Gene Summary

Gene:MYH9; myosin heavy chain 9
Summary:This gene encodes a conventional non-muscle myosin; this protein should not be confused with the unconventional myosin-9a or 9b (MYO9A or MYO9B). The encoded protein is a myosin IIA heavy chain that contains an IQ domain and a myosin head-like domain which is involved in several important functions, including cytokinesis, cell motility and maintenance of cell shape. Defects in this gene have been associated with non-syndromic sensorineural deafness autosomal dominant type 17, Epstein syndrome, Alport syndrome with macrothrombocytopenia, Sebastian syndrome, Fechtner syndrome and macrothrombocytopenia with progressive sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MYH9 (cancer-related)

De Rienzo A, Archer MA, Yeap BY, et al.
Gender-Specific Molecular and Clinical Features Underlie Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(2):319-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that occurs more frequently in men, but is associated with longer survival in women. Insight into the survival advantage of female patients may advance the molecular understanding of MPM and identify therapeutic interventions that will improve the prognosis for all MPM patients. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing of tumor specimens from 10 MPM patients and matched control samples to identify potential driver mutations underlying MPM. We identified molecular differences associated with gender and histology. Specifically, single-nucleotide variants of BAP1 were observed in 21% of cases, with lower mutation rates observed in sarcomatoid MPM (P < 0.001). Chromosome 22q loss was more frequently associated with the epithelioid than that nonepitheliod histology (P = 0.037), whereas CDKN2A deletions occurred more frequently in nonepithelioid subtypes among men (P = 0.021) and were correlated with shorter overall survival for the entire cohort (P = 0.002) and for men (P = 0.012). Furthermore, women were more likely to harbor TP53 mutations (P = 0.004). Novel mutations were found in genes associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway, including MYH9 and RHOA. Moreover, expression levels of BAP1, MYH9, and RHOA were significantly higher in nonepithelioid tumors, and were associated with significant reduction in survival of the entire cohort and across gender subgroups. Collectively, our findings indicate that diverse mechanisms highly related to gender and histology appear to drive MPM.

He H, Wang D, Yao H, et al.
Transcriptional factors p300 and MRTF-A synergistically enhance the expression of migration-related genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 467(4):813-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional coactivator p300 is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. MRTF-A is a transcription factor governed by the Rho-GTPase-actin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of p300 in breast cancer metastasis. Here we showed that the motility of breast cancer cells was enhanced by the overexpression of p300, meanwhile, the transcription of migration-related genes was upregulated. Depletion of p300 downregulated the migration-related genes and slowed down the migration of breast cancer cells. p300 worked synergistically with MRTF-A to activate the transcription of MYH9, MYL9 and CYR61. As identified by co-IP, p300 interacted with the C-terminal TAD domain of MRTF-A. And together with MRTF-A, p300 was associated with the target gene promoters. Furthermore, MRTF-A was found to be acetylated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These results demonstrated the involvement of p300 in the MRTF-A mediated gene regulation and breast cancer cell migration.

Conti MA, Saleh AD, Brinster LR, et al.
Conditional deletion of nonmuscle myosin II-A in mouse tongue epithelium results in squamous cell carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:14068 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To investigate the contribution of nonmuscle myosin II-A (NM II-A) to early cardiac development we crossed Myh9 floxed mice and Nkx2.5 cre-recombinase mice. Nkx2.5 is expressed in the early heart (E7.5) and later in the tongue epithelium. Mice homozygous for deletion of NM II-A (A(Nkx)/A(Nkx)) are born at the expected ratio with normal hearts, but consistently develop an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue (32/32 A(Nkx)/A(Nkx)) as early as E17.5. To assess reproducibility a second, independent line of Myh9 floxed mice derived from a different embryonic stem cell clone was tested. This second line also develops SCC indistinguishable from the first (15/15). In A(Nkx)/A(Nkx) mouse tongue epithelium, genetic deletion of NM II-A does not affect stabilization of TP53, unlike a previous report for SCC. We attribute the consistent, early formation of SCC with high penetrance to the role of NM II in maintaining mitotic stability during karyokinesis.

Iles MM, Bishop DT, Taylor JC, et al.
The effect on melanoma risk of genes previously associated with telomere length.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomere length has been associated with risk of many cancers, but results are inconsistent. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with mean leukocyte telomere length were either genotyped or well-imputed in 11108 case patients and 13933 control patients from Europe, Israel, the United States and Australia, four of the seven SNPs reached a P value under .05 (two-sided). A genetic score that predicts telomere length, derived from these seven SNPs, is strongly associated (P = 8.92x10(-9), two-sided) with melanoma risk. This demonstrates that the previously observed association between longer telomere length and increased melanoma risk is not attributable to confounding via shared environmental effects (such as ultraviolet exposure) or reverse causality. We provide the first proof that multiple germline genetic determinants of telomere length influence cancer risk.

Suetens A, Moreels M, Quintens R, et al.
Dose- and time-dependent gene expression alterations in prostate and colon cancer cells after in vitro exposure to carbon ion and X-irradiation.
J Radiat Res. 2015; 56(1):11-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hadrontherapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (such as protons and carbon ions). Compared with conventional radiotherapy, the main advantages of carbon ion therapy are the precise absorbed dose localization, along with an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. Currently, hadrontherapy is being used for the treatment of specific types of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have shown that, under certain circumstances, exposure to charged particles may inhibit cell motility and migration. In the present study, we investigated the expression of four motility-related genes in prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines after exposure to different radiation types. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5 and 2 Gy) of accelerated (13)C-ions at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the RBE. RT-qPCR analysis showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the expression of CCDC88A, FN1, MYH9 and ROCK1 in both cell lines. However, whereas in PC3 cells the response to carbon ion irradiation was enhanced compared with X-irradiation, the effect was the opposite in Caco-2 cells, indicating cell-type-specific responses to the different radiation types.

Ma X, Adelstein RS
The role of vertebrate nonmuscle Myosin II in development and human disease.
Bioarchitecture. 2014; 4(3):88-102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Three different genes each located on a different chromosome encode the heavy chains of nonmuscle myosin II in humans and mice. This review explores the functional consequences of the presence of three isoforms during embryonic development and beyond. The roles of the various isoforms in cell division, cell-cell adhesion, blood vessel formation and neuronal cell migration are addressed in animal models and at the cellular level. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of nonmuscle myosin II during cardiac and brain development, and during closure of the neural tube and body wall. Questions addressed include the consequences on organ development, of lowering or ablating a particular isoform as well as the effect of substituting one isoform for another, all in vivo. Finally the roles of the three isoforms in human diseases such as cancer as well as in syndromes affecting a variety of organs in humans are reviewed.

Alsagaby SA, Khanna S, Hart KW, et al.
Proteomics-based strategies to identify proteins relevant to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
J Proteome Res. 2014; 13(11):5051-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malignant B-cell disorder, is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical course. Two-dimensional nano liquid chromatography (2D-nano-LC) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) (LC-MALDI) was used to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis on cellular extracts from 12 primary CLL samples. We identified 728 proteins and quantified 655 proteins using isobaric tag-labeled extracts. Four strategies were used to identify disease-related proteins. First, we integrated our CLL proteome with published gene expression data of normal B-cells and CLL cells to highlight proteins with preferential expression in the transcriptome of CLL. Second, as CLL's outcome is heterogeneous, our quantitative proteomic data were used to indicate heterogeneously expressed proteins. Third, we used the quantitative data to identify proteins with differential abundance in poor prognosis CLL samples. Fourth, hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to identify hidden patterns of protein expression. These strategies identified 63 proteins, and 4 were investigated in a CLL cohort (39 patients). Thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein 3, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A, and S100A8 were associated with high-risk CLL. Myosin-9 exhibited reduced expression in CLL samples from high-risk patients. This study shows the usefulness of proteomic approaches, combined with transcriptomics, to identify disease-related proteins.

Park SY, Kim H, Yoon S, et al.
KITENIN-targeting microRNA-124 suppresses colorectal cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis.
Mol Ther. 2014; 22(9):1653-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs are increasingly implicated in the modulation of the progression of various cancers. We previously observed that KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin (KITENIN) is highly expressed in sporadic human colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues and hence the functional KITENIN complex acts to promote progression of CRC. However, it remains unknown that microRNAs target KITENIN and whether KITENIN-targeting microRNAs modulate CRC cell motility and colorectal tumorigenesis. Here, through bioinformatic analyses and functional studies, we showed that miR-124, miR-27a, and miR-30b negatively regulate KITENIN expression and suppress the migration and invasion of several CRC cell lines via modulation of KITENIN expression. Through in vitro and in vivo induction of mature microRNAs using a tetracycline-inducible system, miR-124 was found to effectively inhibit the invasion of CT-26 colon adenocarcinoma cells and tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse xenograft model. Constitutive overexpression of precursor miR-124 in CT-26 cells suppressed in vivo tumorigenicity and resulted in decreased expression of KITENIN as well as that of MYH9 and SOX9, which are targets of miR-124. Thus, our findings identify that KITENIN-targeting miR-124, miR-27a, and miR-30b function as endogenous inhibitors of CRC cell motility and demonstrate that miR-124 among KITENIN-targeting microRNAs plays a suppressor role in colorectal tumorigenesis.

Konuma T, Kato S, Ooi J, et al.
Impact of sex incompatibility on the outcome of single-unit cord blood transplantation for adult patients with hematological malignancies.
Bone Marrow Transplant. 2014; 49(5):634-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Donor-recipient sex incompatibility has been associated with transplant outcomes in allogeneic hematopoietic SCT. Such outcomes might be because mHA encoded by Y chromosome genes could be immunological targets for allogeneic T cells and B cells to induce GVHD, GVL effect and graft failure. However, its effect on the outcome of cord blood transplantation (CBT) is yet to be clarified. We retrospectively analyzed 191 adult patients who received single-unit CBT after myeloablative conditioning for malignant disease in our institute. In multivariate analysis, male recipients with female donors had a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD (hazard ratio (HR) 2.97, P=0.02), and female recipients with male donors had a lower incidence of platelet engraftment (HR 0.56, P=0.02) compared with female recipients with female donors as the reference. Nevertheless, there was no increase in mortality following sex-incompatible CBT. These data suggested that donor-recipient sex compatibility does not have a significant impact on survival after myeloablative CBT for hematological malignancies.

Suetens A, Moreels M, Quintens R, et al.
Carbon ion irradiation of the human prostate cancer cell line PC3: a whole genome microarray study.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1056-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hadrontherapy is a form of external radiation therapy, which uses beams of charged particles such as carbon ions. Compared to conventional radiotherapy with photons, the main advantage of carbon ion therapy is the precise dose localization along with an increased biological effectiveness. The first results obtained from prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion therapy showed good local tumor control and survival rates. In view of this advanced treatment modality we investigated the effects of irradiation with different beam qualities on gene expression changes in the PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. For this purpose, PC3 cells were irradiated with various doses (0.0, 0.5 and 2.0 Gy) of carbon ions (LET=33.7 keV/µm) at the beam of the Grand Accélérateur National d'Ions Lourds (Caen, France). Comparative experiments with X-rays were performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. Genome-wide gene expression was analyzed using microarrays. Our results show a downregulation in many genes involved in cell cycle and cell organization processes after 2.0 Gy irradiation. This effect was more pronounced after carbon ion irradiation compared with X-rays. Furthermore, we found a significant downregulation of many genes related to cell motility. Several of these changes were confirmed using qPCR. In addition, recurrence-free survival analysis of prostate cancer patients based on one of these motility genes (FN1) revealed that patients with low expression levels had a prolonged recurrence-free survival time, indicating that this gene may be a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer. Understanding how different radiation qualities affect the cellular behavior of prostate cancer cells is important to improve the clinical outcome of cancer radiation therapy.

Schramek D, Sendoel A, Segal JP, et al.
Direct in vivo RNAi screen unveils myosin IIa as a tumor suppressor of squamous cell carcinomas.
Science. 2014; 343(6168):309-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mining modern genomics for cancer therapies is predicated on weeding out "bystander" alterations (nonconsequential mutations) and identifying "driver" mutations responsible for tumorigenesis and/or metastasis. We used a direct in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) strategy to screen for genes that upon repression predispose mice to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Seven of our top hits-including Myh9, which encodes nonmuscle myosin IIa-have not been linked to tumor development, yet tissue-specific Myh9 RNAi and Myh9 knockout trigger invasive SCC formation on tumor-susceptible backgrounds. In human and mouse keratinocytes, myosin IIa's function is manifested not only in conventional actin-related processes but also in regulating posttranscriptional p53 stabilization. Myosin IIa is diminished in human SCCs with poor survival, which suggests that in vivo RNAi technology might be useful for identifying potent but low-penetrance tumor suppressors.

Mu Y, Chen Y, Zhang G, et al.
Identification of stromal differentially expressed proteins in the colon carcinoma by quantitative proteomics.
Electrophoresis. 2013; 34(11):1679-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor microenvironment plays very important roles in the carcinogenesis. A variety of stromal cells in the microenvironment have been modified to support the unique needs of the malignant state. This study was to discover stromal differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were involved in colon carcinoma carcinogenesis. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was captured and isolated the stromal cells from colon adenocarcinoma (CAC) and non-neoplastic colon mucosa (NNCM) tissues, respectively. Seventy DEPs were identified between the pooled LCM-enriched CAC and NNCM stroma samples by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics. Gene Ontology (GO) relationship analysis revealed that DEPs were hierarchically grouped into 10 clusters, and were involved in multiple biological functions that were altered during carcinogenesis, including extracellular matrix organization, cytoskeleton, transport, metabolism, inflammatory response, protein polymerization, and cell motility. Pathway network analysis revealed 6 networks and 56 network eligible proteins with Ingenuity pathway analysis. Four significant networks functioned in digestive system development and its function, inflammatory disease, and developmental disorder. Eight DEPs (DCN, FN1, PKM2, HSP90B1, S100A9, MYH9, TUBB, and YWHAZ) were validated by Western blotting, and four DEPs (DCN, FN1, PKM2, and HSP90B1) were validated by immunohistochemical analysis. It is the first report of stromal DEPs between CAC and NNCM tissues. It will be helpful to recognize the roles of stromas in the colon carcinoma microenvironment, and improve the understanding of carcinogenesis in colon carcinoma. The present data suggest that DCN, FN1, PKM2, HSP90B1, S100A9, MYH9, TUBB, and YWHAZ might be the potential targets for colon cancer prevention and therapy.

Lin HC, Zhang FL, Geng Q, et al.
Quantitative proteomic analysis identifies CPNE3 as a novel metastasis-promoting gene in NSCLC.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(7):3423-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
To discover metastasis-associated proteins within cancer cells, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach combined with nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (NanoLC-MS/MS) analysis to identify proteins that were differentially expressed between lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines SPC-A-1sci cells with high metastatic potential and parent SPC-A-1 cells with low metastatic potential. By employing biological and technical replicates, we identified 5818 nonredundant proteins and quantified 5443 proteins, 256 of which were differentially expressed in the two cell lines. Through si-RNA-mediated functional screens, Myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9) and Copine III (CPNE3) were indicated as positively correlating with the migration and invasion properties of SPC-A1sci cells, and the same function of CPNE3 was confirmed in another lung cancer cell line, H1299. Furthermore, overexpressing CPNE3 promoted nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line (SPC-A-1 and XL-2) migration and invasion in vitro. Moreover, the targeted knock-down of CPNE3 inhibited the in vivo metastatic abilities of H1299 cells in mouse models. Lastly, immunohistochemistry revealed that the CPNE3 expression level was positively correlated with the clinical stage and TNM classification in NSCLC patients. Taken together, our results indicate that CPNE3 could play a critical role in NSCLC metastasis.

Liu D, Zhang L, Shen Z, et al.
Clinicopathological significance of NMIIA overexpression in human gastric cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2012; 13(11):15291-304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Altered expressions of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) have been observed in certain types of cancers, but the impact of the alterations in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of NMIIA at the mRNA and protein level in patients with GC and to assess its clinical significance. We investigated the expression of NMIIA in fresh, paired GC tissues by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; n = 14) and Western blot analysis (n = 36). Simultaneously, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) on paraffin embedded specimens, including 96 GC specimens, 30 matched normal specimens and 30 paired metastatic lymph node samples. NMIIA is overexpressed in GC compared with the adjacent normal gastric epithelium (p < 0.001) and high-level NMIIA expression is significantly correlated with the depth of wall invasion, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, elevated NMIIA expression is an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model (p = 0.021). These findings indicate that overexpression of NMIIA may contribute to the progression and poor prognosis of GC.

Bluteau D, Glembotsky AC, Raimbault A, et al.
Dysmegakaryopoiesis of FPD/AML pedigrees with constitutional RUNX1 mutations is linked to myosin II deregulated expression.
Blood. 2012; 120(13):2708-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
FPD/AML is a familial platelet disorder characterized by platelet defects, predisposition to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and germ-line heterozygous RUNX1 alterations. Here we studied the in vitro megakaryopoiesis of 3 FPD/AML pedigrees. A 60% to 80% decrease in the output of megakaryocytes (MKs) from CD34(+) was observed. MK ploidy level was low and mature MKs displayed a major defect in proplatelet formation. To explain these defects, we focused on myosin II expression as RUNX1 has been shown to regulate MYL9 and MYH10 in an inverse way. In FPD/AML MKs, expression of MYL9 and MYH9 was decreased, whereas MYH10 expression was increased and the MYH10 protein was still present in the cytoplasm of mature MKs. Myosin II activity inhibition by blebbistatin rescued the ploidy defect of FPD/AML MKs. Finally, we demonstrate that MYH9 is a direct target of RUNX1 by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays and we identified new RUNX1 binding sites in the MYL9 promoter region. Together, these results demonstrate that the defects in megakaryopoiesis observed in FPD/AML are, in part, related to a deregulation of myosin IIA and IIB expression leading to both a defect in ploidization and proplatelet formation.

Ellis MJ, Ding L, Shen D, et al.
Whole-genome analysis informs breast cancer response to aromatase inhibition.
Nature. 2012; 486(7403):353-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To correlate the variable clinical features of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer with somatic alterations, we studied pretreatment tumour biopsies accrued from patients in two studies of neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy by massively parallel sequencing and analysis. Eighteen significantly mutated genes were identified, including five genes (RUNX1, CBFB, MYH9, MLL3 and SF3B1) previously linked to haematopoietic disorders. Mutant MAP3K1 was associated with luminal A status, low-grade histology and low proliferation rates, whereas mutant TP53 was associated with the opposite pattern. Moreover, mutant GATA3 correlated with suppression of proliferation upon aromatase inhibitor treatment. Pathway analysis demonstrated that mutations in MAP2K4, a MAP3K1 substrate, produced similar perturbations as MAP3K1 loss. Distinct phenotypes in oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer are associated with specific patterns of somatic mutations that map into cellular pathways linked to tumour biology, but most recurrent mutations are relatively infrequent. Prospective clinical trials based on these findings will require comprehensive genome sequencing.

Derycke L, Stove C, Vercoutter-Edouart AS, et al.
The role of non-muscle myosin IIA in aggregation and invasion of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Int J Dev Biol. 2011; 55(7-9):835-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human MCF-7/6 breast cancer cells differ from their MCF-7/AZ counterparts by their invasiveness in a number of assays in vitro, such as invasion of MCF-7 spheroids into embryonic chick heart fragments or type I collagen gels. Comparative proteomic analysis of these two variants revealed an identical pattern, except for a 230 kDa protein present in the invasive MCF-7/6 variant, but hardly detectable in the non-invasive MCF-7/AZ one. This protein appeared to be the non-muscle myosin IIA heavy chain (NMIIA), also coined MYH9. Experimental inhibition of NMIIA by reducing either its expression (via stable shRNA transduction) or its function (via the specific ATPase inhibitor blebbistatin) underpinned the decisive role of NMIIA in MCF-7 cell invasion. Inhibition of NMIIA indeed blocked the invasion of MCF-7/6 cells in three-dimensional invasion substrata such as embryonic chick heart fragments and type I collagen gels. Invasiveness of MCF-7/6 cells has been related to poor formation and compaction of aggregates, due to a functionally defective E-cadherin/catenin complex. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of NMIIA stimulated MCF-7/6 cell aggregation. Together, these data indicate that NMIIA is a decisive protein for MCF-7 cells to invade, indicating that this molecule is a candidate for targeted anti-invasive treatment.

Jung H, Ki CS, Kim JW, Kang ES
Frequencies of 10 autosomal minor histocompatibility antigens in Korean population and estimated disparities in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Tissue Antigens. 2012; 79(1):42-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Disparity of minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) is known to induce graft-versus-tumor and graft-versus-host disease reactions in stem cell transplantation. Not much information is available on genotypic and phenotypic distributions of the currently identified mHAs, especially in Korean population. Therefore, we report genotype and phenotype frequency analyses of 10 autosomal mHAs in 329 unrelated healthy Koreans using the Sequenom MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system and polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). Estimates of the probability of immunogenic mismatches between donor/recipient pairs were made from observed phenotypic frequencies. HA-1 was the most favorable mHA for clinical application with the highest disparity of 7.0%. Similar results were obtained in ACC-1. The Korean population can benefit the most in a setting of matched major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted mHAs-mismatched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantations with the disparity rate of 27.5% with eight hematopoietic mHAs. This is the first comprehensive report on the genotypic and phenotypic frequency distributions of human mHAs in the Korean population. It can contribute to not only donor selection before transplantation but also therapeutic approaches after transplantation. It is expected that mHA-based immunotherapy will lead to a new treatment modality tailored for patients at high risk of relapse following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Armistead PM, Liang S, Li H, et al.
Common minor histocompatibility antigen discovery based upon patient clinical outcomes and genomic data.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23217 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA) mediate much of the graft vs. leukemia (GvL) effect and graft vs. host disease (GvHD) in patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Therapeutic decision making and treatments based upon mHAs will require the evaluation of multiple candidate mHAs and the selection of those with the potential to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that common, immunodominant mHAs, which are presented by HLA-A, B, and C molecules, can mediate clinically significant GvL and/or GvHD, and that these mHAs can be identified through association of genomic data with clinical outcomes.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because most mHAs result from donor/recipient cSNP disparities, we genotyped 57 myeloid leukemia patients and their donors at 13,917 cSNPs. We correlated the frequency of genetically predicted mHA disparities with clinical evidence of an immune response and then computationally screened all peptides mapping to the highly associated cSNPs for their ability to bind to HLA molecules. As proof-of-concept, we analyzed one predicted antigen, T4A, whose mHA mismatch trended towards improved overall and disease free survival in our cohort. T4A mHA mismatches occurred at the maximum theoretical frequency for any given SCT. T4A-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs) were detected in 3 of 4 evaluable post-transplant patients predicted to have a T4A mismatch.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our method is the first to combine clinical outcomes data with genomics and bioinformatics methods to predict and confirm a mHA. Refinement of this method should enable the discovery of clinically relevant mHAs in the majority of transplant patients and possibly lead to novel immunotherapeutics.

Erickson-Johnson MR, Chou MM, Evers BR, et al.
Nodular fasciitis: a novel model of transient neoplasia induced by MYH9-USP6 gene fusion.
Lab Invest. 2011; 91(10):1427-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a relatively common mass-forming and self-limited subcutaneous pseudosarcomatous myofibroblastic proliferation of unknown pathogenesis. Due to its rapid growth and high mitotic activity, NF is often misdiagnosed as a sarcoma. While studying the USP6 biology in aneurysmal bone cyst and other mesenchymal tumors, we identified high expression levels of USP6 mRNA in two examples of NF. This finding led us to further examine the mechanisms underlying USP6 overexpression in these lesions. Upon subsequent investigation, genomic rearrangements of the USP6 locus were found in 92% (44 of 48) of NF. Rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends identified MYH9 as the translocation partner. RT-PCR and direct sequencing revealed the fusion of the MYH9 promoter region to the entire coding region of USP6. Control tumors and tissues were negative for this fusion. Xenografts of cells overexpressing USP6 in nude mice exhibited clinical and histological features similar to human NF. The identification of a sensitive and specific abnormality in NF holds the potential to be used diagnostically. Considering the self-limited nature of the lesion, NF may represent a model of 'transient neoplasia', as it is, to our knowledge, the first example of a self-limited human disease characterized by a recurrent somatic gene fusion event.

Chung HJ, Park EJ, Pyee Y, et al.
25-Methoxyhispidol A, a novel triterpenoid of Poncirus trifoliata, inhibits cell growth via the modulation of EGFR/c-Src signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49(11):2942-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (Rutaceae) has been used a medicinal food and traditional medicine. Recently we reported the isolation of 25-methoxyhispidol A (25-MHA) as a novel triterpenoid from the immature fruit of P. trifoliata with the potential growth inhibition of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms on the anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative activity and mechanisms of actions mediated by 25-MHA in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. 25-MHA exhibited the growth inhibitory activity against MDA-MB-231 cells with the cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 by 25-MHA was well correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK4), CDK2, cyclin A, phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and induction of cdk inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) protein. 25-MHA also suppressed the activation of c-Src/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Akt signaling, and consequently led to the inactivation of mTOR and its downstream signal molecules including 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) and p70 S6 kinase. These findings suggest that 25-MHA-mediated inhibitory activity of human breast cancer cell growth might be related with the cell cycle arrest and modulation of signal transduction pathways.

Liang S, He L, Zhao X, et al.
MicroRNA let-7f inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting MYH9 in human gastric cancer.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(4):e18409 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators that play key roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. A previous report has shown that let-7 family members can act as tumor suppressors in many cancers. Through miRNA array, we found that let-7f was downregulated in the highly metastatic potential gastric cancer cell lines GC9811-P and SGC7901-M, when compared with their parental cell lines, GC9811 and SGC7901-NM; however, the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we investigate whether let-7f acts as a tumor suppressor to inhibit invasion and metastasis in gastric cancers.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Real-time PCR showed decreased levels of let-7f expression in metastatic gastric cancer tissues and cell lines that are potentially highly metastatic. Cell invasion and migration were significantly impaired in GC9811-P and SGC7901-M cell lines after transfection with let-7f-mimics. Nude mice with xenograft models of gastric cancer confirmed that let-7f could inhibit gastric cancer metastasis in vivo after transfection by the lentivirus pGCsil-GFP- let-7f. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that let-7f directly binds to the 3'UTR of MYH9, which codes for myosin IIA, and real-time PCR and Western blotting further indicated that let-7f downregulated the expression of myosin IIA at the mRNA and protein levels.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrated that overexpression of let-7f in gastric cancer could inhibit invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells through directly targeting the tumor metastasis-associated gene MYH9. These data suggest that let-7f may be a novel therapeutic candidate for gastric cancer, given its ability to reduce cell invasion and metastasis.

Damm-Welk C, Klapper W, Oschlies I, et al.
Distribution of NPM1-ALK and X-ALK fusion transcripts in paediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a molecular-histological correlation.
Br J Haematol. 2009; 146(3):306-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) in children express anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion genes, most commonly NPM1-ALK. The distribution of X-ALK among 66 childhood ALCLs was analysed. One ALCL was ALK-negative. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected NPM1-ALK in 58 tumours, all showing nuclear and cytoplasmic ALK staining. The remaining seven ALCL stained for ALK in the cytoplasm only: two expressed TPM3-ALK, one ATIC-ALK, one MYH9-ALK; three no TPM3-, TFG-, ATIC-, CLTC- or MYH9-ALK. Almost 90% of paediatric ALK-positive ALCLs express NPM1-ALK. There was complete concordance between ALK staining pattern and the presence of a typical/variant ALK fusion partner.

Medjkane S, Perez-Sanchez C, Gaggioli C, et al.
Myocardin-related transcription factors and SRF are required for cytoskeletal dynamics and experimental metastasis.
Nat Cell Biol. 2009; 11(3):257-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rho GTPases control cytoskeletal dynamics through cytoplasmic effectors and regulate transcriptional activation through myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which are co-activators for serum response factor (SRF). We used RNA interference to investigate the contribution of the MRTF-SRF pathway to cytoskeletal dynamics in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma and B16F2 melanoma cells, in which basal MRTF-SRF activity is Rho-dependent. Depletion of MRTFs or SRF reduced cell adhesion, spreading, invasion and motility in culture, without affecting proliferation or inducing apoptosis. MRTF-depleted tumour cell xenografts showed reduced cell motility but proliferated normally. Tumour cells depleted of MRTF or SRF failed to colonize the lung from the bloodstream, being unable to persist after their arrival in the lung. Only a few genes show MRTF-dependent expression in both cell lines. Two of these, MYH9 (NMHCIIa) and MYL9 (MLC2), are also required for invasion and lung colonization. Conversely, expression of activated MAL/MRTF-A increases lung colonization by poorly metastatic B16F0 cells. Actin-based cell behaviour and experimental metastasis thus require Rho-dependent nuclear signalling through the MRTF-SRF network.

Alhopuro P, Karhu A, Winqvist R, et al.
Somatic mutation analysis of MYH11 in breast and prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:263 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MYH11 (also known as SMMHC) encodes the smooth-muscle myosin heavy chain, which has a key role in smooth muscle contraction. Inversion at the MYH11 locus is one of the most frequent chromosomal aberrations found in acute myeloid leukemia. We have previously shown that MYH11 mutations occur in human colorectal cancer, and may also be associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The mutations found in human intestinal neoplasia result in unregulated proteins with constitutive motor activity, similar to the mutant myh11 underlying the zebrafish meltdown phenotype characterized by disrupted intestinal architecture. Recently, MYH1 and MYH9 have been identified as candidate breast cancer genes in a systematic analysis of the breast cancer genome.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of somatic MYH11 mutations in two common tumor types; breast and prostate cancers. A total of 155 breast cancer and 71 prostate cancer samples were analyzed for those regions in MYH11 (altogether 8 exons out of 42 coding exons) that harboured mutations in colorectal cancer in our previous study.
RESULTS: In breast cancer samples only germline alterations were observed. One prostate cancer sample harbored a frameshift mutation c.5798delC, which we have previously shown to result in a protein with unregulated motor activity.
CONCLUSION: Little evidence for a role of somatic MYH11 mutations in the formation of breast or prostate cancers was obtained in this study.

Young FM, Campbell A, Emo KL, et al.
High-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with bcr-abl and INK4A/ARF mutations retain susceptibility to alloreactive T cells.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008; 14(6):622-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INK4A/ARF mutations are acquired in bcr/abl(+) lymphoid blast phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and bcr/abl(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Donor lymphocyte infusion and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) are generally ineffective in such ALLs, whereas GVL is highly active against bcr/abl(+) CML, which does not have a lesion in the INK4A/ARF locus. The mechanisms for the ineffectiveness of GVL are not fully known, and it is possible that intrinsic resistance of acute lymphoid leukemias to immune effectors associated with allogeneic GVL may contribute to ineffectiveness. This work tested the hypothesis that INK4A/ARF mutations that are associated with transformation of bcr/abl(+) CML to an ALL phenotype, and that are associated with increased resistance to apoptosis render ALL cells insensitive to allogeneic immune responses to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA). Murine acute pre-B ALLs were induced by transfer of the human p210 bcr/abl gene into bone marrow of INK4A/ARF null mice. These ALL lines were then studied in a murine model of MHC-matched, mHA-mismatched allogeneic BMT. In vivo growth of these ALLs was inhibited in allogeneic transplants characterized by active allogeneic immune responses compared to their behavior in syngeneic transplants. In vitro ALLs with INK4A/ARF, p210 bcr/abl, or p190 bcr/abl mutations remained sensitive to anti-mHA cytolytic T cells. In addition, the ALLs were capable of inducing primary immune responses to mHAs in vivo. Thus, ALLs with INK4A/ARF or bcr/abl mutations are not intrinsically resistant to allogeneic T cell responses, suggesting that active immunotherapies against mHA have the potential to control such acute lymphoblastic leukemias.

Kawase T, Akatsuka Y, Torikai H, et al.
Alternative splicing due to an intronic SNP in HMSD generates a novel minor histocompatibility antigen.
Blood. 2007; 110(3):1055-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here we report the identification of a novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B44-restricted minor histocompatibility antigen (mHA) with expression limited to hematopoietic cells. cDNA expression cloning studies demonstrated that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope of interest was encoded by a novel allelic splice variant of HMSD, hereafter designated as HMSD-v. The immunogenicity of the epitope was generated by differential protein expression due to alternative splicing, which was completely controlled by 1 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the consensus 5' splice site adjacent to an exon. Both HMSD-v and HMSD transcripts were selectively expressed at higher levels in mature dendritic cells and primary leukemia cells, especially those of myeloid lineage. Engraftment of mHA(+) myeloid leukemia stem cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID)/gammac(null) mice was completely inhibited by in vitro preincubation with the mHA-specific CTL clone, suggesting that this mHA is expressed on leukemic stem cells. The patient from whom the CTL clone was isolated demonstrated a significant increase of the mHA-specific T cells in posttransplantation peripheral blood, whereas mHA-specific T cells were undetectable in pretransplantation peripheral blood and in peripheral blood from his donor. These findings suggest that the HMSD-v-encoded mHA (designated ACC-6) could serve as a target antigen for immunotherapy against hematologic malignancies.

Matsushita M, Yamazaki R, Ikeda H, et al.
Possible involvement of allogeneic antigens recognised by donor-derived CD4 cytotoxic T cells in selective GVL effects after stem cell transplantation of patients with haematological malignancy.
Br J Haematol. 2006; 132(1):56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lines specific for allogeneic antigens were generated by in vitro stimulation of donor-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients who received human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). One of the allogeneic antigen-specific CD4+ CTL lines, CTL-A, generated from a patient with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, recognised HLA-DPB1*0501-positive Epstein-Barr virus-immortalised human B cell line (EBV-B cells), phytohaemagglutinin blasts and leukaemia cells, but not interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treated HLA-DPB1*0501-positive fibroblasts, indicating that this CD4+ T-cell line recognised a minor histocompatibility antigen (mHa) that is preferentially expressed in haematopoietic cells in an HLA-DPB1*0501-restricted manner. The other CD4+ CTL line, CTL-B, generated from a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia, recognised mismatched HLA-DQB1*0303 on EBV-B cells and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) blasts. Interestingly, this CTL line did not recognise IFN-gamma-treated recipient's skin fibroblasts, as HLA-DQ was merely upregulated even after IFN-gamma stimulation in non-haematopoietic cells including fibroblasts, endothelial cells and hepatocytes. These results suggest that these CD4 positive CTLs, specific for mismatch HLA-DQ and mHa that are preferentially expressed on haematopoietic cells, may play an important role in induction of selective graft-versus-leukaemia effect without development of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic HSCT.

Rheingold SR
Acute myeloid leukemia in a child with hereditary thrombocytopenia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007; 48(1):105-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
A child with a known diagnosis of an autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia, Fechtner Syndrome, developed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently the disease gene for the inherited macrothrombocytopenias has been identified as MYH9, encoding for non-muscle myosin heavy chain-A. MYH9 has never been associated with the development of acute leukemia, but MYH11 is disrupted in the M4 eosinophilia sub-type of AML (inv16). The patients leukemic blasts did carry the common t(8;21) which yields an AML1-ETO fusion protein that inhibits AML-1. Despite his thrombocytopenia, the patient successfully completed intensive bone marrow cytoreduction without significant bleeding complications and is now in remission for over 3 years.

Nishida T, Akatsuka Y, Morishima Y, et al.
Clinical relevance of a newly identified HLA-A24-restricted minor histocompatibility antigen epitope derived from BCL2A1, ACC-1, in patients receiving HLA genotypically matched unrelated bone marrow transplant.
Br J Haematol. 2004; 124(5):629-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) are major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated peptides, which trigger T-cell responses that mediate graft versus host disease (GVHD) and graft versus leukaemia effects. We recently identified a new mHA epitope, termed ACC-1, which is presented by HLA-A*2402 and encoded by BCL2A1, whose expression is restricted to haematopoietic cells including leukaemic cells. HLA-A24/ACC-1 tetramer detected the presence of ACC-1-specific CD8+ cells in the peripheral blood of a patient up to 7 months following transplantation, and these tetramer-positive cells were expandable in vitro by ACC-1 peptide stimulation. A retrospective analysis of 320 patients with HLA-A*2402 who had received a human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genotypically matched unrelated donor through the Japan Marrow Donor Programme was conducted to determine whether ACC-1 disparity is associated with adverse clinical outcomes such as GVHD. Among these patients, ACC-1 disparity was detected in 55 (17.2%) donor/recipient pairs. After adjusting for known risk factors, the hazard ratios or odds ratios of acute and chronic GVHD, relapse and disease-free survival were not statistically different between patients receiving ACC-1 compatible and incompatible transplantation. These data suggest that disparity of haematopoietic cell-specific mHA, ACC-1, is unlikely at least to augment GVHD, and that T cells specific for ACC-1 may also be used for immunotherapy of recurring leukaemia without GVHD.

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