Gene Summary

Gene:NCOA3; nuclear receptor coactivator 3
Aliases: ACTR, AIB1, RAC3, SRC3, pCIP, AIB-1, CTG26, SRC-3, CAGH16, KAT13B, TNRC14, TNRC16, TRAM-1, bHLHe42
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear receptor coactivator that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors to enhance their transcriptional activator functions. The encoded protein has histone acetyltransferase activity and recruits p300/CBP-associated factor and CREB binding protein as part of a multisubunit coactivation complex. This protein is initially found in the cytoplasm but is translocated into the nucleus upon phosphorylation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In addition, a polymorphic repeat region is found in the C-terminus of the encoded protein. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor coactivator 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (36)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Urothelium
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Tamoxifen
  • Thiazoles
  • Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Risk Factors
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Terminal Repeat Sequences
  • Translocation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Gene Amplification
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb
  • Breast Cancer
  • p53 Protein
  • Survival Rate
  • Trans-Activators
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Xenograft Models
  • Transcription
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Transfection
  • Drug Resistance
  • Chromosome 20
  • Trinucleotide Repeats
  • Up-Regulation
  • Systems Biology
  • Acetyltransferases
  • Zinc Finger E-box-Binding Homeobox 1
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NCOA3 (cancer-related)

Hao Y, Gao Y, Wu Y, An C
The AIB1siRNA-loaded hyaluronic acid-assembled PEI/heparin/Ca2+ nanocomplex as a novel therapeutic strategy in lung cancer treatment.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(2):861-867 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the present study, AIB1siRNA‑loaded polyethyleneimine (PEI)/heparin/Ca2+ nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared and evaluated for their efficacy in lung cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the PEI and heparin complex reduced the toxic effect in cancer cells while maintaining its transfection efficiency. A nanosized particle of ~25 nm was formulated and siRNA was demonstrated to possess excellent binding efficiency in the particles. Confocal microscopy revealed that fluorescein‑labeled (FAM)‑small interfering (si)RNA dissociated from the HA‑PEI/heparin/Ca2+/siRNA (CPH‑siH) NPs and exhibited maximum fluorescence in the cytoplasm, which was important in elucidating its post‑transcriptional activity. CPH‑siH NPs exhibited a typical concentration‑dependent toxicity in cancer cells. Blank PEI/heparin/Ca2+ did not induce any toxicity in cancer cells, indicating its safety and lack of side effects. CPH‑siH (100 nm) induced the maximum apoptosis of cancer cells with nearly ~35% of cells in the early and late apoptosis stages. The expression of the nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3, also known as AIB1) protein was knocked down in a concentration‑dependent manner, demonstrating the potent activity of AIB1siRNA in cancer cells. Together, these results indicated that HA‑PEI/heparin/Ca2+ NPs may be a promising carrier for the anticancer activity of AIB1siRNA in lung cancer cells.

Zhou X, Chen Q, Wang H, et al.
Specific expression of lncRNA RP13-650J16.1 and TCONS_00023979 in prostate cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to explore the expression profile and the potential regulatory mechanism of two long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (RP13-650J16.1 and TCONS_00023979) in prostate cancer (PCa). Expression profile of lncRNAs in PCa and paracancerous tissues were investgated by the high-throughput gene chip technology. Specific siRNA of RP13-650J16.1 or TCONS_00023979 was transfected into DU145 cells. Then, the relative expression of RP13-650J16.1, receptor-associated coactivator 3 (RAC3), promyelocytic leukemia (PML), and TCONS_00023979 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. MTT assay was used to detect the proliferation of DU145 cells. The migration ability of DU145 cells was measured by Transwell chambers. Single cell proliferation and clonogenic ability were detected by plate clone formation assay. RP13-650J16.1 and RAC3 expression was up-regulated, and TCONS_00023979 and PML expression was down-regulated in PCa tissues. Silencing RP13-650J16.1 could decrease RAC3 expression, and knockout of TCONS_00023979 also reduced PML expression. Moreover, the ability of proliferation, migration, and colony formation of DU145 cells was decreased after transfected with si-RP13-650J16.1, while these abilities were increased after transfected with si-TCONS_00023979. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that RP13-650J16.1 might be an oncogene and TCONS_00023979 might be an antioncogene in PCa.

Sui F, Sun W, Su X, et al.
Gender-related differences in the association between concomitant amplification of AIB1 and HER2 and clinical outcomes in glioma patients.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(9):1253-1259 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies demonstrated that AIB1 or HER2 copy number gain (CNG), respectively, were independent predictors for poor prognosis of glioma patients, especially in females. We hypothesize that there are some connections between the two genes and sex-specific characteristics, thus this study aimed to analyze gender-related differences in the prognosis of glioma patients.
METHODS: Using Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) method, we examined AIB1 and HER2 CNG in gliomas samples (n = 114), and inspected the correlation of various genotypes with patients outcomes.
RESULTS: Concomitant AIB1 and HER2 amplification were closely related to shorter survival time and radiotherapy resistance in female gliomas patients (P < 0.01), which also served as an independent risk factor. No significant prognostic value was found with AIB1 and HER2 CNG in male patients. However, linear regression analysis showed a positive relationship between the copy number of AIB1 and HER2 (P < 0.01) in male patients, rather than female patients.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we reveal a gender difference in the prognostic value of concomitant AIB1 and HER2 CNG in glioma patients which were barely noticed before. These observations indicated that genetic alterations synergistic with essential respects of sex determination influence glioma biology and patients outcomes.

He L, Deng H, Liu S, et al.
Overexpression of amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) gene promotes lung adenocarcinoma aggressiveness in vitro and in vivo by upregulating C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2018; 38(1):53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We previously found that overexpression of the gene known as amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) was associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, the role of AIB1 in that malignancy remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the function of AIB1 in the process of lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis.
METHODS: A series of in vivo and in vitro assays were performed to elucidate the function of AIB1, while real-time PCR and Western blotting were utilized to identify the potential downstream targets of AIB1 in the process of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Rescue experiments and in vitro assays were performed to investigate whether the invasiveness of AIB1-induced lung adenocarcinoma was mediated by C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4).
RESULTS: The ectopic overexpression of AIB1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells substantially enhanced cell migration and invasive abilities in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas the depletion of AIB1 expression substantially inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell migration and invasion. CXCR4 was identified as a potential downstream target of AIB1 in lung adenocarcinoma. The knockdown of AIB1 greatly reduced CXCR4 gene expression at both the transcription and protein levels, whereas the knockdown of CXCR4 in cells with AIB1 ectopic overexpression diminished AIB1-induced migration and invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, we found a significant positive association between the expression of AIB1 and CXCR4 in lung adenocarcinoma patients (183 cases), and the co-overexpression of AIB1 and CXCR4 predicted the poorest prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that AIB1 promotes the aggressiveness of lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo by upregulating CXCR4 and that it might be usable as a novel prognostic marker and/or therapeutic target for this disease.

Bozickovic O, Skartveit L, Engelsen AST, et al.
A novel SRC-2-dependent regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019; 185:57-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2) is a nuclear receptor coactivator, important for the regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-mediated transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells. However, the transcriptional role of SRC-2 in breast cancer is still ambiguous. Here we aimed to unravel a more precise transcriptional role of SRC-2 and uncover unique target genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as opposed to the known oncogene SRC-3. Gene expression analyses of cells depleted of either SRC-2 or SRC-3 showed that they transcriptionally regulate mostly separate gene sets. However, individual unique gene sets were implicated in some of the same major gene ontology biological processes, such as cellular structure and development. This finding was supported by three-dimensional cell cultures, demonstrating that depletion of SRC-2 and SRC-3 changed the morphology of the cells into epithelial-like hollow acinar structures, indicating that both SRC proteins are involved in maintaining the hybrid E/M phenotype. In clinical ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer samples the expression of SRC-2 was negatively correlated with the expression of MCF-7-related luminal, cell cycle and cellular morphogenesis genes. Finally, elucidating SRC-2 unique transcriptional effects, we identified Lyn kinase (an EMT biomarker) to be upregulated exclusively after SRC-2 depletion. In conclusion, we show that both SRC-2 and SRC-3 are essential for the EMT in breast cancer cells, controlling different transcriptional niches.

Kori M, Yalcin Arga K
Potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer: Insights from the meta-analysis of transcriptomics data within network biomedicine perspective.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200717 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The malignant neoplasm of the cervix, cervical cancer, has effects on the reproductive tract. Although infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus is essential for cervical cancer development, it alone is insufficient to explain the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, other risk factors such as host genetic factors should be identified, and their importance in cervical cancer induction should be determined. Although gene expression profiling studies in the last decade have made significant molecular findings about cervical cancer, adequate screening and effective treatment strategies have yet to be achieved. In the current study, meta-analysis was performed on cervical cancer-associated transcriptome data and reporter biomolecules were identified at RNA (mRNA, miRNA), protein (receptor, transcription factor, etc.), and metabolite levels by the integration of gene expression profiles with genome-scale biomolecular networks. This approach revealed already-known biomarkers, tumor suppressors and oncogenes in cervical cancer as well as various receptors (e.g. ephrin receptors EPHA4, EPHA5, and EPHB2; endothelin receptors EDNRA and EDNRB; nuclear receptors NCOA3, NR2C1, and NR2C2), miRNAs (e.g., miR-192-5p, miR-193b-3p, and miR-215-5p), transcription factors (particularly E2F4, ETS1, and CUTL1), other proteins (e.g., KAT2B, PARP1, CDK1, GSK3B, WNK1, and CRYAB), and metabolites (particularly, arachidonic acids) as novel biomarker candidates and potential therapeutic targets. The differential expression profiles of all reporter biomolecules were cross-validated in independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq datasets, and the prognostic power of several reporter biomolecules, including KAT2B, PCNA, CD86, miR-192-5p and miR-215-5p was also demonstrated. In this study, we reported valuable data for further experimental and clinical efforts, because the proposed biomolecules have significant potential as systems biomarkers for screening or therapeutic purposes in cervical carcinoma.

Chen W, Mo P, Yu C
Roles of Steroid Receptor Coactivator 3 in Host Defense Against Bacterial Pathogens.
Crit Rev Immunol. 2018; 38(3):245-252 [PubMed] Related Publications
Steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3) is a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor and the androgen receptor and several other transcription factors to enhance their effects on target gene expression. SRC-3 plays important roles in many developmental, physiological, and pathologic events, including body growth, mammary gland development, energy homeostasis, inflammatory regulation, and cancer initiation and progression. SRC-3 has been suggested to be involved in host defense against bacterial pathogens. In this review, we summarize the roles of SRC-3 in host defense against peritoneal and enteric bacterial infection and discuss the potential clinical implications.

Urick ME, Bell DW
In vitro effects of FBXW7 mutation in serous endometrial cancer: Increased levels of potentially druggable proteins and sensitivity to SI-2 and dinaciclib.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1445-1457 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Serous endometrial cancers (ECs) are clinically aggressive tumors that frequently harbor somatic mutations in FBXW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7). The FBXW7 tumor suppressor is part of a SCF (complex of SKP1, Cullin 1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex which controls the degradation of numerous substrates that, if not properly regulated, can contribute to the initiation or progression of tumorigenesis. Despite reports that up to 30% of serous ECs include somatic mutations in FBXW7, the molecular effects of mutated FBXW7 in ECs have not been determined. Here, we used transient transfection and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) editing in serous EC cell lines to interrogate the molecular effects of six recurrent FBXW7 mutations. We show that FBXW7 mutations lead to increased Cyclin E1, steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3), c-MYC, Rictor, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), P70S6 kinase, and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylated protein levels in serous EC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CRISPR-edited FBXW7-mutant ARK1 serous EC cells exhibit increased sensitivity to SI-2 (a SRC inhibitor) and dinaciclib (a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor) compared to parental ARK1 cells. Collectively, our findings reveal biochemical effects of FBXW7 mutations in the context of EC and provide in vitro evidence of sensitivity to targeted inhibitors.

Li Z, Deng X, Wu G, et al.
The PI3K and AIB1 interaction is involved in estrogen treated breast cancer cells.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(6):65-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIB1 was involved in the development and progression of breast cancer. Although it was found that AIB1 could be phosphorylated by some kinases including PI3K, the function of AIB1 and AKT interaction in breast cancer is not well defined. MCF-7 cells were transfected with pERE-Luc AKT and/or AIB1 plasmids, and then ERE luciferase activity in presence or absence of estrogen (E2) were measured. Plasmids containing PTEN and an PI3K inhibitor LY294002 were transfected into or treated cells to identify the interaction of PI3K/AKT and activation of AIB1, and examine their roles in cell cycle regulation. The AKT phosphorylation activity was evaluated by kinase assay using H2B as a substrate. The association between A1B1 and pS2 promoter was detected by the Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. AIB1 and AKT in the same complex were detected by Pull-down assay. IGF-1 can increase AIB1 recruitment to PS2 and enhance the ER-dependent transcription activity through the PI3K/AKT pathway. AIB1 associate with AKT to regulate cell cycle. The special relations concerning the AIB1 and AKT may arouse some new viewpoints for potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

Panigrahi AK, Foulds CE, Lanz RB, et al.
SRC-3 Coactivator Governs Dynamic Estrogen-Induced Chromatin Looping Interactions during Transcription.
Mol Cell. 2018; 70(4):679-694.e7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Enhancers are thought to activate transcription by physically contacting promoters via looping. However, direct assays demonstrating these contacts are required to mechanistically verify such cellular determinants of enhancer function. Here, we present versatile cell-free assays to further determine the role of enhancer-promoter contacts (EPCs). We demonstrate that EPC is linked to mutually stimulatory transcription at the enhancer and promoter in vitro. SRC-3 was identified as a critical looping determinant for the estradiol-(E2)-regulated GREB1 locus. Surprisingly, the GREB1 enhancer and promoter contact two internal gene body SRC-3 binding sites, GBS1 and GBS2, which stimulate their transcription. Utilizing time-course 3C assays, we uncovered SRC-3-dependent dynamic chromatin interactions involving the enhancer, promoter, GBS1, and GBS2. Collectively, these data suggest that the enhancer and promoter remain "poised" for transcription via their contacts with GBS1 and GBS2. Upon E2 induction, GBS1 and GBS2 disengage from the enhancer, allowing direct EPC for active transcription.

Dasgupta S, Rajapakshe K, Zhu B, et al.
Metabolic enzyme PFKFB4 activates transcriptional coactivator SRC-3 to drive breast cancer.
Nature. 2018; 556(7700):249-254 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Alterations in both cell metabolism and transcriptional programs are hallmarks of cancer that sustain rapid proliferation and metastasis

Wang S, Zou Z, Luo X, et al.
LRH1 enhances cell resistance to chemotherapy by transcriptionally activating MDC1 expression and attenuating DNA damage in human breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(24):3243-3259 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1) has been shown to promote tumor proliferation and development. However, the functions of LRH1 in mediating cancer cells chemoresistance are still not clear. Here, we found LRH1 levels were significantly elevated in primary breast cancer tissues in patients who developed early recurrence. Similarly, adriamycin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cell lines also exerted high LRH1 expression. Indeed, overexpression of LRH1 attenuated cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs ADR and cisplatin (DDP) in breast cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice tumor model. Comet and BrdU assays showed overexpression of LRH1 blocked breast cancer cells DNA damage by chemotherapeutic drug, whereas depletion of LRH1 enhanced DNA damage. Remarkably, knockdown of LRH1 decreased the levels and foci of DNA damage marker γH2AX induced by ADR and DDP. Furthermore, plasmid end-joining assay indicated that knockdown of LRH1 significantly decreased non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair efficiencies. Afterwards, we provided evidences that LRH1 promoted MDC1 transcription by directly activating MDC1 promoter and therefore increased γH2AX levels. Importantly, a LRH1-binding site mapped between -1812 and -1804 bp of the proximal MDC1 promoter was identified. Moreover, LRH1 and MDC1 mRNA levels were positively correlated in recurrent breast cancer samples. These results implied LRH1 enhanced breast cancer cell chemoresistance by upregulating MDC1 and attenuating DNA damage. Additionally, we elucidated the coactivator NCOA3 acted synergistically with LRH1 to promote MDC1 expression and chemoresistance. Altogether, LRH1-MDC1 signaling might be considered as a novel molecular target for designing novel therapeutic regimen in chemotherapy resistance breast cancer.

Xing D, Zheng G, Schoolmeester JK, et al.
Next-generation Sequencing Reveals Recurrent Somatic Mutations in Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(6):750-760 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) of the uterine cervix is a rare but extremely aggressive tumor. While high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved at an early stage of oncogenesis in many tumors, additional driving events have been postulated to facilitate the progression of SCNECs. Identification of oncogenic drivers could guide targeted therapy of this neoplasm. Clinicopathologic features of 10 cervical SCNECs are reported. Analyses included immunohistochemical evaluation of p16, p53, synaptophysin, and chromogranin expression; in situ hybridizations and polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV and/or HPV 18; and next-generation sequencing based on a 637-gene panel. The patients ranged in age from 28 to 68 years (mean, 45.6 y; median, 40.5 y). All tumors had diffuse p16 and synaptophysin expression. All but 1 tumor was positive for chromogranin (extent of staining ranged from focal to diffuse). HPV 18 was detected in 6 tumors and HPV 35 in 1 tumor. At least 1 driver mutation was detected in 8 tumors. Four cases harbored TP53 somatic mutations, 3 of which correlated with an aberrant p53 staining pattern. Four PIK3CA mutations (p.G106A, p.N345T, p.E545K, and p.E545D) were detected in 3 tumors, 2 of which also harbored TP53 mutations. Oncogenic driver mutations involving KRAS, Erbb2, c-Myc, NOTCH1, BCL6, or NCOA3 were detected in 4 tumors. Mutations in caretaker tumor suppressors PTEN, RB1, BRCA1, BRCA2, and ARID1B were also identified in 4 tumors that commonly coharbored activating oncogenic mutations. Targeted next-generation gene sequencing identified genetic alterations involving the MAPK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and TP53/BRCA pathways in SCNECs. The presence of genetic alterations that are amenable to targeted therapy in SCNECs offers the potential for individualized management strategies for treatment of this aggressive tumor.

Li L, Liang Y, Kang L, et al.
Transcriptional Regulation of the Warburg Effect in Cancer by SIX1.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 33(3):368-385.e7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) facilitates tumor growth, and drugs targeting aerobic glycolysis are being developed. However, how the Warburg effect is directly regulated is largely unknown. Here we show that transcription factor SIX1 directly increases the expression of many glycolytic genes, promoting the Warburg effect and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. SIX1 regulates glycolysis through HBO1 and AIB1 histone acetyltransferases. Cancer-related SIX1 mutation increases its ability to promote aerobic glycolysis and tumor growth. SIX1 glycolytic function is directly repressed by microRNA-548a-3p, which is downregulated, inversely correlates with SIX1, and is a good predictor of prognosis in breast cancer patients. Thus, the microRNA-548a-3p/SIX1 axis strongly links aerobic glycolysis to carcinogenesis and may become a promising cancer therapeutic target.

Truong TH, Hu H, Temiz NA, et al.
Cancer Stem Cell Phenotypes in ER
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):707-719 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Proline, glutamic acid, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1) is overexpressed in approximately 80% of invasive breast tumors. PELP1 dynamically shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but is primarily nuclear in normal breast tissue. However, altered localization of PELP1 to the cytoplasm is an oncogenic event that promotes breast cancer initiation and progression. Herein, interacting partners unique to cytoplasmic PELP1 and the mechanisms by which these interactions promote oncogenic PELP1 signaling were sought. AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer 1; also known as SRC-3 or NCOA3) was identified as a novel binding partner of cytoplasmic PELP1 in both estrogen receptor-positive (ER

Wang T, Liu B, Guan Y, et al.
Melatonin inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells induced by bisphenol A via targeting estrogen receptor-related pathways.
Thorac Cancer. 2018; 9(3):368-375 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogen-like chemical widely contained in daily supplies. There is evidence that environmental exposure to BPA could contribute to the development of hormone-related cancers. As is reported in numerous studies, melatonin, an endogenous hormone secreted by the pineal gland, could markedly inhibit estrogen-induced proliferation of breast cancer (BC) cells. In this study, we intended to reveal the effects of melatonin on BPA-induced proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive BC cells.
METHODS: Methods: We used methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium, luciferase reporter gene and western blotting assays to testify the effect of melatonin on BPA-mediated proliferation of MCF-7 and T47D cells.
RESULTS: Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and colony formation assays showed that melatonin could significantly abolish BPA-elevated cell proliferation. Meanwhile, BPA-upregulated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT was decreased by melatonin treatment. Mechanistically, we found that BPA was capable of upregulating the protein levels of steroid receptor coactivators (SRC-1, SRC-3), as well as promoting the estrogen response element activity. However, the addition of melatonin could remarkably block the elevation of steroid receptor coactivators expression and estrogen response element activity triggered by BPA.
CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Therefore, these results demonstrated that melatonin could abrogate BPA-induced proliferation of BC cells. Therapeutically, melatonin could be regarded as a potential medication for BPA-associated BC.

Kundu S, Ali MA, Handin N, et al.
Linking FOXO3, NCOA3, and TCF7L2 to Ras pathway phenotypes through a genome-wide forward genetic screen in human colorectal cancer cells.
Genome Med. 2018; 10(1):2 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Ras pathway genes KRAS, BRAF, or ERBBs have somatic mutations in ~ 60% of human colorectal carcinomas. At present, it is unknown whether the remaining cases lack mutations activating the Ras pathway or whether they have acquired mutations in genes hitherto unknown to belong to the pathway.
METHODS: To address the second possibility and extend the compendium of Ras pathway genes, we used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis of two human colorectal cancer cell systems deprived of their activating KRAS or BRAF allele to identify genes enabling growth in low glucose, a Ras pathway phenotype, when targeted.
RESULTS: Of the 163 recurrently targeted genes in the two different genetic backgrounds, one-third were known cancer genes and one-fifth had links to the EGFR/Ras/MAPK pathway. When compared to cancer genome sequencing datasets, nine genes also mutated in human colorectal cancers were identified. Among these, stable knockdown of FOXO3, NCOA3, and TCF7L2 restored growth in low glucose but reduced MEK/MAPK phosphorylation, reduced anchorage-independent growth, and modulated expressions of GLUT1 and Ras pathway related proteins. Knockdown of NCOA3 and FOXO3 significantly decreased the sensitivity to cetuximab of KRAS mutant but not wild-type cells.
CONCLUSIONS: This work establishes a proof-of-concept that human cell-based genome-wide forward genetic screens can assign genes to pathways with clinical importance in human colorectal cancer.

Li L, Gan ZH, Qin L, et al.
AIB1 regulates the ovarian cancer cell cycle through TUG1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(24):5610-5617 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) to promote ovarian cancer progress.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cor correlation analysis was performed to obtain the top 100 lncRNAs that were positively correlated with AIB1. The relationship of taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) and clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed to predict the biological process where TUG1 may be involved in. At last, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colon formation and flow cytometry were conducted to explore the biological process that TUG1 may influence. Meanwhile, Western blot was performed to explore the mechanism of TUG1.
RESULTS: In this study, it was found that P73 antisense RNA 1T (TP73-AS1), LINC00654 and TUG1 had the tumor-promoting effect in the top 100 lncRNAs that were positively correlated with AIB1. The expression level of TUG1 was significantly decreased after intervention of AIB1. Then, the clinical data were analyzed and the results showed that TUG1 was related to the tumor residue, tumor staging, tumor grade and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the bioinformatics analysis revealed that TUG1 was mainly involved in the regulation of cell cycle. After intervention in TUG1, it was found that the cell proliferation capacity was significantly decreased, and the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase. Finally, Western blot revealed that the expressions of G1 phase-related proteins were significantly changed. This study indicated that AIB1 regulates the cycle of ovarian cancer cells through TUG1.
CONCLUSIONS: This study proved that AIB1 can regulate the cell cycle through regulating TUG1.

Xiong W, Huang C, Deng H, et al.
Oncogenic non-coding RNA NEAT1 promotes the prostate cancer cell growth through the SRC3/IGF1R/AKT pathway.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 94:125-132 [PubMed] Related Publications
Steroid receptor co-activator3 (SRC3) has been known to severe as an androgen receptor (AR) coactivator and is involved in the prostate cancer progression. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) plays an important role in the cancer progression. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between ncRNA and AR coactivators is still unclear. Here, we found a ncRNA, Nuclear Enriched Abundant Transcript 1 (NEAT1), was able to interact with SRC3 in the prostate cancer cell lines. NEAT1 can upregulate the AKT phosphorylation via a SRC3/IGF1R pathway. In function, NEAT1 promoted the prostate cancer cell growth through IGF1R/AKT signaling pathway. The NEAT1, SRC3, and IGF1R were highly expressed in the patients' samples of prostate cancer. Therefore, we found a novel SRC3 binding ncRNA that can promote the prostate cancer cell growth through SRC3/IGF1R/AKT pathway.

Jin J, Wang T, Wang Y, et al.
SRC3 expressed in BMSCs promotes growth and migration of multiple myeloma cells by regulating the expression of Cx43.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(6):1694-1704 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Interactions between bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and multiple myeloma cells significantly contribute to the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate these interactions. Connexin-43 (Cx-43) has been implicated in the interplay between BMSCs and MM cells. In this study, we hypothesized that the steroid receptor co-activator-3 (SRC3) expressed in BMSCs regulates the expression of Cx-43 to promote the proliferation and migration of myeloma cells. To address this, we co-cultured a human multiple myeloma cell line, RPMI-8226 transfected with either control BMSCs or sh-SRC3-BMSCs. We found that knocking down SRC3 expression in BMSCs inhibited the proliferation and migration of RPMI-8226 cells. In addition, we found that co-culturing RPMI 8266 cells with BMSCs increased Cx43 expression, while knocking down SRC3 expression in BMSCs decreased Cx43 expression. Moreover, our work revealed that SRC3 in BMSCs regulates Cx43 expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. To validate this result in vivo, we knocked down SRC3 expression in BMSCs in nude mice and found that tumor growth and cell apoptosis were significantly decreased. In addition, mice treated with either RPMI 8266 cells overexpressing Cx43 or with a P38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190) exhibited increased intratumoral leukocyte populations and promoted cell apoptosis in tumor tissue. Our findings demonstrate how SRC3 and Cx43 regulation between BMSCs and myeloma cells mediate cell growth and disease progression, with potential implications for prognosis and therapeutic interventions.

Donnelly SK, Cabrera R, Mao SPH, et al.
Rac3 regulates breast cancer invasion and metastasis by controlling adhesion and matrix degradation.
J Cell Biol. 2017; 216(12):4331-4349 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The initial step of metastasis is the local invasion of tumor cells into the surrounding tissue. Invadopodia are actin-based protrusions that mediate the matrix degradation necessary for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. We demonstrate that Rac3 GTPase is critical for integrating the adhesion of invadopodia to the extracellular matrix (ECM) with their ability to degrade the ECM in breast tumor cells. We identify two pathways at invadopodia important for integrin activation and delivery of matrix metalloproteinases: through the upstream recruiter CIB1 as well as the downstream effector GIT1. Rac3 activity, at and surrounding invadopodia, is controlled by Vav2 and βPIX. These guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of Rac3 activity, impacting GIT1 localization. Moreover, the GTPase-activating function of GIT1 toward the vesicular trafficking regulator Arf6 GTPase is required for matrix degradation. Importantly, Rac3 regulates the ability of tumor cells to metastasize in vivo. The Rac3-dependent mechanisms we show in this study are critical for balancing proteolytic activity and adhesive activity to achieve a maximally invasive phenotype.

Dao P, Kim YA, Wojtowicz D, et al.
BeWith: A Between-Within method to discover relationships between cancer modules via integrated analysis of mutual exclusivity, co-occurrence and functional interactions.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2017; 13(10):e1005695 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The analysis of the mutational landscape of cancer, including mutual exclusivity and co-occurrence of mutations, has been instrumental in studying the disease. We hypothesized that exploring the interplay between co-occurrence, mutual exclusivity, and functional interactions between genes will further improve our understanding of the disease and help to uncover new relations between cancer driving genes and pathways. To this end, we designed a general framework, BeWith, for identifying modules with different combinations of mutation and interaction patterns. We focused on three different settings of the BeWith schema: (i) BeME-WithFun, in which the relations between modules are enriched with mutual exclusivity, while genes within each module are functionally related; (ii) BeME-WithCo, which combines mutual exclusivity between modules with co-occurrence within modules; and (iii) BeCo-WithMEFun, which ensures co-occurrence between modules, while the within module relations combine mutual exclusivity and functional interactions. We formulated the BeWith framework using Integer Linear Programming (ILP), enabling us to find optimally scoring sets of modules. Our results demonstrate the utility of BeWith in providing novel information about mutational patterns, driver genes, and pathways. In particular, BeME-WithFun helped identify functionally coherent modules that might be relevant for cancer progression. In addition to finding previously well-known drivers, the identified modules pointed to other novel findings such as the interaction between NCOR2 and NCOA3 in breast cancer. Additionally, an application of the BeME-WithCo setting revealed that gene groups differ with respect to their vulnerability to different mutagenic processes, and helped us to uncover pairs of genes with potentially synergistic effects, including a potential synergy between mutations in TP53 and the metastasis related DCC gene. Overall, BeWith not only helped us uncover relations between potential driver genes and pathways, but also provided additional insights on patterns of the mutational landscape, going beyond cancer driving mutations. Implementation is available at

Wu MZ, Cheng WC, Chen SF, et al.
miR-25/93 mediates hypoxia-induced immunosuppression by repressing cGAS.
Nat Cell Biol. 2017; 19(10):1286-1296 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
The mechanisms by which hypoxic tumours evade immunological pressure and anti-tumour immunity remain elusive. Here, we report that two hypoxia-responsive microRNAs, miR-25 and miR-93, are important for establishing an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by downregulating expression of the DNA sensor cGAS. Mechanistically, miR-25/93 targets NCOA3, an epigenetic factor that maintains basal levels of cGAS expression, leading to repression of cGAS during hypoxia. This allows hypoxic tumour cells to escape immunological responses induced by damage-associated molecular pattern molecules, specifically the release of mitochondrial DNA. Moreover, restoring cGAS expression results in an anti-tumour immune response. Clinically, decreased levels of cGAS are associated with poor prognosis for patients with breast cancer harbouring high levels of miR-25/93. Together, these data suggest that inactivation of the cGAS pathway plays a critical role in tumour progression, and reveal a direct link between hypoxia-responsive miRNAs and adaptive immune responses to the hypoxic tumour microenvironment, thus unveiling potential new therapeutic strategies.

Murakami S, Nagari A, Kraus WL
Dynamic assembly and activation of estrogen receptor α enhancers through coregulator switching.
Genes Dev. 2017; 31(15):1535-1548 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Although many features of active transcriptional enhancers have been defined by genomic assays, we lack a clear understanding of the order of events leading to enhancer formation and activation as well as the dynamics of coregulator interactions within the enhancer complex. Here, we used selective loss- or gain-of-function mutants of estrogen receptor α (ERα) to define two distinct phases of ligand-dependent enhancer formation. In the first phase (0-20 min), p300 is recruited to ERα by Mediator as well as p300's acetylhistone-binding bromodomain to promote initial enhancer formation, which is not competent for sustained activation. In the second phase (20-45 min), p300 is recruited to ERα by steroid receptor coregulators (SRCs) for enhancer maturation and maintenance. Successful transition between these two phases ("coregulator switching") is required for proper enhancer function. Failure to recruit p300 during either phase leads to abortive enhancer formation and a lack of target gene expression. Our results reveal an ordered and cooperative assembly of ERα enhancers requiring functional interplay among p300, Mediator, and SRCs, which has implications for hormone-dependent gene regulation in breast cancers. More broadly, our results demonstrate the unexpectedly dynamic nature of coregulator interactions within enhancer complexes, which are likely to be a defining feature of all enhancers.

Alkner S, Jensen MB, Rasmussen BB, et al.
Prognostic and predictive importance of the estrogen receptor coactivator AIB1 in a randomized trial comparing adjuvant letrozole and tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal breast cancer: the Danish cohort of BIG 1-98.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 166(2):481-490 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate the estrogen receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) as a prognostic marker, as well as a predictive marker for response to adjuvant tamoxifen and/or aromatase inhibitors, in early estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
METHOD: AIB1 was analyzed with immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays of the Danish subcohort (N = 1396) of the International Breast Cancer Study Group's trial BIG 1-98 (randomization between adjuvant tamoxifen versus letrozole versus the sequence of the two drugs).
RESULTS: Forty-six percent of the tumors had a high AIB1 expression. In line with previous studies, AIB1 correlated to a more aggressive tumor-phenotype (HER2 amplification and a high malignancy grade). High AIB1 also correlated to higher estrogen receptor expression (80-100 vs. 1-79%), and ductal histological type. High AIB1 expression was associated with a poor disease-free survival (univariable: hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.63. Multivariable: hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.58) and overall survival (univariable: hazard ratio 1.34, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.68. Multivariable: hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.60). HER2 did not seem to modify the prognostic effect of AIB1. No difference in treatment effect between tamoxifen and letrozole in relation to AIB1 was found.
CONCLUSIONS: In a subset of the large international randomized trial BIG 1-98, we confirm AIB1 to be a strong prognostic factor in early breast cancer. Hence, although tumor AIB1 expression does not seem to be useful for the choice of tamoxifen versus an aromatase inhibitor in postmenopausal endocrine-responsive breast cancer, AIB1 is an interesting target for new anti-cancer therapies and further investigations of this biomarker is warranted.

Manmuan S, Sakunrangsit N, Ketchart W
Salinomycin overcomes acquired tamoxifen resistance through AIB1 and inhibits cancer cell invasion in endocrine resistant breast cancer.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017; 44(10):1042-1052 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salinomycin is a monocarboxylic polyether ionophore isolated from Streptomyces albus. It has been widely used as an antibiotic in veterinary medicine in poultry. A recent study demonstrated that salinomycin selectively inhibits human breast cancer stem cells; one possible mechanism of tamoxifen resistance. Our results show that salinomycin is effective in inhibiting MCF-7/LCC2 and MCF-7/LCC9 cell lines which are well-established endocrine resistant cells and has a synergistic effect in combination with tamoxifen using MTT proliferation assay. The inhibitory effect of salinomycin on the reduction of critical ER co-activator; amplified breast 1 (AIB1) mRNA and protein expression is overcoming tamoxifen resistance. Moreover, salinomycin significantly inhibits cell invasion in Matrigel invasion assay. The effect was mediated at least in part by the decrease of matrix metalopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) which is one critical enzyme facilitated in the cell invasion process. In conclusion, salinomycin should be developed as a novel agent used alone or in combination for endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

Xiao X, Wang G, Liu H
Study on the molecular mechanism of Rac3 on regulating autophagy in human lung cancer cells.
J BUON. 2017 Mar-Apr; 22(2):445-453 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Rac3 plays an important role in regulating tumorigenesis. Autophagy plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The relationship between the two remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to determine the specific molecular mechanism of intracellular Rac3 in regulating autophagy and reveal the relationship between tumor cell autophagy and apoptosis.
METHODS: A laser confocal microscope was used to photograph the accumulated EGFP-MAP1LC3 spots for investigating the relationship between Rac3 and autophagy at the cellular level. Immunoblotting was also used to investigate the relationship between Rac3 and autophagy. The autophagy flux arising from inhibition of Rac3 was detected with autophagy inhibitors and ATG5 and ATG7 siRNA interference experiments. ATF4 and DDIT4 siRNA interference and overexpression experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum stress, the MTOR signaling pathway, and autophagy arising from inhibition of Rac3. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed to investigate the interaction between Rac3 and proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to investigate the structural domains between Rac3 and HSPA5.
RESULTS: The expression of ATF4 and DDIT4 was upregulated, which inhibited the MTOR signaling pathway and induced autophagy of human non-small cell lung cancer cells after Rac3 siRNA was introduced. The degree of acetylation of the substrate, HSPA5, increased and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was activated after Rac3 was inhibited.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the degree of acetylation of HSPA5 increased and it was dissociated from the receptor, EIF2AK3, on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, thus causing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Endoplasmic reticulum stress activated the expression of the ATF4 protein, upregulated the level of DDIT4, inhibited the MTOR signaling pathway, and caused cellular autophagy.

Ao X, Nie P, Wu B, et al.
Decreased expression of microRNA-17 and microRNA-20b promotes breast cancer resistance to taxol therapy by upregulation of NCOA3.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7(11):e2463 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to effective breast cancer chemotherapy. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, nuclear receptor coactivator 3 (NCOA3) was found to be significantly increased in taxol-resistant breast cancer tissues and cells. Moreover, overexpression of NCOA3 enhanced breast cancer cell resistance to taxol, whereas depletion of NCOA3 decreased taxol resistance. Subsequently, we investigated whether NCOA3 expression was regulated by miRNAs in breast cancer. By bioinformatics prediction in combination with the data of previous report, miR-17 and miR-20b were selected as the potential miRNAs targeting NCOA3. By real-time PCR analysis, we found that miR-17 and miR-20b were significantly reduced in taxol-resistant breast cancer tissues and cells. In addition, we provided some experimental evidences that miR-17 and miR-20b attenuated breast cancer resistance to taxol in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, by luciferase reporter assays, we further validated that both miR-17 and miR-20b directly binded the 3'-untranslated region of NCOA3 mRNA and inhibited its expression in breast cancer cells. Finally, both miR-17 and miR-20b levels were found to be significantly negatively correlated with NCOA3 mRNA levels in breast cancer tissues. Together, our results indicated that loss of miR-17 and miR-20b enhanced breast cancer resistance to taxol by upregulating NCOA3 levels. Our study suggested miR-17, miR-20b and NCOA3 may serve as some predictive biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in taxol-resistant breast cancer treatment.

Xu FP, Liu YH, Luo XL, et al.
Overexpression of SRC-3 promotes esophageal squamous cell carcinoma aggressiveness by enhancing cell growth and invasiveness.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(12):3500-3511 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, plays an important role in the genesis and progression of several cancers. However, studies investigated the role of SRC-3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are limited, and the role of SRC-3 in tumor progression remains unclear. We examined the expression of SRC-3 in 8 ESCC cell lines and 302 human ESCC tissues by qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, ESCC cell lines were subjected to proliferation and invasion assays, tumorigenicity assay, flow cytometry assay, qPCR, Western blot, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay to investigate the role of SRC-3 in cancer progression. SRC-3 was overexpressed in 48% of cases and correlated with poor overall (P = 0.0076) and progression-free (P = 0.0069) survival of surgically resected ESCC patient. Cox regression analysis revealed that SRC-3 is an independent prognostic marker. Furthermore, we found that activation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/AKT) was involved in the SRC-3 on the cell growth and invasiveness in two ESCC cell lines, Eca109 and EC18 cells. SRC-3 overexpression is clinically and functionally relevant to the progression of human ESCC, and might be a useful molecular target for ESCC prognosis and treatment.

Wang G, Wang H, Zhang C, et al.
Rac3 regulates cell proliferation through cell cycle pathway and predicts prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12597-12607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is still the leading cause of malignant deaths in the world. It is of great importance to find novel functional genes for the tumorigenesis of lung cancer. We demonstrated that Rac3 could promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 previously. The aim of this study was to investigate the function and mechanism of Rac3 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemistry staining was performed in 107 lung adenocarcinoma tissues and matched non-tumor tissues. Multivariate analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to investigate the correlation between Rac3 expression and the clinical outcomes. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry analysis were employed to determine the proliferative ability, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis in H1299 and H1975 cell lines. Gene expression microarray and pathway analysis between the Rac3-siRNA group and the control group in A549 cells were performed to investigate the pathways and mechanism of Rac3 regulation. Rac3 was shown to be positively expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and the expression of Rac3 associates with longer survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Silencing of Rac3 significantly induced cell growth inhibition, colony formation decrease, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, which accompanied by obvious downregulation of CCND1, MYC, and TFDP1 of cell cycle pathway involving in the tumorigenesis of lung adenocarcinoma based on the gene expression microarray. In conclusion, these findings suggest that Rac3 has the potential of being a therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma.

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