Gene Summary

Gene:LTB; lymphotoxin beta
Aliases: p33, TNFC, TNFSF3, TNLG1C
Summary:Lymphotoxin beta is a type II membrane protein of the TNF family. It anchors lymphotoxin-alpha to the cell surface through heterotrimer formation. The predominant form on the lymphocyte surface is the lymphotoxin-alpha 1/beta 2 complex (e.g. 1 molecule alpha/2 molecules beta) and this complex is the primary ligand for the lymphotoxin-beta receptor. The minor complex is lymphotoxin-alpha 2/beta 1. LTB is an inducer of the inflammatory response system and involved in normal development of lymphoid tissue. Lymphotoxin-beta isoform b is unable to complex with lymphotoxin-alpha suggesting a function for lymphotoxin-beta which is independent of lympyhotoxin-alpha. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LTB (cancer-related)

Gataullina S, Lemaire E, Wendling F, et al.
Epilepsy in young Tsc1(+/-) mice exhibits age-dependent expression that mimics that of human tuberous sclerosis complex.
Epilepsia. 2016; 57(4):648-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epileptic phenotype of Tsc1(+/-) mice pups in comparison with age-related seizures in human tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).
METHODS: Tsc1(+/-) and control mice underwent intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) recording at postnatal ages (P)8 to P33, with linear silicon probe implanted in the somatosensory cortex of one or both hemispheres for 8-24 h. Ictal events were classified visually by independent analyzers; distinct EEG patterns were related to age and analyzed to quantify field potential characteristics and signal dynamics between hemispheres. We collected retrospectively 20 infants with prenatally diagnosed TSC and EEG before seizure onset, and analyzed the electroclinical course of epilepsy, taking into account a first-line treatment by vigabatrin.
RESULTS: Spontaneous seizures were disclosed in 55% of Tsc1(+/-) mice at P9-18. Three ictal patterns were identified: from P9 to P12 "spike clusters" consisted of recurring large spikes without clinical correlate; "spasm-like" discharges dominated from P13 to P16 consisting of high amplitude large field potential superimposed with or followed by fast activity repeated every 2-10 s for at least 20 s, accompanied by rhythmic limb contractions; from P14 to P18 a "tonic-clonic like" pattern comprised rhythmic spikes of increasing amplitude with tonic-clonic movements. Early onset "spike clusters" were mainly unilateral, whereas "spasm-like" and "tonic-clonic like" patterns were bilateral. Interhemispheric propagation was significantly faster for "tonic-clonic like" than for "spasm-like" events. In infants diagnosed prenatally with TSC, clusters of sharp waves or spikes preceded the first seizure, and vigabatrin prevented the development of seizures. Patients treated after seizure onset developed spasms or focal seizures that were pharmacoresistant in 66.7% of cases.
SIGNIFICANCE: Tsc1(+/-) mice pups exhibit an age-dependent seizure pattern sequence mimicking early human TSC epilepsy features. Spike clusters before seizure onset in TSC should be considered as a first stage of epilepsy reinforcing the concept of preventive antiepileptic therapy.

Fernandes MT, Ghezzo MN, Silveira AB, et al.
Lymphotoxin-β receptor in microenvironmental cells promotes the development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with cortical/mature immunophenotype.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(5):736-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphotoxin-mediated activation of the lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR; LTBR) has been implicated in cancer, but its role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has remained elusive. Here we show that the genes encoding lymphotoxin (LT)-α and LTβ (LTA, LTB) are expressed in T-ALL patient samples, mostly of the TAL/LMO molecular subtype, and in the TEL-JAK2 transgenic mouse model of cortical/mature T-ALL (Lta, Ltb). In these mice, expression of Lta and Ltb is elevated in early stage T-ALL. Surface LTα1 β2 protein is expressed in primary mouse T-ALL cells, but only in the absence of microenvironmental LTβR interaction. Indeed, surface LT expression is suppressed in leukaemic cells contacting Ltbr-expressing but not Ltbr-deficient stromal cells, both in vitro and in vivo, thus indicating that dynamic surface LT expression in leukaemic cells depends on interaction with its receptor. Supporting the notion that LT signalling plays a role in T-ALL, inactivation of Ltbr results in a significant delay in TEL-JAK2-induced leukaemia onset. Moreover, young asymptomatic TEL-JAK2;Ltbr(-/-) mice present markedly less leukaemic thymocytes than age-matched TEL-JAK2;Ltbr(+/+) mice and interference with LTβR function at this early stage delayed T-ALL development. We conclude that LT expression by T-ALL cells activates LTβR signalling in thymic stromal cells, thus promoting leukaemogenesis.

Walker BA, Boyle EM, Wardell CP, et al.
Mutational Spectrum, Copy Number Changes, and Outcome: Results of a Sequencing Study of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Myeloma.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(33):3911-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: At the molecular level, myeloma is characterized by copy number abnormalities and recurrent translocations into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Novel methods, such as massively parallel sequencing, have begun to describe the pattern of tumor-acquired mutations, but their clinical relevance has yet to be established.
METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing for 463 patients who presented with myeloma and were enrolled onto the National Cancer Research Institute Myeloma XI trial, for whom complete molecular cytogenetic and clinical outcome data were available.
RESULTS: We identified 15 significantly mutated genes: IRF4, KRAS, NRAS, MAX, HIST1H1E, RB1, EGR1, TP53, TRAF3, FAM46C, DIS3, BRAF, LTB, CYLD, and FGFR3. The mutational spectrum is dominated by mutations in the RAS (43%) and nuclear factor-κB (17%) pathways, but although they are prognostically neutral, they could be targeted therapeutically. Mutations in CCND1 and DNA repair pathway alterations (TP53, ATM, ATR, and ZNFHX4 mutations) are associated with a negative impact on survival. In contrast, those in IRF4 and EGR1 are associated with a favorable overall survival. We combined these novel mutation risk factors with the recurrent molecular adverse features and international staging system to generate an international staging system mutation score that can identify a high-risk population of patients who experience relapse and die prematurely.
CONCLUSION: We have refined our understanding of genetic events in myeloma and identified clinically relevant mutations that may be used to better stratify patients at presentation.

Zhang H, Teng X, Liu Z, et al.
Gene expression profile analyze the molecular mechanism of CXCR7 regulating papillary thyroid carcinoma growth and metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To detect genetic expression profile alterations after papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells transfected with chemokine receptor CXCR7 gene by gene microarray, and gain insights into molecular mechanisms of how CXCR7 regulating PTC growth and metastasis.
METHODS: The Human OneArray microarray was used for a complete genome-wide transcript profiling of CXCR7 transfected PTCs (K1-CXCR7 cells), defined as experimental group. Non CXCR7 transfected PTCs (K1 cells) were used as control group. Differential analysis for per gene was performed with a random variance model and t test, p values were adjusted to control the false discovery rate. Gene ontology (GO) on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological processes in modulating the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Pathway analysis was used to evaluate the signaling pathway that differentially expressed genes were involved in. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and Western blot were used to verify the top differentially expression genes.
RESULTS: Comparative analysis revealed that the expression level of 1149 genes was changed in response to CXCR7 transfection. After unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, 270 differentially expressed genes were filtered, of them 156 genes were up-regulated whereas 114 genes were down-regulated in K1-CXCR7 cells. GO enrichment analysis revealed the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biopolymer metabolic process, signal transduction and protein metabolism. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in ECM-receptor interaction, Focal adhesion, MAPK signaling pathway and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway. More importantly, the expression level of genes closely associated with tumor growth and metastasis was altered significantly in K1-CXCR7 cells, including up-regulated genes FN1, COL1A1, COL4A1, PDGFRB, LTB, CXCL12, MMP-11, MT1-MMP and down-regulated genes ITGA7, and Notch-1.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression profiling analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma can further delineate the mechanistic insights on how CXCR7 regulating papillary thyroid carcinoma growth and metastasis. CXCR7 may regulate growth and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma via the activation of PI3K/AKT pathway and its downstream NF-κB signaling, as well as the down-regulation of Notch signaling.

Yim RL, Wong KY, Kwong YL, et al.
Methylation of miR-155-3p in mantle cell lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(20):9770-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). In cancers, tumor suppressive microRNAs may be silenced by DNA hypermethylation. By microRNA profiling of representative EBV-negative MCL cell lines before and after demethylation treatment, miR-155-3p was found significantly restored. Methylation-specific PCR, verified by pyrosequencing, showed complete methylation of miR-155-3p in one MCL cell line (REC-1). 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of REC-1 led to demethylation and re-expression of miR-155-3p. Over-expression of miR-155-3p led to increased sub-G1 apoptotic cells and reduced cellular viability, demonstrating its tumor suppressive properties. By luciferase assay, lymphotoxin-beta (LT-β) was validated as a miR-155-3p target. In 31 primary MCL, miR-155-3p was found hypermethylated in 6(19%) cases. To test if methylation of miR-155-3p was MCL-specific, miR-155-3p methylation was tested in an additional 191 B-cell, T-cell and NK-cell NHLs, yielding miR-155-3p methylation in 66(34.6%) including 36(27%) non-MCL B-cell, 24(53%) T-cell and 6(46%) of NK-cell lymphoma. Moreover, in 72 primary NHL samples with RNA, miR-155-3p methylation correlated with miR-155-3p downregulation (p=0.024), and LT-β upregulation (p=0.043). Collectively, miR-155-3p is a potential tumor suppressive microRNA hypermethylated in MCL and other NHL subtypes. As miR-155-3p targets LT-β, which is an upstream activator of the non-canonical NF-kB signaling, miR-155-3p methylation is potentially important in lymphomagenesis.

Zhang Z, Fye S, Borecki IB, Rader JS
Polymorphisms in immune mediators associate with risk of cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):69-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The immune system is critical for controlling the progression of HPV cervical disease and the development of cancer. This study aimed to identify cervical cancer susceptibility alleles in candidate immune-modulating genes.
METHODS: Our family-based study involved a cohort of 641 probands (women with ICC/CIN III) and their biologic parents or siblings (641 trios). In the discovery phase (stage 1), involving 288 of the trios, 80 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 immune-modulating genes (IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, JAK1, JAK2, STAT1, STAT6, IL12A, TNF, LTA and LTB) were evaluated on the GoldenGate platform. We used the combined dataset for a total of 641 trios (stage 2) and the Taqman platform to validate the SNPs that had proved significant in the discovery dataset. The transmission disequilibrium test was used to detect significant shifts in allelic transmissions in the datasets.
RESULTS: Two SNPs in JAK2 and one SNP in STAT6 showed significant allelic association with cervical cancer in the stage 1 discovery dataset and were replicated in the larger joint analysis stage 2 dataset (JAK2 rs10815144, P=0.0029 and rs12349785, P=0.0058; and STAT6 rs3024971, P=0.0127). An additional SNP in exon 19 of JAK2 (rs2230724) was also examined in the combined dataset due to its strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs10815144. It was also significant (P=0.0335).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest an association of SNPs in JAK2 and STAT6 with cervical cancer. This association should be investigated in additional cervical cancer populations.

Buza N, Xu F, Wu W, et al.
Recurrent chromosomal aberrations in intravenous leiomyomatosis of the uterus: high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization study.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a distinct smooth muscle neoplasm with a potential of clinical aggressiveness due to its ability to extend into intrauterine and extrauterine vasculature. In this study, chromosomal alterations analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization were performed in 9 cases of IVL. The analysis was informative in all cases with multiple copy number losses and/or gains observed in each tumor. The most frequent recurrent loss of 22q12.3-q13.1 was observed in 6 tumors (66.7%), followed by losses of 22q11.23-q13.31, 1p36.13-p33, 2p25.3-p23.3, and 2q24.2-q32.2 and gains of 6p22.2, 2q37.3 and 10q22.2-q22.3, in decreasing order of frequency. Copy number variants were identified at 14q11.2, 15q11.1-q11.2, and 15q26.2. Genes mapping to the regions of loss include CHEK2, EWS, NF2, PDGFB, and MAP3K7IP1 on chromosome 22q, HEI10 on chromosome 14q, and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B, E2F2, ARID1A KPNA6, EIF3S2 , PTCH2, and PIK3R3 on chromosome 1p. Regional losses on chromosomes 22q and 1p and gains on chromosomes 12q showed overlaps with those previously observed in uterine leiomyosarcomas. In addition, presence of multiple chromosomal aberrations implies a higher level of genetic instability. Follow-up polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequencing analysis of MED12 gene revealed absence of G> A transition at nucleotides c.130 or c.131 in all 9 cases, a frequent mutation found in uterine leiomyoma and its variants. In conclusion, this is the first report of high-resolution, genome-wide investigation of IVL by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. The presence of high frequencies of recurrent regional loss involving several chromosomes is an important finding and likely related to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Bolli N, Avet-Loiseau H, Wedge DC, et al.
Heterogeneity of genomic evolution and mutational profiles in multiple myeloma.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:2997 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a complex and incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis. Here we use whole-exome sequencing, copy-number profiling and cytogenetics to analyse 84 myeloma samples. Most cases have a complex subclonal structure and show clusters of subclonal variants, including subclonal driver mutations. Serial sampling reveals diverse patterns of clonal evolution, including linear evolution, differential clonal response and branching evolution. Diverse processes contribute to the mutational repertoire, including kataegis and somatic hypermutation, and their relative contribution changes over time. We find heterogeneity of mutational spectrum across samples, with few recurrent genes. We identify new candidate genes, including truncations of SP140, LTB, ROBO1 and clustered missense mutations in EGR1. The myeloma genome is heterogeneous across the cohort, and exhibits diversity in clonal admixture and in dynamics of evolution, which may impact prognostic stratification, therapeutic approaches and assessment of disease response to treatment.

Aurisicchio L, Peruzzi D, Koo G, et al.
Immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of a dual-component genetic cancer vaccine cotargeting carcinoembryonic antigen and HER2/neu in preclinical models.
Hum Gene Ther. 2014; 25(2):121-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several cancer vaccine efforts have been directed to simultaneously cotarget multiple tumor antigens, with the intent to achieve broader immune responses and more effective control of cancer growth. Genetic cancer vaccines based on in vivo muscle electro-gene-transfer of plasmid DNA (DNA-EGT) and adenoviral vectors represent promising modalities to elicit powerful immune responses against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)/neu. Combinations of these modalities of immunization (heterologous prime-boost) can induce superior immune reactions as compared with single-modality vaccines. We have generated a dual component-dual target genetic cancer vaccine consisting of a DNA moiety containing equal amounts of two plasmids, one encoding the extracellular and transmembrane domains of HER2 (ECD.TM) and the other encoding CEA fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LTB), and of an adenoviral subtype 6 dicistronic vector carrying the same two tumor antigens gene constructs. The CEA/HER2 vaccine was tested in two different CEA/HER2 double-transgenic mouse models and in NOD/scid-DR1 mice engrafted with the human immune system. The immune response was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, flow cytometry, and ELISA. The CEA/HER2 vaccine was able to break immune tolerance against both antigens. Induction of a T cell and antibody immune response was detected in immune-tolerant mice. Most importantly, the vaccine was able to slow the growth of HER2/neu⁺ and CEA⁺ tumors. A significant T cell response was measured in NOD/scid-DR1 mice engrafted with human cord blood cells. In conclusion, the CEA/HER2 genetic vaccine was immunogenic and able to confer significant therapeutic effects. These data warrant the evaluation of this vaccination strategy in human clinical trials.

Puri N, Pitman RT, Mulnix RE, et al.
Non-small cell lung cancer is susceptible to induction of DNA damage responses and inhibition of angiogenesis by telomere overhang oligonucleotides.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 343(1):14-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exposure of the telomere overhang acts as a DNA damage signal, and exogenous administration of an 11-base oligonucleotide homologous to the 3'-telomere overhang sequence (T-oligo) mimics the effects of overhang exposure by inducing senescence and cell death in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells, but not in normal bronchial epithelial cells. T-oligo-induced decrease in cellular proliferation in NSCLC is likely directed through both p53 and its homolog, p73, with subsequent induction of senescence and expression of senescence-associated proteins, p21, p33(ING), and p27(Kip1) both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, T-oligo decreases tumor size and inhibits angiogenesis through decreased VEGF signaling and increased TSP-1 expression.

McFarland AJ, Grant GD, Perkins AV, et al.
Paradoxical role of 3-methyladenine in pyocyanin-induced toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
Int J Toxicol. 2013 May-Jun; 32(3):209-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of autophagy in pyocyanin (PCN)-induced toxicity in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear, with only evidence from our group identifying it as a mechanism underlying toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further examine the role of autophagy in PCN-induced toxicity in the CNS. To achieve this, we exposed 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to PCN (0-100 μmol/L) and tested the contribution of autophagy by measuring the impact of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) using a series of biochemical and molecular markers. Pretreatment of 1321N1 astrocytoma cells with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) decreased the PCN-induced acidic vesicular organelle and autophagosome formation as measured using acridine orange and green fluorescent protein-LC3 -LC3 fluorescence, respectively. Furthermore, 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly protected 1321N1 astrocytoma cells against PCN-induced toxicity. In contrast pretreatment with 3-MA (5 mmol/L) increased PCN-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Given the influence of autophagy in inflammatory responses, we investigated whether the observed effects in this study involved inflammatory mediators. The PCN (100 μmol/L) significantly increased the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂), and leukotriene B4 (LTB₄) in both cell lines. Consistent with its paradoxical role in modulating PCN-induced toxicity, 3-MA (5 mmol/L) significantly reduced the PCN-induced production of IL-8, PGE₂, and LTB₄ in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells but augmented their production in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. In conclusion, we show here for the first time the paradoxical role of autophagy in mediating PCN-induced toxicity in 1321N1 astrocytoma and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and provide novel evidence that these actions may be mediated by effects on IL-8, PGE₂, and LTB₄ production.

Park MK, Park Y, Shim J, et al.
Novel involvement of leukotriene B₄ receptor 2 through ERK activation by PP2A down-regulation in leukotriene B₄-induced keratin phosphorylation and reorganization of pancreatic cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1823(12):2120-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perinuclear reorganization via phosphorylation of specific serine residues in keratin is involved in the deformability of metastatic cancer cells. The level of leukotriene B₄ is high in pancreatic cancers. However, the roles of LTB₄ and its cognate receptors in keratin reorganization of pancreatic cancers are not known. LTB₄ dose-dependently induced phosphorylation and reorganization of Keratin 8 (K8) and these processes were reversed by LY255283 (BLT2 antagonist). BLT2 agonists such as Comp A and 15(S)-HETE also induced phosphorylation of serine 431 in K8. Moreover, Comp A-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization were blocked by LY255283. Gene silencing of BLT2 suppressed Comp A-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization in PANC-1 cells. Over-expression of BLT2 promoted K8 phosphorylation. Comp A promoted the migration of PANC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and LY255283 blocked Comp A-induced migration, respectively. PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) suppressed Comp A-induced phosphorylation of serine 431 and reorganization of K8. Gene silencing of BLT2 suppressed the expression of pERK, and over-expression of BLT2 increased the expression of pERK even without Comp A. Comp A induced the expression of active ERK (pERK) and BLT2. These inductions were blocked by PD98059. Comp A decreased PP2A expression and hindered the binding of PP2A to the K8, leading to the activation of ERK. PD98059 suppressed the Comp A-induced migration of PANC-1 cells and BLT2 over-expression-induced migration of PANC-1 cells. Overall, these results suggest that BLT2 is involved in LTB(4)-induced phosphorylation and reorganization through ERK activation by PP2A downregulation, leading to increased migration of PANC-1 cells.

Lv Y, Purbey BK, Huang Y, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated expression of p33(ING1b) induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in gastric adenocarcinoma cells in vitro.
Gastric Cancer. 2012; 15(4):355-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inhibitor of growth 1b (ING1b) is considered to be a class II tumor suppressor gene. Although reduced expression of p33(ING1b) has been reported in many human malignancies, including gastric cancers, the effect of p33(ING1b) on gastric cancer cells has yet to be investigated.
METHODS: Expression of p33(ING1b) in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and their adjacent non-malignant gastric mucosa, as well as in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines and normal gastric epithelial cells, was detected by using Western blotting. Recombinant adenoviruses were prepared to mediate the ectopic expression of p33(ING1b) (Ad-ING1b) and green fluorescent protein (GFP)(Ad-GFP) in the gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines, SGC-7901, MKN28, and MKN45 and the normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. Alterations in the proliferation and apoptosis of the cells after adenoviral infection were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively, and cell cycle distribution was analyzed in a fluorescence-activated cell sorter.
RESULTS: Western blotting confirmed the reduced expression of p33(ING1b) in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. The ectopic expression of p33(ING1b) mediated by Ad-ING1b resulted in decreased growth, increased apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in both benign and malignant gastric epithelial cells regardless of their p53 status. Addition of a p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-α, did not abolish the pro-apoptotic and cell cycle-arresting effects of p33(ING1b) in p53 wild-type cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of p33(ING1b) might play an important role in the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Targeted local expression of p33(ING1b) may offer a promising alternative therapeutic measure for gastric cancer.

Tai HH
Prostaglandin catabolic enzymes as tumor suppressors.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2011; 30(3-4):409-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a key prostaglandin catabolic enzyme catalyzing the oxidation and inactivation of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesized from the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates that 15-PGDH may function as a tumor suppressor antagonizing the action of COX-2 oncogene. 15-PGDH has been found to be down-regulated contributing to elevated levels of PGE(2) in most tumors. The expression of 15-PGDH and COX-2 appears to be regulated reciprocally in cancer cells. Down-regulation of 15-PGDH in tumors is due, in part, to transcriptional repression and epigenetic silencing. Numerous agents have been found to up-regulate 15-PGDH by down-regulation of transcriptional repressors and by attenuation of the turnover of the enzyme. Up-regulation of 15-PGDH may provide a viable approach to cancer chemoprevention. Further catabolism of 15-keto-prostaglandin E(2) is catalyzed by 15-keto-prostaglandin-∆(13)-reductase (13-PGR), which also exhibits LTB(4)-12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB(4)-12-DH) activity. 13-PGR/LTB(4)-12-DH behaves as a tumor suppressor as well. This review summarizes current knowledge of the expression and function of 15-PGDH and 13-PGR/LTB(4)-12-DH in lung and other tissues during tumor progression. Future directions of research on these prostaglandin catabolic enzymes as tumor suppressors are also discussed.

Liu J, Lin Y, Yang H, et al.
The expression of p33(ING1), p53, and autophagy-related gene Beclin1 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2011; 32(6):1113-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expressions of tumor inhibitor of growth (ING1) gene p33ING1, p53, and autophagy-related gene Beclin1 in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the correlation between their expressions with clinical pathological features and clinical significance. The research can provide new ideas and experimental evidence for early diagnosis and biotherapy for NSCLC in the future. The human NSCLC tissues and surrounding non-cancerous tissues were collected from surgical operation. The expressions of mRNA or protein of p33ING1, p53, and Beclin1 were detected by using of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or Western blot in these tissues. The results were used to analyze the relationships between these gene expressions with the developing of NSCLC and clinical pathological features. The expressions of mRNA or protein of p33ING1 and Beclin1 in NSCLC tissues were significantly lower than that in surrounding noncancerous tissues (p < 0.05). The expressions of mRNA or protein of p33ING1 and Beclin1 in well- and middle-differentiated NSCLC tissues were lower than those in poor-differentiated NSCLC tissues (p < 0.05). The expressions of mRNA or protein of p33ING1 and Beclin1 in presence of lymph nodes metastasis were lower than those in absence of lymph nodes metastasis (p < 0.05). The expressions of mRNA or protein of p33ING1 and Beclin1 in patients of pathological stage (stages I-II) were higher than those in pathological stage (stages III-IV) (p < 0.05). But the expression of protein of mutant-type p53 in NSCLC tissues was significantly higher than that in surrounding non-cancerous tissues (p < 0.05). The expressions of protein of mutant-type p53 in well- and middle-differentiated NSCLC tissues were higher than those in poor-differentiated NSCLC tissues (p < 0.05). The expressions of protein of mutant-type p53 in presence of lymph nodes metastasis were higher than those in absence of lymph nodes metastasis (p < 0.05). The expressions of protein of mutant-type p53 in patients of pathological stage (stages I-II) were lower than those in pathological stage (stages III-IV) (p < 0.05). These expression changes of p33ING1, p53, and autophagy-related Beclin1 genes were associated with tumor cell differentiation, lymph nodes metastasis, and pathological stage of NSCLC. But these expression changes of these three genes were not associated with gender, age, size of primary carcinoma, histological type of NSCLC (p > 0.05). The expression of mRNA of p53 and Beclin1 were correlated with p33ING1 mRNA expression in NSCLC tissues (p < 0.05). The activity changes of tumor inhibitor of growth, autophagy, and apoptosis may be related to the emergence and the development of NSCLC. The combined detection of p33ING1, p53, and Beclin1 genes and proteins will be helpful for early diagnosis and prognosis judgment for NSCLC, and can provide experimental evidence for biotherapy of NSCLC.

Park SW, Heo DS, Sung MW
The shunting of arachidonic acid metabolism to 5-lipoxygenase and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase antagonizes the anti-cancer effect of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in head and neck cancer cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012; 35(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has recently been found that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and cytochrome P450-2J2 (CYP2J2), molecules capable of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, might promote cancer cell viability through several mechanisms similar to those of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We found that not only COX-2 expression, but also the expression of 5-LO and CYP2J2 is up-regulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. From these observations, we hypothesized that AA metabolism by 5-LO and/or CYP2J2 may lower the efficacy of anti-cancer effect by COX-2 inhibition.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Although COX-2 was highly expressed in all cell lines tested, COX-2-specific inhibition showed little growth-inhibitory effect in some cell lines. Inhibition of COX-2 resulted in increased production of LTB(4) and 14-15-DHET/EET, metabolites of 5-LO and CYP2J2, respectively. Combined knock-down of COX-2 and 5-LO or CYP2J2 by siRNA results in a decrease in cell proliferation and VEGF production. Furthermore, these results are dependent on 5-LO and CYP2J2 expression in cells.
CONCLUSION: Therefore, combined inhibition of COX-2 and 5-LO or CYP2J2 may be one way to overcome low efficacy of single inhibition of COX-2 in cancer cells. In addition, combined therapies should be chosen based on the expression of members of other AA metabolism pathways.

Seo JM, Cho KJ, Kim EY, et al.
Up-regulation of BLT2 is critical for the survival of bladder cancer cells.
Exp Mol Med. 2011; 43(3):129-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence rates of urinary bladder cancer continue to rise yearly, and thus new therapeutic approaches and early diagnostic markers for bladder cancer are urgently needed. Thus, identifying the key mediators and molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival of bladder cancer has valuable implications for the development of therapy. In this study, the role of BLT2, a receptor for leukotriene B((4)) (LTB((4))) and 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), in the survival of bladder cancer 253J-BV cells was investigated. We found that the expression of BLT2 is highly elevated in bladder cancer cells. Also, we observed that blockade of BLT2 with an antagonist or BLT2 siRNA resulted in cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, suggesting a role of BLT2 in the survival of human bladder cancer 253J-BV cells. Further experiments aimed at elucidating the mechanism by which BLT2 mediates survival revealed that enhanced level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated via a BLT2-dependent up-regulation of NADPH oxidase members NOX1 and NOX4. Additionally, we observed that inhibition of ROS generation by either NOX1/4 siRNAs or treatment with an ROS-scavenging agent results in apoptotic cell death in 253J-BV bladder cancer cells. These results demonstrated that a 'BLT2-NOX1/4-ROS' cascade plays a role in the survival of this aggressive bladder cancer cells, thus pointing to BLT2 as a potential target for anti-bladder cancer therapy.

Pei J, Feder MM, Al-Saleem T, et al.
Combined classical cytogenetics and microarray-based genomic copy number analysis reveal frequent 3;5 rearrangements in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010; 49(7):610-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Karyotypic analysis and genomic copy number analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based microarrays were compared with regard to the detection of recurrent genomic imbalances in 20 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs). Genomic imbalances were identified in 19 of 20 tumors by DNA copy number analysis and in 15 tumors by classical cytogenetics. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the number of genomic imbalances and tumor stage. The most common genomic imbalances were loss of 3p and gain of 5q. Other recurrent genomic imbalances seen in at least 15% of tumors included losses of 1p32.3-p33, 6q23.1-qter and 14q and gain of chromosome 7. The SNP-based arrays revealed losses of 3p in 16 of 20 tumors, with the highest frequency being at 3p21.31-p22.1 and 3p24.3-p25.3, the latter encompassing the VHL locus. One other tumor showed uniparental disomy of chromosome 3. Thus, altogether loss of 3p was identified in 17 of 20 (85%) cases. Fourteen tumors showed both overlapping losses of 3p and overlapping gains of 5q, and the karyotypic assessment performed in parallel revealed that these imbalances arose via unbalanced 3;5 translocations. Among the latter, there were common regions of loss at 3p21.3-pter and gain at 5q34-qter. These data suggest that DNA copy number analysis will supplant karyotypic analysis of tumor types such as ccRCC that are characterized by recurrent genomic imbalances, rather than balanced rearrangements. These findings also suggest that the 5q duplication/3p deficiency resulting from unbalanced 3;5 translocations conveys a proliferative advantage of particular importance in ccRCC tumorigenesis.

Armengol G, Canellas A, Alvarez Y, et al.
Genetic changes including gene copy number alterations and their relation to prognosis in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2010; 51(1):114-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied a series of 68 subjects diagnosed with childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze mutations in FLT3 and NPM1 genes, and/or array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Cytogenetic/FISH abnormalities were observed in 71% of subjects, FLT3-ITD mutations in 15%, and NPM1 mutations in 13%. The array CGH alterations (average 3.6 per case) were observed in 96% of the tested subjects. The most frequent alterations were gains of 8q24.3 and 11p15.5-p15.4 in 16% of the samples. Six genes (AKT1, RUNX1, LTB, SDC1, RUNX1T1, and JAK2) from the imbalanced regions have been reported to be involved in AML, whereas other 30 cancer genes, not previously reported in an AML context, were identified as imbalanced. They probably correspond to non passenger alterations that cooperate with the recurrent translocations. The clinical data and genetic changes were tested to find out the possible association with prognosis. Genomic instability (four or more genomic imbalances) was correlated with poor patient outcome (p = 0.029).

Haybaeck J, Zeller N, Wolf MJ, et al.
A lymphotoxin-driven pathway to hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Cell. 2009; 16(4):295-308 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) cause chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by poorly understood mechanisms. We show that cytokines lymphotoxin (LT) alpha and beta and their receptor (LTbetaR) are upregulated in HBV- or HCV-induced hepatitis and HCC. Liver-specific LTalphabeta expression in mice induces liver inflammation and HCC, causally linking hepatic LT overexpression to hepatitis and HCC. Development of HCC, composed in part of A6(+) oval cells, depends on lymphocytes and IKappa B kinase beta expressed by hepatocytes but is independent of TNFR1. In vivo LTbetaR stimulation implicates hepatocytes as the major LT-responsive liver cells, and LTbetaR inhibition in LTalphabeta-transgenic mice with hepatitis suppresses HCC formation. Thus, sustained LT signaling represents a pathway involved in hepatitis-induced HCC.

Zhao Y, Weng CC, Tong M, et al.
Restoration of leukotriene B(4)-12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15- oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase (LTBDH/PGR) expression inhibits lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.
Lung Cancer. 2010; 68(2):161-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leukotriene B(4)-12-hydroxydehydrogenase/15-oxo-prostaglandin 13-reductase (LTBDH/PGR) is a bifunctional enzyme capable of inactivating leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) and 15-oxo-prostaglandins (15-PGs). Its role in growth suppressive functions in lung cancer was studied in in vitro and in vivo systems. The LTBDH/PGR gene was expressed in lung cancer cell lines through recombinant adenovirus infection, and through a tetracycline-inducible expression system. After restoration of LTBDH/PGR expression in LTBDH/PGR-negative (H1299) or -low (A549) lung cancer cell lines, the restored enzyme induced apoptosis and growth inhibition in vitro. Ectopic expression of LTBDH/PGR caused also suppression of tumorigenicity of A549 cells in nude mice. In contrast, LTBDH/PGR over-expression in LTBDH/PGR-positive (H157) lung cancer cell line induced little apoptosis and growth inhibition. This study indicates that restoration of LTBDH/PGR expression is effective in preventing lung cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

Liu HY, Wang ZM, Bai Y, et al.
Different BAG-1 isoforms have distinct functions in modulating chemotherapeutic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009; 30(2):235-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: BAG-1 is a multifunctional anti-apoptotic gene with four isoforms, and different BAG-1 isoforms have different anti-apoptotic functions. In this study, we transfected BAG-1 isoforms into the human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive) to study their effect on apoptosis with or without estrogens.
METHODS: The constructed recombinant expression vectors carrying individual BAG-1 isoforms was used to transfect human breast cancer cell lines Hs578T (ER negative) and MCF-7 (ER positive). After stable cell lines were made, a variety of apoptosis-inducing agents, including doxorubicin, docetaxel, and 5-FU, was used to treat these cell lines with or without estrogen to test the role of BAG-1. The mechanism by which BAG-1 affected the function of Bcl-2 was exploredby using the cycloheximide chase assay.
RESULTS: The BAG-1 p50 and p46 isoforms significantly enhanced the resistance to apoptosis in both cell lines according to flow cytometry analysis. BAG-1 p33 and p29 failed to protect the transfected cells from apoptosis. The cell viability assay showed that only BAG-1 p50, but not p46, p33, or p29, increased estrogen-dependent function in ER-positive cell line MCF-7. Only BAG-1 p50 dramatically increased its anti-apoptotic ability in the presence of estrogen, while estrogen has very little effect on the anti-apoptotic ability of other BAG-1 isoforms. In the detection of the expression of K-ras, Hsp70, cytochrome c, Raf-1, ER-alpha, and Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells by Western blot, only Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in MCF-7 cells transfected with BAG-1 p50 and p46, respectively. Furthermore, the cycloheximide chase assay indicated that the degradation of Bcl-2 protein was extended in the BAG-1 p50 and p46 transfected MCF-7 cells.
CONCLUSION: Distinct isoforms of BAG-1 have different anti-apoptotic functions in breast cancer cells, and that the BAG-1 p50 isoform can potentiate the role of estrogen in ER-positive breast cancer.

Zhu Z, Luo Z, Li Y, et al.
Human inhibitor of growth 1 inhibits hepatoma cell growth and influences p53 stability in a variant-dependent manner.
Hepatology. 2009; 49(2):504-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) is a type II tumor suppressor that affects cell function by altering chromatin structure and regulating transcription. Recently, three ING1 splice variants have been cloned, but their roles in apoptosis and p53 regulation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been fully elucidated. The present study found that ING1, in a variant-dependent manner, inhibited hepatoma cell proliferation and colony formation, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase, and postponed tumor formation in nude mice. Expression of p33(ING1b) and p24(ING1c) variants, but not p47(ING1a), was markedly reduced in HCC samples. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis revealed that ectopic overexpression of p33(ING1b) or p24(ING1c) variant increased the expression of p53 downstream genes such as p21(waf1) and bax, and repressed bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01), whereas p47(ING1a) inactivated p21(waf1) promoter (P < 0.01). Furthermore, we found that p33(ING1b) and p24(ING1c) repressed Mdm2 expression (P < 0.01) and competed with Mdm2 for binding to p53. Interestingly, p33(ING1b)and p24(ING1c) did not directly bind to Mdm2 protein but strongly increased p14(arf) expression (P < 0.01) and interacted with p14(arf) protein to stimulate p53. Moreover, we found that ectopic overexpression of p33(ING1b) or p24(ING1c) significantly induced p53 protein acetylation at Lys-373/Lys-382 residue, but did not alter the phosphorylation status of p53.
CONCLUSION: ING1 variants p33(ING1b) and p24(ING1c) may modulate p53 activity and subsequently inhibit hepatoma cell growth by at least two possible mechanisms: interacting with Mdm2 and p14(arf) to stabilize and activate p53, or increasing p53 acetylation.

Amara K, Trimeche M, Ziadi S, et al.
Prognostic significance of aberrant promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Ann Oncol. 2008; 19(10):1774-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) exhibits heterogeneous clinical features and a marked variable response to treatment.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the prognostic significance of the methylation status of DAPK, GSTP1, P14, P15, P16, P33, RB1, SHP1, CDH1, APC, BLU, VHL, TIMP3, and RASSF1A genes in 46 DLBCL specimens from Tunisian patients. Methylation status of each gene was correlated with clinicopathological parameters including the International Prognostic Index (IPI), the germinal center immunophenotype, and response to treatment and survival. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were compared with the log-rank test.
RESULTS: Hypermethylation of SHP1 was associated with elevated lactate dehydrogenase level (P = 0.031). P16 and VHL were frequently hypermethylated in patients with high IPI scores (P = 0.006 and 0.004) and a performance status of two or more (P = 0.007 and 0.047). In addition, hypermethylation of P16 was significantly associated with advanced clinical stages and B symptoms (P = 0.041 and 0.012). Interestingly, hypermethylation of DAPK was significantly correlated with resistance to treatment (P = 0.023). With regard to survival rates, promoter hypermethylation of DAPK, P16, and VHL were significantly associated with shortened OS (P = 0.003, 0.001, and 0.017, respectively) and DFS (P = 0.006, 0.003, and 0.046, respectively). In multivariate analysis, hypermethylation of DAPK remains an independent prognostic factor in predicting shortened OS (P = 0.001) and DFS (P = 0.024), as well as the IPI and the germinal center status.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that DLBCLs with hypermethylated P16, VHL, DAPK, and SHP1 commonly show a biologically aggressive phenotype and worse prognosis. Interestingly, hypermethylation of DAPK was found to be an independent prognostic factor that may be used in conjunction with the conventional prognostic factors such as the IPI and the germinal center status.

Azzato EM, Driver KE, Lesueur F, et al.
Effects of common germline genetic variation in cell cycle control genes on breast cancer survival: results from a population-based cohort.
Breast Cancer Res. 2008; 10(3):R47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Somatic alterations have been shown to correlate with breast cancer prognosis and survival, but less is known about the effects of common inherited genetic variation. Of particular interest are genes involved in cell cycle pathways, which regulate cell division.
METHODS: We examined associations between common germline genetic variation in 13 genes involved in cell cycle control (CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1, CDK2 [p33], CDK4, CDK6, CDKN1A [p21, Cip1], CDKN1B [p27, Kip1], CDKN2A [p16], CDKN2B [p15], CDKN2C [p18], and CDKN2D [p19]) and survival among women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer participating in the SEARCH (Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity) breast cancer study. DNA from up to 4,470 women was genotyped for 85 polymorphisms that tag the known common polymorphisms (minor allele frequency > 0.05) in the genes. The genotypes of each polymorphism were tested for association with survival using Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: The rare allele of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2479717 is associated with an increased risk of death (hazard ratio = 1.26 per rare allele carried, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 1.42; P = 0.0001), which was not attenuated after adjusting for tumour stage, grade, and treatment. This SNP is part of a large linkage disequilibrium block, which contains CCND3, BYSL, TRFP, USP49, C6ofr49, FRS3, and PGC. We evaluated the association of survival and somatic expression of these genes in breast tumours using expression microarray data from seven published datasets. Elevated expression of the C6orf49 transcript was associated with breast cancer survival, adding biological interest to the finding.
CONCLUSION: It is possible that CCND3 rs2479717, or another variant it tags, is associated with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Further study is required to validate this finding.

Ahmed IA, Kelly SB, Anderson JJ, et al.
The predictive value of p53 and p33(ING1b) in patients with Dukes'C colorectal cancer.
Colorectal Dis. 2008; 10(4):344-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Identification of biological markers that may predict response to chemotherapy would allow the individualization of treatment by enabling selection of patients most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. The aims of this study were to determine whether p53 mutation status and p53 and p33(ING1b) protein expression can predict which patients with Dukes' C colorectal cancer following curative surgical resection respond to adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
METHOD: Patients with Dukes'C colorectal cancer (n = 41) were studied. DNA was extracted and analysed for p53 mutation using PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. Tumours were analysed for p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry using DO-7 monoclonal antibody and for p33(ING1b) protein expression using GN1 monoclonal antibody.
RESULTS: There was a significant association between p53 mutation status analysed by gene sequencing and overall and metastasis-free survival (P = 0.03 and 0.004, respectively, log-rank test). By contrast, no significant correlation was found between p53 and p33(ING1b) protein expression and overall or metastasis-free survival.
CONCLUSION: In patients with Dukes'C colorectal cancer who underwent curative surgical resection of the primary tumour, followed by 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy, p53 mutation status as assessed by gene sequencing is a significant predictor of overall and metastasis-free survival.

Zhang JT, Wang DW, Li QX, et al.
Nuclear to cytoplasmic shift of p33(ING1b) protein from normal oral mucosa to oral squamous cell carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological variables.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008; 134(3):421-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: p33(ING1b), as a candidate tumour suppressor gene, has been found to be expressed a proportion of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), however, its clinicopathological significance is not studied yet. Our aim was to investigate association of p33(ING1b) expression with clinicopathological variables and particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein (PINCH) in OSCCs.
METHODS: p33(ING1b) expression was immunohistochemically examined in 20 normal oral mucosa specimens and 49 OSCCs.
RESULTS: Normal squamous cells showed only p33(ING1b )nuclear expression (no cytoplasmic expression), with a rate of 90% positive cases. While 24% of OSCCs appeared cytoplasmic expression (11 of them with weak nuclear staining) and the rest tumours (76%) were negative for p33(ING1b). Furthermore, the cases having lymph node metastasis showed a higher frequency of positive cytoplasmic expression than those without metastasis (P = 0.03). The p33(ING1b) cytoplasmic expression was positively related to PINCH expression (P = 0.04), the cases positive for both proteins had a high rate of the metastasis (P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: The transfer of p33(ING1b) protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm may result in loss of normal cellular function of the protein, which might play a role in the tumourigenesis and metastasis of OSCCs.

Cerutti JM, Oler G, Michaluart P, et al.
Molecular profiling of matched samples identifies biomarkers of papillary thyroid carcinoma lymph node metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(16):7885-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Biomarkers of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastasis can accurately identify metastatic cells and aggressive tumor behavior. To find new markers, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was done on three samples from the same patient: normal thyroid tissue, primary PTC, and a PTC lymph node metastasis. This genomewide expression analysis identified 31 genes expressed in lymph node metastasis, but not in the primary tumor. Eleven genes were evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) on independent sets of matched samples to find genes that were consistently different between the tumor and metastatic samples. LIMD2 and PTPRC (CD45) showed a statistically significant difference in expression between tumor and metastatic samples (P < 0.0045), and an additional gene (LTB) had borderline significance. PTPRC and LTB were tested by immunohistochemistry in an independent set of paired samples, with both markers showing a difference in protein expression. All 20 metastases from 6 patients showed expression in both markers, with little or no expression in primary tumor. Some of these markers could provide an improved means to detect metastatic PTC cells during initial staging of a newly diagnosed carcinoma and/or to rule out recurrence. The functional role of these genes may also provide insight into mechanisms of thyroid cancer metastasis.

Huang CL, Yokomise H, Miyatake A
Clinical significance of the p53 pathway and associated gene therapy in non-small cell lung cancers.
Future Oncol. 2007; 3(1):83-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many molecules, including several regulators and various target genes, are involved in the biological functions of p53, thus making the p53 pathway rather complicated. However, recent clinical studies have demonstrated that most human cancers have an abnormality in some of the molecules associated with the p53 pathway. Most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) have either mutations of p53, a reduced p14 alternate reading frame expression, a reduced herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease expression or a reduced p33 inhibitor of growth gene1b expression. As a result, the balance of expression of p53 target genes, such as p21, Bax and PUMA, regulates the biological behavior and determines the fate of tumor cells. To date, many studies on cancer gene therapy using these molecules associated with the p53 pathway have been performed to develop new strategies for treating NSCLC patients. Thus, the establishment of a comprehensive and simple evaluation protocol for the p53 pathway is required for clinical use.

Wang J, Chin MY, Li G
The novel tumor suppressor p33ING2 enhances nucleotide excision repair via inducement of histone H4 acetylation and chromatin relaxation.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(4):1906-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
p33ING2 is a novel candidate tumor suppressor, which has been shown to be involved in the regulation of gene transcription, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner for maintaining the genomic stability. Previously, we showed that p33ING2 promoted UV-induced apoptosis in human melanoma cells. To further reveal the role of p33ING2 in cellular stress response to UV irradiation, we hypothesized that p33ING2 may enhance the repair of UV-damaged DNA, similarly to its homologue p33(ING1b). Using the host-cell reactivation assay, we show that overexpression of p33ING2 significantly enhances nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, DNA repair is completely abolished in cells treated with p33ING2 small interfering RNA, suggesting that a physiologic level of p33ING2 is required for nucleotide excision repair. In addition, we found that p33ING2 is an essential factor for UV-induced rapid histone H4 acetylation, chromatin relaxation, and the recruitment of damage recognition protein, xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein, to the photolesions. These observations suggest that p33ING2 is required for the initial DNA damage sensing and chromatin remodeling in the nucleotide excision repair process.

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