Gene Summary

Gene:RARRES3; retinoic acid receptor responder 3
Aliases: RIG1, TIG3, HRSL4, HRASLS4, PLA1/2-3
Summary:Retinoids exert biologic effects such as potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities and are used in the treatment of hyperproliferative dermatological diseases. These effects are mediated by specific nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. RARRES1, RARRES2, and RARRES3 are genes whose expression is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene. RARRES3 is thought act as a tumor suppressor or growth regulator. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:retinoic acid receptor responder protein 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RARRES3 (cancer-related)

Xu Y, Chen T, Liao D, et al.
The antitumor effect of TIG3 in liver cancer cells is involved in ERK1/2 inhibition.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):11311-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3) was first characterized in tazarotene-treated human keratinocytes and identified as a retinoic acid responder gene, an important mediator of antitumor effects by retinoids. In this study, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of TIG3 on the growth of liver cancer and explore its underlying mechanism. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Hep3B cells were transfected with plasmid GV141 carrying full-length TIG3 complementary DNA (cDNA). The effects of TIG3 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration were determined in vitro. The suppressor effect of TIG3 on tumor growth was evaluated in vivo in a nude mouse HCC model. We observed that TIG3 expression is decreased in the Hep3B cell line as well as primary HCC tumors, and TIG3 expression inversely correlates with Ki-67 expression. Overexpression of TIG3 suppresses tumor growth in HCC both in vitro and in vivo via ERK1/2 inhibition by promoting apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation and migration. These findings identify TIG3 as an attractive therapeutic target for HCC.

Lu Y, Li J, Cheng J, Lubahn DB
Messenger RNA profile analysis deciphers new Esrrb responsive genes in prostate cancer cells.
BMC Mol Biol. 2015; 16:21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Orphan nuclear receptor estrogen related receptor β (Esrrb or ERRβ) is well known in stem cells and early embryonic development. However, little is known about its function in cancer.
METHOD: We investigated the mRNA profile alterations induced by Esrrb expression and its synthetic ligand DY131 in human prostate cancer DU145 cells via RNA-Seq analysis.
RESULTS: We distinguished 67 mRNAs differentially expressed by Esrrb alone. Although DY131 alone did not change any gene, treatment of DY131 in the presence of Esrrb altered 1161 mRNAs. These observations indicated Esrrb had both ligand-independent and ligand-dependent activity. When Esrrb was expressed, DY131 treatment further regulated 15 Esrrb-altered mRNAs. DY131 acted as an antagonist for 11 of 15 mRNAs (wdr52, f13a1, pxdn, spns2, loc100506599, tagln, loc441454, tkel1, sema3f, zcwpw2, sdc2) and as an agonist for 4 of the 15 mRNAs (rarres3, oasl, padi2, ddx60). Gene ontology analyses showed altered genes are related to transcription and translation regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis regulation, and cellular metabolism.
CONCLUSION: Our results characterized mRNA profiles in DU145 prostate cancer cells driven by Esrrb expression and Esrrb ligand DY131, and provided multiple markers to characterize Esrrb's function in Esrrb research.

Chowdhari S, Saini N
Gene expression profiling reveals the role of RIG1 like receptor signaling in p53 dependent apoptosis induced by PUVA in keratinocytes.
Cell Signal. 2016; 28(1):25-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Photochemotherapy using 8-methoxypsoralen in combination with UVA radiation (PUVA) is an effective treatment for various skin dermatosis including psoriasis however its molecular mechanism is not clear. Previously we demonstrated that PUVA differentially regulates miRNA expression profile with a significant up-regulation of hsa-miR-4516. To study in detail the molecular mechanism of PUVA in keratinocytes, we investigated the genome wide transcriptomic changes using Illumina whole genome gene expression beadchip. Microarray analysis revealed 1932 differentially expressed gene and their Insilico analysis revealed Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-1) signaling, apoptosis and p53 pathway to be associated with PUVA induced effects. We demonstrate that miR-4516 mediated down-regulation of UBE2N promotes p53 nuclear translocation and pro-apoptotic activity of PUVA is independent of IRF3 but is mediated by the RIG-I in a p53 and NFκB dependent manner. Additionally, PUVA inactivated the AKT/mTOR pathway in concert with inhibition of autophagy and suppressed cell migration. Taken together this study broadens our understanding about the mechanism of action of PUVA providing possible new strategy targeting proapoptotic function of RIG-1, a regulator of innate immune response or p53 for psoriasis therapy.

Sioud M
Overcoming the challenges of siRNA activation of innate immunity: design better therapeutic siRNAs.
Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1218:301-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved regulatory mechanism of posttranscriptional gene silencing triggered by either endogenously (e.g. microRNAs) or exogenously double-stranded RNA as small interfering (si) RNAs. To date, the use of siRNA (21-nt) has become a standard laboratory tool to silence gene expression in mammalian cells in-vitro and in-vivo. The methodology also holds promise for treating a diversity of human diseases. However, one of the challenges of making siRNAs as therapeutic drugs includes the activation of innate immunity and silencing of unwanted genes. Therefore, the use of siRNAs in functional genomics and human therapies depends on the development of strategies to overcome siRNA unwanted effects. This chapter highlights some efficient strategies aimed at separating gene silencing from immunostimulation and improving siRNA gene silencing specificity.

Satoh T, Wada R, Yajima N, et al.
Tumor microenvironment and RIG-I signaling molecules in Epstein Barr virus-positive and -negative classical Hodgkin lymphoma of the elderly.
J Clin Exp Hematop. 2014; 54(1):75-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is a B-cell neoplasm characterized by Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. Its prevalence exhibits a bimodal pattern of peaking in young adults and the elderly. There is an association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in about 50% of cases of CHL of the elderly, and the outcome of these patients is unfavorable. It is not well known how the latent infection of EBV is involved in the pathophysiology of CHL of the elderly. To address this issue, we examined the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the expression of molecules related to EBV infection in HRS cells in 10 EBV-positive CHL and 7 EBV-negative CHL patients older than 50 years. In EBV-positive CHL, we found an increased population of FOXP3(+) cells, while that of granzyme B(+) cells was reduced, compared with those in EBV-negative CHL. The expression of inhibitory chemokine CCL20 was increased in EBV-positive HRS cells compared with that in EBV-negative HRS cells. In addition, despite increased expression of a pattern recognition receptor, RIG-I, in intracellular innate immunity, there was no evidence of interferon regulatory factor 3 activation or interferon-ß induction in EBV-positive HRS cells in CHL of the elderly. The disease recurred frequently (50%) in EBV-positive CHL. The current study thus suggests the possibility that the latent infection of EBV alters the expression of chemokines and the innate immunity response in HRS cells and modulates TME to an immunosuppressive state, which may account for the unfavorable disease course in CHL of the elderly.

Morales M, Arenas EJ, Urosevic J, et al.
RARRES3 suppresses breast cancer lung metastasis by regulating adhesion and differentiation.
EMBO Mol Med. 2014; 6(7):865-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients, metastatic relapse usually occurs in the lung and is responsible for the fatal outcome of the disease. Thus, a better understanding of the biology of metastasis is needed. In particular, biomarkers to identify patients that are at risk of lung metastasis could open the avenue for new therapeutic opportunities. Here we characterize the biological activity of RARRES3, a new metastasis suppressor gene whose reduced expression in the primary breast tumors identifies a subgroup of patients more likely to develop lung metastasis. We show that RARRES3 downregulation engages metastasis-initiating capabilities by facilitating adhesion of the tumor cells to the lung parenchyma. In addition, impaired tumor cell differentiation due to the loss of RARRES3 phospholipase A1/A2 activity also contributes to lung metastasis. Our results establish RARRES3 downregulation as a potential biomarker to identify patients at high risk of lung metastasis who might benefit from a differentiation treatment in the adjuvant programme.

Scharadin TM, Eckert RL
TIG3: an important regulator of keratinocyte proliferation and survival.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(7):1811-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3) is a tumor suppressor protein. In normal human epidermis, TIG3 is present in the differentiated, suprabasal layers, and it regulates terminal differentiation. TIG3 level is reduced in hyperproliferative diseases, including psoriasis and skin cancer, suggesting that loss of TIG3 is associated with enhanced cell proliferation. Moreover, transient expression of TIG3 leads to terminal differentiation in normal keratinocytes and apoptosis in skin cancer cells. In both cell types, TIG3 distributes to the cell membrane and to the centrosome. At the cell membrane, TIG3 interacts with and activates type I transglutaminase to enhance keratinocyte terminal differentiation. TIG3 at the centrosome acts to inhibit centrosome separation during mitosis and to alter microtubule function. These findings argue that TIG3 is involved in the control of keratinocyte differentiation and that loss of TIG3 in transformed cells contributes to the malignant phenotype.

Scharadin TM, Adhikary G, Shaw K, et al.
Pericentrosomal localization of the TIG3 tumor suppressor requires an N-terminal hydrophilic region motif.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(5):1220-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3) is a tumor suppressor protein that has a key role in controlling cell proliferation. TIG3 is observed at reduced levels in epidermal squamous cell carcinoma, and the restoration of expression in skin cancer cells reduces cell survival. TIG3 suppresses cell survival through mechanisms that involve localization at the plasma membrane and at the centrosome. TIG3 interacts at the plasma membrane to activate enzymes involved in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, and at the centrosome to inhibit daughter centrosome separation during mitosis leading to cessation of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. An important goal is identifying the motifs required for TIG3 localization at these intracellular sites as a method to understand the function of TIG3 at each location. TIG3 encodes an N-terminal hydrophilic region (amino acids 1-135) and a C-terminal membrane-anchoring domain (amino acids 135-164). We show that the C-terminal hydrophobic domain targets intact TIG3 to the plasma membrane, but when isolated as an independent element localizes at the mitochondria. We further demonstrate that a segment of the N-terminal hydrophilic region targets the centrosome. These studies provide important insights regarding the mechanisms that guide subcellular localization of this keratinocyte survival regulator.

Qu J, Hou Z, Han Q, et al.
Poly(I:C) exhibits an anti-cancer effect in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells which is dependent on RLRs.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2013; 17(3):814-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Poly(I:C), an agonist of TLR3 and RLRs, has been used as an immune adjuvant in clinical trials for many years. Although it has been found to trigger apoptosis in a variety of cancers, its mechanisms in human gastric adenocarcinoma is unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of poly(I:C) on human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Our observations showed that intracellular delivery of poly(I:C) by liposomes had a pro-apoptotic effect in vitro, and significantly inhibited xenograft growth of human gastric adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Further investigations indicated that RLRs, as intrinsic RNA sensors, contributed to the poly(I:C)-triggered apoptotic effect through upregulation of RIG-I, MDA-5, and most significantly, LGP2, accompanied by increased expression of Bcl-2 family members. Conversely, this apoptotic effect was greatly reduced by silencing RIG-I, MDA-5, or LGP2. Although LGP2 is considered an innate immune negative regulator of RIG-I and MDA-5, it exhibited a positive regulatory effect on poly(I:C)-induced apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. These findings suggested that poly(I:C) may be a promising chemotherapeutic agent against human gastric adenocarcinoma.

Wu CC, Shyu RY, Wang CH, et al.
Involvement of the prostaglandin D2 signal pathway in retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-mediated suppression of cell invasion in testis cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1823(12):2227-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1), also called tazarotene-induced gene 3, belongs to the HREV107 gene family, which contains five members in humans. RIG1 is expressed in high levels in well-differentiated tissues, but its expression is decreased in cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. We found RIG1 to be highly expressed in testicular cells. When RIG1 was expressed in NT2/D1 testicular cancer cells, neither cell death nor cell viability was affected. However, RIG1 significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in NT2/D1 cells. We found that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) interacted with RIG1 using yeast two-hybrid screens. Further, we found PTGDS to be co-localized with RIG1 in NT2/D1 testis cells. In RIG1-expressing cells, elevated levels of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), cAMP, and SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) were observed. This indicated that RIG1 can enhance PTGDS activity. Silencing of PTGDS expression significantly decreased RIG1-mediated cAMP and PGD2 production. Furthermore, silencing of PTGDS or SOX9 alleviated RIG1-mediated suppression of migration and invasion. These results suggest that RIG1 will suppress cell migration/invasion through the PGD2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, RIG1 can interact with PTGDS to enhance its function and to further suppress NT2/D1 cell migration and invasion. Our study suggests that RIG1-PGD2 signaling might play an important role in cancer cell suppression in the testis.

Paroni G, Fratelli M, Gardini G, et al.
Synergistic antitumor activity of lapatinib and retinoids on a novel subtype of breast cancer with coamplification of ERBB2 and RARA.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(29):3431-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the only clinically available cyto-differentiating agent, has potential for the therapy/chemoprevention of breast carcinoma. Given the heterogeneous nature of this tumor, a rational use of ATRA and derivatives (retinoids) in the clinic requires the identification of patients that would benefit from retinoid-based protocols. Here, we demonstrate that 23-32% of the human ERBB2(+) breast cancers show coamplification of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA), encoding the retinoic acid receptor, RARα. This represents a novel subtype of breast cancer characterized by remarkable sensitivity to ATRA and RARα agonists, regardless of positivity to the estrogen receptor, a known modulator of retinoid sensitivity. In estrogen-receptor-negative cellular models showing coamplification of ERBB2 and RARA, simultaneous targeting of the corresponding gene products with combinations of lapatinib and ATRA causes synergistic growth inhibition, cyto-differentiation and apoptosis. This provides proof-of-principle that coamplification of ERBB2 and RARA can be exploited for the stratified and targeted therapy of a novel subtype of breast cancer patients, with an approach characterized by tumor cell selectivity and low predicted toxicity. The available cellular models were exploited to define the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of combinations between lapatinib and ATRA. Global gene expression and functional approaches provide evidence for three components of the antiproliferative/apoptotic responses triggered by lapatinib+ATRA. Induction of the retinoid-dependent RARRES3 protein by ATRA stabilizes the effect of lapatinib inhibiting ERBB2 phosphorylation. Upregulation and activation of the transcription factor FOXO3A integrates ATRA-dependent transcriptional and lapatinib-dependent posttranscriptional signals, controlling the levels of effector proteins like the antiapoptotic factor, BIRC5. Stimulation of the TGFβ pathway by ATRA mediates other components of the apoptotic process set in motion by simultaneous targeting of ERBB2 and RARα.

Talpur R, Cox K, Duvic M
Efficacy and safety of topical tazarotene: a review.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009; 5(2):195-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tazarotene (Tazorac, Avage, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) is a synthetic retinoic acid receptor- betagamma topical retinoid approved for the treatment of plaque psoriasis and acne vulgaris.
OBJECTIVES: To review a decade of experience using tazarotene as a monotherapy or as combination therapy for approved and other indications: acne, psoriasis, photoaging, basal cell carcinomas and various keratinization disorders.
METHODS: We reviewed the published literature available on PubMed for safety and efficacy of topical tazarotene gel or cream preparations.
RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Tazarotene, in both gel and cream formulations, has been used both as monotherapy and as an adjuvant therapy. For psoriasis it has been combined with steroids, calcipotriene and phototherapy, and for acne, with antibiotics. Tazarotene has been shown to upregulate the tumor suppressor, tazarotene induced gene 3, which is overexpressed in psoriasis and skin cancer. Adverse effects are limited to mild to moderate local irritation and erythema as seen with the 'retinization period' of other topical retinoid therapies. Daily application of tazarotene is effective with sustained benefits and limited local side effects.

Christoffersen NR, Shalgi R, Frankel LB, et al.
p53-independent upregulation of miR-34a during oncogene-induced senescence represses MYC.
Cell Death Differ. 2010; 17(2):236-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant oncogene activation induces cellular senescence, an irreversible growth arrest that acts as a barrier against tumorigenesis. To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in oncogene-induced senescence, we examined the expression of miRNAs in primary human TIG3 fibroblasts after constitutive activation of B-RAF. Among the regulated miRNAs, both miR-34a and miR-146a were strongly induced during senescence. Although members of the miR-34 family are known to be transcriptionally regulated by p53, we find that miR-34a is regulated independently of p53 during oncogene-induced senescence. Instead, upregulation of miR-34a is mediated by the ETS family transcription factor, ELK1. During senescence, miR-34a targets the important proto-oncogene MYC and our data suggest that miR-34a thereby coordinately controls a set of cell cycle regulators. Hence, in addition to its integration in the p53 pathway, we show that alternative cancer-related pathways regulate miR-34a, emphasising its significance as a tumour suppressor.

Jenal M, Trinh E, Britschgi C, et al.
The tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated in cancer 1 is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1.
Mol Cancer Res. 2009; 7(6):916-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Hypermethylated in Cancer 1 (HIC1) gene encodes a zinc finger transcriptional repressor that cooperates with p53 to suppress cancer development. We and others recently showed that HIC1 is a transcriptional target of p53. To identify additional transcriptional regulators of HIC1, we screened a set of transcription factors for regulation of a human HIC1 promoter reporter. We found that E2F1 strongly activates the full-length HIC1 promoter reporter. Promoter deletions and mutations identified two E2F responsive elements in the HIC1 core promoter region. Moreover, in vivo binding of E2F1 to the HIC1 promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human TIG3 fibroblasts expressing tamoxifen-activated E2F1. In agreement, activation of E2F1 in TIG3-E2F1 cells markedly increased HIC1 expression. Interestingly, expression of E2F1 in the p53(-/-) hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep3B led to an increase of endogenous HIC1 mRNA, although bisulfite genomic sequencing of the HIC1 promoter revealed that the region bearing the two E2F1 binding sites is hypermethylated. In addition, endogenous E2F1 induced by etoposide treatment bound to the HIC1 promoter. Moreover, inhibition of E2F1 strongly reduced the expression of etoposide-induced HIC1. In conclusion, we identified HIC1 as novel E2F1 transcriptional target in DNA damage responses.

Dydensborg AB, Rose AA, Wilson BJ, et al.
GATA3 inhibits breast cancer growth and pulmonary breast cancer metastasis.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(29):2634-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The loss of expression of the transcription factor GATA3 in breast tumors has been linked to aggressive tumor development and poor patient survival. In the present work, we address potential roles for GATA3 in breast tumor lung metastasis and progression. Using an aggressive breast cancer cell line, which metastasizes specifically to the lung, we show that GATA3 expression results in reduced tumor outgrowth in the mammary fat pad and lower lung metastatic burden in nude mice. Specifically, GATA3 expression inhibits breast cancer cell expansion inside the lung parenchyma. This phenotype correlates with the ability of GATA3 to negatively regulate the expression of several genes that promote breast cancer lung metastasis (ID1/-3, KRTHB1, LY6E and RARRES3). Conversely, the expression of genes encoding known inhibitors of lung metastasis (DLC1 (deleted in liver cancer 1) and PAEP (progestagen-associated endometrial protein)) is upregulated by GATA3. These data correlate with microarray data from human breast cancer patients, showing a strong correlation between high GATA3 expression and absence of metastases specifically to the lungs. We conclude that GATA3 inhibits primary breast tumor outgrowth and reduces lung metastatic burden by regulating key genes involved in metastatic breast tumor progression.

Tsai FM, Shyu RY, Lin SC, et al.
Induction of apoptosis by the retinoid inducible growth regulator RIG1 depends on the NC motif in HtTA cervical cancer cells.
BMC Cell Biol. 2009; 10:15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1), also known as tazarotene-induced gene 3 or retinoic-acid receptor responder 3, is a growth regulator, which induces apoptosis and differentiation. RIG1 is classified into the NC protein family. This study investigated functional domains and critical amino acids associated with RIG1-mediated cell death and apoptosis.
RESULTS: Using enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged RIG1 variants, RIG1 proteins with deletion at the NC domain significantly decreased cell death induced by RIG1, and fusion variants containing only the NC domain significantly induced apoptosis of HtTA cervical cancer cells. The EGFP-RIG1-induced apoptosis was significantly decreased in cells expressing N(112)C(113) motif double- (NC-->FG) or triple- (NCR-->FGE) mutated RIG1 variants. Using dodecapeptides, nuclear localization and profound cell death was observed in HtTA cells expressing wild type RIG1(111-123) or Leu121-mutated RIG1(111-123):L--> C peptide, but peptides double- or triple-mutated at the NC motif alone, RIG1(111-123):NC-->FG or RIG1(111-123):NCR-->FGE, were cytoplasmically localized and did not induce apoptosis. The RIG1(111-123) also induced apoptosis of A2058 melanoma cells but not normal human fibroblasts.
CONCLUSION: The NC domain, especially the NC motif, plays the major role in RIG1-mediated pro-apoptotic activity. The RIG1(111-123) dodecapeptide exhibited strong pro-apoptotic activity and has potential as an anticancer drug.

Pan M, Geng S, Xiao S, et al.
Apoptosis induced by synthetic retinoic acid CD437 on human melanoma A375 cells involves RIG-I pathway.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2009; 301(1):15-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human malignant melanoma is notoriously resistant to currently available pharmacological modulation. Our aim was to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of a novel synthetic retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carbo-xylic acid (CD437) on melanoma cell line A375. Analysis of cell morphology showed that CD437 promoted marked apoptosis in A375 cells. To explore the mechanisms of CD437-induced apoptosis, an NF-kappaB-luciferase reporter assay was performed, demonstrating that apoptosis induction by CD437 required activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Importantly, based on the findings that RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I) can be induced by retinotic acid and can activate NF-kappaB through a CARD-containing adaptor protein VISA, we proposed a hypothesis that RIG-I was involved in the signal pathway of NF-kappaB activation induced by CD437 through the adaptor protein VISA. By specially cleaving VISA with hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural (NS)3/4A, the RIG-I pathway was blocked, with subsequent simultaneous inhibition of CD437-induced NF-kappaB activation and cell apoptosis in A375 cells. These results support our hypothesis and suggest that RIG-I may be a useful intermediate biologic marker for retinoid chemoprevention and treatment studies.

Leontiou CA, Gueorguiev M, van der Spuy J, et al.
The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein gene in familial and sporadic pituitary adenomas.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008; 93(6):2390-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Mutations have been identified in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene in familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). It is not clear, however, how this molecular chaperone is involved in tumorigenesis.
OBJECTIVE: AIP sequence changes and expression were studied in FIPA and sporadic adenomas. The function of normal and mutated AIP molecules was studied on cell proliferation and protein-protein interaction. Cellular and ultrastructural AIP localization was determined in pituitary cells.
PATIENTS: Twenty-six FIPA kindreds and 85 sporadic pituitary adenoma patients were included in the study.
RESULTS: Nine families harbored AIP mutations. Overexpression of wild-type AIP in TIG3 and HEK293 human fibroblast and GH3 pituitary cell lines dramatically reduced cell proliferation, whereas mutant AIP lost this ability. All the mutations led to a disruption of the protein-protein interaction between AIP and phosphodiesterase-4A5. In normal pituitary, AIP colocalizes exclusively with GH and prolactin, and it is found in association with the secretory vesicle, as shown by double-immunofluorescence and electron microscopy staining. In sporadic pituitary adenomas, however, AIP is expressed in all tumor types. In addition, whereas AIP is expressed in the secretory vesicle in GH-secreting tumors, similar to normal GH-secreting cells, in lactotroph, corticotroph, and nonfunctioning adenomas, it is localized to the cytoplasm and not in the secretory vesicles.
CONCLUSIONS: Our functional evaluation of AIP mutations is consistent with a tumor-suppressor role for AIP and its involvement in familial acromegaly. The abnormal expression and subcellular localization of AIP in sporadic pituitary adenomas indicate deranged regulation of this protein during tumorigenesis.

Ou CC, Hsu SC, Hsieh YH, et al.
Downregulation of HER2 by RIG1 involves the PI3K/Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2008; 29(2):299-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is known to downregulate HER2 oncoprotein (p185(HER2) or briefly p185) in prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that the IFN-gamma-induced retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1) acts as a transrepressor of p185. Furthermore, we exhibit that RIG1 downregulates the activated (phosphorylated) form of p185 and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), downstream substrates of HER2. We also elucidate that heregulin (HRG) specifically restores the activation of p185 and Akt after their activities are reduced by RIG1. Additionally, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increases through the HER2- and Akt/mTOR-signaling pathways, indicating that VEGF is downregulated by RIG1 within the cell. These findings suggest that RIG1 plays a role in IFN-gamma-mediated therapy by downregulating p185 and its downstream PI3K/Akt/mTOR/VEGF-signaling pathway. These results may provide a new therapeutic mechanism for the clinical use of IFN-gamma and RIG1.

Wu CC, Shyu RY, Chou JM, et al.
RARRES1 expression is significantly related to tumour differentiation and staging in colorectal adenocarcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2006; 42(4):557-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1) is a retinoid regulated gene. Its expression is frequently down-regulated through DNA hypermethylation in several types of malignant tissues. This study investigated the clinical significance of RARRES1 protein and its association with RARRES3 protein expression in 161 (26 adenoma, 13 distal normal mucosa and 122 primary colorectal adenocarcinoma) paraffin-embedded colorectal tissues by immunohistochemistry. RARRES1 protein was detected at the highest levels in terminally differentiated cells of normal mucosal tissues and all 26 adenoma tissues. Among 122 colorectal adenocarcinomas, the poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and Dukes' stage D tumours showed a significant decrease in RARRES1 expression (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). RARRES1 expression was significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with RARRES3 expression, which was positively associated with tumour differentiation (P < 0.001). Difference in expression of RARRES1 among 119 patients had no apparent effect on patient survival. Our results suggest the role of RARRES1 in colorectal epithelial differentiation, and the down-regulation of RARRES1 is related to stage D progression.

Kawakami S, Suzuki S, Yamashita F, Hashida M
Induction of apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells by all-trans retinoic acid incorporated in DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes.
J Control Release. 2006; 110(3):514-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to exert anti-cancer activities in a number of types of cancer cells. However, it has been reported that many NSCLC exhibited resistance to ATRA treatment. In the present study, we hypothesized that intracellular delivery of ATRA would overcome the ATRA resistance in A549 cells. Here, we investigated the induction of apoptosis by ATRA incorporated in cationic liposomes composed of DOTAP/cholesterol in A549 human lung cancer cells, which are insensitive (resistant) to the growth inhibitory effects of ATRA. The zeta potentials of DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes and DSPC/cholesterol liposomes were about +50 and -3 mV. In A549 cells, [(3)H]ATRA incorporated in DOTAP liposomes showed increased cellular association compared with [(3)H]ATRA or [(3)H]ATRA incorporated in DSPC/cholesterol liposomes. ATRA incorporated in DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes showed much higher cytotoxic effects and apoptosis-inducing activity compared with ATRA or ATRA incorporated in DSPC/cholesterol liposomes. The enhanced expression of TIG3 mRNA tumor suppressor gene by ATRA incorporation into DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes might partly explain the mechanism of enhanced cytotoxicity and/or apoptosis. These observations provide valuable information to help in the design of differentiation therapy by ATRA in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Ivanov VN, Ronai Z, Hei TK
Opposite roles of FAP-1 and dynamin in the regulation of Fas (CD95) translocation to the cell surface and susceptibility to Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis.
J Biol Chem. 2006; 281(3):1840-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and is extremely resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. One of the critical parameters of this resistance is down-regulation of Fas (CD95) cell-surface expression. Using TIG3 normal human fibroblasts and human melanoma cell lines, we investigated transcriptional regulation of FAP-1, a regulator of Fas translocation in the cell. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase FAP-1 (PTPN13, PTP-BAS) interacts with human Fas protein and prevents its export from the cytoplasm to the cell surface. In contrast, dynamin-2 facilitates Fas protein translocation from the Golgi apparatus via the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface. Suppression of dynamin functions by dominant negative dynamin K44A blocks Fas export, whereas the down-regulation of FAP-1 expression by specific RNA interference restores Fas export (a phenomenon that could still be down-regulated in the presence of dominant-negative dynamin). Based on the FAP-1- and dynamin-dependent regulation of Fas translocation, we have created human melanoma lines with different levels of surface expression of Fas. Treatment of these melanoma lines with soluble Fas ligand resulted in programmed cell death that was proportional to the pre-existing levels of surface Fas. Taking into consideration the well known observations that FAP-1 expression is often up-regulated in metastatic tumors, we have established a causal connection between high basal NF-kappaB transcription factor activity (which is a hallmark of many types of metastatic tumors) and NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional regulation of FAP-1 gene expression that finally restricts Fas protein trafficking, thereby, facilitating the survival of cancer cells.

Zirn B, Hartmann O, Samans B, et al.
Expression profiling of Wilms tumors reveals new candidate genes for different clinical parameters.
Int J Cancer. 2006; 118(8):1954-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor is the most frequent renal neoplasm in children, but our understanding of its genetic basis is still limited. We performed cDNA microarray experiments using 63 primary Wilms tumors with the aim of detecting new candidate genes associated with malignancy grade and tumor progression. All tumors had received preoperative chemotherapy as mandated by the SIOP protocol, which sets this study apart from related approaches in the Unites States that are based on untreated samples. The stratification of expression data according to clinical criteria allowed a rather clear distinction between different subsets of Wilms tumors. Clear-cut differences in expression patterns were discovered between relapse-free as opposed to relapsed tumors and tumors with intermediate risk as opposed to high risk histology. Several differentially expressed genes, e.g.TRIM22, CENPF, MYCN, CTGF, RARRES3 and EZH2, were associated with Wilms tumor progression. For a subset of differentially expressed genes, microarray data were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR on the original set of tumors. Interestingly, we found the retinoic acid pathway to be deregulated at different levels in advanced tumors suggesting that treatment of these tumors with retinoic acid may represent a promising novel therapeutic approach.

Shyu RY, Chang SC, Yu JC, et al.
Expression and regulation of retinoid-inducible gene 1 (RIG1) in breast cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2005 May-Jun; 25(3c):2453-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Retinoid-inducible gene I (RIG1) is a growth regulator protein that exhibits activities to suppress cellular growth and induce cellular differentiation and apoptosis. This study analyzed the expression and regulation of RIG1 in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of RIG1 RNA in breast cancer tissues was analyzed using RNA in situ hybridization. Regulation of RIG1 expression by 17beta-estradiol (E2) was analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: RIG1 expression in 47 breast cancer tissues was detected mostly in the cytoplasm and in some nuclei. Levels of both cytoplasmic and nuclear RIG1 mRNA were significantly lower in 20 estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) than in 27 ER-negative (ER-) tissues (p < 0.05), in 20 progesterone receptor-positive (PR+) than in 27 PR-negative (PR-) tissues (p < 0.01), and in 14 ER+/PR+ than in 21 ER-/PR-tissues (p < 0.05). Basal levels of RIG1 and ER mRNA were inversely related between ER+ (MCF-7 WS8 and ZR75-1) and ER- (ZR-75-30) breast cancer cells. E2 (1 nM) treatment for two days suppressed RIG1 mRNA levels in MCF-7 WS8 and ZR-75-1 cells, but not in the ER- ZR-75-30 cells. The E2-mediated down-regulation of RIG1 expression was time- and concentration-dependent in ZR-75-1 cells.
CONCLUSION: The negative association between RIG1 and ER expression in breast cancer tissues and down-regulation of RIG1 by E2 in breast cancer cells in vitro suggest that RIG1 expression is negatively regulated by E2 through activation of the ER in ER+ breast cancer cells.

Zirn B, Samans B, Spangenberg C, et al.
All-trans retinoic acid treatment of Wilms tumor cells reverses expression of genes associated with high risk and relapse in vivo.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(33):5246-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wilms tumor is one of the most frequent neoplasias in children. Our previous microarray screening in a large series of Wilms tumors revealed several candidate genes that are deregulated in advanced tumors and are part of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. To investigate whether retinoic acid could be employed as a novel therapeutic agent in these tumors, we treated cultured Wilms tumor cells with different concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and assessed gene expression changes by real-time RT-PCR as well as microarray analysis. Several genes like RARRES1, RARRES3, CTGF, CKS2, CCNA2, IGFBP3, UBE2C, CCL2 or ITM2B that were previously found to be deregulated in advanced tumors exhibited opposite expression changes after ATRA treatment. In addition to enhanced retinoid signaling, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway was strongly activated by ATRA treatment of Wilms tumor cells. Both the retinoic acid and the TGFbeta pathway mediate inhibition of cell growth. These findings represent the first molecular evidence of a potential benefit from ATRA treatment in Wilms tumors.

Lotz K, Kellner T, Heitmann M, et al.
Suppression of the TIG3 tumor suppressor gene in human ovarian carcinomas is mediated via mitogen-activated kinase-dependent and -independent mechanisms.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 116(6):894-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
The TIG3 gene is a retinoic acid inducible class II tumor suppressor gene downregulated in several human tumors and malignant cell lines. Diminished TIG3 expression correlates with decreased differentiation whereas forced expression of TIG3 suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways and subsequently induces differentiation or apoptosis in tumor cells. Analysis of TIG3 mRNA expression in a large set of cDNA pools derived from matched tumor and normal human tissues showed a significant downregulation of TIG3 in 29% of the cDNA samples obtained from ovarian carcinomas. Using in situ hybridization, we demonstrated expression of TIG3 in the epithelial lining of 7 normal ovaries but loss of TIG3 expression in 15/19 of human ovarian carcinoma tissues. In SKOV-3, CAOV-3 and ES-2 ovarian carcinoma cell lines, downregulation of TIG3 mRNA was reversible and dependent on an activated MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Re-expression of TIG3 mRNA in these cells upon specific interference with the MEK-pathway was correlated with growth inhibition of the cells. In OVCAR-3 and A27/80 ovarian carcinoma cells, TIG3 suppression is MEK-ERK independent, but expression could be reconstituted upon interferon gamma (IFNgamma) induction. Overexpression of TIG3 in A27/80 ovarian carcinoma cells significantly impaired cell growth and despite increased mRNA levels, TIG3 protein was hardly detectable. These results suggest that TIG3 is negatively regulated by an activated MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Further mechanisms must interfere with TIG3 expression that are independent of MEK and partially include interferon-responsive components.

Jiang SY, Chou JM, Leu FJ, et al.
Decreased expression of type II tumor suppressor gene RARRES3 in tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(7):948-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To analyze the expression of retinoic acid receptor responder 3 (RARRES3) protein in paraffin-embedded tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC), and the correlation of RARRES3 production with tumor differentiation.
METHODS: Expression of RARRES3 in tissues from 21 CC (10 well-, 7 moderately- and 4 poorly-differentiated) and 32 HCC was determined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Among 21 CC tissues, RARRES3 was detected in 8 (80%) of 10 well-differentiated tumors. Only 2 (18.2%) out of 11 tumors with moderate or poor differentiation showed positive RARRES3 expression. RARRES3 expression in well-differentiated CC was significantly higher than that in tumors with moderate or poor differentiation (Fisher exact test, P<0.01). Expression of RARRES3 was not different between early (I and II) and late (III and IV) stages of CC. Among 30 HCC tissues, 17 (56.7%) weakly expressed RARRES3 in HCC cells, and 25 (83.3%) normal tissues adjacent to HCC expressed the protein. RARRES3 expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues compared to that in adjacent normal tissues (logistic regression analysis, OR = 0.27, 95% CI (0.11-0.62), P<0.01).
CONCLUSION: Expression of RARRES3 is positively correlated to well-differentiated CC, which supports the role of RARRES3 in malignant epithelial differentiation of the tumor. The decrease in RARRES3 expression in tissues of HCC and CC with moderate and poor differentiation suggests that altered RARRES3 expression may play a role in the carcinogenesis of the liver and biliary tract.

Kwong J, Lo KW, Chow LS, et al.
Silencing of the retinoid response gene TIG1 by promoter hypermethylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2005; 113(3):386-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) and Tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3) are retinoid acid (RA) target genes as well as candidate tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. In our study, we have investigated the expression of TIG1 and TIG3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Loss of TIG1 expression was found in 80% of NPC cell lines and 33% of xenografts, whereas TIG3 was expressed in all NPC samples and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. In order to elucidate the epigenetic silencing of TIG1 in NPC, the methylation status of TIG1 promoter was examined by genomic bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR (MSP). We have detected dense methylation of TIG1 5'CpG island in the 5 TIG1-negative NPC cell lines and xenograft (C666-1, CNE1, CNE2, HONE1 and X666). Partial methylation was observed in 1 NPC cell line HK1 showing dramatic decreased in TIG1 expression. Promoter methylation was absent in 2 TIG1-expressed NPC xenografts and the normal epithelial cells. Restoration of TIG1 expression and unmethylated alleles were observed in NPC cell lines after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. Moreover, the methylated TIG1 sequence was detected in 39 of 43 (90.7%) primary NPC tumors by MSP. In conclusion, our results showed that TIG1 expression is lost in the majority of NPC cell lines and xenografts, while promoter hypermethylation is the major mechanism for TIG1 silencing. Furthermore, the frequent epigenetic inactivation of TIG1 in primary NPC tumors implied that it may play an important role in NPC tumorigenesis.

Duvic M, Ni X, Talpur R, et al.
Tazarotene-induced gene 3 is suppressed in basal cell carcinomas and reversed in vivo by tazarotene application.
J Invest Dermatol. 2003; 121(4):902-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinomas are the most common form of skin cancer. Tazarotene is a retinoic acid receptor selective retinoid that upregulates a tumor suppressor, tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG-3), in keratinocytes and psoriasis. Expression of TIG-3 in basal cell carcinomas was studied in an opened-label pilot biomarker study of 22 patients with basal cell carcinomas who applied tazarotene 0.1% gel for up to 12 wk prior to excision. Nineteen paired baseline and treated specimens were compared using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Compared to overlying normal epidermis, TIG-3 protein and mRNA were decreased in 14 and 18 of 19 basal cell carcinomas (74% and 95%), respectively (p < 0.001). Tazarotene treatment was associated with increased TIG-3 protein and mRNA expression in basal cell carcinomas compared to baseline levels (p < or = 0.001 and p = 0.028, respectively). Sixty percent of basal cell carcinomas treated with tazarotene decreased in size by at least 25%. Ten of 19 lesions improved histologically, including three complete responses. There was a correlation between the increased expression of TIG-3 protein and histologic improvement (p = 0.020), suggesting that suppression of TIG-3 may underlie the development of basal cell carcinomas. This association suggests that reversal of TIG-3 expression may help to explain the mechanism of retinoid action in epidermal differentiation and chemoprevention.

Higuchi E, Chandraratna RA, Hong WK, Lotan R
Induction of TIG3, a putative class II tumor suppressor gene, by retinoic acid in head and neck and lung carcinoma cells and its association with suppression of the transformed phenotype.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(30):4627-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoids can regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various tumor cells. It is thought that nuclear retinoid receptors mediate these effects by regulating gene transcription. The identity of specific retinoid target genes is only beginning to be unraveled. One candidate for mediating retinoid-induced growth suppression is the novel class II tumor suppressor gene tazarotene-induced gene 3 (TIG3). We examined the constitutive and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-inducible expression of TIG3 mRNA in five head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and five nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines to determine whether it is associated with their responsiveness to ATRA. The expression patterns of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta), another putative retinoid-inducible tumor suppressor gene, were also examined. The constitutive TIG3 expression was high in one HNSCC cell line and two NSCLC cell lines, and moderate to very low in the other cells. Some RARbeta-expressing cells had either low or undetectable TIG3 levels and vice versa. ATRA (1 microM; 48 h) increased TIG3 mRNA in 4/5 HNSCCs and 3/5 NSCLCs and RARbeta mRNA in some of the same cell lines, but also in cells that did not show TIG3 induction. TIG3 mRNA was induced by ATRA between 6 and 12 h in most of the responsive cells. ATRA concentrations required for TIG3 induction ranged from 1 to 500 nM depending on the cell line. The pan-RAR antagonists AGN193109 and the RARalpha antagonist Ro 41-5253 blocked TIG3 induction by ATRA. ATRA suppressed anchorage-independent colony formation in most cells that had a high or moderate constitutive or induced TIG3 expression level. In contrast, RARbeta mRNA expression pattern was not correlated with sensitivity to ATRA. These results suggest that TIG3 is regulated by ATRA via retinoid receptors in certain aerodigestive tract cancer cells, and its induction by ATRA is associated with the suppression of anchorage-independent growth.

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