Gene Summary

Gene:SEMA3B; semaphorin 3B
Aliases: SemA, SEMA5, SEMAA, semaV, LUCA-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class-3 semaphorin/collapsin family, whose members function in growth cone guidance during neuronal development. This family member inhibits axonal extension and has been shown to act as a tumor suppressor by inducing apoptosis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SEMA3B (cancer-related)

Tang H, Jiang L, Zhu C, et al.
Loss of cell adhesion molecule L1 like promotes tumor growth and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(17):3119-3133 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cells carcinoma (ESCC) is a major common thoracic tumor characterized by distinctly high incidences and mortality rates. Despite advances in multimodality therapy, the mortality rate of ESCC remains high and understanding of molecular alterations leading to the development and progression of ESCC is still very limited. In this study, a new tumor suppressor candidate, cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM (CHL1), located at 3p26 which was frequently deleted in ESCC was identified. Reduced expression of CHL1 correlated with poor differentiation, increased invasion, and lymph-node metastasis, advanced tumor stage, and decreased overall survival. Methylation-specific PCR and FISH assays revealed that down-regulation of CHL1 in both ESCC cell lines and clinical samples were associated with promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity. Functional studies using lentiviral-based overexpression and knockdown systems provided direct support of CHL1 to function as an important tumor suppressor with both anti-proliferation and anti-metastasis abilities, through Merlin and SEMA3B-Np1-mediated inhibition of AKT signaling pathway. Further characterization of CHL1 may provide a novel therapeutic target in ESCC treatment.

Gao X, Mao YH, Xiao C, et al.
Calpain-2 triggers prostate cancer metastasis via enhancing CRMP4 promoter methylation through NF-κB/DNMT1 signaling pathway.
Prostate. 2018; 78(9):682-690 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-specific death in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We previously reported that collapsing response mediator protein-4 (CRMP4) is a PCa metastasis-suppressor gene and the hypermethylation in CRMP4 promoter is responsible for the transcription repression in metastatic PCa. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of calpain-2 in CRMP4 promoter hypermethylation and its functional modulation in PCa metastasis.
METHODS: Calpain-2 expression in PCa tissues (n = 87) and its specific mechanisms of functional modulation in CRMP4 expression via limited enzymatic cleavage was investigated. We then focused on the cooperative crosstalk of calpain-2 and NF-κB RelA/p65 in CRMP4 promoter methylation for the initiation of PCa metastasis. Statistical differences between groups were determined using a two-tailed Student's t-test. P < 0.05 indicated statistically significant.
RESULTS: Calpain-2 was differentially upregulated in metastatic PCa compared with localized PCa. Moreover, calpain-2 cleaved CRMP4 into the N-terminally fragment which promoted migration and invasion in PCa cells via nuclear translocation and activation of E2F1-mediated DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression. NF-κB RelA/p65 recruited DNMT1 to bind to and methylate CRMP4 promoter in which Serine276 phosphorylation of p65 was essential. Furthermore, CRMP4 exhibited anti-metastatic function via inhibiting the expression of VEGFC through Semaphorin3B-Neuropilin2 signaling.
CONCLUSION: Calpain-2 may contribute to the promoter methylation of CRMP4 to repress its transcription, leading to the metastasis of PCa via enhancing VEGFC expression.

Stromecki M, Tatari N, Morrison LC, et al.
Characterization of a novel OTX2-driven stem cell program in Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma.
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(4):495-513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant primary pediatric brain cancer. Among the most aggressive subtypes, Group 3 and Group 4 originate from stem/progenitor cells, frequently metastasize, and often display the worst prognosis, yet we know the least about the molecular mechanisms driving their progression. Here, we show that the transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 (OTX2) promotes self-renewal while inhibiting differentiation in vitro and increases tumor initiation from MB stem/progenitor cells in vivo. To determine how OTX2 contributes to these processes, we employed complementary bioinformatic approaches to characterize the OTX2 regulatory network and identified novel relationships between OTX2 and genes associated with neuronal differentiation and axon guidance signaling in Group 3 and Group 4 MB stem/progenitor cells. In particular, OTX2 levels were negatively correlated with semaphorin (SEMA) signaling, as expression of 9 SEMA pathway genes is upregulated following OTX2 knockdown with some being potential direct OTX2 targets. Importantly, this negative correlation was also observed in patient samples, with lower expression of SEMA4D associated with poor outcome specifically in Group 4 tumors. Functional proof-of-principle studies demonstrated that increased levels of select SEMA pathway genes are associated with decreased self-renewal and growth in vitro and in vivo and that RHO signaling, known to mediate the effects of SEMA genes, is contributing to the OTX2 KD phenotype. Our study provides mechanistic insight into the networks controlled by OTX2 in MB stem/progenitor cells and reveals novel roles for axon guidance genes and their downstream effectors as putative tumor suppressors in MB.

Neufeld G, Mumblat Y, Smolkin T, et al.
The semaphorins and their receptors as modulators of tumor progression.
Drug Resist Updat. 2016; 29:1-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The semaphorins were initially characterized as repulsive axon guidance factors. However, they are currently also recognized as important regulators of diverse biological processes which include regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organogenesis, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family consists of more than 20 genes divided into seven subfamilies, all of which contain the sema domain signature. They usually transduce signals by activation of receptors belonging to the plexin family, either directly, or indirectly following the binding of some semaphorins to receptors of the neuropilin family which subsequently associate with plexins. Additional receptors which form complexes with these primary semaphorin receptors are also frequently involved in semaphorin signalling, and can strongly influence the nature of the biological responses of cells to semaphorins. Recent evidence suggests that semaphorins play important roles in the etiology of multiple forms of cancer. Some semaphorins such as some semaphorins belonging to the class-3 semaphorin subfamily, have been found to function as bona fide tumor suppressors and to inhibit tumor progression by various mechanisms. Because these class-3 semaphorins are secreted proteins, these semaphorins may potentially be used as anti-tumorigenic drugs. Other semaphorins, such as semaphorin-4D, function as inducers of tumor progression and represent targets for the development of novel anti-tumorigenic drugs. The mechanisms by which semaphorins affect tumor progression are diverse, ranging from direct effects on tumor cells to modulation of accessory processes such as modulation of immune responses and inhibition or promotion of tumor angiogenesis and tumor lymphangiogenesis. This review focuses on the diverse mechanisms by which semaphorins affect tumor progression.

Pan JX, Wang F, Ye LY
Doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through SEMA 4A in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 479(4):610-614 [PubMed] Related Publications
Semaphorins are essential for the functions in the regulation of cell migration. SEMA 4A has been proven to play a prominent role in immune function and angiogenesis. However, whether SEMA 4A is involved in HCC chemoresistance is unclear. We investigated the role of SEMA 4A in HCC chemoresistance and the underlying mechanisms. We tested the doxorubicin sensitivity of the Huh7, and Hep-G2 HCC cell lines. Immunofluorescence and Western blot were used to detect the location and expression of EMT-related protein, such as, E-cadherin, Vimentin, and SEMA4A expression. Microarray data showed that SEMA 4A and SEMA 3F increased most dramatically under DOX treatment. Kncokdown of SEMA 4A in hepatoma cells can reduce EMT process. Expectedly, depletion of SEMA 4A also reversed EMT and increased the DOX sensitivity. SEMA 4A confers doxorubicin resistance on HCC by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Neufeld G, Mumblat Y, Smolkin T, et al.
The role of the semaphorins in cancer.
Cell Adh Migr. 2016; 10(6):652-674 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The semaphorins were initially characterized as axon guidance factors, but have subsequently been implicated also in the regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organ formation, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family contains more then 20 genes divided into 7 subfamilies, all of which contain the signature sema domain. The semaphorins transduce signals by binding to receptors belonging to the neuropilin or plexin families. Additional receptors which form complexes with these primary semaphorin receptors are also frequently involved in semaphorin signaling. Recent evidence suggests that semaphorins also fulfill important roles in the etiology of multiple forms of cancer. Some semaphorins have been found to function as bona-fide tumor suppressors and to inhibit tumor progression by various mechanisms while other semaphorins function as inducers and promoters of tumor progression.

Tang H, Wu Y, Liu M, et al.
SEMA3B improves the survival of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by upregulating p53 and p21.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):900-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
As one of the most common malignancies, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is ranked as the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In our previous study, by employing cDNA microarray analysis, semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B) was found to be significantly downregulated in ESCC. In the present study, SEMA3B downregulation at the mRNA level was found in 34 of 60 primary ESCCs (56.7%) and in 6 of 9 ESCC cell lines (66.7%) by transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of SEMA3B in a tissue microarray further indicated that downregulated expression of SEMA3B protein was found in 125 of 222 (56.3%) ESCC cases and downregulation of SEMA3B protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.000), advanced clinicopathological stage (P=0.001) and poor disease-specific survival (P=0.017) of ESCC patients. In addition, functional studies demonstrated that the SEMA3B gene could suppress the tumorigenic ability of ESCC cells and cell motility. Furthermore, it was found that by upregulating p53 and p21 expression and inhibiting Akt (Ser473) phosphorylation, SEMA3B could induce cell cycle arrest at G1/S phase. Taken together, our results suggest that SEMA3B may be an important tumor-suppressor gene in the malignant progression of ESCC, as well as a valuable prognostic marker for ESCC patients.

Schulten HJ, Hussein D, Al-Adwani F, et al.
Microarray Expression Data Identify DCC as a Candidate Gene for Early Meningioma Progression.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153681 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors bearing in a minority of cases an aggressive phenotype. Although meningiomas are stratified according to their histology and clinical behavior, the underlying molecular genetics predicting aggressiveness are not thoroughly understood. We performed whole transcript expression profiling in 10 grade I and four grade II meningiomas, three of which invaded the brain. Microarray expression analysis identified deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) as a differentially expressed gene (DEG) enabling us to cluster meningiomas into DCC low expression (3 grade I and 3 grade II tumors), DCC medium expression (2 grade I and 1 grade II tumors), and DCC high expression (5 grade I tumors) groups. Comparison between the DCC low expression and DCC high expression groups resulted in 416 DEGs (p-value<0.05; fold change>2). The most significantly downregulated genes in the DCC low expression group comprised DCC, phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C), calmodulin-dependent 70kDa olfactomedin 2 (OLFM2), glutathione S-transferase mu 5 (GSTM5), phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 (PID1), sema domain, transmembrane domain (TM) and cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 6D (SEMA6D), and indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT). The most significantly upregulated genes comprised chromosome 5 open reading frame 63 (C5orf63), homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), and basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (BHLHE40). Biofunctional analysis identified as predicted top upstream regulators beta-estradiol, TGFB1, Tgf beta complex, LY294002, and dexamethasone and as predicted top regulator effectors NFkB, PIK3R1, and CREBBP. The microarray expression data served also for a comparison between meningiomas from female and male patients and for a comparison between brain invasive and non-invasive meningiomas resulting in a number of significant DEGs and related biofunctions. In conclusion, based on its expression levels, DCC may constitute a valid biomarker to identify those benign meningiomas at risk for progression.

Pang CH, Du W, Long J, Song LJ
Mechanism of SEMA3B gene silencing and clinical significance in glioma.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the current study was to explore mechanisms of SEMA3B gene expression and its clinical significance in glioma, and provide a theoretical foundation for investigating individualized treatment in glioma. Paraffin-embedded tissues from 43 patients with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of glioma following neurosurgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from December 2013 to April 2014 were selected randomly. An additional three normal brain tissues were obtained following encephalic decompression excision due to acute craniocerebral injury in the same period, which were used as the control group. Immunohistochemical staining for vascular endothelial growth factor was performed on the glioma tissues from the 43 patients. Genomic DNA was extracted for bisulfate conversion and sequencing. SEMA3B was fully expressed in the three normal brain tissues, and incompletely expressed in the 43 glioma tissues, with a lack of expression in 48.8% (21/43) of samples. Moreover, 58% of high-grade gliomas (grade III and IV) lacked SEMA3B expression, which was significantly more than those that lacked expression (20%) in low-grade gliomas (grade I and II), indicating that, as the clinical pathological grade increased, SEMA3B expression decreased. The occurrence and development of malignant tumors is a product of multiple genes and other factors. Here, we provide theoretical basis for glioma development and prognosis involving DNA-methylation driven silencing of SEMA3B, and thus, SEMA3B is a potential target for directed treatments against glioma.

Liu Y, Zhou H, Ma L, et al.
MiR-214 suppressed ovarian cancer and negatively regulated semaphorin 4D.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8239-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common human malignancies in women. MiR-214 and semaphorin 4D (sema 4D) were found to be abhorrently expressed and involved in the progress of several kinds of malignant cancers. This study is aimed to investigate the cellular role of miR-214 and demonstrate that miR-214 negatively regulated sema 4D in ovarian cancer cells. The data showed that miR-214 expression was consistently lower in ovarian cancer tissues and cells than those in the normal controls. Over-expression of miR-214 in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. It was suggested that miR-214 functioned as the tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that miR-214 possibly regulated sema 4D by binding the sema 4D messenger RNA (mRNA) 3'-untranslated region (UTR). Sema 4D mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in ovarian cancer tissues and SKOV-3 cells. Up-regulation of miR-214 in SKOV-3 cell line suppressed the sema 4D expression in both protein and nucleic acid levels. While, down-regulation of miR-214 in SKOV-3 cells would increase sema 4D protein and nucleic acid expression levels. The effects of miR-214 up- and down-regulation on luciferase activities of wild-type (WT) sema 4D 3'-UTR were completely removed upon introduction of mutation in 3'-UTR of WT sema 4D. Therefore, the data also demonstrated that sema 4D was the direct target of miR-214 and was negatively regulated by miR-214 in ovarian cancer cells.

Pronina IV, Loginov VI, Burdennyy AM, et al.
Expression and DNA methylation alterations of seven cancer-associated 3p genes and their predicted regulator miRNAs (miR-129-2, miR-9-1) in breast and ovarian cancers.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 3):483-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The methylation of promoter CpG islands and interactions between microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of target genes are considered two crucial epigenetic mechanisms for inducing gene and pathway deregulation in tumors. Here, the expression levels of seven cancer-associated 3p genes (RASSF1(isoform A), RARB(isoform 2), SEMA3B, RHOA, GPX1, NKIRAS1, and CHL1) and their predicted regulator miRNAs (miR-129-2, miR-9-1) were analyzed in breast (BC, 40 samples) and ovarian (OC, 14 samples) cancers using RT-PCR and qPCR. We first revealed a negative correlation between the level of the miR-129-2 precursor and RASSF1(A) and GPX1 mRNA levels in BC (Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs) was − 0.26 in both cases). Similar results were observed for the miR-129-2 precursor and the RASSF1(A), GPX1, RARB(2), and CHL1 genes in OC (rs was in the range − 0.48 to − 0.54). Using methylation-specific PCR, a significant correlation was shown between promoter hypermethylation and the down-regulation of the RASSF1(A), GPX1, RARB(2), SEMA3B, MIR-129-2, and MIR-9-1 genes in BC (rs = 0.41 to 0.75) and of the RASSF1(A) gene in OC (rs = 0.67). We first demonstrated a high hypermethylation frequency of MIR-129-2 and SEMA3B (up to 45 to 48%) in both BC (69 samples) and OC (41 samples). Moreover, we observed a positive correlation between the hypermethylation of MIR-129-2 and the up-regulation of the RASSF1(A) and GPX1 genes in BC (rs = 0.38 and 0.42, respectively). QPCR analysis of the expression of RASSF1(A) and mature miR-129-2 in additional BC sample set (24 samples) revealed a negative correlation between them (rs = − 0.41) that strengthened the results obtained during the analysis of miR-129-2 precursor level. In summary, the obtained data indicate the involvement of methylation in the down-regulation of the studied coding and miRNA genes and suggest the involvement of miR-129-2 in the deregulation of RASSF1(A) via a direct interaction or/and mediators in common pathways (according to KEGG, Gene Ontology (FDR < 0.01), and GeneCards data) in the examined gynecological tumors.

Mäki-Nevala S, Sarhadi VK, Knuuttila A, et al.
Driver Gene and Novel Mutations in Asbestos-Exposed Lung Adenocarcinoma and Malignant Mesothelioma Detected by Exome Sequencing.
Lung. 2016; 194(1):125-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a carcinogen linked to malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer. Some gene aberrations related to asbestos exposure are recognized, but many associated mutations remain obscure. We performed exome sequencing to determine the association of previously known mutations (driver gene mutations) with asbestos and to identify novel mutations related to asbestos exposure in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and MM.
METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on DNA from 47 tumor tissues of MM (21) and LAC (26) patients, 27 of whom had been asbestos-exposed (18 MM, 9 LAC). In addition, 9 normal lung/blood samples of LAC were sequenced. Novel mutations identified from exome data were validated by amplicon-based deep sequencing. Driver gene mutations in BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, HRAS, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, STK11, and ephrin receptor genes (EPHA1-8, 10 and EPHB1-4, 6) were studied for both LAC and MM, and in BAP1, CUL1, CDKN2A, and NF2 for MM.
RESULTS: In asbestos-exposed MM patients, previously non-described NF2 frameshift mutation (one) and BAP1 mutations (four) were detected. Exome data mining revealed some genes potentially associated with asbestos exposure, such as MRPL1 and SDK1. BAP1 and COPG1 mutations were seen exclusively in MM. Pathogenic KRAS mutations were common in LAC patients (42 %), both in non-exposed (n = 5) and exposed patients (n = 6). Pathogenic BRAF mutations were found in two LACs.
CONCLUSION: BAP1 mutations occurred in asbestos-exposed MM. MRPL1, SDK1, SEMA5B, and INPP4A could possibly serve as candidate genes for alterations associated with asbestos exposure. KRAS mutations in LAC were not associated with asbestos exposure.

Iulia Irimie A, Braicu C, Zanoaga O, et al.
Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha using RNA interference in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J BUON. 2015 Jul-Aug; 20(4):1107-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a disease with increased prevalence and unfavorable prognosis calling for development of novel therapeutic strategies. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the development and progression of cancer. The present study was designed to assess the impact of TNF-α specific inhibition using small interference RNA (siRNA) in SSC-4 cells, a representative model for OSCC.
METHODS: The present study evaluated the effect of TNF-α inhibition using siRNA as inhibitory mechanism on SCC-4 cells. The study focused on the effect of TNF-α inhibition on apoptosis, autophagy and invasion in parallel with a panel of 20 genes involved in apoptosis and angiogenesis.
RESULTS: TNF-α inhibition was related with reduction of cell viability, activation of apoptosis and autophagy in parallel with the inhibition of migration in SCC-4 cells. Evaluating the impact on gene expression levels, inhibition of FASL-FADD, NFκB, SEMA 3C, TNF-α, TGFB1, VEGFA, along with activation of PDGFB and SEMA 3D was observed. Our study confirms the important role of TNF-α and sustains that it might be a therapeutic target in OSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: TNF-α is a key mediator of the immune system, with important role in OSCC tumorigenesis, and might be considered as a therapeutic target using siRNA technology, particularly for those risk cases having FASL/FADD overexpressed.

Bender RJ, Mac Gabhann F
Dysregulation of the vascular endothelial growth factor and semaphorin ligand-receptor families in prostate cancer metastasis.
BMC Syst Biol. 2015; 9:55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is central to cancer angiogenesis. However, targeting VEGF as an anti-cancer therapeutic approach has shown success for some tumor types but not others. Here we examine the expression of the expanded VEGF family in prostate cancer, including the Semaphorin (Sema) family members that compete with VEGFs for Neuropilin binding and can themselves have pro- or anti-angiogenic activity.
RESULTS: First, we used multivariate statistical methods, including partial least squares and clustering, to examine VEGF/Sema gene expression variability in previously published prostate cancer microarray datasets. We show that unlike some cancers, such as kidney cancer, primary prostate cancer is characterized by both a down-regulation of the pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family and a down-regulation of anti-angiogenic members of the Sema family. We found pro-lymphangiogenic signatures, including the genes encoding VEGFC and VEGFD, associated with primary tumors that ultimately became aggressive. In contrast to primary prostate tumors, prostate cancer metastases showed increased expression of key pro-angiogenic VEGF family members and further repression of anti-angiogenic class III Sema family members. Given the lack of success of VEGF-targeting molecules so far in prostate cancer, this suggests that the reduction in anti-angiogenic Sema signaling may potentiate VEGF signaling and even promote resistance to VEGF-targeting therapies. Inhibition of the VEGF 'accelerator' may need to be accompanied by promotion of the Sema 'brake' to block cancer angiogenesis. To leverage our mechanistic understanding, and to link multigene expression changes to outcomes, we performed individualized computational simulations of competitive VEGF and Sema receptor binding across many tumor samples. The simulations suggest that loss of Sema expression promotes angiogenesis by lowering plexin signaling, not by potentiating VEGF signaling via relaxation of competition.
CONCLUSIONS: The combined analysis of bioinformatic data with computational modeling of ligand-receptor interactions demonstrated that enhancement of angiogenesis in prostate cancer metastases may occur through two different routes: elevation of VEGFA and reduction of class 3 Semaphorins. Therapeutic inhibition of angiogenesis in metastatic prostate cancer should account for both of these routes.

Foley K, Rucki AA, Xiao Q, et al.
Semaphorin 3D autocrine signaling mediates the metastatic role of annexin A2 in pancreatic cancer.
Sci Signal. 2015; 8(388):ra77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) present with metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis or will recur with metastases after surgical treatment. Semaphorin-plexin signaling mediates the migration of neuronal axons during development and of blood vessels during angiogenesis. The expression of the gene encoding semaphorin 3D (Sema3D) is increased in PDA tumors, and the presence of antibodies against the pleiotropic protein annexin A2 (AnxA2) in the sera of some patients after surgical resection of PDA is associated with longer recurrence-free survival. By knocking out AnxA2 in a transgenic mouse model of PDA (KPC) that recapitulates the progression of human PDA from premalignancy to metastatic disease, we found that AnxA2 promoted metastases in vivo. The expression of AnxA2 promoted the secretion of Sema3D from PDA cells, which coimmunoprecipitated with the co-receptor plexin D1 (PlxnD1) on PDA cells. Mouse PDA cells in which SEMA3D was knocked down or ANXA2-null PDA cells exhibited decreased invasive and metastatic potential in culture and in mice. However, restoring Sema3D in AnxA2-null cells did not entirely rescue metastatic behavior in culture and in vivo, suggesting that AnxA2 mediates additional prometastatic mechanisms. Patients with primary PDA tumors that have abundant Sema3D have widely metastatic disease and decreased survival compared to patients with tumors that have relatively low Sema3D abundance. Thus, AnxA2 and Sema3D may be new therapeutic targets and prognostic markers of metastatic PDA.

Cai G, Qiao S, Chen K
Suppression of miR-221 inhibits glioma cells proliferation and invasion via targeting SEMA3B.
Biol Res. 2015; 48:37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gliomas are the most common primary tumors in the central nervous system. Due to complicated signaling pathways involved in glioma progression, effective targets for treatment and biomarkers for prognosis prediction are still scant.
RESULTS: In this study we revealed that a new microRNA (miR), the miR-221, was highly expressed in the glioma cells, and suppression of miR-221 resulted in decreased cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion in glioma cells. Mechanistic experiments validated that miR-221 participates in regulating glioma cells proliferation and invasion via suppression of a direct target gene, the Semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B). The rescue experiment with miR-221 and SEMA3B both knockdown results in significant reversion of miR-221 induced phenotypes.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings highlight an unappreciated role for miR-221 and SEMA3B in glioma.

Shan LN, Song YG, Su D, et al.
Early Growth Response Protein-1 Involves in Transforming Growth factor-β1 Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Inhibits Migration of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(9):4137-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 has a role in controlling synaptic plasticity, wound repair, female reproductive capacity, inflammation, growth control, apoptosis and tumor progression. Recent studies mainly focused on its role in growth control and apoptosis, however, little is known about its role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we aim to explore whether EGR 1 is involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT in non-small- cell lung cancer cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was utilized to induce EMT in this study. Western blotting, RT-PCR, and transwell chambers were used to identify phenotype changes. Western blotting was also used to observe changes of the expression of EGR 1. The lentivirus-mediated EGR 1 vector was used to increase EGR1 expression. We investigated the change of migration to evaluate the effect of EGR 1 on non-small-cell lung cancer cells migration by transwell chambers. After stimulating with TGF-β1, almost all A549 cells and Luca 1 cells (Non-small-cell lung cancer primary cells) changed to mesenchymal phenotype and acquired more migration capabilities. These cells also had lower EGR 1 protein expression. Overexpression of EGR 1 gene with EGR 1 vector could decrease tumor cell migration capabilities significantly after adding TGF-β1. These data showed an important role of EGR 1 in the EMT of non-small-cell lung cancer cells, as well as migration.

Loginov VI, Dmitriev AA, Senchenko VN, et al.
Tumor Suppressor Function of the SEMA3B Gene in Human Lung and Renal Cancers.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0123369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The SEMA3B gene is located in the 3p21.3 LUCA region, which is frequently affected in different types of cancer. The objective of our study was to expand our knowledge of the SEMA3B gene as a tumor suppressor and the mechanisms of its inactivation. In this study, several experimental approaches were used: tumor growth analyses and apoptosis assays in vitro and in SCID mice, expression and methylation assays and other. With the use of the small cell lung cancer cell line U2020 we confirmed the function of SEMA3B as a tumor suppressor, and showed that the suppression can be realized through the induction of apoptosis and, possibly, associated with the inhibition of angiogenesis. In addition, for the first time, high methylation frequencies have been observed in both intronic (32-39%) and promoter (44-52%) CpG-islands in 38 non-small cell lung carcinomas, including 16 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 22 adenocarcinomas (ADC), and in 83 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). Correlations between the methylation frequencies of the promoter and the intronic CpG-islands of SEMA3B with tumor stage and grade have been revealed for SCC, ADC and ccRCC. The association between the decrease of the SEMA3B mRNA level and hypermethylation of the promoter and the intronic CpG-islands has been estimated in renal primary tumors (P < 0.01). Using qPCR, we observed on the average 10- and 14-fold decrease of the SEMA3B mRNA level in SCC and ADC, respectively, and a 4-fold decrease in ccRCC. The frequency of this effect was high in both lung (92-95%) and renal (84%) tumor samples. Moreover, we showed a clear difference (P < 0.05) of the SEMA3B relative mRNA levels in ADC with and without lymph node metastases. We conclude that aberrant expression and methylation of SEMA3B could be suggested as markers of lung and renal cancer progression.

Loria R, Bon G, Perotti V, et al.
Sema6A and Mical1 control cell growth and survival of BRAFV600E human melanoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(5):2779-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We used whole genome microarray analysis to identify potential candidate genes with differential expression in BRAFV600E vs NRASQ61R melanoma cells. We selected, for comparison, a peculiar model based on melanoma clones, isolated from a single tumor characterized by mutually exclusive expression of BRAFV600E and NRASQ61R in different cells. This effort led us to identify two genes, SEMA6A and MICAL1, highly expressed in BRAF-mutant vs NRAS-mutant clones. Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry confirmed preferential expression of Sema6A and Mical1 in BRAFV600E melanoma. Sema6A is a member of the semaphorin family, and it complexes with the plexins to regulate actin cytoskeleton, motility and cell proliferation. Silencing of Sema6A in BRAF-mutant cells caused cytoskeletal remodeling, and loss of stress fibers, that in turn induced cell death. Furthermore, Sema6A depletion caused loss of anchorage-independent growth, inhibition of chemotaxis and invasion. Forced Sema6A overexpression, in NRASQ61R clones, induced anchorage-independent growth, and a significant increase of invasiveness. Mical1, that links Sema/PlexinA signaling, is also a negative regulator of apoptosis. Indeed, Mical-1 depletion in BRAF mutant cells restored MST-1-dependent NDR phosphorylation and promoted a rapid and massive NDR-dependent apoptosis. Overall, our data suggest that Sema6A and Mical1 may represent new potential therapeutic targets in BRAFV600E melanoma.

Xu XD, Yang L, Zheng LY, et al.
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, suppresses vasculogenic mimicry and proliferation of highly aggressive pancreatic cancer PaTu8988 cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:373 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies with a extremely low 5-year survival rate. Hence, the search for more effective anti-pancreatic cancer agents is urgent.
METHODS: PaTu8988 pancreatic cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), cell survival, proliferation, migration and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) were analyzed. Associated signaling changes were also analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blots.
RESULTS: Here, we reported that SAHA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), exerted significant inhibitory efficiency against pancreatic cancer cell survival, proliferation, migration and VM. SAHA dose-dependently inhibited PaTu8988 pancreatic cancer cell growth with the IC-50 of 3.4 ± 0. 7 μM. Meanwhile, SAHA suppressed PaTu8988 cell cycle progression through inducing G2/M arrest, which was associated with cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK-1)/cyclin-B1 degradation and p21/p27 upregulation. Further, SAHA induced both apoptotic and non-apoptotic death of PaTu8988 cells. Significantly, SAHA suppressed PaTu8988 cell in vitro migration and cell-dominant tube formation or VM, which was accompanied by semaphorin-4D (Sema-4D) and integrin-β5 down-regulation. Our evidences showed that Akt activation might be important for Sema-4D expression in PaTu8988 cells, and SAHA-induced Sema-4D down-regulation might be associated with Akt inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to report the VM formation in cultured human pancreatic cancer cells. And we provided strong evidence to suggest that SAHA executes significant anti-VM efficiency in the progressive pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, SAHA could be further investigated as a promising anti-pancreatic cancer agent.

Mishra R, Thorat D, Soundararajan G, et al.
Semaphorin 3A upregulates FOXO 3a-dependent MelCAM expression leading to attenuation of breast tumor growth and angiogenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(12):1584-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A), a member of semaphorin family, serves as a guidance clue during embryonic development and is known as a candidate tumor suppressor that attenuates breast tumor progression by binding with its co-receptor, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). However, the underlying mechanism by which Sema 3A suppresses breast tumor growth is still unexplored. In this study, we report that Sema 3A regulates phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and FOXO 3a. Moreover, Sema 3A controls NRP-1-mediated PTEN-dependent FOXO 3a activation. Overexpression of PTEN and FOXO 3a enhances Sema 3A-induced attenuation of breast cancer cell migration. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay data revealed that FOXO 3a regulates MelCAM at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, Sema 3A induces NRP-1-mediated MelCAM expression through PTEN and FOXO 3a. The data also showed that vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis is inhibited by Sema 3A. Loss of or gain in function study revealed that Sema 3A modulates phosphorylation of PTEN and FOXO 3a and expression of MelCAM, leading to suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis using in vivo mice model. Clinical specimen analysis revealed that reduced expression of Sema 3A and p-PTEN are correlated with enhanced breast cancer progression, further strengthening our in vitro and in vivo findings. Correlation of relapse-free survival of breast cancer patients (n=2878) with expression levels of Sema 3A, NRP-1, FOXO 3a and MelCAM were studied by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Statistical analysis revealed a close association between reduced expression of Sema 3A and MelCAM with that of poor patient's survival. Our study demonstrated a novel mechanism of regulation of tumor suppression by Sema 3A in coordination with a chain of tumor-suppressor genes, which in turn inhibits breast cancer cell migration, tumor growth and angiogenesis.

Oliveras-Ferraros C, Vazquez-Martin A, Cuyàs E, et al.
Acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells triggers transcriptome reprogramming toward a degradome-related metastatic stem-like profile.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(7):1132-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Therapeutic interventions based on metabolic inhibitor-based therapies are expected to be less prone to acquired resistance. However, there has not been any study assessing the possibility that the targeting of the tumor cell metabolism may result in unforeseeable resistance. We recently established a pre-clinical model of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were chronically adapted to grow (> 10 months) in the presence of graded, millimolar concentrations of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, an AMPK agonist/mTOR inhibitor that has been evaluated in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer studies and is now being tested in clinical trials. To assess what impact the phenomenon of resistance might have on the metformin-like "dirty" drugs that are able to simultaneously hit several metabolic pathways, we employed the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software to functionally interpret the data from Agilent whole-human genome arrays in the context of biological processes, networks, and pathways. Our findings establish, for the first time, that a "global" targeting of metabolic reprogramming using metformin certainly imposes a great selective pressure for the emergence of new breast cancer cellular states. Intriguingly, acquired resistance to metformin appears to trigger a transcriptome reprogramming toward a metastatic stem-like profile, as many genes encoding the components of the degradome (KLK11, CTSF, FREM1, BACE-2, CASP, TMPRSS4, MMP16, HTRA1), cancer cell migration and invasion factors (TP63, WISP2, GAS3, DKK1, BCAR3, PABPC1, MUC1, SPARCL1, SEMA3B, SEMA6A), stem cell markers (DCLK1, FAK), and key pro-metastatic lipases (MAGL and Cpla2) were included in the signature. Because this convergent activation of pathways underlying tumor microenvironment interactions occurred in low-proliferative cancer cells exhibiting a notable downregulation of the G 2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulators that maintain genome stability (CCNB1, CCNB2, CDC20, CDC25C, AURKA, AURKB, BUB1, CENP-A, CENP-M) and pro-autophagic features (i.e., TRAIL upregulation and BCL-2 downregulation), it appears that the unique mechanism of acquired resistance to metformin has opposing roles in growth and metastatic dissemination. While refractoriness to metformin limits breast cancer cell growth, likely due to aberrant mitotic/cytokinetic machinery and accelerated autophagy, it notably increases the potential of metastatic dissemination by amplifying the number of pro-migratory and stemness inputs via the activation of a significant number of proteases and EMT regulators. Future studies should elucidate whether our findings using supra-physiological concentrations of metformin mechanistically mimic the ultimate processes that could paradoxically occur in a polyploid, senescent-autophagic scenario triggered by the chronic metabolic stresses that occur during cancer development and after treatment with cancer drugs.

Jian H, Liu B, Zhang J
Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 repress SEMA4B expression to promote non-small cell lung cancer invasion.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4949-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sema domain of semaphorin 4B (SEMA4B), which is an interacting protein of LNM35, plays an important role in lung cancer invasion. However, the regulation mechanism of this protein is completely unknown. Here, we report that hypoxia and hypoxia mimic reagent could downregulate the expression of SEMA4B in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines. We provide evidences that SEMA4B is a direct target of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Silencing the expression of HIF-1α in cancer cells by RNA interference abolished hypoxia-repressed SEMA4B expression. Using luciferase reporter assay, we showed that HIF-1α recognized a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) of SEMA4B gene, which is required for HIF-1-repressed SEMA4B expression. Moreover, ectopic expression of SEMA4B abolished invasion of hypoxia-induced NSCLC cells. Taken together, these data would shed novel insights on the mechanisms for invasion of hypoxia-induced NSCLC cells.

Chen R, Zhuge X, Huang Z, et al.
Analysis of SEMA3B methylation and expression patterns in gastric cancer tissue and cell lines.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1211-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The family of semaphorins has been demonstrated to possess tumor suppressor activity, in which semaphorin 3B (SEMA3B) is differentially expressed in several types of tumors. The relationship between SEMA3B expression and its clinical significance in gastric cancer (GC) is currently unclear. In the present study, the expression and methylation status of the SEMA3B gene were detected by quantitative PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). Data indicated that the levels of SEMA3B mRNA decreased in gastric tumor tissues and the methylation status of SEMA3B in the tumor group was higher than the paired normal tissues. By BSP, the SEMA3B gene showed high methylated status which was detected in all 4 cell lines (AGS, BGC-823, MGC-803 and SGC-7901). Treatment of the cells with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine revealed clearly elevated mRNA levels of SEMA3B. These results were further confirmed by western blot analysis of Sema3b protein expression. At the same time, increased expression of p53 mRNA in BGC-823, MGC-803 was detected and indicated that p53 may be involved in the regulation of SEMA3B expression in specific genetic background. Downregulation of SEMA3B was negatively correlated with tumor size and N staging in GC (p<0.05). In conclusion, CpG methylation of SEMA3B epigenetically regulates SEMA3B expression during development of GC. Furthermore, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine could reverse the hypermethylation status of SEMA3B, which may benefit future studies exploring the application of demethylating agents in clinical usage of GC.

Gelsomino F, Facchinetti F, Haspinger ER, et al.
Targeting the MET gene for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2014; 89(2):284-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, a better understanding of the specific mechanisms of oncogene addiction has led to the development of antitumor strategies aimed at blocking these abnormalities in different malignancies, including lung cancer. These abnormalities trigger constitutive activation of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) involved in fundamental cell mechanisms such as proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration, and consequently the aberrant signaling of RTKs leads to cancer growth and survival. The inhibition of aberrant RTKs and downstream signaling pathways has opened the door to the targeted therapy era. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), molecular research has allowed the discrimination of different aberrant RTKs in lung cancer tumorigenesis and progression, and thus the identification of several targetable oncogenic drivers. Following the development of small molecules (gefitinib/erlotinib and crizotinib) able to reversibly inhibit the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and signaling pathways mediated by anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), respectively, the MET signaling pathway has also been recognized as a potential target. Moreover, according to current knowledge, MET could be considered both as a secondary oncogenic mechanism and as a prognostic factor. Several therapeutic strategies for inhibiting activated hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) and the subsequent downstream signaling transduction have been improved in order to block tumor growth. This review will focus on the MET pathway and its role in resistance to EGFR TK (tyrosine kinase) inhibitors, the different strategies of its inhibition, and the potential approaches to overcoming acquired resistance.

Klimov EA, Selivanova NL, Razumnova GI, et al.
RHOA, SEMA3B, and CKAP2 expression in leukaemia of different types: the results of a pilot experiment.
Folia Biol (Praha). 2013; 59(5):204-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional activity of RHOA, SEMA3B, and CKAP2 genes was assessed in blood samples of leukaemia patients and healthy donors. In the blood of healthy donors, RHOA and CKAP2 gene expression was not detected, and low SEMA3B gene expression was observed. Significant elevation of expression of all the three genes was shown in the case of acute myelogenous leukaemia. In cases of remission of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, no expression of all three genes was detected. The long isoform of the CKAP2 gene was highly expressed in most analysed types of leukaemia.

Merchant M, Ma X, Maun HR, et al.
Monovalent antibody design and mechanism of action of onartuzumab, a MET antagonist with anti-tumor activity as a therapeutic agent.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(32):E2987-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to the receptor tyrosine kinase MET is implicated in the malignant process of multiple cancers, making disruption of this interaction a promising therapeutic strategy. However, targeting MET with bivalent antibodies can mimic HGF agonism via receptor dimerization. To address this limitation, we have developed onartuzumab, an Escherichia coli-derived, humanized, and affinity-matured monovalent monoclonal antibody against MET, generated using the knob-into-hole technology that enables the antibody to engage the receptor in a one-to-one fashion. Onartuzumab potently inhibits HGF binding and receptor phosphorylation and signaling and has antibody-like pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. Biochemical data and a crystal structure of a ternary complex of onartuzumab antigen-binding fragment bound to a MET extracellular domain fragment, consisting of the MET Sema domain fused to the adjacent Plexins, Semaphorins, Integrins domain (MET Sema-PSI), and the HGF β-chain demonstrate that onartuzumab acts specifically by blocking HGF α-chain (but not β-chain) binding to MET. These data suggest a likely binding site of the HGF α-chain on MET, which when dimerized leads to MET signaling. Onartuzumab, therefore, represents the founding member of a class of therapeutic monovalent antibodies that overcomes limitations of antibody bivalency for targets impacted by antibody crosslinking.

Yu H, Yuan J, Xiao C, Qin Y
Integrative genomic analyses of recepteur d'origine nantais and its prognostic value in cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2013; 31(5):1248-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) normally expressed at low levels in epithelial cells. RON is a 180-kDa heterodimeric protein composed of a 40-kDa α-chain and a 150-kDa transmembrane β-chain with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. The extracellular sequences of RON contain several domains including an N-terminal semaphorin (sema) domain, followed by the plexin, semaphorin, integrin (PSI) domain, and four immunoglobulin, plexin, transcription factor (IPT) domains. Here, we identified RON genes from 14 vertebrate genomes and found that RON exists in all types of vertebrates including fish, amphibians, birds and mammals. We found that the human RON gene showed predominant expression in the liver, lymph node, thymus, intestine, lung, mammary gland, bone marrow, brain, heart, placenta, bladder, cortex, cervix, skin, kidney and prostate. When searched in the PrognoScan database, human RON was also found to be expressed in bladder, blood, breast, glioma, esophageal, colorectal, head and neck, ovarian, lung and skin cancer. The relationship between the expression of RON and prognosis was found to vary in different cancer types, even in the same cancer from different databases. This suggests that the function of RON in these tumors may be multidimensional, not just as a tumor suppressor or oncogene. Six available single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) disrupting existing exonic splicing enhancers were identified in RON. This may contribute to the generation of active RON variants by alternative splicing, which is frequently observed in primary tumors.

Torres-Martin M, Lassaletta L, San-Roman-Montero J, et al.
Microarray analysis of gene expression in vestibular schwannomas reveals SPP1/MET signaling pathway and androgen receptor deregulation.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(3):848-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Vestibular schwannomas are benign neoplasms that arise from the vestibular nerve. The hallmark of these tumors is the biallelic inactivation of neurofibromin 2 (NF2). Transcriptomic alterations, such as the neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB2 pathway, have been described in schwannomas. In this study, we performed a whole transcriptome analysis in 31 vestibular schwannomas and 9 control nerves in the Affymetrix Gene 1.0 ST platform, validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using TaqMan low density arrays. We performed a mutational analysis of NF2 by PCR/denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), as well as a microsatellite marker analysis of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 22q. The microarray analysis demonstrated that 1,516 genes were deregulated and 48 of the genes were validated by qRT-PCR. At least 2 genetic hits (allelic loss and/or gene mutation) in NF2 were found in 16 tumors, seven cases showed 1 hit and 8 tumors showed no NF2 alteration. MET and associated genes, such as integrin, alpha 4 (ITGA4)/B6, PLEXNB3/SEMA5 and caveolin-1 (CAV1) showed a clear deregulation in vestibular schwannomas. In addition, androgen receptor (AR) downregulation may denote a hormonal effect or cause in this tumor. Furthermore, the osteopontin gene (SPP1), which is involved in merlin protein degradation, was upregulated, which suggests that this mechanism may also exert a pivotal role in schwannoma merlin depletion. Finally, no major differences were observed among tumors of different size, histological type or NF2 status, which suggests that, at the mRNA level, all schwannomas, regardless of their molecular and clinical characteristics, may share common features that can be used in their treatment.

Wang K, Ling T, Wu H, Zhang J
Screening of candidate tumor-suppressor genes in 3p21.3 and investigation of the methylation of gene promoters in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(3):1175-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common type of head and neck malignant tumor. however, its pathological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we screened for candidate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) related to OSCC among 10 candidate genes located in 3p21.3, a region abundant with TSGs based on previous studies, using semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Three genes, GNAT1, SEMA3B and AXUD1, with low or no expression in OSCC tissues and the cell line TCA8113 were selected, and the promoter methylation status was further analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR). Hypermethylation in the promoter regions of SEMA3B was found in OSCC tissues, and a significant difference in the frequency of methylation of SEMA3B was observed between OSCC and non-cancerous tissues. Furthermore, TCA8113 cells treated with 5-Aza-Cdc started to re-express SEMA3B at a concentration of 5 µM or higher. Our study confirmed that three candidate TSGs with low expression may be involved in OSCC and that hypermethylation in promoter regions may contribute to the low expression of SEMA3B. These findings offer novel insights for clarifying the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis of OSCC as well as for aiding in its clinical diagnosis and therapeutic strategy.

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