Gene Summary

Gene:ABCC1; ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 1
Aliases: MRP, ABCC, GS-X, MRP1, ABC29
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra-and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This full transporter is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions as a multispecific organic anion transporter, with oxidized glutatione, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and activated aflatoxin B1 as substrates. This protein also transports glucuronides and sulfate conjugates of steroid hormones and bile salts. Alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been described but their full-length nature is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

ABCC1 (MRP1 is associated with multidrug resistance in a wide range of cancers and a marker of tumor aggressiveness.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (11)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ABCC1 (cancer-related)

Zarei S, Reza JZ, Jaliani HZ, et al.
Effects of carfilzomib alone and in combination with cisplatin on the cell death in cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019; 120(6):468-475 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on the efficacy of platinum-based drugs and selective inhibitors of proteasome have revealed promising outcomes. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of the combination of cisplatin and carfilzomib on the cell death induction and drug efflux transporters expression in cisplatin-sensitive (A2780s) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780cp) ovarian cancer cells lines.
METHODS: MTT cytotoxic assay was conducted to determine the cytotoxicity. Drug interactions were analyzed based on Chou-Talalay's principles and real-time PCR analysis was performed to determine possible alterations in mRNA levels of MRP1 and BCRP.
RESULTS: A2780s cells were more susceptible to both cisplatin and carfilzomib while analyses of drug interactions between the two agents showed synergistic effects in all affected fractions of drug-treated A2780s and A2780cp cells (CI<0.9) with the combination indices being significantly lower in A2780cp cells (p < 0.01). We also found that although mRNA levels of BCRP and MRP1 were significantly altered in both cells exposed to each drug alone, only the combination regimen was able to significantly reduce the mRNA levels of these genes in A2780cp cells (p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: This combination might be a potential strategy for suppressing cell growth via downregulating the drug efflux transporters expression, especially in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells (Fig. 3, Ref. 45).

Mai L, Luo M, Wu JJ, et al.
The combination therapy of HIF1α inhibitor LW6 and cisplatin plays an effective role on anti-tumor function in A549 cells.
Neoplasma. 2019; 2019 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) has been demonstrated to be involved in the resistance of various human cancer cells to chemotherapies. However, the correlation between HIF1α and the sensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin has not been illuminated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of HIF1α on drug resistance in NSCLC cells. A549 cells were incubated in 21% or 0.5% O2 followed by the assessment of the level of HIF1α with qRT-PCR and western blot and ROS level by DCFH-DA assays. Effects of hypoxia or HIF1α inhibitor LW6 on the proliferation and apoptosis of A549 cells were evaluated via CCK-8 and flow cytometry assays. IC50 of A549 cells to cisplatin was determined by MTT assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured via JC-1 staining. Moreover, the expression of apoptosis related protein (Bcl-2, Bax) and drug resistance related proteins (MDR1, MRP1) were measured by western blotting. Exposure of A549 cells to 1% O2 significantly up-regulated HIF1α expression, maintained cell viability to cisplatin but decreased the ROS level, which promoted chemoresistance to cisplatin. LW6-treated A549 cells showed an increase in ROS level that blocked the hypoxia induced resistance to cisplatin and in addition, decreased expression of MDR1 and MRP1 in cisplatin-treated cells. This study revealed that hypoxia-improved cisplatin chemoresistance of NSCLC cells by regulated MDR1 and MRP1 expression via HIF1α/ROS pathway is reversed by LW6, suggesting that LW6 may act as effective sensitizer in chemotherapy for NSCLC.

Li K, Liu W, Zhao Q, et al.
Combination of tanshinone IIA and doxorubicin possesses synergism and attenuation effects on doxorubicin in the treatment of breast cancer.
Phytother Res. 2019; 33(6):1658-1669 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin (Dox) is a first-line drug for breast cancer chemotherapy. However, with the prolongation of chemotherapy cycle, breast cancer cells are increasingly tempt to resist Dox, and meanwhile, high cumulative dose of Dox brings enhancing toxic side effects, and these effects may lead to chemotherapy failure. Hence, it is necessary to search an agent in combination medication with Dox, which can not only enhance the chemosensitivity of Dox but also reduce the toxic side effects. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is reported to have antitumor activity in addition to its cardiovascular protective effects. We employed human breast cancer MCF-7 and MCF-7/dox cells in order to assess whether Tan IIA might perform such function. Our in vitro studies showed that Tan IIA could enhance the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to Dox through inhibiting the PTEN/AKT pathway and downregulating the expression of efflux ABC transporters including P-gp, BCRP, and MRP1. In addition, our in vivo studies showed Tan IIA enhanced the chemotherapeutic effect of Dox against breast cancer while reducing its toxic side effects including weight loss, myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. Therefore, Tan IIA could be used as a novel agent combined with Dox in breast cancer therapy.

Yang J, Song P, Zhou G
A study on the correlations of MRP-1 expression with the pathogenesis and prognosis of colorectal cancer.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):84-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression level of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP-1) and its correlation with prognosis in the pathogenetic process of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: 116 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma and 50 patients with colorectal adenomas were studied. Thirty cut-end normal tissue sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, to detect the expression levels of MRP-1 gene and protein in tissues. Besides, the correlations of the expression of MRP-1 in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues with clinicopathological features and prognosis were analyzed.
RESULTS: MRP-1 was mainly expressed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm in colorectal adenocarcinoma. The positive expression rates of MRP-1 in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues, colorectal adenoma tissues and normal tissues were 73.28, 46.0 and 20.0%, respectively, showing statistically significant differences (p<0.05). In adenocarcinoma tissues, MRP-1 expression level was associated with the differentiation grade, TNM staging and whether there was lymph node metastasis (p<0.05 in all comparisons). The 5-year survival rates of patients with negatively expressed MRP-1 protein, no lymph node metastasis and high/moderate grade of differentiation as well as in stage I+II were remarkably higher (p<0.01 in all comparisons).
CONCLUSION: In colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues, the expression of MRP-1 is elevated and patients with negatively expressed MRP-1 have a better prognosis. Therefore, MRP-1 can be a reference indicator for clinical diagnosis and prognosis.

Li C, Niu M, Wang R, et al.
The modulatory properties of Si Jun Zi Tang enhancing anticancer of gefitinib by an integrating approach.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 111:1132-1140 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and the current therapy seems to have reached a plateau due to toxicities and acquired resistance. Therefore, exploration of novel therapeutic avenues may be useful. Si Jun Zi Tang (SJZ), a four-herb Chinese medicine formula first described approximately one thousand years, is often prescribed for cancer patients as a complementary therapy. However, whether SJZ benefits cancer patients as well as the main active constituents and its regulatory mechanism in combination with anticancer drugs remains unknown. Here, we investigated the anti-lung cancer potency and underlying mechanisms of the combination of gefitinib plus SJZ in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), using histopathology and an integrated strategy of metabolomics and network pharmacology. The results showed that SJZ significantly enhanced gefitinib suppressing tumor growth and inhibiting LLC metastasis in LLC-bearing mice. Furthermore, 9 potential metabolomics biomarkers that differentially expressed in the SJZ/gefitinib group compared to the SJZ group or gefitinib group were identified by untargeted metabolomics, mainly involved three pathways: tricarboxylic acid cycle, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis metabolism and linoleic acid metabolism. Five active ingredients, kaempferol, ginsenoside Rf, caprylic acid, lauric acid and naringenin, acted directly on 9 targets and regulated 4 out of 9 metabolites. Our results indicated that SJZ enhanced the anti-lung cancer effects of gefitinib via the key targets ABCG2, ABCC1, ABAT, GSR, CYP1A2, ALOX5, CYP3A4, PLA2G1B and PLA2G2A and the key metabolites 2-oxoglutarate, taurocholic acid, oxidized glutathione and linoleic acid. This work illustrated the modulatory properties of SJZ, which enhanced the anticancer effects of gefitinib, using metabolomics and network pharmacology analyses, and provided insights into underlying the mechanism the active ingredients of SJZfor the treatment of lung cancer in combination with gefitinib.

Abdulkhaleq MM, Al-Ghafari AB, Yezerski A, et al.
Novel association between heterozygous genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism C218T in drug transporter ABCC1 gene and increased risk of colon cancer.
Saudi Med J. 2019; 40(3):224-229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of G128C and C218T variants in ABCC1 gene with the risk of developing colon cancer in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 51 colon cancer patients and 65 controls from King Abdulaziz University Hospital and King Abdullah Medical City in the period from January 2015 to April 2017, and was approved by the Unit of Biomedical Ethics (no: 261-15). Experiments were performed in the experimental biochemistry unit at King Fahd Medical Research Center. The genotype distributions and allele frequencies were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing. A Chi-square test was used to determine allele and genotype distributions, odds ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a novel association between heterozygous (CT) genotype for variant C218T and increased risk of colon cancer [OR=3.4, 95% CI (1.56-7.48), and RR=1.92, 95% CI (1.26-2.93), p=0.002]. These ratios were correlated with high-grade stages (III and IV). In contrast, for variant G128C, there was no significant association with the risk of developing colon cancer. Conclusion: The novel findings of the study revealed that the CT genotype of variant C218T in ABCC1 gene may increase the risk of developing colon cancer.

El-Readi MZ, Eid S, Abdelghany AA, et al.
Resveratrol mediated cancer cell apoptosis, and modulation of multidrug resistance proteins and metabolic enzymes.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 55:269-281 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The degree of intracellular drug accumulation by specific membrane transporters, i.e., MDR1, BCRP, and MRP, and the degree of detoxification by intracellular metabolic enzymes, i.e., CYP3A4 and GST, provide control for cancer chemotherapy through diminishing the propensity of cancer cells to undergo apoptosis which in turn modulates the unresolved and complex phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) for the cancer cells.
HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: This study dwells into the interaction details involving ABC-transporters, CYP3A4, GST and cytotoxic effects of resveratrol on different cell lines.
METHODS: Resveratrol was evaluated for its ability modulating the expression and efflux functions of P-gp /MDR1, MRP1, and BCRP in the multidrug-resistant human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2, and CEM/ADR5000 cells through flow cytometry and RTPCR technique.
RESULTS: The resveratrol influenced P-gp and MRP1 efflux functions whereby it increased rhodamine 123 with calcein accumulation in concentration-dependent manner (1 - 500 µM) in the Caco-2 cell lines and inhibited the effluxes of both the substrates also as concentration-dependent phenomenon (10 - 100 µM) in the p-gp overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 cells through FACS (full form). The treatment of drug-resistant Caco-2, and CEM/ADR5000 cells with doxorubicin (DOX) along with 20 µM of resveratrol in the mixture. It increased the cell sensitivity DOX towards the DOX and enhanced the cytotoxicity. The resveratrol inhibited both CYP3A4 and GST enzymatic activity in a concentration-dependent way and induced apoptosis in the resistance cell lines because of increased levels of caspase-3, -8,-6/9 and incremental phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure as detected by flow cytometry. The treatment of Caco-2 cells with resveratrol showed significantly lower p-gp, MRP1, BCRP, CYP3A4, GST, and hPXR mRNA levels in a 48 h observation.
CONCLUSION: The result confirmed resveratrol mediated inhibition of ABC-transporters' overall efflux functions, and its expression, and apoptosis as well as metabolic enzymes GST and CYP3A4 activity.

Ma G, Zhu J, Liu F, Yang Y
Long Noncoding RNA LINC00460 Promotes the Gefitinib Resistance of Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by Sponging miR-769-5p.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(2):176-183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The vital roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis are increasingly important. This work aims to investigate the role of lncRNA LINC00460 in the gefitinib resistance of NSCLC cells and discover its relevant mechanism. Our finding reveals that the expression of lncRNA LINC00460 is upregulated in the gefitinib-resistant NSCLC tissue and cells, and closely correlated with advanced tumor stage and clinical poor prognosis outcome. Gain and loss functional assays are performed in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells (A549/GR), stating that LINC00460 facilitates the 50% inhibitive concentration of gefitinib for NSCLC cells, multidrug-resistant-related proteins (P-gp, MRP1, and BCRP), as well as the invasion. In vivo, LINC00460 silencing represses the tumor growth. Bioinformatics prediction tools and luciferase analysis confirm that the upregulated LINC00460 sponged miR-769-5p in NSCLC cells; moreover, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is identified as a direct target gene of miR-769-5p. Verification experiments confirm that the restoration of EGFR could weaken the sensibility of NSCLC cells toward the gefitinib. In conclusion, our result demonstrates that LINC00460 plays a pivotal role in gefitinib resistance of NSCLC cells by targeting EGFR through sponging miR-769-5p. This finding might serve as a therapeutic target for NSCLC.

Zhuang X, Wang J
Correlations of MRP1 gene with serum TGF-β1 and IL-8 in breast cancer patients during chemotherapy.
J BUON. 2018 Sep-Oct; 23(5):1302-1308 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expressions of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) gene, serum transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy, and to analyze their correlations in chemotherapy.
METHODS: 346 breast cancer patients admitted to the Department of Surgery (Breast) of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from March 2015 to December 2017 were included as study subjects. All selected patients received chemotherapy in our hospital. Quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were adopted to detect the expression levels of MRP1 mRNA, as well as MRP1, TGF-β1 and IL-8 proteins in patients before chemotherapy and at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after chemotherapy. Correlations of MRP1 protein/mRNA with clinical features of patients were analyzed, and Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to examine correlations of MRP1 protein/mRNA with TGF-β1 and IL-8 proteins.
RESULTS: The expressions of MRP1 mRNA as well as MRP1, TGF-β1 and IL-8 proteins were increased with the prolongation of chemotherapy time, and there were statistically significant differences between the two time points (pCONCLUSION: With the prolongation of chemotherapy time in breast cancer patients, the expression level of MRP1 also increased which may affect the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients and lead to drug resistance. TGF-β1 and IL-8 may be closely associated with the mechanism of drug resistance in MRP1-guided breast cancer chemotherapy.

Jendželovský R, Jendželovská Z, Kuchárová B, Fedoročko P
Breast cancer resistance protein is the enemy of hypericin accumulation and toxicity of hypericin-mediated photodynamic therapy.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:2173-2181 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, overexpression of which can confer a multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer cells and tumors. BCRP mediates efflux of numerous xenobiotics, including various chemotherapeutic agents and photosensitizers. Hypericin (HY) is a naturally-occurring photosensitizer synthesized by plants of the genus Hypericum. Our recently published results indicate that accumulation of HY in cancer cells of different tissue origin can be affected mostly by BCRP. Considering all known facts, the main goal of this study was to verify whether not only HY accumulation but also toxicity of HY-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be affected by the presence of some ABC transporters. To specifically prove our hypothesis, we used an experimental model of human leukemia cell lines differing in the expression level of the main drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and BCRP. The lowest HY accumulation, and consequently the highest resistance to HY-PDT, was found in cells overexpressing BCRP. Moreover, pretreatment with BCRP inhibitor Ko143 significantly increased HY accumulation and sensitized cells to HY-PDT. Therefore, our findings represent direct evidence that BCRP is the nemesis of HY accumulation and toxicity of HY-PDT. Thus, we should emphasize that individualized screening for BCRP expression and activity may represent a useful tool for prediction of HY-mediated photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) or PDT effectiveness.

Shi C, Wang M
LINC01118 Modulates Paclitaxel Resistance of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Regulating miR-134/ABCC1.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:8831-8839 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a high mortality rate and is a common malignant tumor of women, seriously impairing health. Chemoresistance is one of the major causes of poor prognosis. Therefore, analyzing the molecular mechanism of paclitaxel resistance has great significance. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in chemoresistant EOC cells by microarray and confirmed LINC01118 expression by real-time PCR. The paclitaxel sensitivity alternation was analyzed by MTS, flow cytometry, and Transwell assay, while wound healing assays were performed to assess apoptosis, migration, and invasion in vitro. The interaction between LINC01118 and miR-134 was confirmed by luciferase assay. RESULTS LINC01118 was highly expressed in EOC tissues and chemoresistant cells. Biological function experiments showed LINC01118 could facilitate paclitaxel resistance and promote migration and invasion while inhibiting apoptosis of EOC cells. Moreover, LINC01118 targets miR-134 and then affects ABCC1 expression. CONCLUSIONS LINC01118 acted as an oncogene and modulated EOC paclitaxel sensitivity by regulating miR-134/ABCC1.

Kobayashi M, Tsujiuchi T, Okui Y, et al.
Different Efflux Transporter Affinity and Metabolism of
Pharm Res. 2018; 36(1):18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the affinity and stability of

Taheri M, Motalebzadeh J, Mahjoubi F
Expression of LRP Gene in Breast Cancer Patients Correlated with MRP1 as Two Independent Predictive Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(11):3111-3115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is still a great obstacle of breast cancer chemotherapy. We have previously shown that multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The lung resistance-related protein (LRP) is identified as a prognostic marker and response to treatment factor which has been studied mainly in hematological malignancy and leukemia. In this study, we aimed to analyze LRP expression and possible correlation between the expression level of this gene with MRP1 as a candidate marker for chemotherapy resistance. Materials and Methods: We collected 54 breast tumors and adjacent normal tissues from Iranian breast cancer patients and Real time RT-PCR was employed to measure the gene expression level in our samples. Results: MRP1 and LRP expression level were significantly lower in tumor tissues of the patients responding to chemotherapy compared to non-responding patients. No relation between the expression level of either of these genes and clinicopathology markers was found. Conclusion: Our results suggest that LRP gene expression is correlated to MRP1 in human breast cancer cells and may affect the clinical response to treatment.

Moon JY, Manh Hung LV, Unno T, Cho SK
Nobiletin Enhances Chemosensitivity to Adriamycin through Modulation of the Akt/GSK3β/β⁻Catenin/MYCN/MRP1 Signaling Pathway in A549 Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes in Adriamycin (ADR)-resistant NSCLC A549/ADR cells compared with parental A549 cells. Among the tested phytochemicals, nobiletin (NBT) is able to overcome the ADR resistance of A549/ADR cells. NBT treatment decreased the expression of a neuroblastoma-derived MYC (MYCN) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) as well as downregulating Akt, GSK3β, and β-catenin. Consistent with these results, NBT treatment resulted in the accumulation of intracellular ADR. A combination index (CI) assay confirmed the synergistic effect of combined treatment with NBT and ADR in reducing the viability of A549/ADR cells (CI = 0.152). Combined treatment with NBT and ADR enhanced apoptosis in A549/ADR cells, as evidenced by increased caspase-3 activation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and sub-G1 population compared to treatment with ADR alone. In vivo experiments using a mouse xenograft model revealed that combination therapy with NBT and ADR significantly reduced tumor volume by 84.15%. These data suggest that NBT can sensitize ADR-induced cytotoxicity against A549/ADR cells by inhibiting MRP1 expression, indicating that NBT could serve as an effective adjuvant agent for ADR-based chemotherapy in lung cancer.

Xu Z, Chen L, Xiao Z, et al.
Potentiation of the anticancer effect of doxorubicinin drug-resistant gastric cancer cells by tanshinone IIA.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 51:58-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer is the fifth commonest cancer and the third cause of cancer-related deaths all over the world. The effectiveness of chemotherapy is still limited by drug resistance in gastric cancer. Tanshinones, abietane diterpenes isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), have exhibited versatile anticancer activities in particular the ability to overcome drug resistance in different cancers.
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to explore the capacity of tanshinone IIA, the most abundant tanshinone found in the plant Danshen, to overcome drug resistance of gastric cancer cells to a commonly used anticancer drug doxorubicin.
STUDY DESIGN: Sensitivity of cell lines to doxorubicin was determined by MTT assay. Doxorubicin resistant gastric cancer cell lines was established by step selection with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin. Cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and doxorubicin efflux were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of MRP1 was determined by realtime PCR and western-blot.
RESULTS: Based on the IC
CONCLUSION: Tanshinone IIA is an interesting agent with potential to treat drug-resistant gastric cancer in combination therapy.

Mungo E, Bergandi L, Salaroglio IC, Doublier S
Pyruvate Treatment Restores the Effectiveness of Chemotherapeutic Agents in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma and Pleural Mesothelioma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Emerging evidence supports the idea that a dysfunction in cell metabolism could sustain a resistant phenotype in cancer cells. As the success of chemotherapeutic agents is often questioned by the occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR), a multiple cross-resistance towards different anti-cancer drugs represent a major obstacle to cancer treatment. The present study has clarified the involvement of the carbon metabolites in a more aggressive tumor colon adenocarcinoma phenotype and in a chemoresistant mesothelioma, and the role of pyruvate treatment in the reversion of the potentially related resistance. For the first time, we have shown that human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29) and its chemoresistant counterpart (HT29-dx) displayed different carbon metabolism: HT29-dx cells had a higher glucose consumption compared to HT29 cells, whereas human malignant mesothelioma (HMM) cells showed a lower glucose consumption compared to HT29 cells, accompanied by a lower pyruvate production and, consequently, a higher production of lactate. When treated with pyruvate, both HT29-dx and HMM cells exhibited a re-established accumulation of doxorubicin and a lower survival ability, a decreased activity of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and a restored mitochondrial respiratory chain function, improving the effectiveness of the chemotherapeutic agents in these resistant cancer cells.

Ranjbar S, Khonkarn R, Moreno A, et al.
5-Oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives as modulators of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP transporters to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019; 362:136-149 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is often associated with overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Modulators of these transporters might be helpful in overcoming MDR. Moreover, exploiting collateral sensitivity (CS) could be another approach for efficient treatment of cancer. Twelve novel 5-oxo-hexahydroquinoline derivatives bearing different aromatic substitutions at C

Huang FX, Chen HJ, Zheng FX, et al.
LncRNA BLACAT1 is involved in chemoresistance of non‑small cell lung cancer cells by regulating autophagy.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):339-347 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) bladder cancer‑associated transcript 1 (BLACAT1) in chemoresistance of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Expression of lncRNA BLACAT1, microRNA (miR)‑17, autophagy‑related protein 7 (ATG7), multidrug‑resistance protein 1 (MRP1), and the autophagy‑associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3)‑II/LC3‑I and Beclin 1 were detected using the reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cell viability was determined using an MTT assay. The interaction between BLACAT1 and miR‑17 was determined using RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull‑down assays. A cisplatin (DDP)‑resistant NSCLC cell A549/DDP xenograft model in nude mice was established to investigate the effect of BLACAT1 on the chemoresistance of NSCLC cells. Compared with in DDP‑sensitive NSCLC cells, expression of BLACAT1, ATG7, MRP1, LC3‑II/LC3‑I and Beclin 1 was significantly upregulated in DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells, whereas miR‑17 was downregulated in DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells. Short interfering RNA against BLACAT1 decreased the viability of DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells. In addition, BLACAT1 interacted with miR‑17, and negatively regulated miR‑17. BLACAT1 promoted ATG7 expression through miR‑17, and facilitated autophagy and promoted chemoresistance of NSCLC cells through miR‑17/ATG7. Finally, in vivo experiments indicated that inhibition of BLACAT1 ameliorated the chemoresistance of NSCLC. BLACAT1 was upregulated in DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells, and promoted autophagy and chemoresistance of NSCLC cells through the miR‑17/ATG7 signaling pathway.

Shimizu Y
[Accumulation Mechanism of 2-Nitroimidazole-based Hypoxia Imaging Probes Revealed by Imaging Mass Spectrometry].
Yakugaku Zasshi. 2018; 138(11):1345-1352 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia in tumor tissues plays a pivotal role in tumor progression and angiogenesis, and is associated with cancer therapeutic resistance. For the diagnosis of hypoxia, non-invasive imaging techniques, especially positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-nitroimidazole-based probes, are used, since 2-nitroimidazole-based probes are considered to undergo reductive metabolism on their 2-nitroimidazole moiety and become trapped in hypoxic cells. However, the detailed mechanism of their accumulation remains unclear because of the difficulty in estimating the metabolites by radioisotopic analysis. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) can distinguish the distribution patterns of the drug and its metabolites. To clarify the accumulation mechanism of 2-nitroimidazole-based probes in hypoxic cells, we evaluated [

Liu X, Wang L, Xu X, et al.
Endogenous Stimuli-Responsive Nucleus-Targeted Nanocarrier for Intracellular mRNA Imaging and Drug Delivery.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2018; 10(46):39524-39531 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance arising from overexpressed efflux transporters increases the efflux of drugs and accordingly restricts the efficacy of chemotherapy. Advances in nanocarriers have provided potential strategies to cope with drug resistance. Herein, endogenous stimuli-responsive nucleus-targeted nanocarrier is developed for intracellular multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) mRNA imaging and drug delivery. This nanocarrier (AuNP-mRS-DSs) is composed of three parts: (i) gold nanoparticle (AuNP), for loading DNA and quenching fluorescence; (ii) mRNA recognition sequence (mRS) modified on the surface of gold nanoparticle by gold-thiol bond, for the specific recognition of MRP1 mRNA; (iii) detachable subunit (DS), hybridized with Cy5-labeled DNA linker and nucleolin recognition motif and grafted onto mRS via the DNA linker for loading doxorubicin (Dox), binding to nucleolin, and reporting signal. First, nucleolin recognition motif of this nanocarrier targets nucleolin, which is overexpressed on cancer cells surface; subsequently, the whole nanocarrier enters the cell via nucleolin-mediated internalization. Subsequently, mRS will specifically recognize overexpressed MRP1 mRNA, leading to the release of trapped DS and followed by AuNP-quenched Cy5 fluorescence recovery. Finally, by translocation of nucleolin from cytoplasm to nucleus, the DS targets nucleus to delivery Dox. By intracellular fluorescence imaging, the differentiation of drug-resistant and nondrug-resistant cells could be achieved. Compared with free Dox (IC

Guo WH, Bian JJ, Tian GF, et al.
[Expression of Fermintin family homologous protein 2 in non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi. 2018; 47(10):780-783 [PubMed] Related Publications

Guestini F, Ono K, Miyashita M, et al.
Impact of Topoisomerase IIα, PTEN, ABCC1/MRP1, and KI67 on triple-negative breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 173(2):275-288 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients with residual disease following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) harbor higher risk of relapse, and eventual demise compared to those who achieve pathologic complete response. Therefore, in this study, we assessed a panel of molecules involved in key pathways of drug resistance and tumor progression before and after NAC in TNBC patients, in order to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: We studied 148 TNBC Japanese patients treated with anthracycline/taxane-based NAC. KI67, Topoisomerase IIα (TopoIIα), PTEN, p53, Bcl2, vimentin, ABCG2/BCRP1, ABCB1/MDR1, and ABCC1/MRP1 were immunolocalized in surgical pathology materials before and after NAC.
RESULTS: The status of vimentin and increasing labeling index (LI) of TopoIIα and KI67 in biopsy specimens were significantly associated with those who responded to NAC treatment. The abundance of p53 (p = 0.003), ABCC1/MRP1 (p = 0.033), ABCB1/MDR1 (p = 0.022), and a loss of PTEN (p < 0.0001) in surgery specimens following treatment were associated with pathologic parameters. TopoIIα, PTEN, and ABCC1/MRP1 status predicted pathologic response. In addition, the status of PTEN, ABCC1/MRP1, ABCB1/MDR1, Bcl2, and vimentin in surgical specimens was also significantly associated with adverse clinicopathological factors in surgery specimens, suggesting that these alterations could be responsible for tumor relapse in TNBC patients.
CONCLUSION: KI67, TopoIIα, PTEN, and ABCC1/MRP1 status could predict treatment response and/or eventual clinical outcomes. These results could also provide an insight into the mechanisms of drug resistance and relapse of TNBC patients receiving NAC.

Gerashchenko TS, Denisov EV, Novikov NM, et al.
Different morphological structures of breast tumors demonstrate individual drug resistance gene expression profiles.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(3):228-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify gene expression profiles involved in drug resistance of different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) presented in breast cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with luminal breast cancer have been included. A laser microdissection-assisted microarrays and qRT-PCR were used to perform whole-transcriptome profiling of different morphological structures, to select differentially expressed drug response genes, and to validate their expression.
RESULTS: We found 27 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) encoding drug uptake (SLC1A3, SLC23A2, etc.) and efflux (ABCC1, ABCG1, etc.) transporters, drug targets (TOP2A, TYMS, and Tubb3), and proteins that are involved in drug detoxification (NAT1 and ALDH1B1), cell cycle progression (CCND1, AKT1, etc.), apoptosis (CASP3, TXN2, etc.), and DNA repair (BRCA1 and USP11). Each type of structures showed an individual gene expression profile related to resistance and sensitivity to anticancer drugs. However, most of the genes (19/27; p < 0.05) were expressed in alveolar structures. Functional enrichment analysis showed that drug resistance is significantly associated with alveolar structures. Other structures demonstrated the similar number (10-13 out of 27) of expressed genes; however, the spectrum of resistance and sensitivity to different anticancer drugs varied.
CONCLUSION: Different morphological structures of breast cancer show individual expression of drug resistance genes.

Zhang Z, Feng L, Liu P, Duan W
ANRIL promotes chemoresistance via disturbing expression of ABCC1 by regulating the expression of Let-7a in colorectal cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been involved in various diseases and promotes tumorigenesis and cancer progression as an oncogenic gene. However, the effect of ANRIL on chemoresistance remains still unknown in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we investigated ANRIL expression in 63 cases of colorectal cancer specimens and matched normal tissues. Results revealed that ANRIL was up-regulated in tumor tissues samples from patients with CRC and CRC cell lines. Increased ANRIL expression in CRC was associated with poor clinical prognosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that ANRIL was associated with overall survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and patients with high ANRIL expression tended to have unfavorable outcome.

Lin H, Yang G, Yu J, et al.
KDM5c inhibits multidrug resistance of colon cancer cell line by down-regulating ABCC1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1205-1209 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to study the effect of histone methyltransferase KDM5c (Lysine(K)-specific demethylase 5C) on drug resistance in colon cancer cells.
METHODS: KDM5c expression interference was performed using empty plasmids, SMCV-dGFP-KDM5c plasmids and siControl, siKDM5c transfected human colon cancer HCT-8, RKO cell lines, and then grouped into NC, KDM5c-OE, siControl, siKDM5c groups.0.625 μg /ml, 1.25 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, and 20 μg/ml oxaliplatin (L-OHP), and 0.25 mmol/ml, 0.5 mmol/ml, 1 mmol/ml, 2 mmol /ml, 5 mmol/ml, and 10 mmol/ml irinotecan (CPT-11) were dosed in all colon cancer cell groups. The MTT assay was used to detect growth inhibition of differentially-expressed KDM5c colon cancer cells, for which L-OHP or CPT-11 were added. ABCC1 expression in qPCR and WB was detected in all four cell groups. The H3K4me3 peak distribution in the TSS region of the ABCC1 gene was detected with the Encode database. CHIP-qPCR was used to detect the location of the H3K4me3 peak and KDM5c binding to TSS region DNA fragments of the ABCC1 gene.
RESULTS: KDM5c expression upregulation in colon cancer cells had significantly reduced L-OHP and CPT-11½ inhibitory concentrations (IC50 s) and decreased the ABCC1mRNA and protein expression. The IC50 s of L-OHP and CPT-11 were significantly increased in colon cancer cells with downregulated KDM5c expression. And, ABCC1 mRNA and protein expression increased (P < 0.05). The Encode database suggested that the H3K4me3 peak was located in the TSS region of the ABCC1 gene. CHIP-qPCR indicated that both H3K4me3 and KDM5c act on the TSS region of the ABCC1 gene and have the same site of action.
CONCLUSIONS: KDM5c might downregulate ABCC1 expression by demethylating the ABCC1 H3K4me3 in the TSS region, which can promote multidrug resistance, such that inhibiting KDM5c could decrease multidrug cancer cell resistance.

Wagner AH, Devarakonda S, Skidmore ZL, et al.
Recurrent WNT pathway alterations are frequent in relapsed small cell lung cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3787 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nearly all patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) eventually relapse with chemoresistant disease. The molecular mechanisms driving chemoresistance in SCLC remain un-characterized. Here, we describe whole-exome sequencing of paired SCLC tumor samples procured at diagnosis and relapse from 12 patients, and unpaired relapse samples from 18 additional patients. Multiple somatic copy number alterations, including gains in ABCC1 and deletions in MYCL, MSH2, and MSH6, are identifiable in relapsed samples. Relapse samples also exhibit recurrent mutations and loss of heterozygosity in regulators of WNT signaling, including CHD8 and APC. Analysis of RNA-sequencing data shows enrichment for an ASCL1-low expression subtype and WNT activation in relapse samples. Activation of WNT signaling in chemosensitive human SCLC cell lines through APC knockdown induces chemoresistance. Additionally, in vitro-derived chemoresistant cell lines demonstrate increased WNT activity. Overall, our results suggest WNT signaling activation as a mechanism of chemoresistance in relapsed SCLC.

Torres Á, Arriagada V, Erices JI, et al.
FK506 Attenuates the MRP1-Mediated Chemoresistant Phenotype in Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Poor response to current treatments for glioblastoma has been attributed to the presence of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSCs are able to expel antitumor drugs to the extracellular medium using the multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) transporter. Tacrolimus (FK506) has been identified as an MRP1 regulator in differentiated glioblastoma (GBM) cells (non-GSCs); however, the effect of FK506 on GSCs is currently unknown. The objective of the following research is to evaluate the effect of FK506 on the MRP1-related chemo-resistant phenotype of GSCs. For this, U87MG and C6 glioma cell lines were used to generate non-GSCs and GSCs. mRNA and MRP1-positive cells were evaluated by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry, respectively. A Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate (CFDA)-retention assay was performed to evaluate the MRP1 activity. Apoptosis and MTT assays were employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of FK506 plus Vincristine (MRP1 substrate). GSC-derived subcutaneous tumors were generated to evaluate the in vivo effect of FK506/Vincristine treatment. No differences in transcript levels and positive cells for MRP1 were observed in FK506-treated cells. Lesser cell viability, increased apoptosis, and CFDA-retention in the FK506/Vincristine-treated cells were observed. In vivo, the FK506/Vincristine treatment decreased the tumor size as well as ki67, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and nestin expression. We conclude that FK506 confers a chemo-sensitive phenotype to MRP1-drug substrate in GSCs.

Zhang L, Jean SR, Li X, et al.
Programmable Metal/Semiconductor Nanostructures for mRNA-Modulated Molecular Delivery.
Nano Lett. 2018; 18(10):6222-6228 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytotoxic chemotherapeutics are important tools for the clinical treatment of a variety of solid tumors. However, their use is often complicated by multidrug resistance that can develop in patients, limiting the potencies of these agents. New strategies are needed to provide versatile systems that can respond to and disable resistance mechanisms. We demonstrate the use of a new family of materials, programmable metal/semiconductor nanostructures, for drug delivery and mRNA sensing in drug-resistant cells. These materials are composed of a central core gold nanoparticle surrounded by a layer of DNA-capped quantum dots. The modularity of these "core-satellite" assemblies allows for the construction of superstructures with controlled size and the incorporation of multiple functionalities for drug delivery. The DNA sequence within the nanoparticle specifically binds to an mRNA encoding an important drug resistance factor, MRP1, inside cancer cells, releasing a potent anticancer drug doxorubicin. This event triggers a turn-on fluorescence emission along with a downregulation of the MRP1 drug efflux pump, a main resistance factor for doxorubicin, yielding a remarkable improvement in therapeutic efficacy against drug-resistant cancer cells. This work paves the way for the development of programmable materials with multiple synergistic functionalities for biomedical applications.

Hu P, Wong PT, Zhou Q, et al.
Clinical relevance of the multidrug resistance‑associated protein 1 gene in non‑small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta‑analysis.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):3078-3091 [PubMed] Related Publications
The multidrug resistance‑associated protein 1 (MRP1) gene has been found to be consistently overexpressed in the majority of patients with non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MRP1 is known for its ability to actively decrease intracellular drug concentration, limiting the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy; however, data on the clinical relevance of MRP1 is inconclusive. In the present meta‑analysis, all available published data were combined to provide an updated view on the clinicopathological relevance of MRP1 in patients with NSCLC. A systematic search was conducted to obtain relevant studies published in English, Chinese and Japanese databases. All data from patients with NSCLC who underwent testing for MRP1, by either immunohistochemistry or reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, were extracted and combined for further analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each selected study, with either the fixed‑effects model or the random‑effects model where appropriate. The quality of methodology, heterogeneities and publication bias of the included articles were also analyzed. A total of 36 clinical studies involving 3,278 patients were included in the study. It was found that the increased expression of the MRP1 gene was associated with the following subgroups of patients: Non‑smokers vs. smokers (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.17‑5.54; P=0.019); adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.16‑2.17; P=0.004); clinical stage III‑IV vs. stage I‑II (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11‑1.66; P=0.003); lymph node metastases (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09‑1.61; P=0.005); poor response to chemotherapy (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.23‑0.72; P=0.002) and reduced 3‑year survival rate (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23‑0.68; P=0.001). In conclusion, the findings from this study suggest that increase in MRP1 gene expression is associated with being a non‑smoker, adenocarcinoma, advanced clinical stages and a poor response to chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC. The results from the most extensive and updated data on MRP1 support the requirement for continued investigation into the potential use of MRP1 as a biomarker/clinical indicator for NSCLC.

Chang L, Hu Z, Zhou Z, Zhang H
Linc00518 Contributes to Multidrug Resistance Through Regulating the MiR-199a/MRP1 Axis in Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(1):16-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been validated to be pivotal mediators in multidrug resistance (MDR) of various cancers. This study aims to explore the roles and molecular mechanisms of linc00518 implicated in chemoresistance in breast cancer.
METHODS: Expressions of linc00518, miR-199a and MRP1 were evaluated by RT-qPCR or western blot. IC50 values of adriamycin (ADR), vincristine (VCR) and paclitaxel (PTX) were determined by XTT assays and cell apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter and RIP assays were employed to detect the interaction of linc00518, miR-199a and MRP-1.
RESULTS: linc00518 expression increased nearly 2 fold and MRP1 level elevated about 2.5 fold in breast cancer tissues as compared to that in adjacent normal tissues. Also, almost 2 fold upregulation of linc00518 and MRP-1 expressions was observed in MCF-7 cells than in MCF-10A cells. Additionally, linc00518 level was almost 2.5 fold higher and MRP1 level was about 2 fold increased in ADR-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR) than in parental cell line MCF-7. Linc00518 knockdown enhanced chemosensitivity to ADR, VCR and PTX, and boosted ADR-, VCR- and PTX-induced apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells. miR-199a inhibitor conferred chemoresistance to ADR, VCR and PTX in MCF-7/ADR cells, and suppressing miR-199a reversed multi-drug susceptibility induced by linc00518 knockdown. Furthermore, linc00518 could act as a molecular sponge of miR-199a to repress MRP1 expression. MRP1 depletion increased the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR cells to ADR, VCR and PTX, and this effect was attenuated following miR-199a inhibition or linc00518 overexpression. Also, linc00518 silencing increased ADR-mediated anti-tumor effect in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: linc00518 downregulation reduced MDR by regulating miR-199a/MRP1 axis in breast cancer.

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