Gene Summary

Gene:SKIL; SKI like proto-oncogene
Aliases: SNO, SnoA, SnoI, SnoN
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB). In the absence of ligand, the encoded protein binds to the promoter region of TGFB-responsive genes and recruits a nuclear repressor complex. TGFB signaling causes SMAD3 to enter the nucleus and degrade this protein, allowing these genes to be activated. Four transcript variants encoding three different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ski-like protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 02 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SKIL (cancer-related)

Shen Y, Lu Q, Zhang P, et al.
The effect of TGF-β signaling on regulating proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cell via ERα signaling activated by bisphenol A, octylphenol and nonylphenol
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S276-S281 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objectives: To study the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway in interactions with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling pathway mediating the growth of human uterine leiomyoma (UL) activated by phenolic environmental estrogens (EEs).
Methods: The subcultured UL cells were used to determine the validation of TGF-β3 for the viability of human UL cells using CCK-8 assay, mRNA expressions of ERα, and c-fos by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method, and expressions of p-Smad3, SnoN, and c-fos proteins by Western blot assay in each treatment group.
Results: Compared with each of EEs or TGF-β3 treatment, slightly decrease in the proliferation rate of UL was detected in the coexistence of each EE with TGF-β3. Interestingly, mRNA expressions of ERα and c-fos reduced in the setting of coexistence of TGF-β3 and EEs. Somehow, the expression of p-Smad3 and c-fos proteins significantly decreased in each of E2, bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) group, as well as the expression of SnoN protein significantly reduced only in BPA and NP groups, followed by TGF-β3 treatment. With the overlaid action of ICI 182,780, the expression of p-Smad3 protein significantly increased in OP group, but slightly increased in E2, BPA, NP, and OP groups. However, compared with the control group, the expression of SnoN and c-fos proteins significantly decreased in the same setting.
Conclusion: Both ERα signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway have different roles in governing UL cell proliferation. The phenolic EEs can be a promoter to the proliferation of UL cells, which is mediated by ERα signaling pathway and cross-talked with TGF-β signaling pathway.

Chuang TD, Xie Y, Yan W, Khorram O
Next-generation sequencing reveals differentially expressed small noncoding RNAs in uterine leiomyoma.
Fertil Steril. 2018; 109(5):919-929 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression profile of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in leiomyoma, which has not been investigated to date.
DESIGN: Laboratory-based investigation.
SETTING: Academic center.
PATIENT(S): Women undergoing hysterectomy for benign indications.
INTERVENTION(S): Next-generation sequencing and screening of an sncRNA database with confirmatory analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression profile of sncRNAs in leiomyoma and matched myometrium.
RESULT(S): Screening our previously determined RNA sequencing data with the sncRNA database resulted in identification of 15 small nuclear (sn) RNAs, 284 small nucleolar (sno) RNAs, 98 Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs, 152 transfer (t) RNAs, and 45 ribosomal (r) RNAs, of which 15 snoRNAs, 24 piRNAs, 7 tRNAs, and 6 rRNAs were differentially expressed at a 1.5-fold change cutoff in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. We selected 5 snoRNAs, 4 piRNAs, 1 tRNA, and 1 rRNA that were differentially expressed and confirmed their expression in paired tissues (n = 20) from both phases of the menstrual cycle with the use of qRT-PCR. The results indicated up-regulation of the snoRNAs (SNORD30, SNORD27, SNORA16A, SNORD46, and SNORD56) and down-regulation of the piRNAs (piR-1311, piR-16677, piR-20365, piR-4153), tRNA (TRG-GCC5-1), and rRNA (RNA5SP202) expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium (P<.05). The pattern of expression of these sncRNAs was similar to RNA sequencing analysis, with no menstrual cycle-dependent differences detected except for SNORD30. Because Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is required for sncRNA-mediated gene silencing, we determined its expression and found greater abundance in leiomyoma.
CONCLUSION(S): Our results provide the first evidence for the differential expression of additional classes of sncRNAs and AGO2 in leiomyoma, implicating their roles as a gene regulatory mechanism.

Falch CM, Sundaram AYM, Øystese KA, et al.
Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow-growing non-functioning gonadotroph pituitary adenomas.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2018; 178(3):295-307 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow-growing GAs present different gene expression profiles and reliable biomarkers for tumor growth potential could be identified, focusing on the specific role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight GAs selected for RNA sequencing were equally divided into fast- and slow-growing group by the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) median (27.75 months). Data were analyzed by tophat2, cufflinks and cummeRbund pipeline. 40 genes were selected for RT-qPCR validation in 20 GAs based on significance, fold-change and pathway analyses. The effect of silencing
RESULTS: 350 genes were significantly differentially expressed (282 genes upregulated and 68 downregulated in the fast group,
CONCLUSIONS: Fast- and slow-growing GAs present different gene expression profiles, and genes related to EMT have higher expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to

Khan RB, Phulukdaree A, Chuturgoon AA
Fumonisin B
Toxicon. 2018; 141:104-111 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fumonisin B

Xing YH, Yao RW, Zhang Y, et al.
SLERT Regulates DDX21 Rings Associated with Pol I Transcription.
Cell. 2017; 169(4):664-678.e16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulated rRNA synthesis by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) is associated with uncontrolled cell proliferation. Here, we report a box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)-ended long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that enhances pre-rRNA transcription (SLERT). SLERT requires box H/ACA snoRNAs at both ends for its biogenesis and translocation to the nucleolus. Deletion of SLERT impairs pre-rRNA transcription and rRNA production, leading to decreased tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, SLERT interacts with DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX21 via a 143-nt non-snoRNA sequence. Super-resolution images reveal that DDX21 forms ring-shaped structures surrounding multiple Pol I complexes and suppresses pre-rRNA transcription. Binding by SLERT allosterically alters individual DDX21 molecules, loosens the DDX21 ring, and evicts DDX21 suppression on Pol I transcription. Together, our results reveal an important control of ribosome biogenesis by SLERT lncRNA and its regulatory role in DDX21 ring-shaped arrangements acting on Pol I complexes.

Cao Y, Agarwal R, Dituri F, et al.
NGS-based transcriptome profiling reveals biomarkers for companion diagnostics of the TGF-β receptor blocker galunisertib in HCC.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(2):e2634 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling has gained extensive interest in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The small molecule kinase inhibitor galunisertib, targeting the TGF-β receptor I (TGF-βRI), blocks HCC progression in preclinical models and shows promising effects in ongoing clinical trials. As the drug is not similarly effective in all patients, this study was aimed at identifying new companion diagnostics biomarkers for patient stratification. Next-generation sequencing-based massive analysis of cDNA ends was used to investigate the transcriptome of an invasive HCC cell line responses to TGF-β1 and galunisertib. These identified mRNA were validated in 78 frozen HCC samples and in 26 ex-vivo HCC tissues treated in culture with galunisertib. Respective protein levels in patients blood were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SKIL, PMEPA1 ANGPTL4, SNAI1, Il11 and c4orf26 were strongly upregulated by TGF-β1 and downregulated by galunisertib in different HCC cell lines. In the 78 HCC samples, only SKIL and PMEPA1 (P<0.001) were correlated with endogenous TGF-β1. In ex-vivo samples, SKIL and PMEPA1 were strongly downregulated (P<0.001), and correlated (P<0.001) with endogenous TGF-β1. SKIL and PMEPA1 mRNA expression in tumor tissues was significantly increased compared with controls and not correlated with protein levels in the blood of paired HCC patients. SKIL and PMEPA1 mRNA levels were positively correlated with TGF-β1 mRNA concentrations in HCC tissues and strongly downregulated by galunisertib. The target genes identified here may serve as biomarkers for the stratification of HCC patients undergoing treatment with galunisertib.

Makino Y, Yoon JH, Bae E, et al.
Repression of Smad3 by Stat3 and c-Ski/SnoN induces gefitinib resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 484(2):269-277 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-associated inflammation develops resistance to the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring oncogenic EGFR mutations. Stat3-mediated interleukin (IL)-6 signaling and Smad-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways play crucial regulatory roles in cancer-associated inflammation. However, mechanisms how these pathways regulate sensitivity and resistance to EGFR-TKI in NSCLCs remain largely undetermined. Here we show that signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)3 represses Smad3 in synergy with the potent negative regulators of TGF-β signaling, c-Ski and SnoN, whereby renders gefitinib-sensitive HCC827 cells resistant. We found that IL-6 signaling via phosphorylated Stat3 induced gefitinib resistance as repressing transcription of Smad3, whereas TGF-β enhanced gefitinib sensitivity as activating transcription of Smad3 in HCC827 cells with gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutation. Promoter analyses showed that Stat3 synergized with c-Ski/SnoN to repress Smad2/3/4-induced transcription of the Smad3 gene. Smad3 was found to be an apoptosis inducer, which upregulated pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3 and downregulated anti-apoptotic genes such as Bcl-2. Our results suggest that derepression of Smad3 can be a therapeutic strategy to prevent gefitinib-resistance in NSCLCs with gefitinib-sensitizing EGFR mutation.

Stepanov GA, Filippova JA, Nushtaeva AA, et al.
Artificial Analogues of Circulating Box C/D RNAs Induce Strong Innate Immune Response and MicroRNA Activation in Human Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 924:121-125 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fragments of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) were found among various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) circulating in human blood. Currently, the function of such cell-free sno-derived-RNAs is not clearly defined. This work is aimed at identifying regulatory pathways controlled by extracellular snoRNAs. In order to determine the molecular targets and pathways affected by artificial snoRNAs, we performed Illumina array analysis of MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma cells transfected with box C/D RNAs. The genes related to the innate immune response and apoptotic cascades were found to be activated in transfected cells compared with control cells. Intriguingly, the transfection of MCF-7 cells with artificial box C/D snoRNAs also increased the transcription of several microRNAs, such as mir-574, mir-599 and mir-21. Our data demonstrated that extracellular snoRNAs introduced into human cells may function as gene expression modulators, with activation of microRNA genes being one of the regulatory mechanisms.

Yin X, Xu C, Zheng X, et al.
SnoN suppresses TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion of bladder cancer in a TIF1γ-dependent manner.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1535-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transcriptional regulator SnoN (also known as SKI-like proto-oncogene, SKIL), a member of the Ski family, has been reported to influence epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to TGF-β. In the present study, we investigated the role of SnoN in bladder cancer (BC). Differential expression of SnoN was not detected in BC tissues compared with that noted in adjacent non-cancerous tissues. SnoN was upregulated in response to TGF-β treatment, but had no effect on the TGF-β pathway, which may be explained by the low level of SnoN SUMOylation. TIF1γ, which catalyzes the SUMOylation of SnoN, was downregulated in BC tissues. Overexpression of TIF1γ restored the ability of SnoN to suppress the TGF-β pathway. Furthermore, TGF-β-induced EMT and invasion of BC cells were suppressed by TIF1γ in the presence of SnoN. Collectirely, our data suggest that SnoN suppresses TGF-β‑induced EMT and invasion of BC cells in a TIF1γ‑dependent manner and may serve as a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of BC.

Tiloke C, Phulukdaree A, Anand K, et al.
Moringa oleifera Gold Nanoparticles Modulate Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Caspase-9 Splice Variants in A549 Cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2016; 117(10):2302-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gold nanoparticles (AuNP's) facilitate cancer cell recognition and can be manufactured by green synthesis using nutrient rich medicinal plants such as Moringa oleifera (MO). Targeting dysregulated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is crucial for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the antiproliferative effects of AuNP synthesized from MO aqueous leaf extracts (MLAuNP ) in A549 lung and SNO oesophageal cancer cells. A one-pot green synthesis technique was used to synthesise MLAuNP . A549, SNO cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to MLAuNP and CAuNP to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay); apoptosis was measured by phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, mitochondrial depolarization (ΔΨm) (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7, -9 activity, and ATP levels (luminometry). The mRNA expression of c-myc, p53, Skp2, Fbw7α, and caspase-9 splice variants was determined using qPCR, while relative protein expression of c-myc, p53, SRp30a, Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Hsp70, and PARP-1 were determined by Western blotting. MLAuNP and CAuNP were not cytotoxic to PBMCs, whilst its pro-apoptotic properties were confirmed in A549 and SNO cells. MLAuNP significantly increased caspase activity in SNO cells while MLAuNP significantly increased PS externalization, ΔΨm, caspase-9, caspase-3/7 activities, and decreased ATP levels in A549 cells. Also, p53 mRNA and protein levels, SRp30a (P = 0.428), Bax, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 24 kDa fragment levels were significantly increased. Conversely, MLAuNP significantly decreased Bcl-2, Hsp70, Skp2, Fbw7α, c-myc mRNA, and protein levels and activated alternate splicing with caspase-9a splice variant being significantly increased. MLAuNP possesses antiproliferative properties and induced apoptosis in A549 cells by activating alternate splicing of caspase-9. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2302-2314, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Cañas A, López-Sánchez LM, Peñarando J, et al.
Altered S-nitrosothiol homeostasis provides a survival advantage to breast cancer cells in HER2 tumors and reduces their sensitivity to trastuzumab.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1862(4):601-610 [PubMed] Related Publications
The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab against HER2/neu, which is overexpressed in 15-20% of breast cancers, has clinical efficacy but many patients do not respond to initial treatment or develop resistance during treatment. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates cell signaling by targeting specific cysteine residues in proteins, forming S-nitrosothiols (SNO) in a process known as S-nitrosylation. We previously reported that molecular characteristics in breast cancer may dictate the tumor response to impaired SNO homeostasis. In the present study, we explored the role of SNO homeostasis in HER2 breast tumors. The antiproliferative action of trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 and SKBR-3 cells was suppressed when S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR/ADH5) activity, which plays a key role in SNO homeostasis, was specifically inhibited with the pyrrole derivative compound N6022. Moreover, GSNOR inhibition restored the activation of survival signaling pathways involved in the resistance to anti-HER2 therapies (AKT, Src and c-Abl kinases and TrkA/NRTK1, TrkB/NRTK2, EphA1 and EphA3 receptors) and reduced the apoptotic effect of trastuzumab. Accordingly, GSNOR inhibition augmented the S-nitrosylation of apoptosis-related proteins, including Apaf-1, pSer73/63 c-Jun, calcineurin subunit α and HSF1. In agreement with in vitro data, immunohistochemical analyses of 51 breast tumors showed that HER2 expression was associated with lower expression of GSNOR protein. Moreover, gene expression analysis confirmed that high ADH5/GSNOR gene expression was associated with high patient survival rates in HER2 tumors. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of molecular mechanisms contributing to the progression of HER2+ breast cancers and could facilitate the development of therapeutic options to counteract resistance to anti-HER2 therapies.

Kim YS, Choi KC, Hwang KA
Genistein suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration efficacies of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells activated by estrogenic chemicals via estrogen receptor pathway and downregulation of TGF-β signaling pathway.
Phytomedicine. 2015; 22(11):993-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is activated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-responsive cancers, is an important process in tumor migration or progression. As typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) have a potential to promote EMT and migration of estrogen-responsive cancers. On the contrary, genistein (GEN) as a phytoestrogen is known to have chemopreventive effects in diverse cancers.
METHODS: In the present study, the effects of BPA and GEN on EMT and the migration of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells and the underlying mechanism were investigated. ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, was co-treated with E2 or BPA or NP to BG-1 cells to identify the relevance of ER signaling in EMT and migration.
RESULTS: As results, E2 and BPA upregulated the protein expression of vimentin, cathepsin D, and MMP-2, but downregulated the protein expression of E-cadherin via ER signaling pathway, suggesting that E2 and BPA promote EMT and cell migration related gene expressions. However, the increased protein expressions of vimentin, cathepsin D, and MMP-2 by E2, BPA, or NP were reduced by the co-treatment of GEN. In a scratch assay, the migration capability of BG-1 cells was enhanced by E2, BPA, and NP via ER signaling but reversed by the co-treatment of GEN. In the protein expression of SnoN and Smad3, E2, BPA, and NP upregulated SnoN, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, and downregulated pSmad3, a transcription factor in the downstream pathway of TGF-β signaling pathway, suggesting that E2, BPA, and NP simultaneously lead to the downregualtion of TGF-β signaling in the process of induction of EMT and migration of BG-1 cells via ER signaling. On the other hand, the co-treatment of GEN reversed the downregulation of TGF-β signaling by estrogenic chemicals.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, GEN suppressed EMT and migration capacities of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells enhanced by E2, BPA, and NP via ER signaling and the downregulation of TGF-β signal.

Allen MD, Freund SM, Zinzalla G, Bycroft M
The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis.
Structure. 2015; 23(7):1344-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins.

Yu F, Bracken CP, Pillman KA, et al.
p53 Represses the Oncogenic Sno-MiR-28 Derived from a SnoRNA.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129190 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p53 is a master tumour repressor that participates in vast regulatory networks, including feedback loops involving microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate p53 and that themselves are direct p53 transcriptional targets. We show here that a group of polycistronic miRNA-like non-coding RNAs derived from small nucleolar RNAs (sno-miRNAs) are transcriptionally repressed by p53 through their host gene, SNHG1. The most abundant of these, sno-miR-28, directly targets the p53-stabilizing gene, TAF9B. Collectively, p53, SNHG1, sno-miR-28 and TAF9B form a regulatory loop which affects p53 stability and downstream p53-regulated pathways. In addition, SNHG1, SNORD28 and sno-miR-28 are all significantly upregulated in breast tumours and the overexpression of sno-miR-28 promotes breast epithelial cell proliferation. This research has broadened our knowledge of the crosstalk between small non-coding RNA pathways and roles of sno-miRNAs in p53 regulation.

Müller S, Raulefs S, Bruns P, et al.
Next-generation sequencing reveals novel differentially regulated mRNAs, lncRNAs, miRNAs, sdRNAs and a piRNA in pancreatic cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs with significantly different expression between normal pancreas and pancreatic cancer (PDAC) tissues. Due to technological limitations of microarrays and real-time PCR systems these studies focused on a fixed set of targets. Expression of other RNA classes such as long intergenic non-coding RNAs or sno-derived RNAs has rarely been examined in pancreatic cancer. Here, we analysed the coding and non-coding transcriptome of six PDAC and five control tissues using next-generation sequencing.
RESULTS: Besides the confirmation of several deregulated mRNAs and miRNAs, miRNAs without previous implication in PDAC were detected: miR-802, miR-2114 or miR-561. SnoRNA-derived RNAs (e.g. sno-HBII-296B) and piR-017061, a piwi-interacting RNA, were found to be differentially expressed between PDAC and control tissues. In silico target analysis of miR-802 revealed potential binding sites in the 3' UTR of TCF4, encoding a transcription factor that controls Wnt signalling genes. Overexpression of miR-802 in MiaPaCa pancreatic cancer cells reduced TCF4 protein levels. Using Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE) we identified differential expression of 43 lincRNAs, long intergenic non-coding RNAs, e.g. LINC00261 and LINC00152 as well as several natural antisense transcripts like HNF1A-AS1 and AFAP1-AS1. Differential expression was confirmed by qPCR on the mRNA/miRNA/lincRNA level and by immunohistochemistry on the protein level.
CONCLUSIONS: Here, we report a novel lncRNA, sncRNA and mRNA signature of PDAC. In silico prediction of ncRNA targets allowed for assigning potential functions to differentially regulated RNAs.

Liu C, Zhang H, Zang X, et al.
The influence of SnoN gene silencing by siRNA on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer cells.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer (PC) is very poor. The SnoN gene may have a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis in human cancer. However, the influence of SnoN on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human PC cells remains unknown.
METHODS: SnoN expression was assessed in SW1990 PC cell lines using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm the target associations. The effect of SnoN on cell proliferation in vitro was confirmed using Cell Counting Kit-8. Apoptosis was confirmed using flow cytometry. Gene and protein expression were examined using real time PCR and Western blotting, respectively.
RESULTS: SnoN siRNA significantly inhibited the growth of SW1990 cells by decreasing cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and increasing cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), compared with the blank group and the negative control group. The highest inhibition of cell proliferation appeared at 3 days post-transfection. Cell apoptosis more obvious at 48 h after transfection.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results reveal that the RNAi-mediated downregulation of SnoN effectively inhibited the proliferation of PC cells. SnoN-siRNA also enhanced SW1990 PC cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that SnoN gene plays an important role in pancreatic cancer development, and might serve as a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. However, further in vivo studies are needed to clarify the influence of SnoN gene silencing by siRNA on pancreatic cancer therapy.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Annala M, Kivinummi K, Tuominen J, et al.
Recurrent SKIL-activating rearrangements in ETS-negative prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(8):6235-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the third most common cause of male cancer death in developed countries, and one of the most comprehensively characterized human cancers. Roughly 60% of prostate cancers harbor gene fusions that juxtapose ETS-family transcription factors with androgen regulated promoters. A second subtype, characterized by SPINK1 overexpression, accounts for 15% of prostate cancers. Here we report the discovery of a new prostate cancer subtype characterized by rearrangements juxtaposing the SMAD inhibitor SKIL with androgen regulated promoters, leading to increased SKIL expression. SKIL fusions were found in 6 of 540 (1.1%) prostate cancers and 1 of 27 (3.7%) cell lines and xenografts. 6 of 7 SKIL-positive cancers were negative for ETS overexpression, suggesting mutual exclusivity with ETS fusions. SKIL knockdown led to growth arrest in PC-3 and LNCaP cell line models of prostate cancer, and its overexpression led to increased invasiveness in RWPE-1 cells. The role of SKIL as a prostate cancer oncogene lends support to recent studies on the role of TGF-β signaling as a rate-limiting step in prostate cancer progression. Our findings highlight SKIL as an oncogene and potential therapeutic target in 1-2% of prostate cancers, amounting to an estimated 10,000 cancer diagnoses per year worldwide.

Jiao Y, Lumpkins K, Terhune J, et al.
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in a neonate with congenital hyperinsulinism and a de novo germline SKIL gene mutation.
Pancreatology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 15(2):194-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A 3 day old infant with persistent severe hypoglycemia was found to have a cystic pancreatic tumor. Cessation of glucose infusion led to severe hypoglycemia. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and revealed an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) with high-grade dysplasia. Sequencing of the IPMN revealed a KRAS gene mutation not present in surrounding normal tissues. Deep sequencing of the patient's blood for KRAS mutations showed no evidence of mosaicism. Whole exome sequencing of the blood of the patient and both parents revealed a de novo germline SKIL mutation in the child that was not present in either parent. This suggests a possible role for SKIL in the pathogenesis of pancreatic tumors.

Moir-Meyer GL, Pearson JF, Lose F, et al.
Rare germline copy number deletions of likely functional importance are implicated in endometrial cancer predisposition.
Hum Genet. 2015; 134(3):269-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynaecological cancer in women, and relatively little is known about inherited risk factors for this disease. This is the first genome-wide study to explore the role of common and rare germline copy number variants (CNVs) in predisposition to endometrial cancer. CNVs were called from germline DNA of 1,209 endometrioid endometrial cancer cases and 528 cancer-unaffected female controls. Overall CNV load of deletions or DNA gains did not differ significantly between cases and controls (P > 0.05), but cases presented with an excess of rare germline deletions overlapping likely functional genomic regions including genes (P = 8 × 10(-10)), CpG islands (P = 1 × 10(-7)) and sno/miRNAs regions (P = 3 × 10(-9)). On average, at least one additional gene and two additional CpG islands were disrupted by rare deletions in cases compared to controls. The most pronounced difference was that over 30 sno/miRNAs were disrupted by rare deletions in cases for every single disruption event in controls. A total of 13 DNA repair genes were disrupted by rare deletions in 19/1,209 cases (1.6%) compared to one gene in 1/528 controls (0.2%; P = 0.007), and this increased DNA repair gene loss in cases persisted after excluding five individuals carrying CNVs disrupting mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 (P = 0.03). There were 34 miRNA regions deleted in at least one case but not in controls, the most frequent of which encompassed hsa-mir-661 and hsa-mir-203. Our study implicates rare germline deletions of functional and regulatory regions as possible mechanisms conferring endometrial cancer risk, and has identified specific regulatory elements as candidates for further investigation.

Bundela S, Sharma A, Bisen PS
Potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In India, oral cancer has consistently ranked among top three causes of cancer-related deaths, and it has emerged as a top cause for the cancer-related deaths among men. Lack of effective therapeutic options is one of the main challenges in clinical management of oral cancer patients. We interrogated large pool of samples from oral cancer gene expression studies to identify potential therapeutic targets that are involved in multiple cancer hallmark events. Therapeutic strategies directed towards such targets can be expected to effectively control cancer cells. Datasets from different gene expression studies were integrated by removing batch-effects and was used for downstream analyses, including differential expression analysis. Dependency network analysis was done to identify genes that undergo marked topological changes in oral cancer samples when compared with control samples. Causal reasoning analysis was carried out to identify significant hypotheses, which can explain gene expression profiles observed in oral cancer samples. Text-mining based approach was used to detect cancer hallmarks associated with genes significantly expressed in oral cancer. In all, 2365 genes were detected to be differentially expressed genes, which includes some of the highly differentially expressed genes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7). XIST, TCEAL2, NRAS and FGFR2 are some of the important genes detected by dependency and causal network analysis. Literature mining analysis annotated 1014 genes, out of which 841 genes were statistically significantly annotated. The integration of output of various analyses, resulted in the list of potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer, which included targets such as ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF and CD70.

Park MA, Choi KC
Effects of 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A on stimulation of cell growth via disruption of the transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway in ovarian cancer models.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2014; 27(1):119-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is a major pathway in cellular processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, and cellular homeostasis. The signaling pathway activated by 17β-estadiol (E2) appeared to inhibit the TGF-β signaling pathway by cross-talk with the TGF-β components in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-otylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), and benzophenon-1 (BP-1), in the TGF-β signaling pathway in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). The transcriptional and translational levels of TGF-β related genes were examined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis, and xenograft mouse models of ovarian cancer cells. As a result, treatment with NP, OP, and BPA induced the expressions of SnoN, a TGF-β pathway inhibitor, and c-Fos, a TGF-β target transcription factor. Treatment with NP, BPA, and BP-1 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of Smad3, a downstream target of TGF-β. These results indicate that NP and BPA may stimulate the proliferation of BG-1 cells via inhibition of the TGF-β signaling pathway. In a xenograft mouse model, transplanted BG-1 ovarian cancer cells showed significantly decreased phosphorylation of Smad3 and increased expression of SnoN in the ovarian tumor masses following treatment with E2, NP, or BPA. In parallel with an in vitro model, the expressions of these TGF-β signaling pathway were similarly regulated by NP or BPA in a xenograft mouse model. These results support the fact that the existence of an unproven relationship between EDCs/ER-α and TGF-β signaling pathway and a further study are required in order to verify more profound and distinct mechanism(s) for the disturbance of the TGF-β signaling pathway by diverse EDCs.

Ronchetti D, Mosca L, Cutrona G, et al.
Small nucleolar RNAs as new biomarkers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
BMC Med Genomics. 2013; 6:27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small Cajal body-specific RNAs are non-coding RNAs involved in the maturation of other RNA molecules. Alterations of sno/scaRNA expression may play a role in cancerogenesis. This study elucidates the patterns of sno/scaRNA expression in 211 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients (Binet stage A) also in comparison with those of different normal B-cell subsets.
METHODS: The patterns of sno/scaRNA expression in highly purified CD19+ B-cells of 211 CLL patients and in 18 normal B-cell samples--6 from peripheral blood, and 12 from tonsils (4 germinal center, 2 marginal zone, 3 switched memory and 3 naïve B-cells)--were analyzed on the Affymetrix GeneChip® Human Gene 1.0 ST array.
RESULTS: CLLs display a sno/scaRNAs expression profile similar to normal memory, naïve and marginal-zone B-cells, with the exception of a few down-regulated transcripts (SNORA31, -6, -62, and -71C). Our analyses also suggest some heterogeneity in the pattern of sno/scaRNAs expression which is apparently unrelated to the major biological (ZAP-70 and CD38), molecular (IGHV mutation) and cytogenetic markers. Moreover, we found that SNORA70F was significantly down-regulated in poor prognostic subgroups and this phenomenon was associated with the down-regulation of its host gene COBLL1. Finally, we generated an independent model based on SNORA74A and SNORD116-18 expression, which appears to distinguish two different prognostic CLL groups.
CONCLUSIONS: These data extend the view of sno/scaRNAs deregulation in cancer and may contribute to discover novel biomarkers associated with the disease and potentially useful to predict the clinical outcome of early stage CLL patients.

Hagerstrand D, Tong A, Schumacher SE, et al.
Systematic interrogation of 3q26 identifies TLOC1 and SKIL as cancer drivers.
Cancer Discov. 2013; 3(9):1044-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: 3q26 is frequently amplified in several cancer types with a common amplified region containing 20 genes. To identify cancer driver genes in this region, we interrogated the function of each of these genes by loss- and gain-of-function genetic screens. Specifically, we found that TLOC1 (SEC62) was selectively required for the proliferation of cell lines with 3q26 amplification. Increased TLOC1 expression induced anchorage-independent growth, and a second 3q26 gene, SKIL (SNON), facilitated cell invasion in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Expression of both TLOC1 and SKIL induced subcutaneous tumor growth. Proteomic studies showed that TLOC1 binds to DDX3X, which is essential for TLOC1-induced transformation and affected protein translation. SKIL induced invasion through upregulation of SLUG (SNAI2) expression. Together, these studies identify TLOC1 and SKIL as driver genes at 3q26 and more broadly suggest that cooperating genes may be coamplified in other regions with somatic copy number gain.
SIGNIFICANCE: These studies identify TLOC1 and SKIL as driver genes in 3q26. These observations provide evidence that regions of somatic copy number gain may harbor cooperating genes of different but complementary functions.

Kodigepalli KM, Anur P, Spellman P, et al.
Phospholipid Scramblase 1, an interferon-regulated gene located at 3q23, is regulated by SnoN/SkiL in ovarian cancer cells.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12:32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment of advanced stage ovarian cancer continues to be challenging due to acquired drug resistance and lack of early stage biomarkers. Genes identified to be aberrantly expressed at the 3q26.2 locus (i.e. SnoN/SkiL) have been implicated in ovarian cancer pathophysiology. We have previously shown that SnoN expression is increased in advanced stage ovarian cancers and alters cellular response to arsenic trioxide (As2O3).
FINDINGS: We now demonstrate increased DNA copy number levels (TCGA data) of phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1, located at 3q23) whose transcript expression in ovarian cell lines is highly correlated with SnoN mRNA. Interestingly, SnoN can modulate PLSCR1 mRNA levels in the absence/presence of interferon (IFN-2α). Both IFN-2α and As2O3 treatment can modulate PLSCR1 mRNA levels in ovarian carcinoma cells. However, SnoN siRNA does not lead to altered PLSCR1 protein implicating other events needed to modulate its protein levels. In addition, we report that PLSCR1 can modulate aspects of the As2O3 cellular response.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings warrant further investigation into the role of PLSCR1 in ovarian cancer development and chemoresistance.

Nallar SC, Kalvakolanu DV
Regulation of snoRNAs in cancer: close encounters with interferon.
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2013; 33(4):189-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The interferon (IFN) family of cytokines regulates many cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein degradation. IFNs induce growth inhibition and/or cell death, depending on the cell type, by employing different proteins. This review describes a novel growth-suppressive pathway employed by IFNs that affects rRNA levels. Maturation of rRNA involves numerous noncoding small regulatory RNA-guided processes. These regulatory RNAs, called small nucleolar RNA (snoRNAs), function as a ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) in the nucleolus. The biogenesis of snoRNPs is dependent on core protein and assembly factors. Our laboratory recently isolated a growth-suppressive protein gene associated with retinoid-IFN-induced mortality (GRIM)-1 using a genetic screen. IFN-inducible GRIM-1 (SHQ1) is an assembly factor that controls one arm of the snoRNP machinery. GRIM-1 inhibits sno/scaRNP formation to induce growth suppression via reduction in mature rRNA levels. Loss of GRIM-1 observed in certain cancers implicates it to be a novel tumor suppressor. Certain snoRNAs have been reported to act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in vitro. Recent studies have shown that certain sno/scaRNAs are further processed into micro RNA-like molecules to control translation of protein-coding RNAs. We present a model as to how these small regulatory RNAs influence cell growth and a potential role for GRIM-1 in this process.

Briones-Orta MA, Levy L, Madsen CD, et al.
Arkadia regulates tumor metastasis by modulation of the TGF-β pathway.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(6):1800-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TGF-β can act as a tumor suppressor at early stages of cancer progression and as a tumor promoter at later stages. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Arkadia (RNF111) is a critical component of the TGF-β signaling pathway, being required for a subset of responses, those mediated by Smad3-Smad4 complexes. It acts by mediating ligand-induced degradation of Ski and SnoN (SKIL), which are 2 potent transcriptional repressors. Here, we investigate the role of Arkadia in cancer using model systems to address both potential tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting roles. Stable reexpression of Arkadia in lung carcinoma NCI-H460 cells, which we show contain a hemizygous nonsense mutation in the Arkadia/RNF111 gene, efficiently restored TGF-β-induced Smad3-dependent transcription, and substantially decreased the ability of these cells to grow in soft agar in vitro. However, it had no effect on tumor growth in vivo in mouse models. Moreover, loss of Arkadia in cancer cell lines and human tumors is rare, arguing against a prominent tumor-suppressive role. In contrast, we have uncovered a potent tumor-promoting function for Arkadia. Using 3 different cancer cell lines whose tumorigenic properties are driven by TGF-β signaling, we show that loss of Arkadia function, either by overexpression of dominant negative Arkadia or by siRNA-induced knockdown, substantially inhibited lung colonization in tail vein injection experiments in immunodeficient mice. Our findings indicate that Arkadia is not critical for regulating tumor growth per se, but is required for the early stages of cancer cell colonization at the sites of metastasis.

Wang W, Liu C, Wang Y, Cao L
Effects of the downregulation of SnoN expression on HepG2 cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(4):1324-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ski‑novel protein (SnoN) is a proto‑oncogene that belongs to the Ski protein family and is involved in regulating processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. To investigate the role of SnoN in the proliferation and apoptosis of HepG2 cells, we downregulated its expression by the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Three fragments predicted to have RNAi capacity were designed and synthesized as the target siRNAs (siRNA‑A, ‑B and ‑C). Following transfection, inhibition efficiency was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT‑PCR) and western blot analysis. The siRNA with the optimal inhibition efficiency was used for the cell proliferation and apoptosis analysis. Cell proliferation was analyzed by the Cell Counting Kit‑8 (CCK‑8) and cell apoptosis was investigated by flow cytometry. In our study, all three siRNAs efficiently inhibited SnoN expression, and siRNA‑C demonstrated the optimal inhibition efficiency. We found that following downregulation of SnoN expression, HepG2 cell proliferation was significantly inhibited (P<0.05), while HepG2 cell apoptosis was significantly increased (P<0.05). SnoN‑specific siRNA is capable of effectively inhibiting the expression of SnoN in human HepG2 cells, and the downregulation of SnoN expression induces growth inhibition and apoptosis.

Jahchan NS, Ouyang G, Luo K
Expression profiles of SnoN in normal and cancerous human tissues support its tumor suppressor role in human cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55794 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SnoN is a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling and also an activator of the tumor suppressor p53 in response to cellular stress. Its role in human cancer is complex and controversial with both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities reported. To clarify its role in human cancer and provide clinical relevance to its signaling activities, we examined SnoN expression in normal and cancerous human esophageal, ovarian, pancreatic and breast tissues. In normal tissues, SnoN is expressed in both the epithelium and the surrounding stroma at a moderate level and is predominantly cytoplasmic. SnoN levels in all tumor epithelia examined are lower than or similar to that in the matched normal samples, consistent with its anti-tumorigenic activity in epithelial cells. In contrast, SnoN expression in the stroma is highly upregulated in the infiltrating inflammatory cells in high-grade esophageal and ovarian tumor samples, suggesting that SnoN may potentially promote malignant progression through modulating the tumor microenvironment in these tumor types. The overall levels of SnoN expression in these cancer tissues do not correlate with the p53 status. However, in human cancer cell lines with amplification of the snoN gene, a strong correlation between increased SnoN copy number and inactivation of p53 was detected, suggesting that the tumor suppressor SnoN-p53 pathway must be inactivated, either through downregulation of SnoN or inactivation of p53, in order to allow cancer cell to proliferate and survive. These data strongly suggest that SnoN can function as a tumor suppressor at early stages of tumorigenesis in human cancer tissues.

Kodigepalli KM, Dutta PS, Bauckman KA, Nanjundan M
SnoN/SkiL expression is modulated via arsenic trioxide-induced activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in ovarian cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2013; 587(1):5-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SnoN/SkiL (TGFβ regulator) is dysregulated in ovarian cancer, a disease associated with acquired drug-resistance. Arsenic trioxide (As₂O₃, used in treating APL) induces SnoN to oppose the apoptotic response in ovarian cancer cells. We now report that As₂O₃ increases phosphorylation of EGFR/p66ShcA and EGFR degradation. As₂O₃ activates Src(Y416) whose activity (inhibited by PP2) modulates EGFR activation, its interaction with Shc/Grb2, and p-AKT. Inhibition of PI3K reduces SnoN and cell survival. Although EGFR or MAPK1 siRNA did not alter SnoN expression, As₂O₃-induced cleaved PARP was reduced together with increased XIAP. Collectively, As₂O₃ mediates an initial rise in pY-Src(416) to regulate the PI3K/AKT pathway which increases SnoN and cell survival; these early events may counter the cell death response associated with increased pY-EGFR/MAPK activation.

Shinozuka E, Miyashita M, Mizuguchi Y, et al.
SnoN/SKIL modulates proliferation through control of hsa-miR-720 transcription in esophageal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 430(1):101-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is now evident that changes in microRNA are involved in cancer progression, but the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of miRNAs remain unknown. Ski-related novel gene (SnoN/SKIL), a transcription co-factor, acts as a potential key regulator within a complex network of p53 transcriptional repressors. SnoN has pro- and anti-oncogenic functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation. We characterized the roles of SnoN in miRNA transcriptional regulation and its effects on cell proliferation using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Silencing of SnoN altered a set of miRNA expression profiles in TE-1cells, and the expression levels of miR-720, miR-1274A, and miR-1274B were modulated by SnoN. The expression of these miRNAs resulted in changes to the target protein p63 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9). Furthermore, silencing of SnoN significantly upregulated cell proliferation in TE-1 cells, indicating a potential anti-oncogenic function. These results support our observation that cancer tissues have lower expression levels of SnoN, miR-720, and miR-1274A compared to adjacent normal tissues from ESCC patients. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism of miRNA regulation, leading to changes in cell proliferation.

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