Gene Summary

Gene:PTPRT; protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type T
Aliases: RPTPrho
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. The protein domain structure and the expression pattern of the mouse counterpart of this PTP suggest its roles in both signal transduction and cellular adhesion in the central nervous system. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • MicroRNAs
  • DNA Methylation
  • Brain Tumours
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • ras Proteins
  • Melanoma
  • Software
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Sequence Analysis, RNA
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 7
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2
  • Carcinoma
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Promoter Regions
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Risk Factors
  • Chromosome 20
  • Tyrosine
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Base Sequence
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Breast Cancer
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Liver Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Xenograft Models
  • Side-Population Cells
  • Skin Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Hep G2 Cells
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTPRT (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Yang Z, Wang L, et al.
miR-532-3p promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by targeting PTPRT.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2019; 109:991-999 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant expression of miR-532-3p was involved in progression and development of multiple cancers, whereas miR-532-3p has not been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to elucidate the functions of miR-532-3p in progression of HCC.
METHODS: Real-time PCR in HCC tissues and cell lines and database analysis were conducted for detection of the expression of miR-532-3p in HCC. Then, the association of miR-532-3p with clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC patients were statistically measured. Subsequently, we attempted to observe the effects of miR-532-3p on migration, invasion and proliferation of HCC cells by Wound healing assay, Transwell assays, MTT assay and EdU assay. Furthermore, bioinformatics tools, database analysis, luciferase reporter gene assay and rescue experiments were conducted to explore the target of miR-532-3p in HCC, and to explore whether the target mediated the effects of miR-532-3p on HCC cells.
RESULTS: Our findings and data from databases consistently indicated that the miR-532-3p expression level was higher in HCC. In addition, high miR-532-3p expression was found to be closely related to larger tumor size (P =  0.0027), presence of vascular invasion (P =  0.015), and advanced TNM stage (P =  0.015). In addition, experiments in vitro revealed that miR-532-3p promotes migration, invasion and proliferation of HCC cells. Furthermore, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) was identified as the target and mediator of miR-532-3p in HCC cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that miR-532-3p, which is frequently up-regulated in HCC, contributes to HCC cells mobility and proliferation through targeting PTPRT.

Goryca K, Kulecka M, Paziewska A, et al.
Exome scale map of genetic alterations promoting metastasis in colorectal cancer.
BMC Genet. 2018; 19(1):85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately 90% of colorectal cancer (CRC) deaths are caused by tumors ability to migrate into the adjacent tissues and metastase into distant organs. More than 40 genes have been causally linked to the development of CRC but no mutations have been associated with metastasis yet. To identify molecular basis of CRC metastasis we performed whole-exome and genome-scale transcriptome sequencing of 7 liver metastases along with their matched primary tumours and normal tissue. Multiple, spatially separated fragments of primary tumours were analyzed in each case. Uniformly malignant tissue specimen were selected with macrodissection, for three samples followed with laser microdissection.
RESULTS: > 100 sequencing coverage allowed for detection of genetic alterations in subpopulation of tumour cells. Mutations in KRAS, APC, POLE, and PTPRT, previously associated with CRC development, were detected in most patients. Several new associations were identified, including PLXND1, CELSR3, BAHD1 and PNPLA6.
CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the essential role of inflammation in CRC progression but question the mechanism of matrix metalloproteinases activation described in other work. Comprehensive sequencing data made it possible to associate genome-scale mutation distribution with gene expression patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first work to report such link in CRC metastasis context.

Nikitina AS, Sharova EI, Danilenko SA, et al.
Novel RNA biomarkers of prostate cancer revealed by RNA-seq analysis of formalin-fixed samples obtained from Russian patients.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):32990-33001 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Due to heterogeneous multifocal nature of prostate cancer (PCa), there is currently a lack of biomarkers that stably distinguish it from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), predict clinical outcome and guide the choice of optimal treatment. In this study RNA-seq analysis was applied to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor and matched normal tissue samples collected from Russian patients with PCa and BPH. We identified 3384 genes differentially expressed (DE) (FDR < 0.05) between tumor tissue of PCa patients and adjacent normal tissue as well as both tissue types from BPH patients. Overexpression of four of the discovered genes (ANKRD34B, NEK5, KCNG3, and PTPRT) was validated by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis of overrepresented microRNA and transcription factor (TF) recognition sites within DE genes revealed common regulatory elements of which 13 microRNAs and 53 TFs were thus linked to PCa for the first time. Moreover, 8 of these TFs (FOXJ2, GATA6, NFE2L1, NFIL3, PRRX2, TEF, EBF2 and ZBTB18) were found to be differentially expressed in this study making them not only candidate biomarkers of prostate cancer but also potential therapeutic targets.

Choi M, Kadara H, Zhang J, et al.
Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function.
Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(1):83-89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) accounts for 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). There are limited treatment strategies for LUSC in part due to our inadequate understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the disease. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and comprehensive immune profiling of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUSCs to increase our understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy.
Methods: Matched pairs of surgically resected stage I-III LUSCs and normal lung tissues (n = 108) were analyzed by WES. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis-based profiling of 10 immune markers were done on a subset of LUSCs (n = 91). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were statistically examined using analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis of clinical outcome.
Results: This early-stage LUSC cohort displayed an average of 209 exonic mutations per tumor. Fourteen genes exhibited significant enrichment for somatic mutation: TP53, MLL2, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, CDH8, KEAP1, PTEN, ADCY8, PTPRT, CALCR, GRM8, FBXW7, RB1 and CDKN2A. Among mutated genes associated with poor recurrence-free survival, MLL2 mutations predicted poor prognosis in both TP53 mutant and wild-type LUSCs. We also found that in treated patients, FBXW7 and KEAP1 mutations were associated with poor response to adjuvant therapy, particularly in TP53-mutant tumors. Analysis of mutations with immune markers revealed that ADCY8 and PIK3CA mutations were associated with markedly decreased tumoral PD-L1 expression, LUSCs with PIK3CA mutations exhibited elevated CD45ro levels and CDKN2A-mutant tumors displayed an up-regulated immune response.
Conclusion(s): Our findings pinpoint mutated genes that may impact clinical outcome as well as personalized strategies for targeted immunotherapies in early-stage LUSC.

Bourgonje AM, Verrijp K, Schepens JT, et al.
Comprehensive protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA profiling identifies new regulators in the progression of glioma.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016; 4(1):96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The infiltrative behavior of diffuse gliomas severely reduces therapeutic potential of surgical resection and radiotherapy, and urges for the identification of new drug-targets affecting glioma growth and migration. To address the potential role of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), we performed mRNA expression profiling for 91 of the 109 known human PTP genes on a series of clinical diffuse glioma samples of different grades and compared our findings with in silico knowledge from REMBRANDT and TCGA databases. Overall PTP family expression levels appeared independent of characteristic genetic aberrations associated with lower grade or high grade gliomas. Notably, seven PTP genes (DUSP26, MTMR4, PTEN, PTPRM, PTPRN2, PTPRT and PTPRZ1) were differentially expressed between grade II-III gliomas and (grade IV) glioblastomas. For DUSP26, PTEN, PTPRM and PTPRT, lower expression levels correlated with poor prognosis, and overexpression of DUSP26 or PTPRT in E98 glioblastoma cells reduced tumorigenicity. Our study represents the first in-depth analysis of PTP family expression in diffuse glioma subtypes and warrants further investigations into PTP-dependent signaling events as new entry points for improved therapy.

Zhao Y, Scott A, Zhang P, et al.
Regulation of paxillin-p130-PI3K-AKT signaling axis by Src and PTPRT impacts colon tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):48782-48793 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor T (PTPRT) is frequently mutated in a variety of human cancers including colorectal cancer. Here we report that PTPRT knockout increases the size of mouse colon tumors in the Apcmin+/- genetic background, suggesting that inactivation of PTPRT promotes tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that PTPRT dephosphorylates paxillin at tyrosine-Y88 residue. Consistently, phosphorylation of Y88 paxillin (pY88) is up-regulated in colon tumors derived from Apcmin+/- Ptprt-/- mice. An important downstream effector of pY88 paxillin is the oncogene Akt. Here, we show that pY88 paxillin impacts the Akt pathway by regulating the interaction between p130cas and the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3-Kinase. Additionally, while pY88 paxillin is a substrate of the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTPRT, the corresponding kinase has not been previously identified. In this study, we demonstrate that the oncogenic kinase Src directly phosphorylates paxillin at Y88. Moreover, colorectal cancer cells that express high levels of pY88 paxillin are sensitive to dasatinib treatment, suggesting that pY88 paxillin may serve as a predictive biomarker for Src family kinase inhibitors.

Guo T, Gaykalova DA, Considine M, et al.
Characterization of functionally active gene fusions in human papillomavirus related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(2):373-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sequencing analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) recently reported on gene fusions, however, few human papillomavirus (HPV) positive samples were included, and the functional relevance of identified fusions was not explored. We therefore performed an independent analysis of gene fusions in HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC (OPSCC). RNA sequencing was performed on 47 HPV-positive OPSCC primary tumors and 25 normal mucosal samples from cancer unaffected controls on an Illumina TruSeq platform. MapSplice2 was used for alignment and identification of fusion candidates. Putative fusions with less than five spanning reads, detected in normal tissues, or that mapped to the same gene were filtered out. Selected fusions were validated by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Within 47 HPV-positive OPSCC tumors, 282 gene fusions were identified. Most fusions (85.1%) occurred in a single tumor, and the remaining fusions recurred in 2-16 tumors. Gene fusions were associated with significant up regulation of 16 genes (including EGFR and ERBB4) and down regulation of four genes (PTPRT, ZNF750, DLG2, SLCO5A1). Expression of these genes followed similar patterns of up regulation and down regulation in tumors without these fusions compared to normal tissue. Five of six gene fusions selected for validation were confirmed through RT-PCR and sequencing. This integrative analysis provides a method of prioritizing functionally relevant gene fusions that may be expanded to other tumor types. These results demonstrate that gene fusions may be one mechanism by which functionally relevant genes are altered in HPV-positive OPSCC.

Peyser ND, Freilino M, Wang L, et al.
Frequent promoter hypermethylation of PTPRT increases STAT3 activation and sensitivity to STAT3 inhibition in head and neck cancer.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(9):1163-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) overactivation is a common event in many cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), where STAT3 represents a promising therapeutic target. HNSCC is not characterized by frequent kinase mutations, in contrast to some malignancies where mutational activation of kinases upstream of STAT3 is common. Instead, STAT3 may be activated by loss-of-function of negative regulators of STAT3, including by promoter hypermethylation of PTPRT. Here we first analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas data and determined that the PTPRT promoter is frequently hypermethylated in several cancers, including HNSCC (60.1% of tumors analyzed) in association with downregulation of PTPRT mRNA expression and upregulation of pSTAT3 expression. These findings were confirmed in an independent cohort of HNSCC tumors by methylation-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that PTPRT promoter methylation and gene silencing is reversible in HNSCC cells, leading to PTPRT-specific downregulation of pSTAT3 expression. We further show that PTPRT promoter methylation is significantly associated with sensitivity to STAT3 inhibition in HNSCC cells, suggesting that PTPRT promoter methylation may serve as a predictive biomarker for responsiveness to STAT3 inhibitors in clinical development.

Yao Y, Shao J, Wu J, et al.
The Functional Variant in the 3'UTR of PTPRT with the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Chinese Population.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 36(1):306-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: PTPRT is an essential tumor suppressor that plays crucial roles in regulating the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Polymorphisms in PTPRT have been reported associated with human longevity, but their association with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been found so far. In this study, we focused on the miRNAs associated SNPs in the 3'-UTR of PTPRT to investigate the further relationship of the SNPs with miRNAs among Chinese ESCC patients.
METHODS: We performed case-control study including 790 ESCC patients and 749 cancer-free controls. Genotyping, real time PCR assay, cell transfection and the dual luciferase reporter assay were used in our study.
RESULTS: We found that patients suffering from smoking exposure, drinking exposure and the history of cancer indicated to be the susceptible population by comparing with controls. Besides, SNP rs2866943 in PTPRT 3'-UTR was involved in the occurrence of ESCC by acting as a protective factor while rs6029959 acting a risk factor. SNP rs2866943 was also could be regulated by miR-218 which caused a down-regulation of PTPRT in patients with CT and TT genotype. Furthermore, the carriers of CT and TT genotype presented a small tumor size as well as the low probability of metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Our findings have shown that the SNP rs2866943 in PTPRT 3'-UTR, through disrupting the regulatory role of miR-218 in PTPRT expression, rs2866943 in PTPRT might act as a protective factor in the pathogenesis of ESCC.

Wang D, Tan J, Xu Y, et al.
Identification of MicroRNAs and target genes involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma with microarray data.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):378-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study is to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and controls and provide new diagnostic potential miRNAs for HCC. The miRNAs expression profile data GSE20077 included 7 HCC samples, 1 HeLa sample and 3 controls. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified by t-test and wilcox test. The miRNA with significantly differential expression was chosen for further analysis. Target genes for this miRNA were selected using TargetScan and miRbase database. STRING software was applied to construct the target genes interaction network and topology analysis was carried out to identify the hub gene in the network. And we identified the mechanism for affecting miRNA function. A total of 54 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, in which there were 13 miRNAs published to be related to HCC. The differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b was chosen for further analysis and PTPRT (Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T) was its potential target gene. The target genes interaction network was constructed among 33 genes, in which PTPRT was the hub gene. We got the conclusion that the differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b may play an important role in the development of HCC by regulating the expression of its potential target gene PT-PRT.

Ding L, Kim M, Kanchi KL, et al.
Clonal architectures and driver mutations in metastatic melanomas.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e111153 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To reveal the clonal architecture of melanoma and associated driver mutations, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and targeted extension sequencing were used to characterize 124 melanoma cases. Significantly mutated gene analysis using 13 WGS cases and 15 additional paired extension cases identified known melanoma genes such as BRAF, NRAS, and CDKN2A, as well as a novel gene EPHA3, previously implicated in other cancer types. Extension studies using tumors from another 96 patients discovered a large number of truncation mutations in tumor suppressors (TP53 and RB1), protein phosphatases (e.g., PTEN, PTPRB, PTPRD, and PTPRT), as well as chromatin remodeling genes (e.g., ASXL3, MLL2, and ARID2). Deep sequencing of mutations revealed subclones in the majority of metastatic tumors from 13 WGS cases. Validated mutations from 12 out of 13 WGS patients exhibited a predominant UV signature characterized by a high frequency of C->T transitions occurring at the 3' base of dipyrimidine sequences while one patient (MEL9) with a hypermutator phenotype lacked this signature. Strikingly, a subclonal mutation signature analysis revealed that the founding clone in MEL9 exhibited UV signature but the secondary clone did not, suggesting different mutational mechanisms for two clonal populations from the same tumor. Further analysis of four metastases from different geographic locations in 2 melanoma cases revealed phylogenetic relationships and highlighted the genetic alterations responsible for differential drug resistance among metastatic tumors. Our study suggests that clonal evaluation is crucial for understanding tumor etiology and drug resistance in melanoma.

Zhao S, Sedwick D, Wang Z
Genetic alterations of protein tyrosine phosphatases in human cancers.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(30):3885-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are enzymes that remove phosphate from tyrosine residues in proteins. Recent whole-exome sequencing of human cancer genomes reveals that many PTPs are frequently mutated in a variety of cancers. Among these mutated PTPs, PTP receptor T (PTPRT) appears to be the most frequently mutated PTP in human cancers. Beside PTPN11, which functions as an oncogene in leukemia, genetic and functional studies indicate that most of mutant PTPs are tumor suppressor genes. Identification of the substrates and corresponding kinases of the mutant PTPs may provide novel therapeutic targets for cancers harboring these mutant PTPs.

Laczmanska I, Karpinski P, Kozlowska J, et al.
Copy number alterations of chromosomal regions enclosing protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-like genes in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2014; 210(12):893-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases that act in different cellular pathways are described most commonly as tumor suppressors, but also as oncogenes. Their role has previously been described in colorectal cancer, as well as in gastric, breast, thyroid, prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, glioma, liver, leukemia and many other cancers. In a previous study, we have described protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type T, M, Z1 and Q genes (PTPRT, PTPRM, PTPRZ1 and PTPRQ) hypermethylated in sporadic colorectal cancer. Thus, in this study, we examined the relation of unbalanced chromosomal alterations within regions covering these four protein tyrosine phosphatase genes with this cancer. One hundred and two cancer tissues were molecularly characterized, including analysis of the BRAF and K-ras mutations and methylator phenotype. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations was performed using Comparative Genomic Hybridization. We observed amplification of three regions containing genes coding for PTPs, such as PTPRZ1 (7q31.3, amplified in 23.5% of cases), PTPRQ (12q21.2, amplified in 5.9% of cases), PTPRT (20q12, amplified in 29.4% of cases), along with deletions in the region of PTPRM (18p11.2, deleted in 21.6% of cases). These data may suggest that in sporadic colorectal cancer PTPRZ1, PTPRT, PTPRQ probably act as oncogenes, while PTPRM acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Our study also revealed that gains on chromosome 20q12 and losses on chromosome 18p11.2 are connected with the absence of the BRAF mutation and the conventional adenocarcinoma pathway.

Liu Z, Zhang J, Gao Y, et al.
Large-scale characterization of DNA methylation changes in human gastric carcinomas with and without metastasis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(17):4598-612 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metastasis is the leading cause of death for gastric carcinoma. An epigenetic biomarker panel for predicting gastric carcinoma metastasis could have significant clinical impact on the care of patients with gastric carcinoma. The main purpose of this study is to characterize the methylation differences between gastric carcinomas with and without metastasis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles between 4 metastatic and 4 nonmetastatic gastric carcinomas and their surgical margins (SM) were analyzed using methylated-CpG island amplification with microarray. The methylation states of 73 candidate genes were further analyzed in patients with gastric carcinoma in a discovery cohort (n=108) using denatured high performance liquid chromatography, bisulfite-sequencing, and MethyLight. The predictive values of potential metastasis-methylation biomarkers were validated in cohorts of patients with gastric carcinoma in China (n=330), Japan (n=129), and Korea (n=153).
RESULTS: The gastric carcinoma genome showed significantly higher proportions of hypomethylation in the promoter and exon-1 regions, as well as increased hypermethylation of intragenic fragments when compared with SMs. Significant differential methylation was validated in the CpG islands of 15 genes (P<0.05) and confirmed using bisulfite sequencing. These genes included BMP3, BNIP3, CDKN2A, ECEL1, ELK1, GFRA1, HOXD10, KCNH1, PSMD10, PTPRT, SIGIRR, SRF, TBX5, TFPI2, and ZNF382. Methylation changes of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 resulted in up- or downregulation of their transcription. Most importantly, the prevalence of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 methylation alterations was consistently and coordinately associated with gastric carcinoma metastasis and the patients' overall survival throughout discovery and validation cohorts in China, Japan, and Korea.
CONCLUSION: Methylation changes of GFRA1, SRF, and ZNF382 may be a potential biomarker set for prediction of gastric carcinoma metastasis.

Ali Hassan NZ, Mokhtar NM, Kok Sin T, et al.
Integrated analysis of copy number variation and genome-wide expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e92553 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Integrative analyses of multiple genomic datasets for selected samples can provide better insight into the overall data and can enhance our knowledge of cancer. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between copy number variation (CNV) and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Sixty-four paired CRC samples from the same patients were subjected to CNV profiling using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad assay, and validation was performed using multiplex ligation probe amplification method. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed on 15 paired samples from the same group of patients using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Significant genes obtained from both array results were then overlapped. To identify molecular pathways, the data were mapped to the KEGG database. Whole genome CNV analysis that compared primary tumor and non-cancerous epithelium revealed gains in 1638 genes and losses in 36 genes. Significant gains were mostly found in chromosome 20 at position 20q12 with a frequency of 45.31% in tumor samples. Examples of genes that were associated at this cytoband were PTPRT, EMILIN3 and CHD6. The highest number of losses was detected at chromosome 8, position 8p23.2 with 17.19% occurrence in all tumor samples. Among the genes found at this cytoband were CSMD1 and DLC1. Genome-wide expression profiling showed 709 genes to be up-regulated and 699 genes to be down-regulated in CRC compared to non-cancerous samples. Integration of these two datasets identified 56 overlapping genes, which were located in chromosomes 8, 20 and 22. MLPA confirmed that the CRC samples had the highest gains in chromosome 20 compared to the reference samples. Interpretation of the CNV data in the context of the transcriptome via integrative analyses may provide more in-depth knowledge of the genomic landscape of CRC.

Becker H, Yoshida K, Blagitko-Dorfs N, et al.
Tracing the development of acute myeloid leukemia in CBL syndrome.
Blood. 2014; 123(12):1883-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an adult with CBL syndrome caused by a heterozygous de novo germline mutation in CBL codon D390. In the AML bone marrow, the mutated CBL allele was homozygous after copy number-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity and amplified through a chromosomal gain; moreover, an inv(16)(p13q22) and, as assessed by whole-exome sequencing, 12 gene mutations (eg, in CAND1, NID2, PTPRT, DOCK6) were additionally acquired. During complete remission of the AML, in the presence of normal blood counts, the hematopoiesis stably maintained the homozygous CBL mutation, which is reminiscent of the situation in children with CBL syndrome and transient juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. No additional mutations were identified by whole-exome sequencing in granulocytes during complete remission. The study highlights the development of AML in an adult with CBL syndrome and, more generally, in genetically aberrant but clinically inconspicuous hematopoiesis.

Huang S, Cai M, Zheng Y, et al.
miR-888 in MCF-7 side population sphere cells directly targets E-cadherin.
J Genet Genomics. 2014; 41(1):35-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Side population (SP) cells are a small subset of cells isolated from a cultured cancer cell line that exhibit characteristics similar to those of cancer stem cells (CSCs), such as high metastatic and tumorigenic potential. The molecular mechanisms that give rise to the malignant properties of SP cells are not clear. We isolated SP cells from the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and profiled microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns between SP cell-derived spheroids and non-SP cells. SP spheroids were found to possess 42 up-regulated miRNAs and 27 down-regulated ones (above 5-fold changes). One of the up-regulated miRNAs, miR-888 computationally predicted to participate in the adherens junction (AJ) pathway, was investigated. Over-expression of miR-888 in MCF-7 cells reduced the mRNA levels of all four AJ pathway genes (E-cadherin, ACTG1, PTPRT and CDC42) that were selected for testing, whereas knocking down miR-888 reversed the trends. Western blot and flow cytometric quantitation of the membrane E-cadherin levels showed the same trend of change under these treatments. Luciferase reporter assay showed E-cadherin is a direct target of miR-888. As a potential role in intercellular adhesiveness and maintenance of malignant tissue architecture, the results indicate that miR-888 is a repressor of the AJ pathway in MCF-7 cells and that up-regulation of miR-888 contributes to aggressiveness in MCF-7 SP cells.

Liu F, You X, Chi X, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(2):128-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3'UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

Lui VW, Peyser ND, Ng PK, et al.
Frequent mutation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases provides a mechanism for STAT3 hyperactivation in head and neck cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):1114-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The underpinnings of STAT3 hyperphosphorylation resulting in enhanced signaling and cancer progression are incompletely understood. Loss-of-function mutations of enzymes that dephosphorylate STAT3, such as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are encoded by the PTPR gene family, represent a plausible mechanism of STAT3 hyperactivation. We analyzed whole exome sequencing (n = 374) and reverse-phase protein array data (n = 212) from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). PTPR mutations are most common and are associated with significantly increased phospho-STAT3 expression in HNSCC tumors. Expression of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) mutant proteins induces STAT3 phosphorylation and cell survival, consistent with a "driver" phenotype. Computational modeling reveals functional consequences of PTPRT mutations on phospho-tyrosine-substrate interactions. A high mutation rate (30%) of PTPRs was found in HNSCC and 14 other solid tumors, suggesting that PTPR alterations, in particular PTPRT mutations, may define a subset of patients where STAT3 pathway inhibitors hold particular promise as effective therapeutic agents.

Laczmanska I, Karpinski P, Bebenek M, et al.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-like genes are frequently hypermethylated in sporadic colorectal cancer.
J Hum Genet. 2013; 58(1):11-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activity of phosphatases could be influenced by genetic, as well as epigenetic alterations. In our study, we have investigated the methylation status of four PTPRs: PTPRM, PTPRT, PTPRR and PTPRZ1, which were pre-selected using microarray techniques as being alternatively methylated in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The analyses were carried out on 131 surgical specimens obtained from sporadic CRC patients. The methylation status of the four genes was examined using methyl specific PCR (MSP). The analysis of promoter methylation using an Illumina 27K microarray revealed four protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPRM, PTPRT, PTPRR and PTPRZ1 as being hypermethylated with β-value ≥0.2 and P≤0.05. Subsequent analysis using MSP confirmed these observations-the frequency of promoter methylation was significantly higher in tumor cells compared with matched normal tissue for each of the analyzed genes. There was no association observed between the methylation status of PTPRs and either CIMP, K-ras (codon 12) and BRAF (exon 15, V600E) mutations or tumor localization (proximal/distal). The results of our study show a statistically significant difference between promoter methylation in cancerous and healthy tissue. This result supports the hypothesis that the PTPR family has an important role in the etiology of CRC.

Laczmanska I, Sasiadek MM
Tyrosine phosphatases as a superfamily of tumor suppressors in colorectal cancer.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2011; 58(4):467-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation processes catalyzed by numerous kinases and phosphorylases are essential for cell homeostasis and may lead to disturbances in a variety of vital cellular pathways, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and thus to complex diseases including cancer. As over 80 % of all oncogenes encode protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which can reverse the effects of tyrosine kinases, are very important tumor suppressors. Alterations in tyrosine kinase and phosphatase genes including point mutations, changes in epigenetic regulation, as well as chromosomal aberrations involving regions critical to these genes, are frequently observed in a variety of cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in humans. CRCs occur in a familial (about 15 % of all cases), hereditary (about 5%) and sporadic (almost 75-80 %) form. As genetic-environmental interrelations play an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic forms of CRCs, many studies are focused on genetic alterations in such tumors. Mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatome in CRCs has identified somatic mutations in PTPRG, PTPRT, PTPN3, PTPN13 and PTPN14. The majority of these mutations result in a loss of protein function. Also, alterations in the expression of these genes, such as decreased expression of PTPRR, PTPRO, PTPRG and PTPRD, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms have been observed in a variety of tumors. Since cancer is a social and global problem, there will be a growing number of studies on alterations in the candidate cancer genes, including protein kinases and phosphatases, to determine the origin, biology and potential pathways for targeted anticancer therapy.

Scott A, Wang Z
Tumour suppressor function of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-T.
Biosci Rep. 2011; 31(5):303-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has long been thought that PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases) normally function as tumour suppressors. Recent high-throughput mutational analysis identified loss-of-function mutations in six PTPs in human colon cancers, providing critical cancer genetics evidence that PTPs can act as tumour suppressor genes. PTPRT (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-T), a member of the family of type IIB receptor-like PTPs, is the most frequently mutated PTP among them. Consistent with the notion that PTPRT is a tumour suppressor, PTPRT knockout mice are hypersensitive to AOM (azoxymethane)-induced colon cancer. The present review focuses on the physiological and pathological functions of PTPRT as well as the cellular pathways regulated by this phosphatase.

Zhang X, Guo A, Yu J, et al.
Identification of STAT3 as a substrate of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase T.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007; 104(10):4060-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) receptor T (PTPRT) is the most frequently mutated PTP in human cancers. However, the cell signaling pathways regulated by PTPRT have not yet been elucidated. Here, we report identification of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a substrate of PTPRT. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine at amino acid Y705 is essential for the function of STAT3, and PTPRT specifically dephosphorylated STAT3 at this position. Accordingly, overexpression of normal PTPRT in colorectal cancer cells reduced the expression of STAT3 target genes. These studies illuminate a mechanism regulating the STAT3 pathway and suggest that this signaling pathway plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis.

Lee JW, Jeong EG, Lee SH, et al.
Mutational analysis of PTPRT phosphatase domains in common human cancers.
APMIS. 2007; 115(1):47-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A recent report revealed that the protein-tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, T (PTPRT) gene is somatically mutated in several types of human cancer, suggesting that the mutated PTPRT gene is a tumor suppressor gene in human cancers. However, because previously the mutational search has focused primarily on colon cancers, data on PTPRT mutations in other types of human cancer have largely been lacking. Here, we performed a mutational analysis of the PTPRT phosphatase domain by polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) assay in 345 cases of common human cancers, including colon carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, acute leukemias, gastric carcinomas, breast carcinomas and non-small cell lung cancers. We detected PTPRT phosphatase domain mutations in 1 of 105 colon carcinomas (1%) and 1 of 48 gastric carcinomas (2%), but none in acute leukemias, hepatocellular carcinomas, breast carcinomas and non-small cell lung cancers. The PTPRT mutation detected in the colon carcinoma was a missense mutation and the mutation in the gastric carcinomas was a splice-site mutation. Contrary to the previous report on the frequent PTPTR phosphatase domain mutations in colon cancers, this study demonstrated that the somatic mutation of the PTPRT phosphatase domain rarely occurred in common human cancers. The data suggested that alterations of the PTPRT-mediated signaling pathway by PTPRT phosphatase domain mutation may not play a critical role in the development of common human cancers.

Tozlu S, Girault I, Vacher S, et al.
Identification of novel genes that co-cluster with estrogen receptor alpha in breast tumor biopsy specimens, using a large-scale real-time reverse transcription-PCR approach.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2006; 13(4):1109-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of breast cancer. To obtain further insights into the molecular basis of estrogen-dependent forms of this malignancy, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to compare the mRNA expression of 560 selected genes in ERalpha-positive and ERalpha-negative breast tumors. Fifty-one (9.1%) of the 560 genes were significantly upregulated in ERalpha-positive breast tumors compared with ERalpha-negative breast tumors. In addition to well-known ERalpha-induced genes (PGR, TFF1/PS2, BCL2, ERBB4, CCND1, etc.) and genes recently identified by cDNA microarray-based approaches (GATA3, TFF3, MYB, STC2, HPN/HEPSIN, FOXA1, XBP1, SLC39A6/LIV-1, etc.), an appreciable number of novel genes were identified, many of, which were weakly expressed. This validates the use of large-scale real-time RT-PCR as a method complementary to cDNA microarrays for molecular tumor profiling. Most of the new genes identified here encoded secreted proteins (SEMA3B and CLU), growth factors (BDNF, FGF2 and EGF), growth factor receptors (IL6ST, PTPRT, RET, VEGFR1 and FGFR2) or metabolic enzymes (CYP2B6, CA12, ACADSB, NAT1, LRBA, SLC7A2 and SULT2B1). Importantly, we also identified a large number of genes encoding proteins with either pro-apoptotic (PUMA, NOXA and TATP73) or anti-apoptotic properties (BCL2, DNTP73 and TRAILR3). Surprisingly, only a small proportion of the 51 genes identified in breast tumor biopsy specimens were confirmed to be ERalpha-regulated and/or E2-regulated in vitro (cultured cell lines). Therefore, this study identified a limited number of genes and signaling pathways, which better delineate the role of ERalpha in breast cancer. Some of the genes identified here could be useful for diagnosis or for predicting endocrine responsiveness, and could form the basis for novel therapeutic strategies.

Wang Z, Shen D, Parsons DW, et al.
Mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatome in colorectal cancers.
Science. 2004; 304(5674):1164-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tyrosine phosphorylation, regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and kinases (PTKs), is important in signaling pathways underlying tumorigenesis. A mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatase gene superfamily in human cancers identified 83 somatic mutations in six PTPs (PTPRF, PTPRG, PTPRT, PTPN3, PTPN13, PTPN14), affecting 26% of colorectal cancers and a smaller fraction of lung, breast, and gastric cancers. Fifteen mutations were nonsense, frameshift, or splice-site alterations predicted to result in truncated proteins lacking phosphatase activity. Five missense mutations in the most commonly altered PTP (PTPRT) were biochemically examined and found to reduce phosphatase activity. Expression of wild-type but not a mutant PTPRT in human cancer cells inhibited cell growth. These observations suggest that the mutated tyrosine phosphatases are tumor suppressor genes, regulating cellular pathways that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.

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