Gene Summary

Gene:PRTN3; proteinase 3
Aliases: MBN, MBT, NP4, P29, PR3, ACPA, AGP7, NP-4, PR-3, CANCA, C-ANCA
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRTN3 (cancer-related)

Ayari C, Besançon M, Bergeron A, et al.
Poly(I:C) potentiates Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy for bladder cancer.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2016; 65(2):223-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-specific immunotherapy consisting of intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the best available treatment to prevent non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor recurrence and progression. This treatment however is suboptimal, and more effective immunotherapeutic approaches are needed. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in the activation of the immune system in response to pathogens and danger signals but also in anti-tumor responses. We previously showed that human urothelial cells express functional TLRs and respond to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists. In this study, we analyzed the potential of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a TLR3 agonist, to replace or complement BCG in the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We observed that poly(I:C) had an anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, and apoptotic effect in vitro on two low-grade human bladder cancer cell lines, MGH-U3 and RT4. In MGH-U3 cells, poly(I:C) induced growth arrest at the G1-S transition. Poly(I:C) also increased the immunogenicity of MGH-U3 and RT4 cells, inducing the secretion of MHC class I molecules and of pro-inflammatory cytokines. By comparison, poly(I:C) had less in vitro impact on two high-grade human bladder cancer cell lines, 5637 and T24, and on MBT-2 murine high-grade bladder cancer cells. The latter can be used as an immunocompetent model of bladder cancer. The combination poly(I:C)/BCG was much more effective in reducing MBT-2 tumor growth in mice than either treatment alone. It completely cured 29% of mice and also induced an immunological memory response. In conclusion, our study suggests that adding poly(I:C) to BCG may enhance the therapeutic effect of BCG.

Zhang S, Shi W, Chen Y, et al.
Overexpression of SYF2 correlates with enhanced cell growth and poor prognosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015; 410(1-2):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
SYF2, also known as p29/NTC31/CBPIN, encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with Cyclin D-type binding-protein 1. SYF2 has been reported to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and cell cycle regulation. In the present study, we observed that SYF2 was obviously upregulated in HCC tumor tissues and cell lines, and its level was positively correlated with the tumor grade and Ki-67 expression, as well as poor prognosis of HCC. In vitro, using serum starvation-refeeding experiment, our results suggested that SYF2 was upregulated in proliferating HCC cells, and was positive correlated with the expression of PCNA and Cyclin D1. In addition, depletion of SYF2 decreased PCNA and Cyclin D1 levels. Accordingly, interference of SYF2 resulted in cells cycle arrest at G1/S phase in Huh7 HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that SYF2 might interact with Cyclin D1 and could confer doxorubicin resistance in HCC cells. These findings revealed that SYF2 might play a regulatory role in the proliferation of HCC cells. In summary, SYF2 may be a novel prognostic marker and serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC.

Vu HL, Rosenbaum S, Purwin TJ, et al.
RAC1 P29S regulates PD-L1 expression in melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015; 28(5):590-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole exome sequencing of cutaneous melanoma has led to the detection of P29 mutations in RAC1 in 5-9% of samples, but the role of RAC1 P29 mutations in melanoma biology remains unclear. Using reverse phase protein array analysis to examine the changes in protein/phospho-protein expression, we identified cyclin B1, PD-L1, Ets-1, and Syk as being selectively upregulated with RAC1 P29S expression and downregulated with RAC1 P29S depletion. Using the melanoma patient samples in TCGA, we found PD-L1 expression to be significantly increased in RAC1 P29S patients compared to RAC1 WT as well as other RAC1 mutants. The finding that PD-L1 is upregulated suggests that oncogenic RAC1 P29S may promote suppression of the antitumor immune response. This is a new insight into the biological function of RAC1 P29S mutations with potential clinical implications as PD-L1 is a candidate biomarker for increased benefit from treatment with anti-PD1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

Matsushima M, Kikuchi E, Matsumoto K, et al.
Intravesical dual PI3K/mTOR complex 1/2 inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 therapy in an orthotopic bladder cancer model.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(1):377-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
NVP-BEZ235 is an inhibitor of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2), and its antitumor activity is expected to be higher than that of mTORC1 inhibitors because it inhibits the upregulation of pAkt through mTORC2. We examined the efficacy of intravesical NVP-BEZ235 therapy in the treatment of bladder cancer using an orthotopic bladder cancer model. The cytotoxic effects of various concentrations of NVP-BEZ235 in MBT-2 cells were examined using a WST assay. The expression of pAkt, pS6 and p4EBP1 was evaluated in MBT-2 cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 using western blotting. Orthotopic models were established by implanting MBT-2 cells into the bladders of female C3H/He mice. We assigned C3H/He mice to 2 groups: a control group treated with vehicle control (n=15), and a group intravesically administered 40 µM (18.78 mg/l) of NVP-BEZ235 (n=15). NVP-BEZ235 inhibited the viability of MBT-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of pAkt, pS6, and p4EBP1 was inhibited in NVP-BEZ235-treated MBT-2 cells. Bladder weights were significantly lower in the NVP-BEZ235-treated group than in the control group (P<0.05). An analysis of the tumor tissues revealed that the NVP-BEZ235 treatment strongly reduced pAkt, pS6 and p4EBP1 levels. An immunohistochemical analysis showed that NVP-BEZ235 significantly inhibited the expression of pS6. Intravesically administered NVP-BEZ235 exerted significant antitumor effects in the orthotopic bladder cancer model by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The intravesical instillation of a dual PI3K/mTORC1/2 inhibitor may represent a novel therapy for the treatment of bladder cancer.

Sağlam Ö, Ünal ZS, Subaşı C, et al.
IL-6 originated from breast cancer tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells may contribute to carcinogenesis.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(7):5667-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor microenvironment is an important factor, which sustains and promotes the tumors by inflammatory signals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known as a multifunctional cytokine, which is a major activator of the signaling pathway of Janus kinases (JAKs)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of IL-6 in the tumor microenvironment on carcinogenesis. For this purpose, healthy breast tissue-derived stromal cells (HBT-SCs) and malign breast tissue-derived stromal cells (MBT-SCs) were co-cultured with MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) cells using semipermeable membranes. The cell proliferation was monitored with water-soluble tetrazolium (WST) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) assays. Protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot hybridization, while gene expressions were measured by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that IL-6 protein levels increased significantly in the supernatants of MBT-SCs when they were co-cultured with MCF-7 cells. In accordance with this, the expression of IL-6 was significantly higher in MBT-SCs. Additionally, the expression of STAT3 in MCF-7 cells increased slightly when they were co-cultured with MBT-SCs. Considering together, there is an important interaction between tumor microenvironment and tumor cells mediated by IL-6 signaling. Thereby, the targeting on IL-6 signaling in the treatment of cancer might effectively prevent the tumor progression.

Yan S, Deng Y, Qiang Y, et al.
SYF2 is upregulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer and promotes cell proliferation.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(6):4633-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
SYF2 is reported to be as a cell cycle regulator at the G1/S transition and encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with cyclin-D-type binding protein 1. In our study, we investigated the role of SYF2 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis displayed that SYF2 was overexpressed in EOC tissues and EOC cell lines. In addition, the immunoreactivity of SYF2 was positively correlated with tumor grade and Ki-67 expression. In vitro, serum starvation-refeeding experiment and SYF2-siRNA transfection assay demonstrated that the expression of SYF2 was promoted in the proliferative progression of EOC cells, while knockdown of SYF2 expression decreased and inhibited cell growth rate of EOC cells. With all the results, we support that SYF2 might contribute to EOC progression via modulation of proliferation in EOC cells and would provide a novel therapeutic target of human EOC.

Liu Y, Ni T, Xue Q, et al.
Involvement of p29/SYF2/fSAP29/NTC31 in the progression of NSCLC via modulating cell proliferation.
Pathol Res Pract. 2015; 211(1):36-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
p29, also known as SYF2/fSAP29/NTC31, is a protein associated with chromatin and involved in DNA damage response, cell cycle arrest and pre-mRNA splicing. In p29-depleted cells, DNA replication was reduced and cell population in G1 phase increased. In this study, we investigated the potential role of p29 in the regulation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression. Western blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that p29 was up-regulated in clinical NSCLC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and the expression of p29 had a positive correlation with clinical stage and histological differentiation, as well as expression of Ki-67, a proliferating marker. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high level of p29 expression had poor overall survival. In addition, small interfering RNA of p29 was performed, and the effects on NSCLC growth were examined. Interference of p29 blocked S phase entry, inhibited proliferation of A549 cells and up-regulated level of p21 expression. Taken together, these results suggested that p29 might contribute to the progression of NSCLC by enhancing cell proliferation, implicating that targeting p29 might provide beneficial effects on the clinical therapy of NSCLC.

Berlin C, Kowalewski DJ, Schuster H, et al.
Mapping the HLA ligandome landscape of acute myeloid leukemia: a targeted approach toward peptide-based immunotherapy.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(3):647-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of physiologically relevant peptide vaccine targets calls for the direct analysis of the entirety of naturally presented human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands, termed the HLA ligandome. In this study, we implemented this direct approach using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to define acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated peptide vaccine targets. Mapping the HLA class I ligandomes of 15 AML patients and 35 healthy controls, more than 25 000 different naturally presented HLA ligands were identified. Target prioritization based on AML exclusivity and high presentation frequency in the AML cohort identified a panel of 132 LiTAAs (ligandome-derived tumor-associated antigens), and 341 corresponding HLA ligands (LiTAPs (ligandome-derived tumor-associated peptides)) represented subset independently in >20% of AML patients. Functional characterization of LiTAPs by interferon-γ ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot) and intracellular cytokine staining confirmed AML-specific CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Of note, our platform identified HLA ligands representing several established AML-associated antigens (e.g. NPM1, MAGED1, PRTN3, MPO, WT1), but found 80% of them to be also represented in healthy control samples. Mapping of HLA class II ligandomes provided additional CD4(+) T-cell epitopes and potentially synergistic embedded HLA ligands, allowing for complementation of a multipeptide vaccine for the immunotherapy of AML.

Potrony M, Puig-Butillé JA, Aguilera P, et al.
Increased prevalence of lung, breast, and pancreatic cancers in addition to melanoma risk in families bearing the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A mutation: implications for genetic counseling.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 71(5):888-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) is the major high-risk susceptibility gene for melanoma.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the effect of CDKN2A mutations in Spanish patients with a high risk of developing melanoma and the association with clinical and family history features.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to analyze the CDKN2A impact in 702 Spanish patients with a high risk of developing melanoma.
RESULTS: The CDKN2A mutation prevalence was 8.5% in patients with sporadic multiple primary melanoma and 14.1% in familial melanoma. Number of cases in the family, number of primary melanomas, and age of onset were associated with the presence of CDKN2A mutation. Having a CDKN2A mutation in the family increased the prevalence of other cancers (prevalence ratio [PR] 2.99, P=.012) and prevalence of pancreatic (PR 2.97, P=.006), lung (PR 3.04, P<.001), and breast (PR 2.19, P=.018) cancers but not nephrourologic or colon cancer.
LIMITATIONS: Smoking status was not assessed in the individuals with lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Melanoma-prone families with mutations in CDKN2A have an increased prevalence of a broad spectrum of cancers including lung, pancreatic, and breast cancer. This information should be included in genetic counseling and cancer prevention programs for CDKN2A mutation carriers.

Guo J, Yang L, Huang J, et al.
Knocking down the expression of SYF2 inhibits the proliferation of glioma cells.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(8):101 [PubMed] Related Publications
SYF2 is thought to be a cell cycle regulator at the G1/S transition, which encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with cyclin D-type binding-protein 1. In the present study, we investigated the role of SYF2 in human glioma progression. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed in human glioma tissues. High SYF2 expression (located in cell nuclei) was observed in 80 samples, and its level was correlated with the grade of malignancy. A strongly positive correlation was observed between SYF2 and Ki-67 expression (P < 0.01). More importantly, high expression of SYF2 was associated with a poor outcome. In vitro, after the release of U87 cell lines from serum starvation, the expression of SYF2 was upregulated, as well as PCNA and cyclin D1. In addition, knockdown of SYF2 by small interfering RNA transfection diminished the expression of PCNA, cyclin D1 and arrested cell growth at G1 phase. These results indicate that SYF2 in glioma is essential for cell proliferation; thus, targeting SYF2 or its downstream targets may lead to novel therapies for glioblastomas.

Assmann G, Shihadeh K, Poeschel V, et al.
Prevalence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): a case-control study.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e88177 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) have been recognised as the most specific serum marker for rheumatoid arthritis. However, serum autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear antibodies have also been detected in the sera of different lymphatic malignancies without accompanying rheumatologic disease. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of ACPA in diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL).
METHODS: Sera of 395 DLBCL patients and 258 age-matched healthy controls were investigated to evaluate the prevalence of ACPA and RF. ACPA-positive data were stratified into subgroups of RF positivity and established prognostic parameters for DLBCL, including overall survival. In addition, the ACPA serum concentrations levels were compared to an ACPA-positive RA cohort (n = 175). The statistics were performed with χ2 test and Mann- Whitney-U test; Kaplan-Meyer curves (log rank test) were used to analyse the overall survival. P-value <0.05 was statistically significant.
RESULTS: ACPA, but not RF, occurred significantly more frequently in the sera of DLBCL patients than in healthy controls (3.5% versus 0.8%, p = 0.030). However, the ACPA serum concentration levels were significantly lower than in RA patients (median 10.4 versus 124.1 U/ml, p = 0.0001). After subgroup stratification, ACPA positivity in DLBCL was significantly associated with male gender (4.4% versus 0%, p = 0.022; odds ratio 1.046, CI 1.014-1.079) and with RF-IgM seropositivity (1.77% versus 0%, p = 0.043), but not with prognostic parameters for DLBCL.
CONCLUSIONS: DLBCL is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of ACPA, with an increased prevalence in male patients, and simultaneous RF-IgM positivity. However, ACPA is not prognostic for DLBCL. The prevalence of RF-IgM, -IgA, or -IgG did not differ from healthy controls.

Park MA, Choi KC
Effects of 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A on stimulation of cell growth via disruption of the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway in ovarian cancer models.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2014; 27(1):119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is a major pathway in cellular processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. The signaling pathway activated by 17β-estadiol (E2) appeared to inhibit the TGF-β signaling pathway by cross-talk with the TGF-β components in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-otylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), and benzophenon-1 (BP-1), in the TGF-β signaling pathway in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). The transcriptional and translational levels of TGF-β related genes were examined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and xenograft mouse models of ovarian cancer cells. As a result, treatment with NP, OP, and BPA induced the expressions of SnoN, a TGF-β pathway inhibitor, and c-Fos, a TGF-β target transcription factor. Treatment with NP, BPA, and BP-1 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Smad3, a downstream target of TGF-β. These results indicate that NP and BPA may stimulate the proliferation of BG-1 cells via inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. In a xenograft mouse model, transplanted BG-1 ovarian cancer cells showed significantly decreased phosphorylation of Smad3 and increased expression of SnoN in the ovarian tumor masses following treatment with E2, NP, or BPA. In parallel with an in vitro model, the expressions of these TGF-β signaling pathway were similarly regulated by NP or BPA in a xenograft mouse model. These results support the fact that the existence of an unproven relationship between EDCs/ER-α and TGF-β signaling pathway and a further study are required in order to verify more profound and distinct mechanism(s) for the disturbance of the TGF-β signaling pathway by diverse EDCs.

Feichtinger J, Larcombe L, McFarlane RJ
Meta-analysis of expression of l(3)mbt tumor-associated germline genes supports the model that a soma-to-germline transition is a hallmark of human cancers.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(10):2359-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Evidence is starting to emerge indicating that tumorigenesis in metazoans involves a soma-to-germline transition, which may contribute to the acquisition of neoplastic characteristics. Here, we have meta-analyzed gene expression profiles of the human orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster germline genes that are ectopically expressed in l(3)mbt brain tumors using gene expression datasets derived from a large cohort of human tumors. We find these germline genes, some of which drive oncogenesis in D. melanogaster, are similarly ectopically activated in a wide range of human cancers. Some of these genes normally have expression restricted to the germline, making them of particular clinical interest. Importantly, these analyses provide additional support to the emerging model that proposes a soma-to-germline transition is a general hallmark of a wide range of human tumors. This has implications for our understanding of human oncogenesis and the development of new therapeutic and biomarker targets with clinical potential.

Tang M, Shen H, Jin Y, et al.
The malignant brain tumor (MBT) domain protein SFMBT1 is an integral histone reader subunit of the LSD1 demethylase complex for chromatin association and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(38):27680-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromatin readers decipher the functional readouts of histone modifications by recruiting specific effector complexes for subsequent epigenetic reprogramming. The LSD1 (also known as KDM1A) histone demethylase complex modifies chromatin and represses transcription in part by catalyzing demethylation of dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2), a mark for active transcription. However, none of its currently known subunits recognizes methylated histones. The Snai1 family transcription factors are central drivers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by which epithelial cells acquire enhanced invasiveness. Snai1-mediated transcriptional repression of epithelial genes depends on its recruitment of the LSD1 complex and ensuing demethylation of H3K4me2 at its target genes. Through biochemical purification, we identified the MBT domain-containing protein SFMBT1 as a novel component of the LSD1 complex associated with Snai1. Unlike other mammalian MBT domain proteins characterized to date that selectively recognize mono- and dimethylated lysines, SFMBT1 binds di- and trimethyl H3K4, both of which are enriched at active promoters. We show that SFMBT1 is essential for Snai1-dependent recruitment of LSD1 to chromatin, demethylation of H3K4me2, transcriptional repression of epithelial markers, and induction of EMT by TGFβ. Carcinogenic metal nickel is a widespread environmental and occupational pollutant. Nickel alters gene expression and induces EMT. We demonstrate the nickel-initiated effects are dependent on LSD1-SFMBT1-mediated chromatin modification. Furthermore, in human cancer, expression of SFMBT1 is associated with mesenchymal markers and unfavorable prognosis. These results highlight a critical role of SFMBT1 in epigenetic regulation, EMT, and cancer.

Yen MC, Weng TY, Chen YL, et al.
An HDAC inhibitor enhances cancer therapeutic efficiency of RNA polymerase III promoter-driven IDO shRNA.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013; 20(6):351-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are used in treating certain human malignancies. Our laboratories demonstrated their capability in enhancing antitumor effect of DNA vaccine driven by an RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) promoter. However, it is unknown whether HDAC inhibitors enhance the therapeutic short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expressed by an RNA polymerase III (RNA pol III) promoter. We investigated whether HDAC inhibitors augmented antitumor effect of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) shRNA. HDAC inhibitor OSU-HDAC42 and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid enhanced RNA pol III-driven U6 and H1 promoter activity in three different cell types in vitro: 293, NIH3T3 and dendritic cell line DC2.4. Subcutaneous injection of OSU-HDAC42 enhanced U6 and H1 promoter activity on abdominal skin of mice in vivo. Combination of IDO shRNA and OSU-HDAC42 increased antitumor effect of IDO shRNA in MBT-2 murine bladder tumor model. IDO shRNA induced tumor-infiltrating CD8⁺ and CD4⁺ T cells, whereas OSU-HDAC42 treatment induced tumor-infiltrating CD4⁺ T cells. Combination of OSU-HDAC42 and IDO shRNA further induced tumor-infiltrating natural killer cells and enhanced interferon-γ in lymphocytes, but suppressed interleukin (IL)-4 expression of lymphocytes. In addition, OSU-HDAC42 treatment did not alter mRNA expression of IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In conclusion, HDAC inhibitor OSU-HDAC42 may serve as adjuvant of the therapeutic shRNA expressed by an RNA pol III promoter.

Weber G, Gerdemann U, Caruana I, et al.
Generation of multi-leukemia antigen-specific T cells to enhance the graft-versus-leukemia effect after allogeneic stem cell transplant.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(7):1538-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adoptive immunotherapy with ex vivo expanded T cells is a promising approach to prevent or treat leukemia. Myeloid leukemias express tumor-associated antigens (TAA) that induce antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in healthy individuals. We explored the feasibility of generating TAA-specific CTLs from stem cell donors of patients with myeloid leukemia to enhance the graft-versus-leukemia effect after stem cell transplantation. CTL lines were manufactured from peripheral blood of 10 healthy donors by stimulation with 15mer peptide libraries of five TAA (proteinase 3 (Pr3), preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma, Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1), human neutrophil elastase (NE) and melanoma-associated antigen A3) known to be expressed in myeloid leukemias. All CTL lines responded to the mix of five TAA and were multi-specific as assessed by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot. Although donors showed individual patterns of antigen recognition, all responded comparably to the TAAmix. Immunogenic peptides of WT1, Pr3 or NE could be identified by epitope mapping in all donor CTL lines. In vitro experiments showed recognition of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched myeloid leukemia blasts. These findings support the development of a single clinical grade multi-tumor antigen-specific T-cell product from the stem cell source, capable of broad reactivity against myeloid malignancies for use in donor-recipient pairs without limitation to a certain HLA-type.

Johnson NM, Lemmens BB, Tijsterman M
A role for the malignant brain tumour (MBT) domain protein LIN-61 in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(3):e1003339 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant brain tumour (MBT) domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR) for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT-deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair.

Han C, Ihara M, Ueda H
Expression of an antibody-enzyme complex by the L-chain fusion method.
J Biosci Bioeng. 2013; 116(1):17-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this report, we describe a novel method for directly preparing enzyme-labeled antibodies harvested from IgM-producing hybridoma cells. We constructed expression vectors for antibody light (L) chain-enzyme fusion proteins by linking either the genes for the murine lambda L chain or its constant region (C(L)) with one of two proteins, either the secreted placental alkaline phosphatase or Gaussia luciferase (Gluc). When the vectors were transfected into anti-NP (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophacetyl) IgM-producing myeloma cells, secretion of the IgM-enzyme complex from the gene-transfected cells was confirmed by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with an immobilized antigen. Furthermore, when human hybridoma HF10B4, a cell line that produces anti-human lung cancer IgM, was transfected with the vector containing L-Gluc, a significantly stronger signal was obtained for the human lung carcinoma SBC-1 cells than for cervical HeLa cells. Because successful production of an active IgM-enzyme complex containing a heterologous L chain-enzyme fusion was observed, the L-chain fusion method will be a generally applicable method for preparing various IgM-enzyme complexes.

Lee K, Na W, Maeng JH, et al.
Regulation of DU145 prostate cancer cell growth by Scm-like with four mbt domains 2.
J Biosci. 2013; 38(1):105-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammalian SFMBTs have been considered to be polycomb group repressors. However, molecular mechanisms underlying mammalian SFMBTs-mediated gene regulation and their biological function have not been characterized. In the present study, we identified YY1 and methylated histones as interacting proteins of human SFMBT2. We also found that human SFMBT2 binds preferentially to methylated histone H3 and H4 that are associated with transcriptional repression. Using DU145 prostate cancer cells as a model, we showed that SFMBT2 has a transcriptional repression activity on HOXB13 gene expression. In addition, occupancy of SFMBT2 coincided with enrichment of diand tri-methylated H3K9 and H4K20 as well as tri-methylated H3K27 at the HOXB13 gene promoter. When SFMBT2 was depleted by siRNA in DU145 prostate cancer cells, significant up-regulation of HOXB13 gene expression and decreased cell growth were observed. Collectively, our findings indicate that human SFMBT2 may regulate cell growth via epigenetic regulation of HOXB13 gene expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells.

Brayer JB, Pinilla-Ibarz J
Developing strategies in the immunotherapy of leukemias.
Cancer Control. 2013; 20(1):49-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In the current treatment paradigms for leukemias, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is considered the best option with a curative potential although more often than not it simply delays disease progression. Advances are needed, both in current therapies and in the development of new strategies. Partly from studying the nuances of the curative potential of stem cell transplant, we have come to appreciate the relevance of the immune response and the potential of immunotherapy.
METHODS: This review article summarizes the recent advances in the field of immunology and immunotherapy for leukemia.
RESULTS: In passive immunotherapy, recent progress in chimeric T-cell antigen receptor technology has been encouraging. In active immunotherapy, a cancer vaccine may potentially enhance HSCT. An overview of various clinical studies of peptide vaccination strategies focusing on molecular targets such as the Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1), proteinase 3 (PR3), and receptor for hyaluronan acid-mediated motility (RHAMM) is provided. Cell-based vaccination strategies are also briefly explored.
CONCLUSIONS: The immune system clearly has the capacity to recognize and react to leukemic cells, and recent evidence directs our attention to the importance of mounting inflammatory and CD4 T-cell responses to complement and support the cytotoxic activity elicited by peptide vaccines.

Davis MJ, Ha BH, Holman EC, et al.
RAC1P29S is a spontaneously activating cancer-associated GTPase.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(3):912-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RAC1 is a small, Ras-related GTPase that was recently reported to harbor a recurrent UV-induced signature mutation in melanoma, resulting in substitution of P29 to serine (RAC1(P29S)), ranking this the third most frequently occurring gain-of-function mutation in melanoma. Although the Ras family GTPases are mutated in about 30% of all cancers, mutations in the Rho family GTPases have rarely been observed. In this study, we demonstrate that unlike oncogenic Ras proteins, which are primarily activated by mutations that eliminate GTPase activity, the activated melanoma RAC1(P29S) protein maintains intrinsic GTP hydrolysis and is spontaneously activated by substantially increased inherent GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange. Determination and comparison of crystal structures for activated RAC1 GTPases suggest that RAC1(F28L)--a known spontaneously activated RAC1 mutant--and RAC1(P29S) are self-activated in distinct fashions. Moreover, the mechanism of RAC1(P29S) and RAC1(F28L) activation differs from the common oncogenic mutations found in Ras-like GTPases that abrogate GTP hydrolysis. The melanoma RAC1(P29S) gain-of-function point mutation therefore represents a previously undescribed class of cancer-related GTPase activity.

Sengupta JN, Pochiraju S, Pochiraju S, et al.
MicroRNA-mediated GABA Aα-1 receptor subunit down-regulation in adult spinal cord following neonatal cystitis-induced chronic visceral pain in rats.
Pain. 2013; 154(1):59-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nociceptive transmission under pathological chronic pain conditions involves transcriptional and/or translational alteration in spinal neurotransmitters, receptor expressions, and modification of neuronal functions. Studies indicate the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) - mediated transcriptional deregulation in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic pain. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that long-term cross-organ colonic hypersensitivity in neonatal zymosan-induced cystitis is due to miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional suppression of the developing spinal GABAergic system. Cystitis was produced by intravesicular injection of zymosan (1% in saline) into the bladder during postnatal (P) days P14 through P16 and spinal dorsal horns (L6-S1) were collected either on P60 (unchallenged groups) or on P30 after a zymosan re-challenge on P29 (re-challenged groups). miRNA arrays and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed significant, but differential, up-regulation of mature miR-181a in the L6-S1 spinal dorsal horns from zymosan-treated rats compared with saline-treated controls in both the unchallenged and re-challenged groups. The target gene analysis demonstrated multiple complementary binding sites in miR-181a for GABA(A) receptor subunit GABA(Aα-1) gene with a miRSVR score of -1.83. An increase in miR-181a concomitantly resulted in significant down-regulation of GABA(Aα-1) receptor subunit gene and protein expression in adult spinal cords from rats with neonatal cystitis. Intrathecal administration of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol failed to attenuate the viscero-motor response (VMR) to colon distension in rats with neonatal cystitis, whereas in adult zymosan-treated rats the drug produced significant decrease in VMR. These results support an integral role for miRNA-mediated transcriptional deregulation of the GABAergic system in neonatal cystitis-induced chronic pelvic pain.

Kato Y, Nishihara H, Yuzawa S, et al.
Immunohistochemical molecular gene expression profile of metastatic brain tumor as a potent personalized medicine.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2013; 30(3):167-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent progress in molecule-targeting therapy may yield personalized therapeutic strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors (MBT), the most frequently encountered intracranial tumors. For this purpose, we investigated the molecular expression profile of MBT to establish the pathological basis for personalized diagnosis. We studied 166 MBT specimens including 70 cases of lung cancer and 34 cases of breast cancer, and performed immunostaining for EGFR, COX-2, and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), among others, which could be target molecules for therapeutic agents or enable prediction of drug efficacy. Loss of MGMT expression was observed in approximately 20-40% of MBT derived from lung, breast, and gastrointestinal cancers, indicating the possibility of treatment of MBT patients with temozolomide. In addition, MBT expressed a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases, for example EGFR and HER2, and signal transduction molecules, for example phospho-mTOR and COX-2, irrespective of tumor origin, enabling individualized medication with molecule-targeting drugs. We also identified alteration of molecular expression profile in 4 MBT cases during recurrence. Our results not only reveal the molecular characteristics of MBT but also suggest the possibility of potent personalized medicine for MBT patients.

Relle M, Becker M, Meyer RG, et al.
Intronic promoters and their noncoding transcripts: a new source of cancer-associated genes.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(2):117-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies of mammalian genomes suggest that alternative promoters are associated with various disorders, including cancer. Here we present an intronic promoter of the murine proteinase 3 gene, which drives the expression of an alternative mRNA in intron 2 of the prtn3 gene. The proximal promoter sequences were identified and a series of promoter deletion constructs were used to identify the sequence elements that are required for basal promoter activity. Expression of the homeobox transcription factor CUX1 p75 isoform was found to suppress the activity of the alternative PR3 promoter. Data base analyses, multiple alignments and expression data showed that the intronic PR3 promoter is active in leukemia and other tumor cells as well as in mouse embryo, male mammary gland and bone marrow. In the spleen, the transcript is exclusively expressed by Gr-1(int) /CD11b(+) cells, which are also known as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). In humans, an alternative transcript of the PR3-gene could be detected in the bone marrow and in various cancer cell lines but not in primary leukemia cells, suggesting a species-overarching function of this kind of promoter. Therefore, the alternative PR3 promoter and its mRNA may be useful tools to investigate the fate of hematopoietic stem cells.

Shiota M, Takeuchi A, Yokomizo A, et al.
Androgen receptor signaling regulates cell growth and vulnerability to doxorubicin in bladder cancer.
J Urol. 2012; 188(1):276-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There are several reports of androgen receptor in bladder cancer cases but androgen receptor expression and the function of androgen/androgen receptor signaling in bladder cancer remain unclear. We investigated androgen receptor expression and the role of androgen/androgen receptor signaling in bladder cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated AR mRNA expression in bladder cancer tissue by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The role of androgen receptor in cell growth and drug sensitivity was also evaluated in vitro and in vivo in several bladder cancer cell lines.
RESULTS: AR mRNA expression inversely correlated with bladder cancer grade, stage and spread. Of several bladder cancer cell lines UMUC3 and MBT-2 markedly expressed androgen receptor transcript and protein. In each cell line androgen/androgen receptor signaling blockade using androgen deprivation, blockade knockdown and antiandrogen agents decreased cell growth, colony formation and cell viability. Androgen receptor expression was implicated in doxorubicin resistance. Inversely androgen receptor deprivation and knockdown made UMUC3 cells sensitive to doxorubicin. Finally, castration slightly suppressed UMUC3 tumor growth in vivo, although this did not attain statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: AR transcript expression inversely correlates with bladder cancer clinicopathological characteristics. Androgen/androgen receptor signaling has an important role in the growth and vulnerability to doxorubicin of bladder cancer cells that express androgen receptor. Androgen/androgen receptor signaling might be a possible prophylactic and therapeutic target for bladder cancer that shows androgen receptor expression.

Bai H, Han B
The effectiveness of erlotinib against brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Am J Clin Oncol. 2013; 36(2):110-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases commonly occur in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and patient prognosis is poor. Erlotinib, a specific inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor-associated tyrosine kinase, has shown antitumor activity in advanced NSCLC. This study evaluates erlotinib in the treatment for brain metastases from NSCLC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 40 NSCLC patients with brain metastases. All were treated with oral erlotinib and followed until disease progression, death, or intolerable side effects. EGFR mutations within surgical specimens were retrospectively examined in 9 patients.
RESULTS: For intracranial diseases, partial response (PR) was observed in 4 patients (10%), stable disease (SD) in 21 (52.5%), and progressive disease in 15 (37.5%), with an objective response rate of 10% and a disease control rate (DCR) of 62.5%. For extracranial diseases, DCR was observed in 17 patients (42.5%) (3 PRs+14 SDs) and progressive disease in 23 patients (57.5%). DCR within brain lesions in patients with activating EGFR mutations was 80% (1 PR+3 SDs), compared with 25% (1 SD) in patients with negative EGFR mutation. The median progression-free survival and median survival were 3.0 months and 9.2 months, respectively. There were no clinical factors associated with the response to erlotinib and survival as well (all P>0.05), whereas only the DCR in the brain was related to survival in multivariate analysis (P=0.000).
CONCLUSIONS: Erlotinib is modestly active and well-tolerated by NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Erlotinib seems to be more effective in patients with activating EGFR mutations. Erlotinib may be an alternative to traditional treatments in this patient population.

Takeda T, Kikuchi E, Mikami S, et al.
Prognostic role of KiSS-1 and possibility of therapeutic modality of metastin, the final peptide of the KiSS-1 gene, in urothelial carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11(4):853-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The KiSS-1 gene has been reported to be a metastasis suppressor gene in human melanoma. The gene product was isolated from human placenta as the ligand of GPR54, a G protein-coupled receptor, and the C-terminally amidated peptide of 54 amino acids is called metastin. The binding of metastin to GPR54 has been shown to inhibit tumor metastasis in some tumor cells; however, its function remains unclear in urothelial carcinoma. We first evaluated KiSS-1 expression and GPR54 expression in 151 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma to determine their prognostic significance. Next, we examined the role of metastin in the invasiveness and lung metastasis of MBT-2 variant (MBT-2V), which is a highly metastatic murine bladder cancer cell. Multivariate analysis revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent predictor of metastasis and overall survival. However, GPR54 expression was not selected. Hematogeneous metastasis had a significantly lower level of KiSS-1 expression compared with lymph node metastasis. Metastin treatment significantly reduced the invasiveness of MBT-2V cells and inhibited the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by blocking its nuclear translocation, leading to a reduction in the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Metastin treatment dramatically prevented the occurrence of lung metastatic nodules (6.3 ± 2.3, n = 15) compared with controls (30.4 ± 5.1, n = 15; P < 0.01), as well as had survival benefit. KiSS-1 plays an important role in the prognosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and metastin may be an effective inhibitor of metastasis in urothelial carcinoma through its blockade of NF-κB function.

Bellatin MF, Han M, Fallena M, et al.
Production of autoantibodies against citrullinated antigens/peptides by human B cells.
J Immunol. 2012; 188(7):3542-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Autoantibodies against citrullinated protein Ags (ACPA) are associated with the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This immune response against citrullinated protein Ags, which is thought to be facilitated by certain MHC HLA-DR alleles, is highly specific for this disease and has been speculated to be involved in the pathogenesis. We have previously studied cultures of B cells for the production of Abs against HLA Ags. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of B cells in the production of ACPA in patients with RA. Peripheral blood B cells from RA patients and healthy people were cultured with EL4-B5, a murine cell line expressing human CD40L, and with T cell factors to stimulate the in vitro production of Abs by B cells isolated from peripheral blood. ACPA were produced by cultured B cells from RA patients, as determined by reactivity to cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP). The results showed that 22% of the healthy persons tested also had B cells that could produce ACPA. Patients with HLA-DR alleles carrying the RA-associated shared epitope appeared to have more B cells with autoimmune potential for CCP than those without such HLA alleles (odds ratio 8.1, p = 0.001). In healthy individuals, anti-CCP-producing B cells were also observed more frequently if the RA-associated MHC genes were present (odds ratio 8.0, p = 0.01). Analysis of B cells in cultures may shed light on the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in the development of RA.

Tham SM, Ng KH, Pook SH, et al.
Tumor and microenvironment modification during progression of murine orthotopic bladder cancer.
Clin Dev Immunol. 2011; 2011:865684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to monitor changes in the expression of immune-related genes in the bladder after tumor implantation. Mice were orthotopically implanted with MB49-PSA cells (C57BL/6 mice) on day 1 and terminated on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Another mouse model (MBT-2/C3H mice) was examined at day 7. Gene expression analysis was performed using a TaqMan Low Density Mouse Immune Panel (Applied Biosystems, USA) on RNA extracted from the bladders. Selected genes were reconfirmed by real-time PCR analysis and RT-PCR on the mRNA from other animals. Immune suppressive (IL13, IL1β, PTGS2, NOS2, IL10, CTLA4, and CCL22) and immune stimulatory genes (CSF2, GZMB, IFNγ, CXCL10, TNFα, CD80, IL12a, and IL6) and AGTR2 were increased by day 7. By day 28, IL10, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL11, CTLA4, GZMB, IFNγ, CSF2, and IL6 were significantly increased. Therapeutic strategies involving TH1 induction and TH2 dampening may improve responses to immunotherapy.

Richter C, Oktaba K, Steinmann J, et al.
The tumour suppressor L(3)mbt inhibits neuroepithelial proliferation and acts on insulator elements.
Nat Cell Biol. 2011; 13(9):1029-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In Drosophila, defects in asymmetric cell division often result in the formation of stem-cell-derived tumours. Here, we show that very similar terminal brain tumour phenotypes arise through a fundamentally different mechanism. We demonstrate that brain tumours in l(3)mbt mutants originate from overproliferation of neuroepithelial cells in the optic lobes caused by derepression of target genes in the Salvador-Warts-Hippo (SWH) pathway. We use ChIP-sequencing to identify L(3)mbt binding sites and show that L(3)mbt binds to chromatin insulator elements. Mutating l(3)mbt or inhibiting expression of the insulator protein gene mod(mdg4) results in upregulation of SWH pathway reporters. As l(3)mbt tumours are rescued by mutations in bantam or yorkie or by overexpression of Expanded, the deregulation of SWH pathway target genes is an essential step in brain tumour formation. Therefore, very different primary defects result in the formation of brain tumours, which behave quite similarly in their advanced stages.

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