protein overexpression of MMP10 in 188/239 (78.7%) of primary ESCC tissues but not in their corresponding nontumor esophageal tissues, suggesting that overexpression of MMP10 may play important roles in ESCC development and progression. Although the overexpression of MMP10 was not significantly associated with disease-specific survival rate (P= 0.182) for all tested ESCCs, it was significantly associated with poorer disease-specific survival (P= 0.001) in early stage of ESCCs (I-IIA). In addition, multivariate analysis found that MMP10 expression in tumor tissues was evaluated as a potential independent prognostic factor for early stage ESCC patients. These findings suggest that MMP10 plays an important role in ESCC progression in the early stage, and overexpression of MMP10 in tumor tissues could be used as a potential prognostic marker for patients with early clinical stage of ESCC.

Regala RP, Justilien V, Walsh MP, et al.
Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes Kras-mediated bronchio-alveolar stem cell expansion and lung cancer formation.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e26439 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10; stromelysin 2) is a member of a large family of structurally related matrix metalloproteinases, many of which have been implicated in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. We recently identified Mmp10 as a gene that is highly induced in tumor-initiating lung bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) upon activation of oncogenic Kras in a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma. However, the potential role of Mmp10 in lung tumorigenesis has not been addressed. Here, we demonstrate that Mmp10 is overexpressed in lung tumors induced by either the smoke carcinogen urethane or oncogenic Kras. In addition, we report a significant reduction in lung tumor number and size after urethane exposure or genetic activation of oncogenic Kras in Mmp10 null (Mmp10(-/-)) mice. This inhibitory effect is reflected in a defect in the ability of Mmp10-deficient BASCs to expand and undergo transformation in response to urethane or oncogenic Kras in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating a role for Mmp10 in the tumor-initiating activity of Kras-transformed lung stem cells. To determine the potential relevance of MMP10 in human cancer we analyzed Mmp10 expression in publicly-available gene expression profiles of human cancers. Our analysis reveals that MMP10 is highly overexpressed in human lung tumors. Gene set enhancement analysis (GSEA) demonstrates that elevated MMP10 expression correlates with both cancer stem cell and tumor metastasis genomic signatures in human lung cancer. Finally, Mmp10 is elevated in many human tumor types suggesting a widespread role for Mmp10 in human malignancy. We conclude that Mmp10 plays an important role in lung tumor initiation via maintenance of a highly tumorigenic, cancer-initiating, stem-like cell population, and that Mmp10 expression is associated with stem-like, highly metastatic genotypes in human lung cancers. These results indicate that Mmp10 may represent a novel therapeutic approach to target lung cancer stem cells.

Yamamoto K, Matsuoka H, Yakushijin K, et al.
A novel five-way translocation, t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), with concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements in a primary bone marrow B-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Genet. 2011; 204(9):501-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations involving MYC at 8q24 are found in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL (BCLU). Here, we describe a novel five-way translocation, t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), involving MYC, BCL6, and the immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH@) in a 73-year-old man with BCLU. The bone marrow was massively infiltrated with 95.6% abnormal medium- to large-sized lymphoid cells without vacuoles. Flow cytometric analyses indicated that the infiltrating cells were positive for CD10, CD19, CD20, CD25, HLA-DR, and κ chain. Immunohistochemistry revealed that they were also positive for BCL2 and CD10, and weakly positive for BCL6. The MIB1 index was approximately 99%. G-banding and spectral karyotyping demonstrated the presence of a t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32). Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected an IGH/MYC fusion signal on the der(14)t(8;14)(q24;q32). In addition, 5' and 3'BCL6 signals were separated onto the der(9)t(3;9)(q27;p13) and the der(3)t(3;14)(q27;q32), respectively. Unexpectedly, no BCL6 signal was found on the non-translocated chromosome 3. Finally, the revised karyotype was as follows: 49,XY,del(3)(q27q27),t(3;9;13;8;14)(q27;p13;q32;q24;q32), +der(6)t(6;13)(q13;q32)t(9;13)(p13;q32),+7,+12,i(18)(q10)[2]/50,sl,+7[2]/50,sl,+2[1]. These results suggest that this five-way translocation could bring about the deregulated expression of MYC on the der(14)t(8;14) and BCL6 on the der(3)t(3;14) by the IGH@ enhancer/promoter in a single event and may have contributed to the development of this BCLU.

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