Gene Summary

Gene:TNFSF13B; TNF superfamily member 13b
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This cytokine is a ligand for receptors TNFRSF13B/TACI, TNFRSF17/BCMA, and TNFRSF13C/BAFFR. This cytokine is expressed in B cell lineage cells, and acts as a potent B cell activator. It has been also shown to play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 13B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Plasma Cells
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Survival Rate
  • Tumor Necrosis Factors
  • Promoter Regions
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Protein Binding
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • B-Cell Maturation Antigen
  • TNF
  • NF-kappa B
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genetic Variation
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Staging
  • Chromosome 13
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 13
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor Protein
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • B-Cell Activating Factor
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Risk Factors
  • Phosphorylation
  • bcl-X Protein
  • B-Cell Activation Factor Receptor
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Survival
  • Messenger RNA
  • TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3
  • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Genetic Predisposition
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFSF13B (cancer-related)

Bao Y, Wang L, Shi L, et al.
Transcriptome profiling revealed multiple genes and ECM-receptor interaction pathways that may be associated with breast cancer.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2019; 24:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Exploration of the genes with abnormal expression during the development of breast cancer is essential to provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved. Transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of invasive ductal carcinoma and paracancerous tissues from the same patient were performed to identify the key genes and signaling pathways related to breast cancer development.
Methods: Samples of breast tumor tissue and paracancerous breast tissue were obtained from 6 patients. Sequencing used the Illumina HiSeq platform. All. Only perfectly matched clean reads were mapped to the reference genome database, further analyzed and annotated based on the reference genome information. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the DESeq R package (1.10.1) and DEGSeq R package (1.12.0). Using KOBAS software to execute the KEGG bioinformatics analyses, enriched signaling pathways of DEGs involved in the occurrence of breast cancer were determined. Subsequently, quantitative real time PCR was used to verify the accuracy of the expression profile of key DEGs from the RNA-seq result and to explore the expression patterns of novel cancer-related genes on 8 different clinical individuals.
Results: The transcriptomic sequencing results showed 937 DEGs, including 487 upregulated and 450 downregulated genes in the breast cancer specimens. Further quantitative gene expression analysis was performed and captured 252 DEGs (201 downregulated and 51 upregulated) that showed the same differential expression pattern in all libraries. Finally, 6 upregulated DEGs (CST2, DRP2, CLEC5A, SCD, KIAA1211, DTL) and 6 downregulated DEGs (STAC2, BTNL9, CA4, CD300LG, GPIHBP1 and PIGR), were confirmed in a quantitative real time PCR comparison of breast cancer and paracancerous breast tissues from 8 clinical specimens. KEGG analysis revealed various pathway changes, including 20 upregulated and 21 downregulated gene enrichment pathways. The extracellular matrix-receptor (ECM-receptor) interaction pathway was the most enriched pathway: all genes in this pathway were DEGs, including the THBS family, collagen and fibronectin. These DEGs and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway may perform important roles in breast cancer.
Conclusion: Several potential breast cancer-related genes and pathways were captured, including 7 novel upregulated genes and 76 novel downregulated genes that were not found in other studies. These genes are related to cell proliferation, movement and adhesion. They may be important for research into breast cancer mechanisms, particularly CST2 and CA4. A key signaling pathway, the ECM-receptor interaction signal pathway, was also identified as possibly involved in the development of breast cancer.

Kiran S, Dar A, Singh SK, et al.
The Deubiquitinase USP46 Is Essential for Proliferation and Tumor Growth of HPV-Transformed Cancers.
Mol Cell. 2018; 72(5):823-835.e5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
High-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) cause cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, unlike the low-risk HPVs, which cause benign lesions. E6 oncoproteins from the high-risk strains are essential for cell proliferation and transformation in HPV-induced cancers. We report that a cellular deubiquitinase, USP46, is selectively recruited by the E6 of high-risk, but not low-risk, HPV to deubiqutinate and stabilize Cdt2/DTL. Stabilization of Cdt2, a component of the CRL4

Sang L, Wang XM, Xu DY, Zhao WJ
Bioinformatics analysis of aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes and pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(24):2605-2616 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
AIM: To discover methylated-differentially expressed genes (MDEGs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to explore relevant hub genes and potential pathways.
METHODS: The data of expression profiling GSE25097 and methylation profiling GSE57956 were gained from GEO Datasets. We analyzed the differentially methylated genes and differentially expressed genes online using GEO2R. Functional and enrichment analyses of MDEGs were conducted using the DAVID database. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was performed by STRING and then visualized in Cytoscape. Hub genes were ranked by cytoHubba, and a module analysis of the PPI network was conducted by MCODE in Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: In total, we categorized 266 genes as hypermethylated, lowly expressed genes (Hyper-LGs) referring to endogenous and hormone stimulus, cell surface receptor linked signal transduction and behavior. In addition, 161 genes were labelled as hypomethylated, highly expressed genes (Hypo-HGs) referring to DNA replication and metabolic process, cell cycle and division. Pathway analysis illustrated that Hyper-LGs were enriched in cancer, Wnt, and chemokine signalling pathways, while Hypo-HGs were related to cell cycle and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways. Based on PPI networks,
CONCLUSION: In the study, we disclose numerous novel genetic and epigenetic regulations and offer a vital molecular groundwork to understand the pathogenesis of HCC. Hub genes, including

Perez-Peña J, Corrales-Sánchez V, Amir E, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) and denticleless protein homolog (DTL) are linked to poor outcome in breast and lung cancers.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):17530 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Protein ubiquitination and degradation represent druggable vulnerabilities of cancer cells. We used gene expression and functional annotation analyses to identify genes in the ubiquitin pathway which are differentially expressed between normal breast and basal-like tumors. With this approach we identified 16 ubiquitin related genes overexpressed in basal-like breast cancers compared with normal breast. We then explored the association between these genes and outcomes using the KMPlotter online tool. Two genes, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) and the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) were overexpressed and linked with detrimental outcome in basal-like and luminal breast cancer patients. Furthermore, we found that UBE2T and DTL were amplified in around 12% of breast tumors based on data contained at cBioportal. In non-small cell lung adenocarcinomas, UBE2T and DTL were also amplified in around 7% of cases and linked with disease recurrence after surgical resection. No significant molecular alterations or a clear trend for clinical outcome was observed for these genes in ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, esophagus-stomach cancer or non-small squamous cell carcinoma. Our data suggest that UBE2T and DTL may have a role in the pathophysiology of breast and lung tumors, opening avenues for future clinical evaluation of agents targeting those proteins or their pathways.

Paiva C, Rowland TA, Sreekantham B, et al.
SYK inhibition thwarts the BAFF - B-cell receptor crosstalk and thereby antagonizes Mcl-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(11):1890-1900 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Although small molecule inhibitors of B-cell receptor-associated kinases have revolutionized therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), responses are incomplete. Pro-survival signaling emanating from the microenvironment may foster therapeutic resistance of the malignant B cells resident in the protective lymphoid niches. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is critical to the survival of both healthy and neoplastic B cells. However, the pro-survival pathways triggered by BAFF have not been fully characterized. Here we show that BAFF elicited resistance to spontaneous and drug-induced apoptosis in stromal co-cultures, induced activation of both canonical and non-canonical NFκB signaling pathways, and triggered B-cell receptor signaling in CLL cells, independently of

Bertocci B, Lecoeuche D, Sterlin D, et al.
Klhl6 Deficiency Impairs Transitional B Cell Survival and Differentiation.
J Immunol. 2017; 199(7):2408-2420 [PubMed] Related Publications
Klhl6 belongs to the KLHL gene family, which is composed of an N-terminal BTB-POZ domain and four to six Kelch motifs in tandem. Several of these proteins function as adaptors of the Cullin3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. In this article, we report that Klhl6 deficiency induces, as previously described, a 2-fold reduction in mature B cells. However, we find that this deficit is centered on the inability of transitional type 1 B cells to survive and to progress toward the transitional type 2 B cell stage, whereas cells that have passed this step generate normal germinal centers (GCs) upon a T-dependent immune challenge. Klhl6-deficient type 1 B cells showed a 2-fold overexpression of genes linked with cell proliferation, including most targets of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome complex, a set of genes whose expression is precisely downmodulated upon culture of splenic transitional B cells in the presence of BAFF. These results thus suggest a delay in the differentiation process of Klhl6-deficient B cells between the immature and transitional stage. We further show, in the BL2 Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, that KLHL6 interacts with Cullin3, but also that it binds to HBXIP/Lamtor5, a protein involved in cell-cycle regulation and cytokinesis. Finally, we report that KLHL6, which is recurrently mutated in B cell lymphomas, is an off-target of the normal somatic hypermutation process taking place in GC B cells in both mice and humans, thus leaving open whether, despite the lack of impact of Klhl6 deficiency on GC B cell expansion, mutants could contribute to the oncogenic process.

Wu CC, Wu FC, Hsu YT, et al.
Enhanced anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy of DNA vaccine by fusing the E7 gene to BAFF in treating human papillomavirus-associated cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(20):33024-33036 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) belongs to the tumor necrosis factor family that not only stimulates B and T cells but also counteracts immune tolerance. BAFF is also a type II membrane protein, which is secreted through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi apparatus pathway. Fusing an antigen to BAFF might enhance the presentation of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. These characteristics represent an opportunity to enhance the antitumor effects of DNA vaccines. Therefore, we fused BAFF to human papillomavirus type 16 E7 as a DNA vaccine and evaluated its antitumor effects. We found that this vaccine increased E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses, engendered major antitumor effects against E7-expressing tumors, and prolonged the survival of the immunized mice. Interestingly, vaccinating B-cell-deficient mice with BAFF-E7 revealed considerable E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses, suggesting that B cells do not contribute to this immune response. Image analysis through confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that fusing BAFF to E7 targeted the protein to the ER, but not BAFF lacking 128 N-terminal residues that generated a lower number of E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the vaccinated mice. Our data indicated that the ER-targeting characteristic of BAFF is the main factor improving the potency of DNA vaccines.

Yan H, Bi L, Wang Y, et al.
Integrative analysis of multi-omics data reveals distinct impacts of DDB1-CUL4 associated factors in human lung adenocarcinomas.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):333 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Many DDB1-CUL4 associated factors (DCAFs) have been identified and serve as substrate receptors. Although the oncogenic role of CUL4A has been well established, specific DCAFs involved in cancer development remain largely unknown. Here we infer the potential impact of 19 well-defined DCAFs in human lung adenocarcinomas (LuADCs) using integrative omics analyses, and discover that mRNA levels of DTL, DCAF4, 12 and 13 are consistently elevated whereas VBRBP is reduced in LuADCs compared to normal lung tissues. The transcriptional levels of DCAFs are significantly correlated with their gene copy number variations. SKIP2, DTL, DCAF6, 7, 8, 13 and 17 are frequently gained whereas VPRBP, PHIP, DCAF10, 12 and 15 are frequently lost. We find that only transcriptional level of DTL is robustly, significantly and negatively correlated with overall survival across independent datasets. Moreover, DTL-correlated genes are enriched in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways. We also identified that the levels of 25 proteins were significantly associated with DTL overexpression in LuADCs, which include significant decreases in protein level of the tumor supressor genes such as PDCD4, NKX2-1 and PRKAA1. Our results suggest that different CUL4-DCAF axis plays the distinct roles in LuADC development with possible relevance for therapeutic target development.

Zeng Q, Qin S, Zhang H, et al.
Rapamycin attenuates BAFF-extended proliferation and survival via disruption of mTORC1/2 signaling in normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(1):516-529 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
B cell activating factor from the TNF family (BAFF) stimulates B-cell proliferation and survival, but excessive BAFF promotes the development of aggressive B cells leading to malignant and autoimmune diseases. Recently, we have reported that rapamycin, a macrocyclic lactone, attenuates human soluble BAFF (hsBAFF)-stimulated B-cell proliferation/survival by suppressing mTOR-mediated PP2A-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. Here, we show that the inhibitory effect of rapamycin on hsBAFF-promoted B cell proliferation/survival is also related to blocking hsBAFF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, S6K1, and 4E-BP1, as well as expression of survivin in normal and B-lymphoid (Raji and Daudi) cells. It appeared that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 were involved in the inhibitory activity of rapamycin, as silencing raptor or rictor enhanced rapamycin's suppression of hsBAFF-induced survivin expression and proliferation/viability in B cells. Also, PP242, an mTORC1/2 kinase inhibitor, repressed survivin expression, and cell proliferation/viability more potently than rapamycin (mTORC1 inhibitor) in B cells in response to hsBAFF. Of interest, ectopic expression of constitutively active Akt (myr-Akt) or constitutively active S6K1 (S6K1-ca), or downregulation of 4E-BP1 conferred resistance to rapamycin's attenuation of hsBAFF-induced survivin expression and B-cell proliferation/viability, whereas overexpression of dominant negative Akt (dn-Akt) or constitutively hypophosphorylated 4E-BP1 (4EBP1-5A), or downregulation of S6K1, or co-treatment with Akt inhibitor potentiated the inhibitory effects of rapamycin. The findings indicate that rapamycin attenuates excessive hsBAFF-induced cell proliferation/survival via blocking mTORC1/2 signaling in normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells. Our data underscore that rapamycin may be a potential agent for preventing excessive BAFF-evoked aggressive B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases.

Jasek M, Bojarska-Junak A, Wagner M, et al.
Association of variants in BAFF (rs9514828 and rs1041569) and BAFF-R (rs61756766) genes with the risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13617-13626 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
The B-cell activator factor (BAFF)/BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) axis seems to play an important role in the development and progression of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Here, we investigated the association of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BAFF (TNFSF13B) and BAFF-R (TNFRSF13C) genes with risk of sporadic CLL in a group of 439 CLL patients and 477 controls. We also examined the correlation between selected SNPs and CLL clinical parameters as well as BAFF plasma levels and intracellular BAFF expression. Our results point to a possible association between the rs9514828 (CT vs. CC + TT; OR = 0.74; CI 95 % = 0.57; 0.97; p = 0.022) and rs1041569 (AT vs. AA + TT; OR = 0.72; CI 95 % = 0.54; 0.95; p = 0.021) of BAFF gene and rs61756766 (CC vs. CT; OR = 2.03; CI 95 % = 1.03; 3.99; p = 0.03) of BAFF-R gene and CLL risk. Additionally, we observed that homozygotes rs1041569 AA and TT had a slightly higher risk (HR = 1.12) for the need of treatment in comparison to AT heterozygotes. In conclusion, our results indicate that SNPs in BAFF and BAFF-R genes may be considered as potential CLL risk factors.

Zhu L, Xiao F, Yu Y, et al.
KSP inhibitor SB743921 inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating p53, Bcl-2, and DTL.
Anticancer Drugs. 2016; 27(9):863-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Kinesin spindle protein (KSP) is a microtubule-associated motor protein that is specifically expressed by mitosis cells. It is highly expressed in various types of tumors including hematomalignances and solid tumors. Chemical KSP inhibition has become a novel strategy in the development of anticancer drugs. SB743921 is a selective inhibitor for KSP, which is a mitotic protein essential for cell-cycle progression. Although SB743921 has shown antitumor activities for several types of cancers and entered into clinical trials, its therapeutic effects on breast cancer and mechanisms have not been explored. In this study, we tested the antitumor activity of SB743921 in breast cancer cell lines and partly elucidated its mechanisms. KSP and denticleless E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase homolog (DTL) are overexpressed in breast cancer cells compared with no-cancer tissues. Chemical inhibition of KSP by SB743921 not only reduces proliferation but also induces cell-cycle arrest and leads to apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines with SB743921 results in decreased ability of colony formation in culture. SB743921 treatment also causes a KSP accumulation in protein level that is associated with cell arrest. Furthermore, we showed that SB743921 treatment significantly reduces the expression of bcl-2 and cell cycle-related protein DTL, and upregulates p53 and caspase-3 in breast cancer cells. Taken together, these data indicated that SB743921 can be expected to be a novel treatment agent for breast cancers.

Liu M, Song W, Zhang J, et al.
Non-canonical NF-κB Plays a Pivotal Role in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 72(3):681-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study tried to dissect BAFF/BAFF-R-mediated non-canonical NF-κB signaling in the drug resistance of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. FQ-PCR was employ to determine the mRNA expression of BAFF, BAFF-R, Bcl-xL, and RIPK2 in the circulating blood of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients. Further correlation studies were performed with the gene expression in the circulating blood and tumor tissue. MTT assay as used to determine BAFF's role on lymphoma cell proliferation. Western blot was employed to determine protein expression after BAFF stimulation. The mRNA expression of BAFF, BAFF-R, Bcl-xL, and RIPK2 in the circulating blood of the resistant group was higher than that of the non-resistant group, which was statistically significant. The mRNA expression of the target genes was positively correlated. The mRNA expression was positively correlated with disease progression, which was statistically significant. The Bcl-xL mRNA expression in the resistant group was relatively higher than that in the non-resistant group, which was also statistically significant. However, the mRNA expression of other genes only showed increased tendency compared with non-resistant group. There was no significant change between target genes in different tumor tissues. With increased BAFF concentration and prolonged exposure, the proliferation of the tumor cells increased significantly, which was statistically significant. Western blot showed the expression of BAFF, BAFF-R, Bcl-xL, and RIPK2 all increased with increased BAFF concentration, which was also statistically significant. In B-cell, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, BAFF may activate non-canonical NF-κB signaling to regulate drug resistance.

Benamar M, Guessous F, Du K, et al.
Inactivation of the CRL4-CDT2-SET8/p21 ubiquitylation and degradation axis underlies the therapeutic efficacy of pevonedistat in melanoma.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 10:85-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The cullin-based CRL4-CDT2 ubiquitin ligase is emerging as a master regulator of cell proliferation. CRL4-CDT2 prevents re-initiation of DNA replication during the same cell cycle "rereplication" through targeted degradation of CDT1, SET8 and p21 during S-phase of the cell cycle. We show that CDT2 is overexpressed in cutaneous melanoma and predicts poor overall and disease-free survival. CDT2 ablation inhibited a panel of melanoma cell lines through the induction of SET8- and p21-dependent DNA rereplication and senescence. Pevonedistat (MLN4924), a specific inhibitor of the NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE), inhibits the activity of cullin E3 ligases, thereby stabilizing a vast number of cullin substrates and resulting in cancer cell inhibition in vitro and tumor suppression in nude mice. We demonstrate that pevonedistat is effective at inhibiting the proliferation of melanoma cell lines in vitro through the induction of rereplication-dependent permanent growth arrest as well as through a transient, non-rereplication-dependent mechanism. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated heterozygous deletion of CDKN1A (encoding p21) or SET8 in melanoma cells demonstrated that the rereplication-mediated cytotoxicity of pevonedistat is mediated through preventing the degradation of p21 and SET8 and is essential for melanoma suppression in nude mice. By contrast, pevonedistat-induced transient growth suppression was independent of p21 or SET8, and insufficient to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Pevonedistat additionally synergized with the BRAF kinase inhibitor PLX4720 to inhibit BRAF melanoma, and suppressed PLX4720-resistant melanoma cells. These findings demonstrate that the CRL4-CDT2-SET8/p21 degradation axis is the primary target of inhibition by pevonedistat in melanoma and suggest that a broad patient population may benefit from pevonedistat therapy.
RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: The identification of new molecular targets and effective inhibitors is of utmost significance for the clinical management of melanoma. This study identifies CDT2, a substrate receptor for the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase, as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in melanoma. CDT2 is required for melanoma cell proliferation and inhibition of CRL4(CDT2) by pevonedistat suppresses melanoma in vitro and in vivo through the induction of DNA rereplication and senescence through the stabilization of the CRL4(CDT2) substrates p21 and SET8. Pevonedistat also synergizes with vemurafenib in vivo and suppresses vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells. These findings show a significant promise for targeting CRL4(CDT2) therapeutically.

Li Y, Bouchlaka MN, Wolff J, et al.
FBXO10 deficiency and BTK activation upregulate BCL2 expression in mantle cell lymphoma.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(48):6223-6234 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Targeting Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) by ibrutinib is an effective treatment for patients with relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). However, both primary and acquired resistance to ibrutinib have developed in a significant number of these patients. A combinatory strategy targeting multiple oncogenic pathways is critical to enhance the efficacy of ibrutinib. Here, we focus on the BCL2 anti-apoptotic pathway. In a tissue microarray of 62 MCL samples, BCL2 expression positively correlated with BTK expression. Increased levels of BCL2 were shown to be due to a defect in protein degradation because of no or little expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXO10, as well as transcriptional upregulation through BTK-mediated canonical nuclear factor-κB activation. RNA-seq analysis confirmed that a set of anti-apoptotic genes (for example, BCL2, BCL-XL and DAD1) was downregulated by BTK short hairpin RNA. The downregulated genes also included those that are critical for B-cell growth and proliferation, such as BCL6, MYC, PIK3CA and BAFF-R. Targeting BCL2 by the specific inhibitor ABT-199 synergized with ibrutinib in inhibiting growth of both ibrutinib-sensitive and -resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest co-targeting of BTK and BCL2 as a new therapeutic strategy in MCL, especially for patients with primary resistance to ibrutinib.

Hsiao LT, Wang HY, Yang CF, et al.
Human Cytokine Genetic Variants Associated With HBsAg Reverse Seroconversion in Rituximab-Treated Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(11):e3064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been noted in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-seronegative patients with CD20 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergoing rituximab treatment. Clinically, hepatitis flares are usually associated with the reappearance of HBsAg (reverse seroconversion of HBsAg, HBV-RS). It is unclear whether human genetic factors are related to rituximab-associated HBV reactivation. Unvaccinated HBsAg-seronegative adults (n = 104) with CD20 NHL who had received rituximab-containing therapy without anti-HBV prophylaxis were enrolled. Eighty-nine candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 49 human cytokine genes were chosen and were analyzed using the iPLEX technique. Competing risk regression was used to identify the factors associated with HBV-RS. Participants had a median age of 66.1 years and 56.7% were male (n = 59). The anti-HBs and anti-HBc positivity rates were 82.4% and 94.1%, respectively, among patients for whom data were available (approximately 81%). A mean of 7.14 cycles of rituximab therapy were administered, and a total of 14 (13.4%) patients developed HBV-RS. Nine SNPs showed significant differences in frequency between patients with or without HBV-RS: CD40 rs1883832, IL4 rs2243248 and rs2243263, IL13 rs1295686, IL18 rs243908, IL20 rs1518108, and TNFSF13B rs12428930 and rs12583006. Multivariate analysis showed that ≥6 cycles of rituximab therapy, IL18 rs243908, and the IL4 haplotype rs2243248∼rs2243263 were independently associated with HBV-RS. The IL4 haplotype rs2243248∼rs2243263 was significantly associated with HBV-RS regardless of anti-HBs status. Polymorphisms in human cytokine genes impact the risk of rituximab-associated HBV-RS.

Franciosa G, Diluvio G, Gaudio FD, et al.
Prolyl-isomerase Pin1 controls Notch3 protein expression and regulates T-ALL progression.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(36):4741-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Deregulated Notch signaling is associated with T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) development and progression. Increasing evidence reveals that Notch pathway has an important role in the invasion ability of tumor cells, including leukemia, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unclear. Here, we show that Notch3 is a novel target protein of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, which is able to regulate Notch3 protein processing and to stabilize the cleaved product, leading to the increased expression of the intracellular domain (N3IC), finally enhancing Notch3-dependent invasiveness properties. We demonstrate that the combined inhibition of Notch3 and Pin1 in the Notch3-overexpressing human leukemic TALL-1 cells reduces their high invasive potential, by decreasing the expression of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9. Consistently, Pin1 depletion in a mouse model of Notch3-induced T-ALL, by reducing N3IC expression and signaling, impairs the expansion/invasiveness of CD4(+)CD8(+) DP cells in peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Notably, in in silico gene expression analysis of human T-ALL samples we observed a significant correlation between Pin1 and Notch3 expression levels, which may further suggest a key role of the newly identified Notch3-Pin1 axis in T-ALL aggressiveness and progression. Thus, combined suppression of Pin1 and Notch3 proteins may be exploited as an additional target therapy for T-ALL.

Su T, Li J, Meng M, et al.
Bone marrow stromal cells induced activation of nuclear factor κB signaling protects non-Hodgkin's B lymphoma cells from apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10745-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The microenvironment encompassing a variety of non-malignant cells in close proximity with malignant tumor cells has been well known to significantly affect the behavior of tumor cells. In this study, we therefore studied the mechanism of bone marrow stromal cells in protection of lymphoma cells from spontaneous apoptosis. We demonstrated that adhesion of the freshly isolated lymphoma B cells to bone marrow stromal cells or freshly isolated lymphoma stromal cells inhibited B cell spontaneous apoptosis in culture. This inhibition of apoptosis correlated with decreased cleavage of caspase-3/8 and increased activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition to BAFF signaling which has been reported as a functional determinant for B lymphoma cell survival in the bone marrow environment, we demonstrated RANKL from BMSCs works synergistically with BAFF to activate NF-κB signaling pathway and thus protects lymphoma B cells from spontaneous apoptosis.

Shen X, Guo Y, Qi J, et al.
Study on the Association Between miRNA-202 Expression and Drug Sensitivity in Multiple Myeloma Cells.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(3):531-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increasing amount of experimental evidence has shown that miRNAs play a causal role in hematologic tumorigenesis. In this study, we characterized the role of miR-202 in multiple myeloma (MM) drug sensitivity. The potential binding site of miR-202 and B cell-activating factor (BAFF) was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. MM cells were transfected with miR-202 mimics and inhibitor. Cells growth was measured by WST-1 cell proliferation assay and Annexin V-FLUOS apoptosis assay. BAFF and miR-202 mRNA levels were measured by real-time PCR. Meanwhile, BAFF, Bcl-2 family survival proteins and MAPK pathway proteins were measured by Western blot. It was found that miR-202 was functioned as a modulator of BAFF expression. miR-202 over-expression sensitized MM cells to bortezomib (Bort) but less to Thalidomide (Thal) and dexamethasone (Dex). miR-202 mimics in combination with Bort inhibited MM cell survival more effectively as compared with Bort treatment alone. Our study also provided experimental evidence that JNK/SAPK signaling pathway was involved in the regulatory effect of miR-202 on drug resistance of MM cells. These results suggest that the regulatory mechanism of miR-202 expression may be a promising target for fine-tuning anti-myeloma therapy.

Singh V, Singh LC, Vasudevan M, et al.
Esophageal Cancer Epigenomics and Integrome Analysis of Genome-Wide Methylation and Expression in High Risk Northeast Indian Population.
OMICS. 2015; 19(11):688-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is a major global health burden with a strong host-environment interaction component and epigenomics underpinnings that remain to be elucidated further. Certain populations such as the Northeast Indians suffer at a disproportionately higher rate from this devastating disease. Promoter methylation is correlated with transcriptional silencing of various genes in esophageal cancer. Very few studies on genome-wide methylation for esophageal cancer exist and yet, no one has carried out an integromics analysis of methylation and gene expression. In the present study, genome-wide methylation was measured in samples collected from the Northeast Indian population by Infinium 450k array, and integration of the methylation data was performed. To prepare a network of genes displaying enriched pathways, together with the list of genes exhibiting promoter hypermethylation or hypomethylation with inversely correlated expression, we performed an integrome analysis. We identified 23 Integrome network enriched genes with relevance to tumor progression and associated with the processes involved in metastasis such as cell adhesion, integrin signaling, cytoskeleton, and extracellular matrix organizations. These included four genes (PTK2, RND1, RND3, and UBL3) with promoter hypermethylation and downregulation, and 19 genes (SEMG2, CD97, CTNND2, CADM3, OMD, NEFM, FBN2, CTNNB1, DLX6, UGT2B4, CCDC80, PZP, SERPINA4, TNFSF13B, NPC1, COL1A1, TAC3, BMP8A, and IL22RA2) with promoter hypomethylation and upregulation. A Methylation Efficiency Index was further calculated for these genes; the top five gene with the highest index were COL1A1, TAC3, SERPINA4, TNFSF13B, and IL22RA2. In conclusion, we recommend that the circulatory proteins IL22RA2, TNFSF13B, SERPINA4, and TAC3 in serum of patients and disease-free healthy controls can be examined in the future as putative noninvasive biomarkers.

Kobayashi H, Komatsu S, Ichikawa D, et al.
Overexpression of denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (DTL) is related to poor outcome in gastric carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36615-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (DTL) has been identified in amplified region (1q32) of several cancers and has an oncogenic function. In this study, we tested whether DTL acts as a cancer-promoting gene through its activation/overexpression in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: We analyzed 7 GC cell lines and 100 primary tumors that were curatively resected in our hospital between 2001 and 2003.
RESULTS: Overexpression of the DTL protein was detected in GC cell lines (4/7 cell lines; 57%) and primary GC tumor samples (42/100 cases; 42%). Knockdown of DTL using several specific siRNAs inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion in a TP53 mutation-independent manner. Overexpression of the DTL was significantly correlated with lymphatic invasion, deeper tumor depth and higher recurrence rate. Patients with DTL-overexpressing tumors had a worse survival rate than those with non-expressing tumors in overall survival (P = 0.0498, log-rank test) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0324, log-rank test). In a multivariate analysis, DTL positivity was independently associated with a worse overall survival (P = 0.0104, hazard ratio 3.7 [1.36-10.1]) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0070 (hazard ratio, 3.9 (1.45-10.46)) following radical gastrectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that DTL overexpression plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation and highlights its usefulness as a prognosticator and potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

Uy GL, Hsu YM, Schmidt AP, et al.
Targeting bone marrow lymphoid niches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(12):1437-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) the bone marrow microenvironment provides growth and survival signals that may confer resistance to chemotherapy. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) potently inhibits lymphopoiesis by targeting stromal cells that comprise the lymphoid niche in the bone marrow. To determine whether lymphoid niche disruption by G-CSF sensitizes ALL cells to chemotherapy, we conducted a pilot study of G-CSF in combination with chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL. Thirteen patients were treated on study; three patients achieved a complete remission (CR/CRi) for an overall response rate of 23%. In the healthy volunteers, G-CSF treatment disrupted the lymphoid niche, as evidenced by reduced expression of CXCL12, interleukin-7, and osteocalcin. However, in most patients with relapsed/refractory ALL expression of these genes was markedly suppressed at baseline. Thus, although G-CSF treatment was associated with ALL cell mobilization into the blood, and increased apoptosis of bone marrow resident ALL cells, alterations in the bone marrow microenvironment were modest and highly variable. These data suggest that disruption of lymphoid niches by G-CSF to sensitize ALL cells to chemotherapy may be best accomplished in the consolidation where the bone marrow microenvironment is more likely to be normal.

Asaba J, Bandyopadhyay M, Kindy M, Dasgupta S
Estrogen receptor signal in regulation of B cell activation during diverse immune responses.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 68:42-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of signalling through oestrogen receptors (ERs) in the regulation of B cell activation is an area of growing importance not only in terms protective immunity but also in the determination of the mechanisms of the onset of autoimmune disorders and cancers. The mode of signalling action of this single chain nuclear receptor protein molecule depends on its ability to bind to the promoters of Pax5, HOXC4 and apolipoprotein B RNA-editing enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) genes. ER-mediated transcriptional regulation induces class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (VH) to DH-JH genes and somatic hypermutation in developing B cells. The mode of action of ER is associated with BCR-signal pathways that involve the regulator proteins BAFF and APRIL. Additionally, the plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor-1 (GEPR1) directs diverse cell signalling events in B cells that involve the MAPK pathways. These signals are immensely important during progenitor and precursor B cell activation. We have focused our goals on the medicinal aspects of ER-signalling mechanisms and their effects on polyclonal B cell activation.

Jasek M, Wagner M, Sobczynski M, et al.
Polymorphisms in genes of the BAFF/APRIL system may constitute risk factors of B-CLL--a preliminary study on a Polish population.
Tissue Antigens. 2015; 86(4):279-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of B-cell activating factor (BAFF)/a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) system with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) have been suggested, therefore, we investigated 20 SNPs of BAFF, APRIL, BAFF-R, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin-ligand interactor (TACI), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) genes and the risk and outcome of B-CLL in 187 patients and 296 healthy subjects as well as ligand-receptor gene × gene interactions. Although the obtained P-values for all 20 SNPs did not reach statistical significance for this study (α = 0.003), the high value of the global chi-squared statistic (χ(2) df = 38  = 52.65; P = 0.0586), and obtained values of odds ratio indicate that rs9514828 (BAFF), rs3803800 (APRIL) and rs4985726 (TACI) may be associated with the risk of B-CLL. We observed that the B-CLL patients with the genotype rs9514828CT/rs11570136AA were diagnosed with the disease 12 years later than the whole group of patients in this study.

Lonial S, Durie B, Palumbo A, San-Miguel J
Monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of multiple myeloma: current status and future perspectives.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(3):526-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
The treatment landscape for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is constantly evolving. Over the past decade, the introduction of novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs has led to notable changes in therapeutic strategy, and improvements in survival, yet MM remains incurable in the vast majority of cases. More recently, a targeted approach to MM treatment has emerged, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to target antigens expressed on the surface of MM cells. MAbs tested to date kill MM cells via the host's immune system and/or by promoting apoptosis, and appear to have generally improved tolerability compared with currently available treatments. Due to their distinct mode of action, mAbs are promising both for patients who have exhausted current regimens, and as part of first-line treatments in newly diagnosed patients. This review examines the recent developments in mAb-based therapy for MM, primarily focused on those agents in ongoing clinical testing.

Shen X, Guo Y, Yu J, et al.
miRNA-202 in bone marrow stromal cells affects the growth and adhesion of multiple myeloma cells by regulating B cell-activating factor.
Clin Exp Med. 2016; 16(3):307-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) up-regulate B cell-activating factor (BAFF) in multiple myeloma. Increasing experimental evidence has shown that microRNAs play a causal role in hematology tumorigenesis. In this study, we characterized the role of miR-202 in regulating the expression of BAFF in BMSCs. It was found that expressions of BAFF mRNA and protein were increased in BMSCs treated with miR-202 inhibitor. The growth rate of miR-202 mimics transfection cells was significantly lower than that of non-transfected cells. The expression of Bcl-2 protein was down-regulated, and Bax protein was up-regulated after miR-202 mimics transfection. Over-expression of miR-202 in BMSCs rendered MM cells more sensitive to bortezomib. More significantly, the regulatory effect of miR-202 could inhibit the activation of NF-κB pathway in BMSCs. These results suggest that miR-202 functions as a modulator that can negatively regulate BAFF by inhibiting MM cell survival, growth, and adhesion in the bone marrow microenvironment.

Zhou J, Rossi JJ, Shum KT
Methods for assembling B-cell lymphoma specific and internalizing aptamer-siRNA nanoparticles via the sticky bridge.
Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1297:169-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Structured functional RNA entities, including aptamers and siRNAs, have amazing versatility in structure and function. These molecules can serve as powerful, attractive building blocks for the bottom-up assembly of complex nanostructures. Here, we describe novel cell-type specific and internalizing B-cell activating factor receptor (BAFF-R) aptamer-siRNA delivery systems for B-cell lymphoma therapy, in which both the aptamer and the Dicer substrate siRNA (DsiRNA) portions are conjugated through a "sticky bridge." The BAFF-R is overexpressed on the surface of B-cell malignancies, allowing binding and internalization of the aptamer-stick-siRNA nanoparticles. STAT3 siRNAs are encapsulated within the nanoparticles delivered by the BAFF-R aptamers and are localized to the cytoplasm, resulting in robust gene silencing of STAT3 mRNAs in a variety of B-cell lines. Moreover, these nanoparticles do not induce cell proliferation and apoptosis. Collectively, aptamer-mediated delivery strategies provide a toolset to become a more widely used therapeutic modality for the treatment of diseases.

Ahmed-Seghir S, Pouvelle C, Despras E, et al.
Aberrant C-terminal domain of polymerase η targets the functional enzyme to the proteosomal degradation pathway.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2015; 29:154-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) is a rare genetic disease, characterized by sunlight sensitivity and predisposition to cutaneous malignancies. XP-V is caused by a deficiency in DNA polymerase eta (Polη) that plays a pivotal role in translesion synthesis by bypassing UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Previously we identified a new Polη variant containing two missense mutations, one mutation within the bipartite NLS (T692A) and a second mutation on the stop codon (X714W) leading to a longer protein with an extra 8 amino acids (721 instead of 713 AA). First biochemical analysis revealed that this Polη missense variant was barely detectable by western blot. As this mutant is extremely unstable and is nearly undetectable, a definitive measure of its functional deficit in cells has not been explored. Here we report the molecular and cellular characterization of this missense variant. In cell free extracts, the extra 8 amino acids in the C-terminal of Polη(721) only slightly reduce the bypass efficiency through CPD lesions. In vivo, Polη(721) accumulates in replication factories and interacts with mUb-PCNA albeit at lower level than Polη(wt). XP-V cells overexpressing Polη(721) were only slightly UV-sensitive. Altogether, our data strongly suggest that Polη(721) is functional and that the patient displays a XP-V phenotype because the mutant protein is excessively unstable. We then investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in this excessive proteolysis. We showed that Polη(721) is degraded by the proteasome in an ubiquitin-dependent manner and that this proteolysis is independent of the E3 ligases, CRL4(cdt2) and Pirh2, reported to promote Polη degradation. We then demonstrated that the extra 8 amino acids of Polη(721) do not act as a degron but rather induce a conformational change of the Polη C-terminus exposing its bipartite NLS as well as a sequence close to its UBZ to the ubiquitin/proteasome system. Interestingly we showed that the clinically approved proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib restores the levels of Polη(721) suggesting that this might be a therapeutic approach to preventing tumor development in certain XP-V patients harboring missense mutations.

Hengeveld PJ, Kersten MJ
B-cell activating factor in the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma: a target for therapy?
Blood Cancer J. 2015; 5:e282 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a currently incurable malignancy of plasma cells. Malignant myeloma cells (MMCs) are heavily dependent upon the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment for their survival. One component of this tumor microenvironment, B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF), has been implicated as a key player in this interaction. This review discusses the role of BAFF in the pathophysiology of MM, and the potential of BAFF-inhibitory therapy for the treatment of MM. Multiple studies have shown that BAFF functions as a survival factor for MMCs. Furthermore, MMCs express several BAFF-binding receptors. Of these, only Transmembrane Activator and CAML Interactor (TACI) correlates with the MMC's capability to ligate BAFF. Additionally, the level of expression of TACI correlates with the level of the MMC's BM dependency. Ligation of BAFF receptors on MMCs causes activation of the Nuclear Factor of κ-B (NF-κB) pathway, a crucial pathway for the pathogenesis of many B-cell malignancies. Serum BAFF levels are significantly elevated in MM patients when compared to healthy controls, and correlate inversely with overall survival. BAFF signaling is thus an interesting target for the treatment of MM. Several BAFF-inhibitory drugs are currently under evaluation for the treatment of MM. These include BAFF-monoclonal antibodies (tabalumab) and antibody-drug conjugates (GSK2857916).

Chakrabarti S, Multani S, Dabholkar J, Saranath D
Whole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples.

Baxter PA, Lin Q, Mao H, et al.
Silencing BMI1 eliminates tumor formation of pediatric glioma CD133+ cells not by affecting known targets but by down-regulating a novel set of core genes.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2014; 2:160 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 06/12/2019 Related Publications
Clinical outcome of children with malignant glioma remains dismal. Here, we examined the role of over-expressed BMI1, a regulator of stem cell self-renewal, in sustaining tumor formation in pediatric glioma stem cells. Our investigation revealed BMI1 over-expression in 29 of 54 (53.7%) pediatric gliomas, 8 of 8 (100%) patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse models, and in both CD133+ and CD133- glioma cells. We demonstrated that lentiviral-shRNA mediated silencing of suppressed cell proliferation in vitro in cells derived from 3 independent PDOX models and eliminated tumor-forming capacity of CD133+ and CD133- cells derived from 2 PDOX models in mouse brains. Gene expression profiling showed that most of the molecular targets of BMI1 ablation in CD133+ cells were different from that in CD133- cells. Importantly, we found that silencing BMI1 in CD133+ cells derived from 3 PDOX models did not affect most of the known genes previously associated with the activated BMI1, but modulated a novel set of core genes, including RPS6KA2, ALDH3A2, FMFB, DTL, API5, EIF4G2, KIF5c, LOC650152, C20ORF121, LOC203547, LOC653308, and LOC642489, to mediate the elimination of tumor formation. In summary, we identified the over-expressed BMI1 as a promising therapeutic target for glioma stem cells, and suggest that the signaling pathways associated with activated BMI1 in promoting tumor growth may be different from those induced by silencing BMI1 in blocking tumor formation. These findings highlighted the importance of careful re-analysis of the affected genes following the inhibition of abnormally activated oncogenic pathways to identify determinants that can potentially predict therapeutic efficacy.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TNFSF13B, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999