Research IndicatorsGraph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ANO1 (cancer-related)
Chetty R, Serra SMolecular and morphological correlation in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs): an update and primer.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(9):754-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are a commonly encountered tumour in routine practice. In the main, the morphology of spindle, epithelioid or mixed are well recognised along with mutations of c-kit However, there are other genes that are mutated resulting in characteristic clinicopathological correlations. GISTs harbouring platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) gene mutations lead to a typical morphological constellation of findings: gastric and omental location, gross tumour that is cystic and haemorrhagic, composed of epithelioid, plasmacytoid cells exhibiting pleomorphism, low mitotic count and containing characteristic giant cells with peripherally placed nuclei. These cells are set in a myxoid stroma containing several mast cells. In addition, perivascular/intratumoural hyalinisation is often seen. These tumours are CD117 and DOG-1 positive. GISTs with SDH mutations are multinodular/bilobed/dumb-bell shape tumour masses with mucosal ulceration and histologically characterised by fibrous bands around and within nodules of epithelioid or mixed epithelioid/spindle cells. Lymphovascular invasion with lymph node metastases are usual. Immunohistochemically, the GISTs are CD117, DOG-1 positive, SDHA negative (if SDHA mutated), SDHA positive (if SDHA intact) and SDHB negative. BRAF and NF-1 mutated GISTs do not have any characteristic morphological features.
Baskin Y, Kocal GC, Kucukzeybek BB, et al.PDGFRA and KIT Mutation Status and Its Association With Clinicopathological Properties, Including DOG1.
Oncol Res. 2016; 24(1):41-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Most of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have gain-of-function mutations in the KIT gene, which can be used as a prognostic marker for the biological behavior of tumors, predictive marker for the response of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and diagnostic marker. Researchers have focused on PDGFRA mutations because of both their prognostic and predictive potential and DOG1 positivity for diagnosis on GISTs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect DOG1, PDGFRA, and KIT mutations on the prediction of the outcome for GIST management. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for KIT gene exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA gene exons 12 and 18 with the genomic DNA of 46 GIST patients, and amplicons were sequenced in both directions. Immunocytochemical stainings were done by using primary antibodies. Molecular analysis revealed that the KIT mutation was observed in 63% of all cases, while the PDGFRA mutation was observed in 23.9% of cases. Significant relationships were found between age and KIT mutation, tumor location and KIT mutations, and tumor location and PDGFRA mutations (p ≤ 0.05). DOG1 positivity was detected in 65.2% of all GISTs and DOG1-positive cells had a higher KIT mutation ratio than DOG1-negative cells (p ≤ 0.05). KIT gene exon 11 mutations in DOG1-positive cells was higher than DOG1-negative cells (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, KIT gene exon 13 mutations were higher in DOG1-negative cells than DOG1-positive cells (p ≤ 0.05). In this study, KIT mutation frequency was found similar with the European population; conversely, PDGFRA mutation frequency was similar with an Asian-Chinese-based study. KIT/PDGFRA mutations and tumor location can be used for the prediction of tumor behavior and the management of disease in GISTs. DOG1 positivity might be a candidate marker to support KIT and PDGFRA mutations, due to the higher DOG1 positivity in KIT exon 11 mutant and stomach- and small intestine-localized GISTs.
INTRODUCTION: A clear cell sarcoma-like gastrointestinal tumour (CCSLGT) is a rare malignant soft tissue sarcoma. In the literature, they are sometimes referred to as malignant gastrointestinal neuroectodermal tumours, clear cell sarcomas or osteoclast rich tumours of the gastrointestinal tract.
CASE HISTORY: We present a case of a CCSLGT arising from the ascending colon of a previously well 22-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain and anaemia. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a 7 cm irregular mass in the right flank that seemed to emerge from the proximal transverse colon. A laparoscopic right hemicolectomy was undertaken to remove the mass. Microscopic pathological examination of the specimen revealed sections of spindle to oval cells with monomorphic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. The cells were arranged in a striking perivascular growth pattern with microcytic breakdown and pseudopapillary formation. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the tumour cells removed expressed S100 protein, and were negative for smooth muscle actin, desmin, CD34, CD117, DOG1, HMB-45 and MNF116. Additionally, cytogenetic testing identified EWSR1 gene rearrangement, which was observed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation.
CONCLUSIONS: A complex tumour, a CCSLGT can be thought of in simple terms as a gastrointestinal tract tumour that is S100 protein positive, osteoclast rich, HMB-45 negative and compromises a t(12;22)(q13;q12) gene translocation. These simplified CCSLGT characteristics seem to be described and classified under different aliases in the literature, which makes it difficult to accurately predict the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic modality required to provide the best clinical care. Given that this case report describes the fourth CCSLGT of primary colonic origins, it may aid future targeted therapies as well as offering epidemiological evidence on prevalence and prognosis.
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by mutations of KIT (v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) or PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor α) that may be efficiently targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Notwithstanding the early responsiveness to TKI, the majority of GISTs progress, imposing the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. DOG1 (discovered on GIST-1) shows a higher sensitivity as a diagnostic marker than KIT, however its prognostic role has been little investigated.
METHODS: We evaluated DOG1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 59 patients with GISTs, and correlated its levels with clinical and pathological features as well as mutational status. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also applied to assess correlations of the staining score with patient recurrence-free survival (RFS).
RESULTS: DOG1 was expressed in 66% of CD117(+) GISTs and highly associated with tumor size and the rate of wild-type tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a strong DOG1 expression demonstrated by IHC correlated with a worse 2-year RFS rate, suggesting its potential ability to predict GISTs with poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a prognostic role for DOG1, as well as its potential for inclusion in the criteria for risk stratification.
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) transcriptome has been profiled extensively, nevertheless, identifying biomarkers that are clinically relevant and thereby with translational benefit, has been a major challenge. The objective of this study was to use a meta-analysis based approach to catalog candidate biomarkers with high potential for clinical application in HNSCC. Data from publically available microarray series (N = 20) profiled using Agilent (4X44K G4112F) and Affymetrix (HGU133A, U133A_2, U133Plus 2) platforms was downloaded and analyzed in a platform/chip-specific manner (GeneSpring software v12.5, Agilent, USA). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering analysis was carried out iteratively for segregating outliers; 140 normal and 277 tumor samples from 15 series were included in the final analysis. The analyses identified 181 differentially expressed, concordant and statistically significant genes; STRING analysis revealed interactions between 122 of them, with two major gene clusters connected by multiple nodes (MYC, FOS and HSPA4). Validation in the HNSCC-specific database (N = 528) in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) identified a panel (ECT2, ANO1, TP63, FADD, EXT1, NCBP2) that was altered in 30% of the samples. Validation in treatment naïve (Group I; N = 12) and post treatment (Group II; N = 12) patients identified 8 genes significantly associated with the disease (Area under curve>0.6). Correlation with recurrence/re-recurrence showed ANO1 had highest efficacy (sensitivity: 0.8, specificity: 0.6) to predict failure in Group I. UBE2V2, PLAC8, FADD and TTK showed high sensitivity (1.00) in Group I while UBE2V2 and CRYM were highly sensitive (>0.8) in predicting re-recurrence in Group II. Further, TCGA analysis showed that ANO1 and FADD, located at 11q13, were co-expressed at transcript level and significantly associated with overall and disease-free survival (p<0.05). The meta-analysis approach adopted in this study has identified candidate markers correlated with disease outcome in HNSCC; further validation in a larger cohort of patients will establish their clinical relevance.
Swalchick W, Shamekh R, Bui MMIs DOG1 Immunoreactivity Specific to Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor?
Cancer Control. 2015; 22(4):498-504 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: DOG1 is a novel gene on gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that encodes the chloride channel protein anoctamin 1, also known as discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) protein. DOG1 antibodies are a sensitive and specific marker against GIST positive for CD117 and CD34 and negative for CD117 and CD34. DOG1 is also independent of KIT or PDGFRA mutation status and considered specific for GIST when it was first discovered in 2004.
METHODS: The previous 10 years of literature was searched for articles relating to DOG1. We critically reviewed 12 studies that showed DOG1 was positive in 250 cases of 2,360 tested non-GIST neoplasms (10.6%) at different anatomical sites using monoclonal, polyclonal, or nonspecified antibodies. Criteria for positivity varied between the studies.
RESULTS: Monoclonal and polyclonal DOG1 antibodies were reactive in various different non-GIST tumor types spanning 9 organ systems in addition to normal salivary and pancreatic tissues. The tumors included were renal oncocytoma (100%), renal cell carcinoma chromophobe type (86%), solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (51%), neoplastic salivary tissue (17%), synovial sarcoma (15%), leiomyoma (10%), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (7%), and leiomyosarcoma (4%).
CONCLUSIONS: By contrast to the original concept that DOG1 antibodies are specific to GIST neoplasms, the studies reviewed showed that the data suggest DOG1 positivity in select non-GIST tumors. Only in the appropriate clinical and pathological context is DOG1 positivity specific and helpful in the diagnosis of GIST.
Volume-regulated channels for anions (VRAC) / organic osmolytes (VSOAC) play essential roles in cell volume regulation and other cellular functions, e.g. proliferation, cell migration and apoptosis. LRRC8A, which belongs to the leucine rich-repeat containing protein family, was recently shown to be an essential component of both VRAC and VSOAC. Reduced VRAC and VSOAC activities are seen in drug resistant cancer cells. ANO1 is a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed on the plasma membrane of e.g., secretory epithelia. ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in a large number of carcinomas. The gene, encoding for ANO1, maps to a region on chromosome 11 (11q13) that is frequently amplified in cancer cells. Knockdown of ANO1 impairs cell proliferation and cell migration in several cancer cells. Below we summarize the basic biophysical properties of VRAC, VSOAC and ANO1 and their most important cellular functions as well as their role in cancer and drug resistance.
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a variety of causes. Recently, the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been implicated in the rising incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and has led to variety of studies exploring the differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC. The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, including HNSCC, but whether or not it plays different roles in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TMEM16A is preferentially overexpressed in HPV-negative HNSCC and that this overexpression of TMEM16A is associated with decreased patient survival. We also show that TMEM16A expression is decreased in HPV-positive HNSCC at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels in patient samples as well as cell lines. We demonstrate that the lower levels of TMEM16A expression in HPV-positive tumors can be attributed to both a combination of copy number alteration and promoter methylation at the DNA level. Additionally, our cellular data show that HPV-negative cell lines are more dependent on TMEM16A for survival than HPV-positive cell lines. Therefore, we suspect that the down-regulation of TMEM16A in HPV-positive HNSCC makes TMEM16A a poor therapeutic target in HPV-positive HNSCC, but a potentially useful target in HPV-negative HNSCC.
This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 0.79-16.57; P = 0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site.
Ciortea CD, Jung I, Gurzu S, et al.Correlation of angiogenesis with other immunohistochemical markers in cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2015; 56(2 Suppl):665-70 [PubMed
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UNLABELLED: The aim of this study was to establish an immunoprofile of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and to explore as first time in literature the possible correlation between maspin, DOG-1, p16 protein and angiogenesis in these tumors. For SCCs, the histological grade of differentiation was also taken into account. The angiogenesis was quantified in 38 randomly selected cases of SCCs and 17 BCCc, respectively, using the antibodies vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and COX-2, while the microvessel density (MVD) was evaluated with the CD31.
RESULTS: In SCCs, maspin cytoplasm to nuclear shift was an indicator of a deeper tissue invasion and dedifferentiation in the invasion front. The poorly differentiated cases, compared to G1÷G2-SCCs, expressed more frequent the markers p16 (30.77% vs. 8%) and VEGF-A (53.85% vs. 32%), regardless the MVD. However, the p16 positivity was more frequent in BCCs than SCCs (52.94% vs. 15.79%). All of the p16-positive carcinomas were located in the head and neck area. DOG-1 marked 21.05% of SCCs and 5.88% of BCCs, being directly correlated with COX-2 positivity. Eccrine glands and hair follicles also expressed DOG-1.
CONCLUSIONS: In cutaneous SCCs located in the head and neck area, sun-dependent p16÷VEGF interaction seems to be responsible by tumor dedifferentiation, whereas maspin cytoplasm to nuclear shift might indicate a high degree of invasiveness. This is the first report about DOG-1 positivity in BCCs and eccrine glands, the significance of this pattern being unknown.
Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is primarily derived from epithelial cells that are thin and line on the alveolar surfaces of the lung for gas exchange. ANO1/TMEM16A, initially identified from airway epithelial cells, is a member of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) that function to regulate epithelial secretion and cell volume for maintenance of ion and tissue homeostasis. ANO1/TMEM16A has recently been shown to be highly expressed in several epithelium originated carcinomas. However, the role of ANO1 in lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, we show that inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1/TMEM16A suppresses tumor growth and invasion in human lung cancer. ANO1 is upregulated in different human lung cancer cell lines. Knocking-down ANO1 by small hairpin RNAs inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GLC82 and NCI-H520 cancel cells evaluated by CCK-8, would-healing, transwell and 3D soft agar assays. ANO1 protein is overexpressed in 77.3% cases of human lung adenocarcinoma tissues detected by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the tumor growth in nude mice implanted with GLC82 cells was significantly suppressed by ANO1 silencing. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that ANO1 overexpression contributes to tumor growth and invasion of lung cancer; and suppressing ANO1 overexpression may have therapeutic potential in lung cancer therapy.
Jang BG, Lee HE, Kim WHETV1 mRNA is specifically expressed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 467(4):393-403 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop from interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) mainly by activating mutations in the KIT or PDGFRA genes. Immunohistochemical analysis for KIT, DOG1, and PKC-θ is used for the diagnosis of GIST. Recently, ETV1 has been shown to be a lineage survival factor for ICCs and required for tumorigenesis of GIST. We investigated the diagnostic value of ETV1expression in GIST. On fresh-frozen tissue samples, RT-PCR analysis showed that ETV1 as well as KIT, DOG1, and PKC-θ are highly expressed in GISTs. On tissue microarrays containing 407 GISTs and 120 non-GIST mesenchymal tumors of GI tract, we performed RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) for ETV1 together with immunohistochemical analysis for KIT, DOG1, PKC-θ, CD133, and CD44. Overall, 387 (95 %) of GISTs were positive for ETV1, while KIT and DOG1 were positive in 381 (94 %) and 392 (96 %) cases, respectively, showing nearly identical overall sensitivity of ETV1, KIT, and DOG1 for GISTs. In addition, ETV1 expression was positively correlated with that of KIT. Notably, ETV1 was positive in 15 of 26 (58 %) KIT-negative GISTs and even positive in 2 cases of GIST negative for KIT and DOG1, whereas only 6 (5 %) non-GIST mesenchymal GI tumors expressed ETV1. We conclude that ETV1 is specifically expressed in the majority of GISTs, even in some KIT-negative cases, suggesting that ETV1 may be useful as ancillary marker in diagnostically difficult select cases of GIST.
Approximately 15% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) do not express KIT mutations and of these about 5 to 7% harbor mutations in PDGFRA. DOG1 was specifically expressed in GISTs. These cases require special attention for PDGFRA and DOG1 mutational status. Hundred cases of GIST were diagnosed between August 2007 and October 2012 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University. DNA from tumor tissues and normal adjacent tissues was isolated and amplified for the 22 exons of PDGFRA and 26 exons of DOG1. Each PCR product was sequenced. Amino acid sequences were inferred from DNA and aligned to GenBank reference sequences to determine the position and type of mutations. Overall, 16.0% of the samples had a mutation in PDGFRA, and GISTs with mutations in the DOG1 gene were not found. Of the mutations detected, they were in PDGFRA exon 18 (8 cases, 8%), PDGFRA exon 12 (5 cases, 5%), PDGFRA exon 14 (1 cases, 1.0%), PDGFRA exon 11 (1 cases, 1.0%), and PDGFRA exon 8 (1 cases, 1.0%). Of these, Y392S, L521P and T632K mutant occurred in PDGFRA exon 8, exon 11 and exon 14, respectively. The mutation of PDGFRA has been considered as another causative genetic event as PDGFRA mutations were found in most GISTs lacking a KIT mutation. PDGFRA mutations occurred preferentially in exon 18 and exon 12. Mutations occurring in PDGFRA exon 8 (Y392S), exon 11 (L521P) and exon 14 (T632K) also were first identified. The over-expression of DOG1 was not related to DOG1 gene mutation.
Thway K, Ng W, Benson C, et al.DOG1 Expression in Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma: A Study of 11 Cases, With Molecular Characterization.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2015; 23(6):454-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
DOG1 is a highly sensitive marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and is in the routine diagnostic antibody repertoire of many surgical pathology laboratories. Moreover, GIST is well recognized by both pathologists and clinicians in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal and pelvic neoplasms. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is, however, much less frequently anticipated, particularly when occurring at unusual sites, because of its rarity and bland histology, particularly on core biopsy. We describe a case of a 53-year-old male with a large pelvic and pararectal mass, which on biopsy showed a moderately cellular spindle cell neoplasm within fibrous stroma. Immunohistochemistry at the referring center showed diffuse and strong expression of DOG1 with negativity for other markers. After referral to a tertiary center, repeat DOG1 immunohistochemistry again showed diffuse expression, but MUC4 was also positive, and this was confirmed to be LGFMS, harboring FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and FUS rearrangement with fluorescence in situ hybridization. In view of this we assessed DOG1 expression in 10 other LGFMS (all MUC4 positive, and 9 molecularly confirmed to harbor FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts and/or FUS or EWSR1 gene rearrangement), of which 5 showed DOG1 expression in up to 75% of tumor cells, varying in intensity from weak to strong. While LGFMS and GIST are generally morphologically dissimilar, less typical variants of each exist, and both can contain bland spindled cells within fibrous stroma. As the morphologic spectrum of LGFMS is wide, and as it can occur in unusual sites and may not be well recognized by general pathologists and non-soft tissue pathologists, we highlight the potential for diagnostic confusion with GIST owing to aberrant DOG1 expression. This is clinically pertinent, as the management and prognosis of these 2 neoplasms differs significantly.
Stevens TM, Kovalovsky AO, Velosa C, et al.Mammary analog secretory carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, and mimickers: a comparative study.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(8):1084-100 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized low-grade salivary carcinoma characterized by a specific ETV6 rearrangement. We describe 14 new MASCs and examine their immunophenotypic and genetic profiles in the context of look-alikes, namely, low-and high-grade salivary duct carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. ETV6 rearrangement, and robust expression of mammaglobin and S100, were demonstrated in 11/11, 14/14, and 12/14 MASCs, respectively. All low-grade salivary duct carcinomas coexpressed S100/mammaglobin (6/6); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/5). Given that S100/mammaglobin coexpression and absence of zymogen granules are features of both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, these two are best distinguished histologically. The former is predominantly an extraductal neoplasm with bubbly pink cytoplasm, whereas the latter is a distinct intraductal micropapillary and cribriform process. Querying ETV6 gene status may be necessary for difficult cases. No acinic cell carcinoma expressed mammaglobin (0/13) or harbored an ETV6 rearrangement (0/7); only 1/13 acinic cell carcinomas weakly expressed S100. DOG1 expression was limited or absent among all tumor types, except acinic cell carcinoma which expressed DOG1 diffusely in a canalicular pattern. Therefore, histology and immunohistochemistry (mammaglobin, S100, DOG1) suffices in distinguishing acinic cell carcinoma from both MASC and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. HER2 (ERBB2) amplification was detected in only 1/10 acinic cell carcinomas, but none of the MASCs or low-grade salivary duct carcinomas tested. High-grade salivary duct carcinomas frequently expressed mammaglobin (11/18) and harbored HER2 amplifications (13/15); none harbored ETV6 rearrangements (0/12). High-grade salivary duct carcinomas can easily be distinguished from these other entities by histology and HER2 amplification.
Metastasis leads to poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients, and there is a growing need for new therapeutic targets. TMEM16A (ANO1, DOG1 or TAOS2) has recently been identified as a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) and is reported to be overexpressed in several malignancies; however, its expression and function in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. In this study, we found expression of TMEM16A mRNA and protein in high-metastatic-potential SW620, HCT116 and LS174T cells, but not in primary HCT8 and SW480 cells, using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence labeling. Patch-clamp recordings detected CaCC currents regulated by intracellular Ca(2+) and voltage in SW620 cells. Knockdown of TMEM16A by short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) resulted in the suppression of growth, migration and invasion of SW620 cells as detected by MTT, wound-healing and transwell assays. Mechanistically, TMEM16A depletion was accompanied by the dysregulation of phospho-MEK, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that SW620 cells were inhibited from the G1 to S phase of the cell cycle in the TMEM16A shRNA group compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results indicate that TMEM16A CaCC is involved in growth, migration and invasion of metastatic CRC cells and provide evidence for TMEM16A as a potential drug target for treating metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
Ye JX, Liu Y, Qin Y, et al.Mast cells or not? - CD117 positive cells in esophageal leiomyoma.
Histol Histopathol. 2015; 30(5):581-8 [PubMed
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The presence of CD117 positive cells in esophageal leiomyoma may lead to a misdiagnosis of GIST. We reviewed 46 esophageal tumors which were smooth muscle tumors or GIST. Based on morphology, immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis, there were 44 (95.6%) leiomyomas, 1 (2.2%) leiomyosarcoma, and 1 (2.2%) GIST. Variable numbers of CD117 positive cells were seen in all leiomyomas. Tryptase immunostaining identified mast cells in 93.2% (41/44) of leiomyomas, and the number of mast cells per tumor decreased significantly from tumors of the upper esophagus to the esophageal-gastric junction (p<0.01). Immunofluorescence study further confirmed the presence of two types of CD117 positive spindle cells which included spindle-shaped mast cells and DOG-1-positive interstitial cells of Cajal. This is the first study to systemically review mast cells in esophageal leiomyomas and tumors which may be included in the differential diagnosis. We demonstrate that both spindled mast cells and hyperplastic interstitial cells of Cajal are present within esophageal leiomyomas. The immunoreactivity of these cells with CD117 may suggest a diagnosis of GIST, but the presence of mast cells itself supports a diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are both spindle cell tumors, and occur rarely in the wall of the urinary bladder. In general, immunostaining allows differentiation of IMTs and GISTs. Most IMTs are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and negative for KIT, whereas most GISTs are ALK-negative and KIT-positive. Here, we describe a case of a spindle cell tumor in the wall of the urinary bladder. The spindle cells were positive for both ALK and KIT, and it was thus difficult to determine whether the tumor was an IMT or a GIST. We eventually diagnosed an IMT, because ALK gene rearrangement was confirmed by fluorescent in-situ hybridization. Cytoplasmic staining for KIT and the absence of other GIST markers, including DOG1 and platelet-derived growth factor α, indicated that the tumor was not a GIST. Therefore, IMTs should be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell tumors, even those that are KIT-positive.
PURPOSE: Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with cancer. However, the mechanisms that underlie metastatic progression remain unclear. We examined TMEM16A (ANO1) expression as a key factor shifting tumors between growth and metastasis.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated 26 pairs of primary and metastatic lymph node (LN) tissue from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) for differential expression of TMEM16A. In addition, we identified mechanisms by which TMEM16A expression influences tumor cell motility via proteomic screens of cell lines and in vivo mouse studies of metastasis.
RESULTS: Compared with primary tumors, TMEM16A expression decreases in metastatic LNs of patients with SCCHN. Stable reduction of TMEM16A expression enhances cell motility and increases metastases while decreasing tumor proliferation in an orthotopic mouse model. Evaluation of human tumor tissues suggests an epigenetic mechanism for decreasing TMEM16A expression through promoter methylation that correlated with a transition between an epithelial and a mesenchymal phenotype. These effects of TMEM16A expression on tumor cell size and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) required the amino acid residue serine 970 (S970); however, mutation of S970 to alanine does not disrupt the proliferative advantages of TMEM16A overexpression. Furthermore, S970 mediates the association of TMEM16A with Radixin, an actin-scaffolding protein implicated in EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results identify TMEM16A, an eight transmembrane domain Ca2+-activated Cl- channel, as a primary driver of the "Grow" or "Go" model for cancer progression, in which TMEM16A expression acts to balance tumor proliferation and metastasis via its promoter methylation.
BACKGROUND: 11q13 region is a frequently amplified locus in human malignancies. Among the genes located in this region, FADD is one of the alleged driving genes. Because amplification is not generally confined to a single gene and amplified genes may not show increased expression, we need to evaluate clinical significance of changes occurring in 11q13 region to understand their roles in carcinogenesis. Therefore, we screened expressions of FADD and closely located genes (PPFIA1 and TMEM16A) and evaluated the expressions to find clinical significance in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
METHODS: Ninety-eight cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were collected. Using archival tissues resected from the cases, we built a tissue microarray and used it in immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the association of FADD, PPFIA1, and TMEM16A expression scores with clinicopathological parameters, including disease-free survival.
RESULTS: FADD expression was associated with T stage (P=0.046). The combined score of FADD, PPFIA1, and TMEM16A gene expressions was associated with perineural invasion (P=0.022). Although individual gene expressions of TMEM16A, FADD, and PPFIA1 failed to show significant association with disease-free survival, combined gene expression scores did show association with disease-free survival (P=0.034).
CONCLUSIONS: FADD, TMEM16A, and PPFIA1 gene expressions as a whole were associated with disease-free survival in breast cancer.
Since anoctamin 1 ANO1 (TMEM16A) was found to be a molecular component of Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels, its role in tumorigenesis has gained attention at a fast pace. ANO1 overexpression frequently occurs in the cancer tissues along with 11q13 chromosome amplification. Poor prognosis of many types of cancers has been closely correlated with ANO1 gene amplification and protein overexpression. ANO1 is now considered an excellent biomarker for certain cancers. Recent research suggests that it is the channel function of ANO1 that is involved in the tumorigenesis. However, how the overexpression of the functional ANO1 causes malignant transformation of tissues via signaling pathways, for example, MAPK remains to be investigated. Clarification of the reasons in future will avail to make ANO1 as a target for cancer treatment.
Liu J, Liu Y, Ren Y, et al.Transmembrane protein with unknown function 16A overexpression promotes glioma formation through the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 9(3):1068-74 [PubMed
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Ion channels have been suggested to be important in the development and progression of tumors, however, chloride channels have rarely been analyzed in tumorigenesis. More recently, transmembrane protein with unknown function 16A (TMEM16A), hypothesized to be a candidate calcium‑activated Cl‑ channel, has been found to be overexpressed in a number of tumor types. Although several studies have implicated the overexpression of TMEM16A in certain tumor types, the exact role of TMEM16A in gliomas and the underlying mechanisms in tumorigenesis, remain poorly understood. In the present study, the role of TMEM16A in gliomas and the potential underlying mechanisms were analyzed. TMEM16A was highly abundant in various grades of gliomas and cultured glioma cells. Knockdown of TMEM16A suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Furthermore, nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) was activated by overexpression of TMEM16A. In addition, TMEM16A regulated the expression of NF‑κB‑mediated genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin E and c‑myc, involved in cell proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)‑2 and MMP‑9, which are associated with the migration and invasion of glioma cells. Collectively, results of the present study provide evidence for the involvement of TMEM16A in gliomas and the potential mechanism through which TMEM16A promotes glioma formation.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract, arising from the interstitial cells of Cajal, primarily in the stomach and small intestine. They manifest a wide range of morphologies, from spindle cell to epithelioid, but are immunopositive for KIT (CD117) and/or DOG1 in essentially all cases. Although most tumors are localized at presentation, up to half will recur in the abdomen or spread to the liver. The growth of most GISTs is driven by oncogenic mutations in either of two receptor tyrosine kinases: KIT (75% of cases) or PDGFRA (10%). Treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib is effective in controlling unresectable disease; however, drug resistance caused by secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations eventually develops in 90% of cases. Adjuvant therapy with imatinib is commonly used to reduce the likelihood of disease recurrence after primary surgery, and for this reason assessing the prognosis of newly resected tumors is one of the most important roles for pathologists. Approximately 15% of GISTs are negative for mutations in KIT and PDGFRA. Recent studies of these so-called wild-type GISTs have uncovered a number of other oncogenic drivers, including mutations in neurofibromatosis type I, RAS genes, BRAF, and subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. Routine genotyping is strongly recommended for optimal management of GISTs, as the type and dose of TKI used for treatment is dependent on the mutation identified.
Approximately 80%-95% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) show positive staining for KIT, while the other 5%-20% show negative staining. If the tumor is negative for KIT, but is positive for CD34, a histological diagnosis is possible. However, if the tumor is negative for KIT, CD34, S-100, and SMA, a definitive diagnosis is often challenging. Recently, Discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) has received considerable attention as a useful molecule for the diagnosis of GIST. DOG1, a membrane channel protein, is known to be overexpressed in GIST. Because the sensitivity and specificity of DOG1 are higher than those of KIT, positive staining for DOG1 has been reported, even in KIT-negative GISTs. KIT-negative GISTs most commonly arise in the stomach and are mainly characterized by epithelioid features histologically. We describe our experience with a rare case of a KIT-negative GIST of the stomach that was diagnosed by positive immunohistochemical staining for DOG1 in a patient who presented with severe anemia. Our findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining for DOG1, in addition to gene analysis, is useful for the diagnosis of KIT-negative tumors that are suspected to be GISTs.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to confirm that ANO1 correlates with occurrence and metastasis of OSCC.
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of ANO1 in 160 specimens of OSCC and normal tissues. Lentiviral silencing ANO1 was used in SCC-25 cell line to study the cell migration and cell detachment.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining revealed that ANO1 was expressed in a large majority (132 out of 160, 82.5%) of OSCC specimens and that the rate of ANO1 expression in OSCC was significantly higher than that of normal tissue (P<0.05); The rate of ANO1 expression was higher in metastatic tumors than in non-metastatic tumors, and the difference was significant (P<0.05). The results of cell migration assay showed that the percentage of cells through the membrane was 26.61 ±0.81 in assay group, and 54.26 ±3.74 in control group, respectively (t=-16.22,P<0.0001). The results of cell detachment assay showed that the percentage of cells detachment was 37.42 ±0.90 in assay group, and 87.38 ±1.59 in control group, respectively (t=-62.34, P<0.0001). The results of wound healing assay showed the assay group had a reduced migration rate compared with the control group in 32 h (F=1038.78, P<0.0001). Wound closure was no significantly different between the assay and control cells when DIDS was used in wound healing assay (F=4.61,P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that abnormal expression of ANO1 correlated with the occurrence and metastasis of OSCC in clinical specimens and that silencing ANO1 greatly reduced migration ability of scc-25 cells. Calcium activated chloride channel activity of ANO1 promoted the cell migration. Thus, ANO1 could represent a new diagnostic biomarker and a potentially important therapeutic target of OSCC.
Sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually form a well-circumscribed mass. In contrast, diffuse interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) hyperplasia along the Auerbach plexus without a discrete mass may occur in patients with germline mutations in the NF1, c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. However, sporadic, diffuse ICC hyperplasia without c-KIT or PDGFRA mutations has not been reported. We describe herein one such case, forming a giant diverticulum. A 63-year-old woman with no features of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented with increasing abdominal pain for more than 30 years. A large, diverticulum-like mass in the ileum was resected. Microscopically, a diffuse proliferation of bland spindle cells was seen extending for 12 cm, replacing the muscularis propria and lined by intact mucosa. The spindle cells were CD117+/CD34+/DOG1+/SMA+/Desmin-/S100-. Mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in c-KIT or PDGFRA. The lesion had two silent mutations in the NF1 gene. It is rare of the diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia showing diffuse longitudinal microscopic growth completely replacing the muscularis propria, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes, but without solid components and no c-KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. This peculiar form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia may be related to intestinal dysmotility in this ileal segment and giant diverticulum formation.
Chan JKNewly available antibodies with practical applications in surgical pathology.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2013; 21(6):553-72 [PubMed
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Selected antibodies that have become available in recent years and have applications in diagnostic pathology are discussed. They include antibodies that are organ-related, provide information on cellular differentiation or histogenetic type, have predictive value in tumors, and highlight infective agents. PAX8 (paired box gene 8) is a marker expressed in the lower female genital tract, thyroid, and kidney and their tumors. Napsin A is expressed in the lung and kidney and is an alternative marker for pulmonary adenocarcinoma. Arginase A is a sensitive and specific marker for liver tumors. ERG (Ets-related gene) is an excellent marker for endothelium and vascular tumors as well as prostatic cancer (about 50% of cases). SOX10 (SRY-related HMG box) is expressed predominantly in melanocytic and Schwann cells and the corresponding tumors. DOG1 (discovered on GIST 1) is an excellent marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and acinic cell carcinoma. OCT3/4 is a pan-germ cell tumor marker, except yolk sac tumor. SALL4 is positive in various types of germ cell tumors, including yolk sac tumor. MUC4 (mucin-related antigen 4) is a sensitive and specific marker for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Langerin is a specific marker for Langerhans cells and their tumors. SOX11 is a sensitive marker for mantle cell lymphoma. New generation antibodies against anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) are required to reliably demonstrate ALK gene translocation in pulmonary carcinomas. Lack of expression of succinate dehydrogenase B is seen in paragangliomas of the hereditary form and in the pediatric type of GIST. Antibodies against Trepenoma pallidum can facilitate the diagnosis of syphilis, whereas those against SV40 (simian virus 40) are helpful for diagnosis of BK virus infection and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.
Lee CH, Hoang LN, Yip S, et al.Frequent expression of KIT in endometrial stromal sarcoma with YWHAE genetic rearrangement.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(5):751-7 [PubMed
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Endometrial stromal sarcomas with the YWHAE-NUTM2A/B genetic fusion characteristically contain high-grade round to epithelioid cell component that is strongly and diffusely cyclin D1-positive and it may or may not show an associated low-grade fibroblastic/myxoid cell component. They are clinically more aggressive than endometrial stromal sarcomas with the JAZF1-SUZ12 genetic fusion and frequently demonstrate extrauterine extension at initial clinical presentation. In this setting, the tumor may be misdiagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor. This study examines the expression of KIT and ANO1 in 14 YWHAE-NUTM2A/B tumors by immunohistochemistry. Staining localization was determined as membranous and/or cytoplasmic, and the staining intensity was assessed (negative, weak, moderate and strong). Of the 14 tumors, 6 contained only a high-grade round cell component, 2 only a low-grade fibroblastic component and 6 had both components in the slides evaluated. The high-grade round cell component displayed moderate to strong membranous/cytoplasmic KIT staining in all tumors (12 of 12). The low-grade fibroblastic cell component showed only weak cytoplasmic KIT staining in 3 of 8 tumors. In contrast, ANO1 was negative in all 14 neoplasms, irrespective of the component evaluated. Sanger sequencing analysis (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17) and Ampliseq Cancer Panel mutation screen (Ion Torrent) demonstrated no KIT mutations in three KIT-positive YWHAE-NUTM2A/B tumors. This study shows that the high-grade round cell component of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B endometrial stromal sarcoma consistently expresses KIT but lacks KIT hotspot mutations. KIT expression may represent a potential diagnostic pitfall in the evaluation of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B endometrial stromal sarcoma presenting with pelvic/abdominal mass, particularly in situations where its uterine origin is not definitive, and thus a panel of antibodies that includes ANO1 and cyclin D1 is necessary.
Deshpande A, Nelson D, Corless CL, et al.Leiomyoma of the gastrointestinal tract with interstitial cells of Cajal: a mimic of gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(1):72-7 [PubMed
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Leiomyomas (LMs) of the gastrointestinal tract arise within the muscularis mucosae (superficial) and muscularis propria (deep). There are isolated reports of KIT-positive cells, presumed interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), within gastrointestinal LMs. We have encountered esophageal LMs with a high proportion of KIT-positive and DOG1-positive spindle-shaped cells, an appearance that mimicked gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our aim was to explore the prevalence of ICCs in LMs of the gastrointestinal tract and the etiopathogenic significance of these cells in this benign neoplasm. We identified 34 esophageal LMs (28 deep, 6 superficial), 8 gastric LMs, and 5 small-bowel LMs (all lesions in muscularis propria). We performed immunohistochemical staining studies for desmin, DOG1, and KIT on these neoplasms. We also evaluated 12 superficial colonic LMs. ICCs were distinguished from mast cells on the basis of morphology (elongated and occasionally branching spindle-shaped cells) and the presence of DOG1 reactivity. Four cases were screened for mutations in PDGFRA exons 12, 14, and 18 and KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17. ICCs were identified in all deep esophageal LMs and constituted an average of 20% of the lesional cells; focally, these cells comprised >50% of cells. The density of these cells was significantly higher than the background muscularis propria, and hyperplasia of ICCs was not identified in the adjacent muscle. ICCs were identified in 6 of 8 gastric LMs and 1 of 5 small-bowel LMs and were entirely absent in all superficial esophageal and colonic/rectal LMs. There were no mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. ICCs are universally present in deep esophageal LMs, and thus these neoplasms could be mistaken for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, particularly on biopsy samples, an error associated with adverse clinical consequences. ICCs are also identified in gastric and intestinal LMs, albeit in a smaller proportion of cases. Colonization and hyperplasia by non-neoplastic ICCs likely account for this phenomenon.
Shi ZZ, Shang L, Jiang YY, et al.Consistent and differential genetic aberrations between esophageal dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma detected by array comparative genomic hybridization.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(21):5867-78 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Our aim was to identify frequent genomic aberrations in both esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal dysplasia and to discover important copy number-driving genes and microRNAs (miRNA) in ESCC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) on 59 ESCC resection samples and 16 dysplasia biopsy samples. Expression of genes at 11q13.3 was analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Integrated analysis was conducted to identify genes or miRNAs with copy number-expression correlations.
RESULTS: Array CGH identified 11 amplifications and eight homozygous deletions in ESCC. Integrated analysis of array CGH data with matched gene expression microarray data showed that 90 overexpressed genes and 24 underexpressed genes were consistent with DNA copy number changes, including 12 copy number-driving miRNAs. In esophageal dysplasia, six gains, four losses, 12 amplifications, and four homozygous deletions were detected. Amplifications of 7p11.2 and 11q13.2-11q13.3 (CCND1) and homozygous deletion at 9p21.3 (CDKN2A) were consistent genomic changes in both dysplasia and carcinoma. ANO1 at 11q13.3 was overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels in tumors, and higher mRNA expression was correlated with the copy number increase. In particular, ANO1 expression was elevated in moderate dysplasia compared with normal esophageal epithelium. IHC revealed that ANO1 overexpression was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage. Knockdown of ANO1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of KYSE30 and KYSE510 cells.
CONCLUSION: Copy number aberrations in both esophageal dysplasia and ESCC may be useful as potential biomarkers for early detection. In addition, ANO1 may be a candidate target gene in esophageal tumorigenesis.