Gene Summary

Gene:RELB; RELB proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit
Aliases: IREL, I-REL, REL-B
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor RelB
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • beta Catenin
  • Protein Binding
  • Cell Nucleus
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • ras Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 19
  • Drug Resistance
  • NF-kappa B p50 Subunit
  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Virus Replication
  • Cell Movement
  • Signal Transduction
  • RNA Interference
  • Transcription
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Cell Survival
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Line
  • Vertebrates
  • p53 Protein
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Factor RelB
  • rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • NF-kappa B
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • NF-kappa B p52 Subunit
  • Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RELB (cancer-related)

Honda T, Inagawa H
Gene Expression in Lipopolysaccharide-treated Human Monocytes Following Interaction with Hepatic Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3699-704 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Monocytes migrate into the tissue where they differentiate into various types of macrophages with tissue-specific characteristics. When human monocytes are co-cultured with colon cancer cells they exhibit increased mRNA expression of angiogenesis- and signaling pathway-related genes; however, this increase is suppressed by pretreatment with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thus, LPS-treated human monocytes may be useful in suppressing tumor invasion and proliferation in colon cancer. However, it is suggested that the characteristics of tumor-associated macrophages may differ depending on the type of cancer. The function of human tumor-associated macrophages in hepatic cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated mRNA expression of various genes in LPS-treated human monocytes following interaction with hepatic cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human monocyte cell line THP-1 was treated with LPS and subsequently co-cultured with the human hepatic cancer cell line HepG2. mRNA expression of various factors were then analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA microarray.
RESULTS: The mRNA expressions of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, nuclear factor-κB, RelB, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β in THP-1 cells following interaction with HepG2 cells, were suppressed by pretreatment with LPS.
CONCLUSION: LPS-treated human monocytes may be useful in suppressing tumor invasion and proliferation of hepatic cancer, as well as colon cancer. The co-culture system of monocytes and cancer cells may be beneficial for evaluating antitumor effects in LPS-treated monocytes.

de Oliveira KA, Kaergel E, Heinig M, et al.
A roadmap of constitutive NF-κB activity in Hodgkin lymphoma: Dominant roles of p50 and p52 revealed by genome-wide analyses.
Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NF-κB is widely involved in lymphoid malignancies; however, the functional roles and specific transcriptomes of NF-κB dimers with distinct subunit compositions have been unclear.
METHODS: Using combined ChIP-sequencing and microarray analyses, we determined the cistromes and target gene signatures of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB species in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells.
RESULTS: We found that the various NF-κB subunits are recruited to regions with redundant κB motifs in a large number of genes. Yet canonical and non-canonical NF-κB dimers up- and downregulate gene sets that are both distinct and overlapping, and are associated with diverse biological functions. p50 and p52 are formed through NIK-dependent p105 and p100 precursor processing in HL cells and are the predominant DNA binding subunits. Logistic regression analyses of combinations of the p50, p52, RelA, and RelB subunits in binding regions that have been assigned to genes they regulate reveal a cross-contribution of p52 and p50 to canonical and non-canonical transcriptomes. These analyses also indicate that the subunit occupancy pattern of NF-κB binding regions and their distance from the genes they regulate are determinants of gene activation versus repression. The pathway-specific signatures of activated and repressed genes distinguish HL from other NF-κB-associated lymphoid malignancies and inversely correlate with gene expression patterns in normal germinal center B cells, which are presumed to be the precursors of HL cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide insights that are relevant for lymphomas with constitutive NF-κB activation and generally for the decoding of the mechanisms of differential gene regulation through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling.

Lu W, Ning H, Gu L, et al.
MCPIP1 Selectively Destabilizes Transcripts Associated with an Antiapoptotic Gene Expression Program in Breast Cancer Cells That Can Elicit Complete Tumor Regression.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(6):1429-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
The ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis is dictated by a shift in the balance between proapoptotic and antiapoptotic gene expression programs. Monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) is a zinc-finger RNA binding protein with important roles in mediating inflammatory responses. Overexpression of MCPIP1 in different cancer cell types has been implicated in eliciting an antitumor response, but a direct role of MCPIP1 in apoptosis has not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that MCPIP1 functions as a potent tumor suppressor that induces apoptosis of breast tumor cells by selectively enhancing mRNA decay of antiapoptotic gene transcripts, including Bcl2L1, Bcl2A1, RelB, Birc3, and Bcl3. Mechanistically, MCPIP1 physically interacted with a stem-loop structure in the 3' untranslated region of these transcripts through its PIN domain, causing mRNA destabilization. Furthermore, we found that MCPIP1 expression was repressed in breast tumor cells, and overexpression of MCPIP1 induced apoptosis, whereas its depletion enhanced cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, MCPIP1 induction in vivo resulted in complete regression of established tumors and a significant reduction in metastatic disease. Notably, low MCPIP1 expression in tumor samples from breast cancer patients was strongly associated with poor survival over 13 years of follow-up. Collectively, our results highlight that MCPIP1 is a new tumor suppressor in breast cancer that induces cell death by tipping the balance in favor of proapoptotic gene expression.

Hunter JE, Leslie J, Perkins ND
c-Rel and its many roles in cancer: an old story with new twists.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(1):1-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2017 Related Publications
When the genes encoding NF-κB subunits were first isolated, their homology to the previously identified c-Rel proto-oncogene and its viral homologue v-Rel was clear. This provided the first indication that these transcription factors also had a role in cancer. Because of its homology to v-Rel, which transforms chicken B cells together with the important role c-Rel can have as a regulator of B- and T-cell proliferation, most attention has focussed on its role in B-cell lymphomas, where the REL gene is frequently amplified. However, a growing number of reports now indicate that c-Rel has important functions in many solid tumours, although studies in mice suggest it may not always function as an oncogene. Moreover, c-Rel is a critical regulator of fibrosis, which provides an environment for tumour development in many settings. Overall, c-Rel is emerging as a complex regulator of tumorigenesis, and there is still much to learn about its functions in human malignancies and the response to cancer therapies.

Ohtsu N, Nakatani Y, Yamashita D, et al.
Eva1 Maintains the Stem-like Character of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells by Activating the Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(1):171-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM)-initiating cells (GIC) are a tumorigenic subpopulation that are resistant to radio- and chemotherapies and are the source of disease recurrence. Therefore, the identification and characterization of GIC-specific factors is critical toward the generation of effective GBM therapeutics. In this study, we investigated the role of epithelial V-like antigen 1 (Eva1, also known as myelin protein zero-like 2) in stemness and GBM tumorigenesis. Eva1 was prominently expressed in GICs in vitro and in stem cell marker (Sox2, CD15, CD49f)-expressing cells derived from human GBM tissues. Eva1 knockdown in GICs reduced their self-renewal and tumor-forming capabilities, whereas Eva1 overexpression enhanced these properties. Eva1 deficiency was also associated with decreased expression of stemness-related genes, indicating a requirement for Eva1 in maintaining GIC pluripotency. We further demonstrate that Eva1 induced GIC proliferation through the activation of the RelB-dependent noncanonical NF-κB pathway by recruiting TRAF2 to the cytoplasmic tail. Taken together, our findings highlight Eva1 as a novel regulator of GIC function and also provide new mechanistic insight into the role of noncanonical NF-κB activation in GIC, thus offering multiple potential therapeutic targets for preclinical investigation in GBM.

Salipante SJ, Adey A, Thomas A, et al.
Recurrent somatic loss of TNFRSF14 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(3):278-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Investigation of the genetic lesions underlying classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) has been challenging due to the rarity of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, the pathognomonic neoplastic cells of CHL. In an effort to catalog more comprehensively recurrent copy number alterations occurring during oncogenesis, we investigated somatic alterations involved in CHL using whole-genome sequencing-mediated copy number analysis of purified HRS cells. We performed low-coverage sequencing of small numbers of intact HRS cells and paired non-neoplastic B lymphocytes isolated by flow cytometric cell sorting from 19 primary cases, as well as two commonly used HRS-derived cell lines (KM-H2 and L1236). We found that HRS cells contain strikingly fewer copy number abnormalities than CHL cell lines. A subset of cases displayed nonintegral chromosomal copy number states, suggesting internal heterogeneity within the HRS cell population. Recurrent somatic copy number alterations involving known factors in CHL pathogenesis were identified (REL, the PD-1 pathway, and TNFAIP3). In eight cases (42%) we observed recurrent copy number loss of chr1:2,352,236-4,574,271, a region containing the candidate tumor suppressor TNFRSF14. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrated reduced TNFRSF14 expression in HRS cells from 5 of 22 additional cases (23%) and in two of three CHL cell lines. These studies suggest that TNFRSF14 dysregulation may contribute to the pathobiology of CHL in a subset of cases.

Mareschal S, Dubois S, Viailly PJ, et al.
Whole exome sequencing of relapsed/refractory patients expands the repertoire of somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(3):251-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the many efforts already spent to enumerate somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), previous whole-genome and whole-exome studies conducted on patients of mixed outcomes failed at characterizing the 30% of patients who will relapse or resist current immunochemotherapies. To address this issue, we performed whole-exome sequencing of normal/tumoral DNA pairs in 14 relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients subclassified by full-transcriptome arrays (six activated B-cell like, three germinal center B-cell like, and five primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas), from the LNH-03 LYSA clinical trial program. Aside from well-known DLBCL features, gene and pathway level recurrence analyses proposed several interesting leads including TBL1XR1 and activating mutations in IRF4 or in the insulin regulation pathway. Sequencing-based copy number analysis defined 23 short recurrently altered regions involving genes such as REL, CDKN2A, HYAL2, and TP53. Moreover, it highlighted mutations in genes such as GNA13, CARD11, MFHAS1, and PCLO as associated with secondary variant allele amplification events. The five primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas (PMBL), while unexpected in a R/R cohort, showed a significantly higher mutation rate (P = 0.003) and provided many insights on this classical Hodgkin lymphoma related subtype. Novel genes such as XPO1, MFHAS1, and ITPKB were found particularly mutated, along with various cytokine-based signaling pathways. Among these analyses, somatic events in the NF-κB pathway were found preponderant in the three DLBCL subtypes, confirming its major implication in DLBCL aggressiveness and pinpointing several new candidate genes.

Dai H, Ehrentraut S, Nagel S, et al.
Genomic Landscape of Primary Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0139663 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary mediastinal B-Cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a recently defined entity comprising ~2-10% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Unlike most NHL subtypes, PMBL lacks recurrent gene rearrangements to serve as biomarkers or betray target genes. While druggable, late chemotherapeutic complications warrant the search for new targets and models. Well characterized tumor cell lines provide unlimited material to serve as preclinical resources for verifiable analyses directed at the discovery of new biomarkers and pathological targets using high throughput microarray technologies. The same cells may then be used to seek intelligent therapies directed at clinically validated targets. Four cell lines have emerged as potential PMBL models: FARAGE, KARPAS-1106P, MEDB-1 and U-2940. Transcriptionally, PMBL cell lines cluster near c(lassical)-HL and B-NHL examples showing they are related but separate entities. Here we document genomic alterations therein, by cytogenetics and high density oligonucleotide/SNP microarrays and parse their impact by integrated global expression profiling. PMBL cell lines were distinguished by moderate chromosome rearrangement levels undercutting cHL, while lacking oncogene translocations seen in B-NHL. In total 61 deletions were shared by two or more cell lines, together with 12 amplifications (≥4x) and 72 homozygous regions. Integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling showed deletions to be the most important class of chromosome rearrangement. Lesions were mapped to several loci associated with PMBL, e.g. 2p15 (REL/COMMD1), 9p24 (JAK2, CD274), 16p13 (SOCS1, LITAF, CIITA); plus new or tenuously associated loci: 2p16 (MSH6), 6q23 (TNFAIP3), 9p22 (CDKN2A/B), 20p12 (PTPN1). Discrete homozygous regions sometimes substituted focal deletions accompanied by gene silencing implying a role for epigenetic or mutational inactivation. Genomic amplifications increasing gene expression or gene-activating rearrangements were respectively rare or absent. Our findings highlight biallelic deletions as a major class of chromosomal lesion in PMBL cell lines, while endorsing the latter as preclinical models for hunting and testing new biomarkers and actionable targets.

Kim YI, Lee J, Choi YJ, et al.
Proteogenomic Study beyond Chromosome 9: New Insight into Expressed Variant Proteome and Transcriptome in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Tissues.
J Proteome Res. 2015; 14(12):5007-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
This is a report of a human proteome project (HPP) related to chromosome 9 (Chr 9). To reveal missing proteins and undiscovered features in proteogenomes, both LC-MS/MS analysis and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based identification and characterization were conducted on five pairs of lung adenocarcinoma tumors and adjacent nontumor tissues. Before our previous Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) special issue, there were 170 remaining missing proteins on Chr 9 (neXtProt 2013.09.26 rel.); 133 remain at present (neXtProt 2015.04.28 rel.). In the proteomics study, we found two missing protein candidates that require follow-up work and one unrevealed protein across all chromosomes. RNA-seq analysis detected RNA expression for four nonsynonymous (NS) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (in CDH17, HIST1H1T, SAPCD2, and ZNF695) and three synonymous SNPs (in CDH17, CST1, and HNF1A) in all five tumor tissues but not in any of the adjacent normal tissues. By constructing a cancer patient sample-specific protein database based on individual RNA-seq data and by searching the proteomics data from the same sample, we identified four missense mutations in four genes (LTF, HDLBP, TF, and HBD). Two of these mutations were found in tumor samples but not in paired normal tissues. In summary, our proteogenomic study of human primary lung tumor tissues detected additional and revealed novel missense mutations and synonymous SNP signatures, some of which are specific to lung cancers. Data from mass spectrometry have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD002523.

Leonard B, McCann JL, Starrett GJ, et al.
The PKC/NF-κB signaling pathway induces APOBEC3B expression in multiple human cancers.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(21):4538-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of the antiviral DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B has been linked to somatic mutagenesis in many cancers. Human papillomavirus infection accounts for APOBEC3B upregulation in cervical and head/neck cancers, but the mechanisms underlying nonviral malignancies are unclear. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways responsible for APOBEC3B upregulation. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by the diacylglycerol mimic phorbol-myristic acid resulted in specific and dose-responsive increases in APOBEC3B expression and activity, which could then be strongly suppressed by PKC or NF-κB inhibition. PKC activation caused the recruitment of RELB, but not RELA, to the APOBEC3B promoter, implicating noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Notably, PKC was required for APOBEC3B upregulation in cancer cell lines derived from multiple tumor types. By revealing how APOBEC3B is upregulated in many cancers, our findings suggest that PKC and NF-κB inhibitors may be repositioned to suppress cancer mutagenesis, dampen tumor evolution, and decrease the probability of adverse outcomes, such as drug resistance and metastasis.

Verzella D, Fischietti M, Capece D, et al.
Targeting the NF-κB pathway in prostate cancer: a promising therapeutic approach?
Curr Drug Targets. 2016; 17(3):311-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rel/NF-κB transcription factors are key regulators of genes implicated in inflammatory and immune activation, cell growth and protection from apoptosis. Constitutive activation of NF-κB has been observed in several types of cancers. Recently, it has been shown that inflammation and cancer are molecularly linked by means of NF-κB. During prostate cancer progression, NF-κB promotes cell survival, tumor invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. NF-κB constitutive activation has been frequently demonstrated in primary prostate cancers and it correlates with loss of androgen receptor expression and castration-resistant phenotypes. Indeed, inhibition of NF-κB pathway may reduce the oncogenic effects mediated by chronic inflammatory response. Therefore, NF-κB represents a hopeful target for the treatment of prostate cancer due to its role in oncogenesis and chemoresistance. Here, the current knowledge about the roles of NF-κB signaling pathway in prostate tumorigenesis is discussed, taking into consideration the potentiality and effectiveness of NF-κB inhibitors as therapeutic agents for prostate cancer.

Li L, Xu-Monette ZY, Ok CY, et al.
Prognostic impact of c-Rel nuclear expression and REL amplification and crosstalk between c-Rel and the p53 pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(27):23157-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated NF-κB signaling is critical for lymphomagenesis. The regulation, function, and clinical relevance of c-Rel/NF-κB activation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have not been well studied. In this study we analyzed the prognostic significance and gene-expression signature of c-Rel nuclear expression as surrogate of c-Rel activation in 460 patients with de novo DLBCL. Nuclear c-Rel expression, observed in 137 (26.3%) DLBCL patients frequently associated with extranoal origin, did not show significantly prognostic impact in the overall- or germinal center B-like-DLBCL cohort, likely due to decreased pAKT and Myc levels, up-regulation of FOXP3, FOXO3, MEG3 and other tumor suppressors coincided with c-Rel nuclear expression, as well as the complicated relationships between NF-κB members and their overlapping function. However, c-Rel nuclear expression correlated with significantly poorer survival in p63+ and BCL-2- activated B-cell-like-DLBCL, and in DLBCL patients with TP53 mutations. Multivariate analysis indicated that after adjusting clinical parameters, c-Rel positivity was a significantly adverse prognostic factor in DLBCL patients with wild type TP53. Gene expression profiling suggested dysregulations of cell cycle, metabolism, adhesion, and migration associated with c-Rel activation. In contrast, REL amplification did not correlate with c-Rel nuclear expression and patient survival, likely due to co-amplification of genes that negatively regulate NF-κB activation. These insights into the expression, prognostic impact, regulation and function of c-Rel as well as its crosstalk with the p53 pathway underscore the importance of c-Rel and have significant therapeutic implications.

Labouba I, Le Page C, Communal L, et al.
Potential Cross-Talk between Alternative and Classical NF-κB Pathways in Prostate Cancer Tissues as Measured by a Multi-Staining Immunofluorescence Co-Localization Assay.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131024 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While the classical NF-κB/p65 pathway is known to be involved in prostate cancer progression and is associated with poor patient outcome, the role of the NF-κB /RelB alternative protein is not well defined. Here we analyzed the activation of both NF-κB pathways in prostate cancer tissues and correlate this activation with clinical features of the disease.
METHODS: A multiple immunofluorescence technique was employed to concomitantly and quantitatively visualize the nuclear localization of p65 and RelB in 200 paraffin embedded samples. Epithelia were defined using appropriate fluorochrome markers and the resulting immunofluorescent signals were quantified with an automated scoring system.
RESULTS: The nuclear frequency of p65 was found to be significantly increased in tumor tissues as compared with normal adjacent tissue, whereas the frequency for RelB was decreased (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon test). As previously reported, p65 nuclear frequency was associated with a risk of biochemical recurrence. Although, RelB nuclear frequency alone did not predict recurrence, the presence of activated RelB reduced the risk of recurrence associated with the activation of p65.
CONCLUSION: For the first time p65/RelB co-distribution was assessed in prostate cancer tissues and suggested a negative crosstalk between the two NF-κB pathways in prostate cancer progression.

Honda T, Inagawa H
Molecular Response of Human Monocytes Following Interaction with Colon Cancer Cells by Pre-treatment with Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(8):4473-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The increased mRNA expression of chemotaxis- and angiogenesis-related factors in human monocytes following interaction with colon cancer cells has been shown to be suppressed by pre-treatment with low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 pg/ml). It has been demonstrated that low-dose LPS reduced the expression of RelB, a member of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factor family, in mouse macrophages and the NF-κB signaling pathway was important for tumor initiation and growth in tumor-associated macrophages. In addition, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulated innate immunity via Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling. In the present study, the mRNA expression of signaling pathway- and suppression-related genes in human monocytes following a low-dose LPS treatment and subsequent interaction with colon cancer cells was investigated, in order to assess the molecular response.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The human monocyte cell line THP-1 was treated with LPS and, subsequently, co-cultured with the human colon cancer cell line DLD-1. The mRNA expression of various genes was then analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of RelB, STAT3, interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in THP-1 cells following interaction with DLD-1 cells was suppressed by pre-treatment with low-dose LPS (100 pg/ml).
CONCLUSION: Treating human monocytes with low-dose LPS may be useful for suppressing tumor progression and may be valuable for maintaining homeostasis.

Kuzmina LA, Petinati NA, Shipounova IN, et al.
Analysis of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells used for acute graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis.
Eur J Haematol. 2016; 96(4):425-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are used for prophylaxis of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Not all samples of MSC are efficient for aGvHD prevention. The suitability of MSCs for aGvHD prophylaxis was studied.
METHODS: MSCs were derived from the bone marrow (BM) of HCT donor and cultivated for no more than three passages. The characteristics of donor BM samples including colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) concentration, growth parameters of MSCs, and the relative expression levels (REL) of different genes were analyzed. MSCs were injected intravenously precisely at the moment of blood cell reconstitution.
RESULTS: MSCs infusion induced a significant threefold decrease in aGvHD development and improved overall survival compared with the standard prophylaxis group. In ineffective MSC samples (9.4%), a significant decrease in total cell production and the REL of CSF1, FGFR1, and PDGFRB was observed. In all studied BM samples, the cumulative MSC production and CFU-F concentrations decreased with age. The expression levels of FGFR2, PPARG, and VEGF differed by age.
CONCLUSIONS: A universal single indicator for the prediction of MSC eligibility for aGvHD prophylaxis was not identified. A multiparameter mathematical model for selecting MSC samples effective for the prevention of aGvHD was proposed.

Ok CY, Xu-Monette ZY, Li L, et al.
Evaluation of NF-κB subunit expression and signaling pathway activation demonstrates that p52 expression confers better outcome in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in association with CD30 and BCL2 functions.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(9):1202-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor with a well-described oncogenic role. Study for each of five NF-κB pathway subunits was only reported on small cohorts in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this large cohort (n=533) of patients with de novo DLBCL, we evaluated the protein expression frequency, gene expression signature, and clinical implication for each of these five NF-κB subunits. Expression of p50, p52, p65, RELB, and c-Rel was 34%, 12%, 20%, 14%, and 23%, whereas p50/p65, p50/c-Rel, and p52/RELB expression was 11%, 11%, and 3%, respectively. NF-κB subunits were expressed in both germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, but p50 and p50/c-Rel were associated with ABC-DLBCL. p52, RELB, and p52/RELB expressions were associated with CD30 expression. p52 expression was negatively associated with BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) expression and BCL2 rearrangement. Although p52 expression was associated with better progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.0170), singular expression of the remaining NF-κB subunits alone did not show significant prognostic impact in the overall DLBCL cohort. Expression of p52/RELB was associated with better overall survival (OS) and PFS (P=0.0307 and P=0.0247). When cases were stratified into GCB- and ABC-DLBCL, p52 or p52/RELB dimer expression status was associated with better OS and PFS (P=0.0134 and P=0.0124) only within the GCB subtype. However, multivariate analysis did not show p52 expression to be an independent prognostic factor. Beneficial effect of p52 in GCB-DLBC appears to be its positive correlation with CD30 and negative correlation with BCL2 expression. Gene expression profiling (GEP) showed that p52(+) GCB-DLBCL was distinct from p52(-) GCB-DLBCL. Collectively, our data suggest that DLBCL patients with p52 expression might not benefit from therapy targeting the NF-κB pathway.

Cai X, Luo J, Yang X, et al.
In vivo selection for spine-derived highly metastatic lung cancer cells is associated with increased migration, inflammation and decreased adhesion.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(26):22905-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We developed a murine spine metastasis model by screening five metastatic non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (PC-9, A549, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, H2030). A549 cells displayed the highest tendency towards spine metastases. After three rounds of selection in vivo, we isolated a clone named A549L6, which induced spine metastasis in 80% of injected mice. The parameters of the A549L6 cell spinal metastatic mouse models were consistent with clinical spine metastasis features. All the spinal metastatic mice developed symptoms of nerve compression after 40 days. A549L6 cells had increased migration, invasiveness and decreased adhesion compared to the original A549L0 cells. In contrast, there was no significant differences in cell proliferation, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. Comparative transcriptomic analysis and real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of signaling molecules regulating several tumor properties including migration (MYL9), metastasis (CEACAM6, VEGFC, CX3CL1, CST1, CCL5, S100A9, IGF1, NOTCH3), adhesion (FN1, CEACAM1) and inflammation (TRAF2, NFκB2 and RelB) were altered in A549L6 cells. We suggest that migration, adhesion and inflammation related genes contribute to spine metastatic capacity.

de Oliveira JG, Rossi AF, Nizato DM, et al.
Influence of functional polymorphisms in TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 cytokine genes on mRNA expression levels and risk of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9159-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functional polymorphisms in promoter regions can produce changes in the affinity of transcription factors, thus altering the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of inflammatory cytokines associated with the risk of cancer development. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence that polymorphisms in the cytokine genes known as TNF-α-308 G/A (rs1800629), TNF-α-857 C/T (rs1799724), IL-8-251 T/A (rs4073), IL-8-845 T/C (rs2227532), and IL-10-592 C/A (rs1800872) have on changes to mRNA expression levels and on the risks of chronic gastritis (CG) and gastric cancer (GC). A sample of 723 individuals was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Relative mRNA expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Polymorphisms TNF-α-308 G/A and IL-8-251 A/T were not associated with risks of these gastric lesions. However, TNF-α-857 C/T, IL-8-845 T/C, and IL-10-592 C/A were found to be associated with a higher risk of GC, and IL-10-592 C/A was found to be associated with a higher risk of CG. The relative mRNA expression levels (RQ) of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were markedly downregulated in the CG group (median RQs = 0.128, 0.247, and 0.614, respectively), while the RQ levels of TNF-α in the GC group were upregulated (RQ = 2.749), but were basal for IL-8 (RQ = 1.053) and downregulated for IL-10 (RQ = 0.179). When the groups were stratified according to wild-type and polymorphic alleles, only for IL-8-845 T/C the polymorphic allele was found to influence the expression levels of this cytokine. IL-8-845 C allele carriers were significantly upregulated in both groups (GC and CG; RQ = 3.138 and 2.181, respectively) when compared to TT homozygotes (RQ = -0.407 and 0.165, respectively). In silico analysis in the IL-8 promoter region revealed that the presence of the variant C allele in position -845 is responsible for the presence of the binding sites for two transcription factors (REL and CREB1), which are involved in increased gene expression. Polymorphic alleles were not shown to have any effect on the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-10. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for an association of TNF-α-857 C/T, IL-8-845 T/C, and IL-10-592 C/A with a higher risk of gastric cancer and also demonstrate the influence that the polymorphic C allele of IL-8-845 has on changes to the gene expression levels of this cytokine.

Bekki K, Vogel H, Li W, et al.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates resistance to apoptosis induced in breast cancer cells.
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015; 120:5-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well known as a ligand binding transcription factor regulating various biological effects. Previously we have shown that long-term exposure to estrogen in breast cancer cells caused not only down regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) but also overexpression of AhR. The AhR interacts with several cell signaling pathways associated with induction of tyrosine kinases, cytokines and growth factors which may support the survival roles of AhR escaping from apoptosis elicited by a variety of apoptosis inducing agents in breast cancer. In this study, we studied the anti-apoptotic role of AhR in different breast cancer cells when apoptosis was induced by exposure to UV light and chemotherapeutic agents. Activation of AhR by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in AhR overexpressing breast cancer cells effectively suppressed the apoptotic response induced by UV-irradiation, doxorubicin, lapatinib and paclitaxel. The anti-apoptotic response of TCDD was uniformly antagonized by the treatment with 3'methoxy-4'nitroflavone (MNF), a specific antagonist of AhR. TCDD's survival action of apoptosis was accompanied with the induction of well-known inflammatory genes, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-κB subunit RelB. Moreover, TCDD increased the activity of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), which metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine (Kyn) and mediates tumor immunity. Kyn also acts as an AhR ligand like TCDD, and kyn induced an anti-apoptotic response in breast cancer cells. Accordingly, our present study suggests that AhR plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer via the suppression of apoptosis, and provides an idea that the use of AhR antagonists with chemotherapeutic agents may effectively synergize the elimination of breast cancer cells.

Nagel S, Ehrentraut S, Meyer C, et al.
NFkB is activated by multiple mechanisms in hairy cell leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(7):418-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of unclear pathogenesis. Recent studies have identified BRAF(V600E) mutations in most HCL patients, highlighting this abnormality as a molecular hallmark for this disease. Cell lines originating from HCL patients lack BRAF mutations but retain the typical piliferous morphology and the distinctive HCL immunophenotype, thus, constituting suitable tools for identifying alternative tumor genes and leukemic mechanisms in this malignancy. To this end, we integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling of the HCL cell line MLMA. The expression levels of genomically targeted genes were compared to four HCL control cell lines, thus, identifying 91 chromosomally deregulated genes. Gene set enrichment analysis of these indicted apoptosis, proliferation, and DNA damage response as altered processes. Accordingly, prominent target genes overexpressed in this cell line include ATM, BRAF, CDK6, CUTL1/CUX1, H2AFX, and REL. Treatment of MLMA with selective pharmacological inhibitors and specific siRNA-mediated gene knockdowns highlighted a central role for NFkB in their deregulation in HCL. Moreover, relevant expression profiling data from HCL and ABC-DLBCL cell lines display elevated NFkB-pathway activity when compared to GC-DLBCL equivalents. Finally, analysis of HCL patient samples in silico collectively supported the clinical significance of NFkB activation in this disease. In conclusion, we identified deregulated genes and multiple mechanisms underlying aberrantly activated NFkB-pathway in HCL. Therefore, NFkB may represent a B-cell specific hallmark of HCL and a promising novel therapeutic target, most notably in patients lacking BRAF mutations in this entity including variant HCL.

Savlı H, Akkoyunlu RU, Çine N, et al.
Deregulated Levels of the NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel Genes in Ukrainian Patients with Leukemia and Lymphoma in the Post-Chernobyl Period.
Turk J Haematol. 2016; 33(1):8-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is an important transcription factor in cancer and NF-κB activation has been seen in angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Relationships between specific NF-κB gene networks, leukemogenesis, and radiation exposure are still unknown. Our aim was to study the expression levels of the NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel genes in hematological malignancies in the post-Chernobyl period.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed gene expression levels of NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel in 49 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 8 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 3 acute myeloid leukemia, 3 chronic myeloid leukemia, 2 hairy cell leukemia, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 2 T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Expression levels of NF-κB1, NF-κB2, and Rel genes were found to be deregulated.
CONCLUSION: These results could be accepted as specific gene traces to radiation-induced leukemia or as potential candidates for new diagnostic biomarker studies. Larger experiments and non-exposed control malignant cell populations are needed to clarify these suggestions.

Boddicker RL, Kip NS, Xing X, et al.
The oncogenic transcription factor IRF4 is regulated by a novel CD30/NF-κB positive feedback loop in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2015; 125(20):3118-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are generally aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas with poor overall survival rates following standard therapy. One-third of PTCLs express interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4), a tightly regulated transcription factor involved in lymphocyte growth and differentiation. IRF4 drives tumor growth in several lymphoid malignancies and has been proposed as a candidate therapeutic target. Because direct IRF4 inhibitors are not clinically available, we sought to characterize the mechanism by which IRF4 expression is regulated in PTCLs. We demonstrated that IRF4 is constitutively expressed in PTCL cells and drives Myc expression and proliferation. Using an inhibitor screen, we identified nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) as a candidate regulator of IRF4 expression and cell proliferation. We then demonstrated that the NF-κB subunits p52 and RelB were transcriptional activators of IRF4. Further analysis showed that activation of CD30 promotes p52 and RelB activity and subsequent IRF4 expression. Finally, we showed that IRF4 transcriptionally regulates CD30 expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel positive feedback loop involving CD30, NF-κB, and IRF4; further evidence for this mechanism was demonstrated in human PTCL tissue samples. Accordingly, NF-κB inhibitors may represent a clinical means to disrupt this feedback loop in IRF4-positive PTCLs.

Horie K, Ma J, Umezawa K
Inhibition of canonical NF-κB nuclear localization by (-)-DHMEQ via impairment of DNA binding.
Oncol Res. 2015; 22(2):105-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously discovered (-)-DHMEQ as a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, and it was shown to suppress many cancer and inflammation models in animals. (-)-DHMEQ directly binds to NF-κB components to inhibit DNA binding, and moreover, it often inhibits nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The mechanism of inhibiting nuclear translocation has been elucidated for RelB, a main noncanonical NF-κB component. However, it was not elucidated for p65, a main canonical NF-κB component. In the present research, we studied how (-)-DHMEQ inhibits nuclear localization of p65. First, (-)-DHMEQ inhibited p65 nuclear accumulation in adult T-cell leukemia MT-2 cells in which canonical p65 is constitutively activated. But there was no change in the stability and importin-α3 affinity of p65. Then, we prepared a p65 mutant protein with Arg35Ala and Tyr36Ala (AA) mutations having no DNA-binding ability in HeLa cells. The p65 AA mutant showed reduced nuclear localization without changing the stability and importin affinity. Taken together, the mechanism of inhibition is different between RelB and p65, and inhibition of p65 nuclear localization is likely to be due to the inhibition of DNA binding changing the equilibrium between the nuclear and cytoplasmic amounts of p65.

Liu F, Zhou J, Zhou P, et al.
The ubiquitin ligase CHIP inactivates NF-κB signaling and impairs the ability of migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(5):2096-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin modification of proteins influences cellular processes related to carcinogenesis. The carboxyl terminus of Hsc-70-interacting protein (CHIP), as U-box-type ubiquitin ligase, induces ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of its substrate proteins. In this study, the role of CHIP in diverse aspects of gastric cancer cells was investigated. CHIP overexpression in the AGS gastric cancer cells caused impaired tumor growth. CHIP overexpression significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the AGS cells. Moreover, we found that not only RelA/p65 but also RelB, the NF-κB subunits, was negatively regulated by CHIP, likely owing to the TRAF2 reduction. Downregulated target genes of NF-κB subunits, including MMP-2 and -9, integrin β-1 and Bcl-2 were involved in these processes. We also showed that the expression level of CHIP was frequently decreased in gastric cancer tissues and the low level of CHIP expression might be an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis. Taken together, these observations provide functional evidence for CHIP behaviors as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.

Xu ZS, Zhang JS, Zhang JY, et al.
Constitutive activation of NF-κB signaling by NOTCH1 mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(4):1609-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NOTCH1 mutations occur in approximately 10% of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the relationship between the genetic aberrations and tumor cell drug resistance or disease progression remains unclear. Frameshift deletions were detected by gene sequencing in the NOTCH1 PEST domain in three naive CLL patients. These mutations were associated with chromosomal abnormalities including trisomy 12 or 13q deletion. Of note, one of the patients developed Richter's transformation during FCR treatment. Immunofluorescent and western blot analyses revealed a markedly higher intracellular domain of NOTCH (ICN) expression in the mutated cells compared with their unmutated counterparts and normal CD19+ B lymphocytes (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). In addition, strong DNA-κB binding activities were observed in the mutant cells by gel shift assays. RT-PCR analysis revealed elevated RelA mRNA expression in the mutant cells, while RelB levels were variable. Reduced levels of RelA and RelB mRNA were observed in unmutated CLL and normal B cells. Compared to unmutated CLL and normal B cells, increased apoptosis occurred in the mutant cells in the presence of GSI (ICN inhibitor) and PDTC (NF-κB inhibitor), particularly under the synergistic effects of the two drugs (P=0.03). Moreover, IKKα and IKKβ, the active components in the NF-κB pathway, were markedly inhibited following prolonged treatment with GSI and PDTC. These results suggested that NOTCH1 mutations constitutively activate the NF-κB signaling pathway in CLL, which is likely related to ICN overexpression, indicating NOTCH1 and NF-κB as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of CLL.

Rwigemera A, Mamelona J, Martin LJ
Comparative effects between fucoxanthinol and its precursor fucoxanthin on viability and apoptosis of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(1):207-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: We evaluated whether low doses of the natural carotenoid fucoxanthin and/or of its metabolite fucoxanthinol are effective against proliferation of estrogen-sensitive MCF-7 and estrogen-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: These cell lines were stimulated with 10 to 20 μM fucoxanthin and/or fucoxanthinol, followed by cell viability assays, Annexin V immunofluorescence to evaluate apoptosis, as well as mRNA and protein extractions for changes in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) members' expressions and nuclear translocations.
RESULTS: Fucoxanthin and fucoxanthinol reduced the viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a time-dependent manner as a result of increased apoptosis. In both cell lines, modulatory actions of fucoxanthinol on members of the NF-κB pathway were more pronounced than that of fucoxanthin.
CONCLUSION: In MDA-MB-231 cells, fucoxanthinol reduced nuclear levels of NF-κB members' p65, p52 and RelB. Fucoxanthinol and fucoxanthin could be effective for the treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer.

Raymond A, Liu B, Liang H, et al.
A role for BMP-induced homeobox gene MIXL1 in acute myelogenous leukemia and identification of type I BMP receptor as a potential target for therapy.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(24):12675-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesoderm Inducer in Xenopus Like1 (MIXL1), a paired-type homeobox transcription factor induced by TGF-β family of ligands is required for early embryonic specification of mesoderm and endoderm. Retrovirally transduced Mixl1 is reported to induce acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with a high penetrance. But the mechanistic underpinnings of MIXL1 mediated leukemogenesis are unknown. Here, we establish the protooncogene c-REL to be a transcriptional target of MIXL1 by genome wide chromatin immune precipitation. Accordingly, expression of c-REL and its downstream targets BCL2L1 and BCL2A2 are elevated in MIXL1 expressing cells. Notably, MIXL1 regulates c-REL through a zinc finger binding motif, potentially by a MIXL1-Zinc finger protein transcriptional complex. Furthermore, MIXL1 expression is detected in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) AML samples in a pattern mutually exclusive from that of HOXA9, CDX2 and HLX suggesting the existence of a core, yet distinct HOX transcriptional program. Finally, we demonstrate MIXL1 to be induced by BMP4 and not TGF-β in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Consequently, MIXL1 expressing AML cells are preferentially sensitive to the BMPR1 kinase inhibitor LDN-193189. These findings support the existence of a novel MIXL1-c REL mediated survival axis in AML that can be targeted by BMPR1 inhibitors. (MIXL1- human gene, Mixl1- mouse ortholog, MIXL1- protein).

Lv M, Wang L
Comprehensive analysis of genes, pathways, and TFs in nonsmoking Taiwan females with lung cancer.
Exp Lung Res. 2015; 41(2):74-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of lung cancer among nonsmoking Taiwan females.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using the GSE19804 microarray data accessible from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between nonsmoking female lung cancer patients and healthy controls (!logFC! >1.5 and p-value < 0.05). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) tool was utilized to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, followed by the construction of a transcriptional regulatory network based on Transcription factor (TRANSFAC) database.
RESULTS: As a result, 320 DEGs were identified between nonsmoking female patients with lung cancer and healthy controls. Pathway enrichment analysis showed significantly enriched pathways such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, both of which were enriched with genes COL11A1 (encoding collagen XI alpha-1 chain protein), COL1A1, cluster of differentiation 36(CD36). GO enrichment analysis found that DEGs were significantly related to chemotaxis, vasculature development and cell adhesion GO terms. IL-6 was the node of the PPI network. Critical transcription factors (TFs) including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD) and Rel/NF-κB were also identified.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that ECM-receptor interaction, PPAR signaling pathways, and important biomolecules including COL11A1, COL1A1, CD36, IL-6, CEBPD, and Rel/NF-κB might be involved in lung cancer. This study might pave the way for the development and application of targeted therapeutics of lung cancer irrelevant to smoking.

Zhu HC, Qiu T, Dan C, et al.
Blockage of RelB expression by gene silencing enhances the radiosensitivity of androgen‑independent prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(2):1167-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Levels of the nuclear factor‑kappa B (NF‑κB) alternative pathway member RelB have been shown to correlate with the effect of radiation therapy in prostate cancer. RelB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer specimens. RM‑1 cells were pretreated with RelB siRNA prior to radiation therapy, and RelB expression in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts was detected by real‑time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The apoptotic rates of experimental RM‑1 cell groups were assessed by flow cytometry. A clonogenic growth array was used to evaluate the radiosensitivity of RM‑1 cell groups. The NF‑κB family member RelB was expressed at a high level in prostate cancer specimens. Compared with irradiated control cells, RM‑1 cells transfected with RelB siRNA and treated with radiation therapy demonstrated a significant downregulation of RelB expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Notably, flow cytometry revealed that pretreatment of RM‑1 cells with RelB siRNA enhanced the apoptotic rate in response to radiation therapy compared with controls. Clonogenic growth assay results revealed enhanced radiosensitivity of RelB siRNA cells at various dosage points compared with control groups. Blockage of the alternative NF‑κB pathway via RelB silencing is a promising approach to enhance the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer.

Shen M, Duan X, Zhou P, et al.
Lymphotoxin β receptor activation promotes bladder cancer in a nuclear factor-κB-dependent manner.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(2):783-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common tumor of the urinary system. Chronic inflammation in the papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)may contribute to carcinogenesis, including that of BCa, via poorly understood mechanisms. In this study, we show that the lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) is upregulated in BCa via activation of the canonical and non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. The mRNA expression of LTβR in 81 BCa, 10 chronic cystitis and 23 healthy bladder mucosa tissues was investigated by reverse transcription-fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-FQ-PCR), and protein expression was studied in 73 BCa, 30 cystitis and 15 healthy paraffin-embedded tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Both LTβR mRNA and protein were upregulated in BCa and cystitis compared to the healthy group (P<0.05). The mRNA level of the downstream NF-κB canonical pathway p65 gene and of the non-canonical pathway RelB gene were higher in the BCa and cystitis groups compared to the healthy one. The level of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65) protein of the canonical NF-κB pathway and that of p52, a protein of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway, were also higher in the BCa and cystitis group compared to the healthy group. The levels of these proteins significantly correlated to the pathological grade, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis of BCa patients (P<0.05). In addition, there was a positive correlation between LTβR and NF-κB pathway proteins. Thus, LTβR signaling may be involved in promoting BCa through the NF-κB pathway, and which may represent the molecular link between inflammation and BCa.

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