Gene Summary

Gene:ASIP; agouti signaling protein
Summary:In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that causes hair follicle melanocytes to synthesize pheomelanin, a yellow pigment, instead of the black or brown pigment, eumelanin. Pleiotropic effects of constitutive expression of the mouse gene include adult-onset obesity, increased tumor susceptibility, and premature infertility. This gene is highly similar to the mouse gene and encodes a secreted protein that may (1) affect the quality of hair pigmentation, (2) act as a pharmacological antagonist of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, (3) play a role in neuroendocrine aspects of melanocortin action, and (4) have a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism in adipocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:agouti-signaling protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Polymorphism
  • Stem Cell Factor
  • Odds Ratio
  • Genetic Variation
  • Risk Factors
  • CDKN2A Protein
  • Eye Color
  • Skin Cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Chromosome 20
  • Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Hair Color
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Mutation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Agouti Signaling Protein
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
  • Spain
  • Phenotype
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Haplotypes
  • Adolescents
  • Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) - Skin
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Pigmentation
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors
  • DNA Repair
  • Nevus
Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ASIP (cancer-related)

Zóia MAP, Azevedo FVP, Vecchi L, et al.
Inhibition of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cell Aggressiveness by Cathepsin D Blockage: Role of Annexin A1.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are more aggressive than other breast cancer (BC) subtypes and lack effective therapeutic options. Unraveling marker events of TNBCs may provide new directions for development of strategies for targeted TNBC therapy. Herein, we reported that Annexin A1 (AnxA1) and Cathepsin D (CatD) are highly expressed in MDA-MB-231 (TNBC lineage), compared to MCF-10A and MCF-7. Since the proposed concept was that CatD has protumorigenic activity associated with its ability to cleave AnxA1 (generating a 35.5 KDa fragment), we investigated this mechanism more deeply using the inhibitor of CatD, Pepstatin A (PepA). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that PepA inhibits CatD activity by occupying its active site; the OH bond from PepA interacts with a CO bond from carboxylic acids of CatD catalytic aspartate dyad, favoring the deprotonation of Asp

Cherukula K, Uthaman S, Park IK
Design of an Amphiphilic Poly(aspartamide)-mediated Self-assembled Nanoconstruct for Long-Term Tumor Targeting and Bioimaging.
Molecules. 2019; 24(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Biodegradable polymers have been developed for the targeted delivery of therapeutics to tumors. However, tumor targeting and imaging are usually limited by systemic clearance and non-specific adsorption. In this study, we used poly(amino acid) derivatives, such as poly(succinimide), to synthesize a nanomicelle-forming poly(hydroxyethylaspartamide) (PHEA, P) modified sequentially with octadecylamine, polyethylene glycol (PEG, P), and glycine (G) to design PHEA-PEG-glycine (PPG) nanoparticles (NPs). These PPG NPs were further tethered to cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (cRGD) sequences for formulating tumor-targeting PPG-cRGD NPs, and then loaded with IR-780 dye (PPG-cRGD-IR-780) for visualizing tumor homing. cRGD cloaked in PPG NPs could bind specifically to both tumor endothelium and cancer cells overexpressing α

Du S, Wang Y, Alatrash N, et al.
Altered profiles and metabolism of l- and d-amino acids in cultured human breast cancer cells vs. non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019; 164:421-429 [PubMed] Related Publications
Herein we describe for the first time the endogenous levels of free l-and d-amino acids in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). d-Asp and d-Ser, which are co-agonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, showed significantly elevated levels in MCF-7 cancer cells compared to MCF-10A cells. This may result from upregulated enzymatic racemases. Possible roles of these d-amino acids in promoting breast cancer proliferation by regulating NMDA receptors were indicated. d-Asn may also be able to serve as exchange currency, like specific l-amino acids, for the required uptake of essential amino acids and other low abundance nonessential amino acids which were elevated nearly 60 fold in cancer cells. The relative levels of specific l- and d-amino acids can be used as malignancy indicators (MIs) for the breast cancer cell line in this study. High MIs (>50) result from the increased demands of specific essential amino acids. Very low MIs (<1) result from the increased demands of specific d-amino acids (i.e., d-Ser, d-Asp) or the cellular release of amino acid exchange currency (i.e., l- and d-Asn) used in the upregulated amino acid antiporters to promote cancer cell proliferation.

Mansouri Bidkani M, Tabatabaeian H, Parsafar S, et al.
ErbB4 receptor polymorphism 2368A>C and risk of breast cancer.
Breast. 2018; 42:157-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in EebB4 gene have been studied, which has clarified their impact on breast cancer in different populations. Nevertheless, the importance of rs13423759 in breast cancer has not been studied and its effect remained almost unclear. In this paper, we evaluated the frequency of rs13423759 different alleles in Iranian population and statistically analyzed their association with breast cancer risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allele-specific Primer PCR (ASP-PCR) was recruited in this study to genotype rs13423759 position in 172 breast cancer and 148 healthy control subjects. The genotypes of control and cases were analyzed statistically to find the association between rs13423759 alleles and breast cancer incidence and its clinicopathological characteristics. In silico studies were performed in order to find the mechanistic viewpoint of rs13423759 alleles in breast cancer.
RESULTS: rs13423759 allele C was shown to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk, HER2 positivity and increased risk of metastasis. Reciprocally, allele A was correlated with the lowered risk of breast cancer. The in silico studies showed that rs13423759 allele C is capable to strengthen the interaction between miR-548as, an oncomiRNA, and ErbB4 mRNA, leading to its lowered concentration in the cells.
CONCLUSION: rs13423759 allele C is significantly associated with the enhanced risk of breast cancer, elevated metastasis and HER2 positivity.

Shang HS, Lu HF, Lee CH, et al.
Quercetin induced cell apoptosis and altered gene expression in AGS human gastric cancer cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2018; 33(11):1168-1181 [PubMed] Related Publications
Quercetin is one of the natural components from natural plant and it induces cell apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, no available reports show that quercetin induces apoptosis and altered associated gene expressions in human gastric cancer cells, thus, we investigated the effect of quercetin on the apoptotic cell death and associated gene expression in human gastric cancer AGS cells. Results indicated that quercetin induced cell morphological changes and reduced total viability via apoptotic cell death in AGS cells. Furthermore, results from flow cytometric assay indicated that quercetin increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, decreased the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ

Ji X, Bossé Y, Landi MT, et al.
Identification of susceptibility pathways for the role of chromosome 15q25.1 in modifying lung cancer risk.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.

Powers N, Srivastava A
The Air Sac Primordium of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The acquisition of invasive properties preceding tumor metastasis is critical for cancer progression. This phenomenon may result from mutagenic disruption of typical cell function, but recent evidence suggests that cancer cells frequently co-opt normal developmental programs to facilitate invasion as well. The signaling cascades that have been implicated present an obstacle to identifying effective therapeutic targets because of their complex nature and modulatory capacity through crosstalk with other pathways. Substantial efforts have been made to study invasive behavior during organogenesis in several organisms, but another model found in

Cramer DW, Fichorova RN, Terry KL, et al.
Anti-CA15.3 and Anti-CA125 Antibodies and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Results from the EPIC Cohort.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018; 27(7):790-804 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Ayesh BM, Al-Masri R, Abed AA
CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility in Palestinian population.
BMC Res Notes. 2018; 11(1):218 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The genetic polymorphism (rs16969968 in CHRNA5, and rs1051730 in CHRNA3 genes) were recently shown to be associated with risk of LC. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether they predispose Palestinian individuals to lung cancer, and how is this related to smoking.
RESULTS: Frequency of the rs16969968-A allele was significantly higher in the case group (36.7%) than in normal controls (17.5%; P = 0.022; OR = 6.83 for AA and 2.81 for AG genotypes). The frequency of rs1051730-T allele was also significantly higher in the case group (46.7%) than in the control group (22.5%; P = 0.001; OR = 2.20 for TC and 13.22 for TT genotypes). Frequency of rs16969968-A allele was higher in smokers (29.1%) than nonsmokers (15.7%) regardless of lung cancer; similarly, frequency of rs1051730-T allele was also higher in smokers than in smokers (46.7% vs 22.5%, respectively). The higher the proportion of the risk allele (rs16969968-A and rs1051730-T), the higher the mean number of daily consumed cigarettes (P = 0.006). Carrying rs16969968-A and/or rs1051730-T alleles results in an increased risk to lung cancer probably by increasing the individual's tendency for heavy smoking. The allelic frequency of the rs16969968-A and rs1051730-T alleles among normal Palestinian controls is similar to different populations worldwide.

Nair-Shalliker V, Egger S, Chrzanowska A, et al.
Associations between sun sensitive pigmentary genes and serum prostate specific antigen levels.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(3):e0193893 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma and prostate cancer may share risk factors. This study examined the association between serum PSA levels, which is a risk factor for prostate cancer, and variants in some melanoma-associated pigmentary genes.
METHODS: We studied participants, all aged 70+ years, in the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project who had no history of prostatitis or received treatment for prostate disease (n = 1033). We genotyped variants in MC1R (rs1805007, rs1805008), ASIP (rs4911414, rs1015362), SLC45A2 (rs28777, rs16891982), IRF4 (rs12203592), TYRP1 (rs1408799), TYR (rs1126809, rs1042602), SLC24A2 (rs12896399), and OCA2 (rs7495174). Generalised linear dominant models with Poisson distribution, log link functions and robust variance estimators estimated adjusted percentage differences (%PSA) in mean serum PSA levels (ng/mL) between variant and wildtype (0%PSA = reference) genotypes, adjusting for age, body mass index, serum 25OHD levels and birth regions (Australia or New Zealand (ANZ), Europe or elsewhere).
RESULTS: Serum PSA levels were strongly associated with advancing age and birth regions: mean PSA levels were lower in Europe-born (-29.7%) and elsewhere-born (-11.7%) men than ANZ-born men (reference). Lower %PSA was observed in men with variants in SLC45A2: rs28777 (-19.6;95%CI: -33.5, -2.7), rs16891982 (-17.3;95%CI:-30.4,-1.7) than in wildtype men (reference). There were significant interactions between birth regions and PSA levels in men with variants in MC1R (rs1805007; p-interaction = 0.0001) and ASIP (rs4911414; p-interaction = 0.007). For these genes %PSA was greater in ANZ-born men and lower in Europe- and elsewhere-born men with the variant than it was in wildtype men. In a post hoc analysis, serum testosterone levels were increased in men with MC1R rs1805007 and serum dihydrotestosterone in men with ASIP rs1015362.
CONCLUSION: Men with SNPs in SLC45A2, who have less sun sensitive skin, have lower PSA levels. Men with SNPs in MC1R and ASIP, who have more sun sensitive skin, and were born in ANZ, have higher PSA levels. Androgens may modify these apparent associations of pigmentary genes and sun exposure with PSA levels.
IMPACT: PSA levels and possibly prostate cancer risk may vary with sun sensitivity and sun exposure, the effects of which might be modified by androgen levels.

Liu Z, Wang Y, Dou C, et al.
MicroRNA-1468 promotes tumor progression by activating PPAR-γ-mediated AKT signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence confirm that aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) expression contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. Previous study reported that miR-1468 showed an up-regulated tendency and might be a potential prognostic biomarker in HCC samples derived from TCGA database. However, the role of miR-1468 and its underlying mechanisms involved in the growth and metastasis of HCC remain poorly investigated.
METHODS: CCK-8, EdU, colony formation and flow cytometry were used to determine proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro. The subcutaneous tumor model in nude mice was established to detect tumor growth of HCC in vivo. The direct binding of miR-1468 to 3'UTR of Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) and Up-frameshift protein 1 (UPF1) was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: Here, we demonstrated that miR-1468 expression was up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. Clinical analysis revealed that increased miR-1468 level was significantly correlated with malignant prognostic features and shorter survival. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments indicated that miR-1468 promoted cell proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, CITED2 and UPF1 were identified as direct downstream targets of miR-1468 in HCC cells, and mediated the functional effects of miR-1468 in HCC, resulting in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ)/AKT signaling activation. In clinical samples of HCC, miR-1468 inversely correlated with the levels of CITED2 and UPF1, which were confirmed to be down-regulated in HCC. Restoration of CITED2 or UPF1 expression at least partially abolished the biological effects of miR-1468 on HCC cells. Moreover, alteration of PPAR-γ or AKT phosphorylation could reverse the function of miR-1468 in HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this research supports the first evidence that miR-1468 plays an oncogenic role in HCC via activating PPAR-γ/AKT pathway by targeting CITED2 and UPF1, and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for HCC patients.

Kaaks R, Fortner RT, Hüsing A, et al.
Tumor-associated autoantibodies as early detection markers for ovarian cancer? A prospective evaluation.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(3):515-526 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immuno-proteomic screening has identified several tumor-associated autoantibodies (AAb) that may have diagnostic capacity for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, with AAbs to P53 proteins and cancer-testis antigens (CTAGs) as prominent examples. However, the early detection potential of these AAbs has been insufficiently explored in prospective studies. We performed ELISA measurements of AAbs to CTAG1A, CTAG2, P53 and NUDT11 proteins, for 194 patients with ovarian cancer and 705 matched controls from the European EPIC cohort, using serum samples collected up to 36 months prior to diagnosis under usual care. CA125 was measured using electrochemo-luminiscence. Diagnostic discrimination statistics were calculated by strata of lead-time between blood collection and diagnosis. With lead times ≤6 months, ovarian cancer detection sensitivity at 0.98 specificity (SE98) varied from 0.19 [95% CI 0.08-0.40] for CTAG1A, CTAG2 and NUDT1 to 0.23 [0.10-0.44] for P53 (0.33 [0.11-0.68] for high-grade serous tumors). However, at longer lead-times, the ability of these AAb markers to distinguish future ovarian cancer cases from controls declined rapidly; at lead times >1 year, SE98 estimates were close to zero (all invasive cases, range: 0.01-0.11). Compared to CA125 alone, combined logistic regression scores of AAbs and CA125 did not improve detection sensitivity at equal level of specificity. The added value of these selected AAbs as markers for ovarian cancer beyond CA125 for early detection is therefore limited.

Sourani Z, Shirzad H, Shirzad M, Pourgheysari B
Interaction between Gallic acid and Asparaginase to potentiate anti-proliferative effect on lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 96:1045-1054 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) fails in some cases and the side effects cause mortality in certain patients. Gallic acid (GA), a polyhydroxyphenolic compound has biological functions including anti-proliferative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the growth inhibition effects of GA in combination with asparaginase (ASP), as a component of combination chemotherapy, in a lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
METHODS: Jurkat cells were incubated with different concentrations of GA with or without ASP. Proliferation inhibition was investigated using MTS test. The level of apoptosis alterations were evaluated using flow cytometry. The expression of Fas gene level and surface expression were investigated by quantitative real time PCR and flow cytometry respectively.
RESULTS: GA at 50μM concentration and ASP at 0.5 IU/ml inhibited 50% cell proliferation in 48 hours. GA also increased the inhibitory effect of ASP and some combinations had synergistic results. The increase of cell apoptosis and Fas expression were observed in GA-treated cells compared to control. GA increased the effect of ASP on proliferation inhibition, induction of apoptosis and Fas expression.
CONCLUSION: GA is an effective component in proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and enhancement of Fas expression level in Jurkat cell line. GA in some combination with ASP increases the effect of the latter on the cells. The study of the mechanism of these effects could be a further step towards target therapy. This study is a preliminary phase to the use of GA and should be carried out by more comprehensive study and animal models.

Zhen Y, Zhang Y, Yu Y
A Cell-Line-Specific Atlas of PARP-Mediated Protein Asp/Glu-ADP-Ribosylation in Breast Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2017; 21(8):2326-2337 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PARP1 plays a critical role in regulating many biological processes linked to cellular stress responses. Although DNA strand breaks are potent stimuli of PARP1 enzymatic activity, the context-dependent mechanism regulating PARP1 activation and signaling is poorly understood. We performed global characterization of the PARP1-dependent, Asp/Glu-ADP-ribosylated proteome in a panel of cell lines originating from benign breast epithelial cells, as well as common subtypes of breast cancer. From these analyses, we identified 503 specific ADP-ribosylation sites on 322 proteins. Despite similar expression levels, PARP1 is differentially activated in these cell lines under genotoxic conditions, which generates signaling outputs with substantial heterogeneity. By comparing protein abundances and ADP-ribosylation levels, we could dissect cell-specific PARP1 targets that are driven by unique expression patterns versus cell-specific regulatory mechanisms of PARylation. Intriguingly, PARP1 modifies many proteins in a cell-specific manner, including those involved in transcriptional regulation, mRNA metabolism, and protein translation.

Fortner RT, Schock H, Le Cornet C, et al.
Ovarian cancer early detection by circulating CA125 in the context of anti-CA125 autoantibody levels: Results from the EPIC cohort.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(7):1355-1360 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CA125 is the best ovarian cancer early detection marker to date; however, sensitivity is limited and complementary markers are required to improve discrimination between ovarian cancer cases and non-cases. Anti-CA125 autoantibodies are observed in circulation. Our objective was to evaluate whether these antibodies (1) can serve as early detection markers, providing evidence of an immune response to a developing tumor, and (2) modify the discriminatory capacity of CA125 by either masking CA125 levels (resulting in lower discrimination) or acting synergistically to improve discrimination between cases and non-cases. We investigated these objectives using a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC) including 250 cases diagnosed within 4 years of blood collection and up to four matched controls. Circulating CA125 antigen and antibody levels were quantified using an electrochemiluminescence assay. Adjusted areas under the curve (aAUCs) by 2-year lag-time intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression calibrated toward the absolute risk estimates from a pre-existing epidemiological risk model as an offset-variable. Anti-CA125 levels alone did not discriminate cases from controls. For cases diagnosed <2 years after blood collection, discrimination by CA125 antigen was suggestively higher with higher anti-CA125 levels (aAUC, highest antibody tertile: 0.84 [0.76-0.92]; lowest tertile: 0.76 [0.67-0.86]; p

Xiao Z, Yin G, Ni Y, et al.
MDR1 polymorphisms affect the outcome of Chinese multiple myeloma patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 95:743-748 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the association of MDR1 (Multidrug Resistance 1) polymorphisms at loci 1236, 2677, 3435 and the prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM) in Jiangsu population.
METHODS: A total of 129 MM patients were recruited from Jiangsu Province, China. The DNA was extracted from white blood cells (WBC) of peripheral blood and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction-allele specific primers (PCR-ASP). MDR1 polymorphisms at 3 loci were analyzed by electrophoresis followed by photograph or DNA direct sequencing. The association between the MDR1 and clinical outcomes were calculated by Graphpad and SPSS.
RESULTS: MDR1 alleles at locus C1236T with T had significant lower calcium level in MM patients compared with C. The genotype CT had a significantly prolonged progress free survival (PFS) compared genotype CC at locus C1236T (median time: 48 months vs. 28 months, respectively; p=0.0062; HR=0.21; 95%CI0.061-0.715) while patients carrying T allele (CT and TT) at locus C3435T had a longer PFS than patients without T allele (CC) (median time: 60 months vs. 29 months, respectively; p=0.038; HR=0.508; 95%CI 0.264-0.978). And a borderline significance was found in haplotype at loci 2677-3435 and PFS. No significant findings were revealed between OS and MDR1 polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION: MDR1 polymorphisms could affect the prognosis of multiple myeloma whereas more samples and a longer follow-up are also needed.

Choubey J, Choudhari JK, Patel A, Verma MK
Respiratory cancer database: An open access database of respiratory cancer gene and miRNA.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2017 Jul-Sep; 13(3):487-490 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Respiratory cancer database (RespCanDB) is a genomic and proteomic database of cancer of respiratory organ. It also includes the information of medicinal plants used for the treatment of various respiratory cancers with structure of its active constituents as well as pharmacological and chemical information of drug associated with various respiratory cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data in RespCanDB has been manually collected from published research article and from other databases. Data has been integrated using MySQL an object-relational database management system. MySQL manages all data in the back-end and provides commands to retrieve and store the data into the database. The web interface of database has been built in ASP.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: RespCanDB is expected to contribute to the understanding of scientific community regarding respiratory cancer biology as well as developments of new way of diagnosing and treating respiratory cancer. Currently, the database consist the oncogenomic information of lung cancer, laryngeal cancer, and nasopharyngeal cancer. Data for other cancers, such as oral and tracheal cancers, will be added in the near future. The URL of RespCanDB is

Shih CH, Chiang TB, Wang WJ
Synergistic suppression of a disintegrin acurhagin-C in combination with AZD4547 and reparixin on terminating development for human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 492(3):513-519 [PubMed] Related Publications
Current therapies available for the treatment of human osteosarcoma, an aggressive bone tumor, are insufficient. To examine an alternative approach of integrin-based anti-osteosacoma strategy, acurhagin-C, a Glu-Cys-Asp (ECD)-disintegrin, was isolated and evaluated for its application in combination with two potent inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). The investigation of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells pre-incubated with a FGF receptor-1 (FGFR-1) blocker AZD4547, a CXC-chemokine receptor-1/-2 (CXCR1/2) antagonist reparixin, and acurhagin-C via two given modes of separation and combination was executed. Detected by flow cytometry, integrins-α2/-α5/-αv/-β1, FGFR-1, CXCR1 and CXCR2 constitutively express on the resting membrane. However, bFGF/IL-8-activated MG-63 cells only statistically enhanced the surface exposure of integrins-α5/-β1, FGFR-1 and CXCR2. In activated MG-63 cells, acurhagin-C targeting integrin-α5 not only might potentiate the inhibitory effect of AZD4547 and reparixin on the surface expression of integrin-α5, FGFR-1 and CXCR2, but also acurhagin-C used alone remained effectively to diminish the surface exposure of those targeted receptors. Hence, a complicated crosstalk mechanism should be involved in the membrane interactions. Furthermore, co-administration of acurhagin-C with AZD4547 and reparixin also showed to have the synergistic suppression toward cell proliferation and the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Also, the administration of three-in-one mode could nearly abrogate the cellular attachment onto collagen-IV- and fibronectin-coated wells, as well as penetration into Matrigel-barrier. These data supported an ECD-disintegrin acurhagin-C targeting integrin-α5 upon combined used with AZD4547 and reparixin may become a promising therapeutic approach for attenuating osteosarcoma development.

Bina S, Hosseini SY, Shenavar F, et al.
The Effect of RGD/NGR Peptide Modification of Melanoma Differentiation-Associated Gene-7/Interleukin-24 on Its Receptor Attachment, an In Silico Analysis.
Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2017; 32(6):205-214 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7 (mda-7/interleukin [IL]-24), a unique tumor suppressor gene, induces selective apoptosis in tumor cells. Secreted IL-24 binds to heterodimeric receptor complexes of IL-20R1/IL-20R2, IL-22R1/IL-20R2, or sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) that consequently enhances apoptosis. However, this mechanism is not well understood and most likely involves different pathways. Targeting of cytokine by tumor homing peptides (THPs) to the tumor cell surface molecule-like integrin shows to be beneficial in gene immunotherapy approaches. In this study, the in silico targeting of RGD/NGR-modified IL-24 to tumor cells was conducted. In this regard, the sequences of six new synthetic IL-24s that have been modified by RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) or NGR (CRNGRGPDC) were aligned and their structures were modeled through homology modeling to evaluate their attachment potential to cognate receptor complexes such as IL-20R1/IL-20R2, IL-22R1/IL-20R2, or Sig1R. The results of homology modeling showed that modification of IL-24 with RGD motif in N-terminal and middle of this protein exhibited stronger interaction with cognate receptors. These results also demonstrated that modified IL-24 with RGD motif in the C-terminal has lost native activity. However, the interaction of THP-modified IL-24 with Sig1R would not be affected to that extent, interestingly. Conclusively, in silico analysis showed that modification of IL-24 with THPs needs a more detailed study as these modifications may disrupt native interaction with receptors and reduce apoptosis induction property. This structural analysis gives us a better understanding of mda-7/IL-24 interaction with cognate receptors and helps a more rational design for further cytokine modification.

Liu B, Wang C, Chen P, et al.
RACK1 promotes radiation resistance in esophageal cancer via regulating AKT pathway and Bcl-2 expression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 491(3):622-628 [PubMed] Related Publications
RACK1 is a seven Trp-Asp 40 repeat protein, which interacts with a wide range of kinases and proteins. RACK1 plays an important role in the proliferation and progression of various cancers. The aim of this study is to detect the role of RACK1 in the radioresistance in esophageal cancer. The results indicated that downregulation of RACK1 reduced the colony formation ability, proliferation ability and resistance of cells to radiation effection through regulating the radiation-related proteins including pAKT, Bcl-2 and Bim; whereas upregulation of RACK1 promoted the ability and radioresistance of ESCC cells. Our findings suggest that RACK1 promotes proliferation and radioresistance in ESCC cells by activating the AKT pathway, upregulating Bcl-2 expression and downregulating protein levels of Bim. Our study fills in gaps in the field of RACK1 and radiation resistance and may provide new possibilities for improving strategies of radiotherapy in esophageal cancer.

Carayol M, Leitzmann MF, Ferrari P, et al.
Blood Metabolic Signatures of Body Mass Index: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in the EPIC Cohort.
J Proteome Res. 2017; 16(9):3137-3146 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolomics is now widely used to characterize metabolic phenotypes associated with lifestyle risk factors such as obesity. The objective of the present study was to explore the associations of body mass index (BMI) with 145 metabolites measured in blood samples in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolites were measured in blood from 392 men from the Oxford (UK) cohort (EPIC-Oxford) and in 327 control subjects who were part of a nested case-control study on hepatobiliary carcinomas (EPIC-Hepatobiliary). Measured metabolites included amino acids, acylcarnitines, hexoses, biogenic amines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins. Linear regression models controlled for potential confounders and multiple testing were run to evaluate the associations of metabolite concentrations with BMI. 40 and 45 individual metabolites showed significant differences according to BMI variations, in the EPIC-Oxford and EPIC-Hepatobiliary subcohorts, respectively. Twenty two individual metabolites (kynurenine, one sphingomyelin, glutamate and 19 phosphatidylcholines) were associated with BMI in both subcohorts. The present findings provide additional knowledge on blood metabolic signatures of BMI in European adults, which may help identify mechanisms mediating the relationship of BMI with obesity-related diseases.

Sarink D, Schock H, Johnson T, et al.
Circulating RANKL and RANKL/OPG and Breast Cancer Risk by ER and PR Subtype: Results from the EPIC Cohort.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017; 10(9):525-534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK)-RANK ligand (RANKL) signaling promotes mammary tumor development in experimental models. Circulating concentrations of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) may influence breast cancer risk via activation of RANK signaling; this may be modulated by osteoprotegerin (OPG), the decoy receptor for RANKL. sRANKL and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype has not previously been investigated. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. This study included 1,976 incident invasive breast cancer cases [estrogen receptor positive (ER+),

Miyano K, Cabral H, Miura Y, et al.
cRGD peptide installation on cisplatin-loaded nanomedicines enhances efficacy against locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma bearing cancer stem-like cells.
J Control Release. 2017; 261:275-286 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recalcitrant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) usually relapses after therapy due to the enrichment of drug resistant cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Nanomedicines have shown potential for eradicating both cancer cells and CSCs by effective intratumoral navigation for reaching particular cell populations and controlling drug delivery. The installation of ligands on nanomedicines is an attractive approach for improving the delivery to CSCs within tumors, though the development of CSC-selective ligand-receptor systems has been challenging. Herein, we found that the CSC subpopulation in HNSCC cells overexpresses α

Haydn T, Metzger E, Schuele R, Fulda S
Concomitant epigenetic targeting of LSD1 and HDAC synergistically induces mitochondrial apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(6):e2879 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is overexpressed in several cancers including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). However, little is yet known about whether or not LSD1 may serve as therapeutic target in RMS. We therefore investigated the potential of LSD1 inhibitors alone or in combination with other epigenetic modifiers such as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Here, we identify a synergistic interaction of LSD1 inhibitors (i.e., GSK690, Ex917) and HDAC inhibitors (i.e., JNJ-26481585, SAHA) to induce cell death in RMS cells. By comparison, LSD1 inhibitors as single agents exhibit little cytotoxicity against RMS cells. Mechanistically, GSK690 acts in concert with JNJ-26481585 to upregulate mRNA levels of the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins BMF, PUMA, BIM and NOXA. This increase in mRNA levels is accompanied by a corresponding upregulation of BMF, PUMA, BIM and NOXA protein levels. Importantly, individual knockdown of either BMF, BIM or NOXA significantly reduces GSK690/JNJ-26481585-mediated cell death. Similarly, genetic silencing of BAK significantly rescues cell death upon GSK690/JNJ-26481585 cotreatment. Also, overexpression of antiapoptotic BCL-2 or MCL-1 significantly protects RMS cells from GSK690/JNJ-26481585-induced cell death. Furthermore, GSK690 acts in concert with JNJ-26481585 to increase activation of caspase-9 and -3. Consistently, addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) significantly reduces GSK690/JNJ-26481585-mediated cell death. In conclusion, concomitant LSD1 and HDAC inhibition synergistically induces cell death in RMS cells by shifting the ratio of pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins in favor of apoptosis, thereby engaging the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. This indicates that combined treatment with LSD1 and HDAC inhibitors is a promising new therapeutic approach in RMS.

Stepien M, Jenab M, Freisling H, et al.
Pre-diagnostic copper and zinc biomarkers and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
Carcinogenesis. 2017; 38(7):699-707 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adequate intake of copper and zinc, two essential micronutrients, are important for antioxidant functions. Their imbalance may have implications for development of diseases like colorectal cancer (CRC), where oxidative stress is thought to be etiologically involved. As evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies is lacking, we conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to investigate the association between circulating levels of copper and zinc, and their calculated ratio, with risk of CRC development. Copper and zinc levels were measured by reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in 966 cases and 966 matched controls. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and are presented for the fifth versus first quintile. Higher circulating concentration of copper was associated with a raised CRC risk (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.13; P-trend = 0.02) whereas an inverse association with cancer risk was observed for higher zinc levels (OR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.97; P-trend = 0.07). Consequently, the ratio of copper/zinc was positively associated with CRC (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.40; P-trend = 0.0005). In subgroup analyses by follow-up time, the associations remained statistically significant only in those diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection. In conclusion, these data suggest that copper or copper levels in relation to zinc (copper to zinc ratio) become imbalanced in the process of CRC development. Mechanistic studies into the underlying mechanisms of regulation and action are required to further examine a possible role for higher copper and copper/zinc ratio levels in CRC development and progression.

Sun Y, Kuek V, Qiu H, et al.
The emerging role of NPNT in tissue injury repair and bone homeostasis.
J Cell Physiol. 2018; 233(3):1887-1894 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nephronectin (NPNT), a highly conserved extracellular matrix protein, plays an important role in regulating cell adhesion, differentiation, spreading, and survival. NPNT protein belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like superfamily and exhibits several common structural determinants; including EGF-like repeat domains, MAM domain (Meprin, A5 Protein, and Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase µ), RGD motif (Arg-Gly-Asp) and a coiled-coil domain. It regulates integrins-mediated signaling pathways via the interaction of its RGD motif with integrin α8β1. Recent studies revealed that NPNT is involved in kidney development, renal injury repair, atrioventricular canal differentiation, pulmonary function, and muscle cell niche maintenance. Moreover, NPNT regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization, as well as osteogenic angiogenesis. Altered expression of NPNT has been linked with the progression of certain types of cancers, such as spontaneous breast tumor metastasis and malignant melanoma. Interestingly, NPNT gene expression can be regulated by a range of external factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), oncostatin M (OSM), bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), Wnt3a, Vitamin D

Tang Z, He G, Xu J, Zhongfu L
Knockdown of Cbp/P300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 inhibits cell division and increases apoptosis in gastric cancer.
J Surg Res. 2017; 211:1-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cbp/P300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) is a pleiotropic protein associated with numerous cell functions, including transcription and differentiation. The role of CITED2 has been investigated in a number of malignancies; however, the roles of this protein in gastric cancers remain unclear. Therefore, we determined the role of CITED2 in gastric cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric cancer cell lines (MKN74, MKN28, 7901, and AGS) were used to assess CITED2 transcript levels. Messenger RNA levels were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lentiviral vectors containing CITED2 small interfering RNA were used to knockdown CITED2 expression. Cell proliferation was assessed with fluorescent imaging and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Apoptosis and cell cycle stages were assessed through flow cytometry, and formation of colonies was determined using a fluorescent microscope.
RESULTS: All cell lines tested in this study expressed CITED2. The cell line expressing the highest levels of CITED2 (MKN74) showed significant knockdown of endogenous CITED2 expression on lentiviral infection. Cell proliferation was shown to be lower in CITED2 knockdown MKN74 cells. G1/S-phase cell cycle arrest was observed on silencing of CITED2 in MKN74 cells. A significant increase in apoptosis was observed on CITED2 knock down in MKN74 cells, while colony forming ability was significantly inhibited after knock down of CITED2.
CONCLUSIONS: CITED2 supports gastric cancer cell colony formation and proliferation while inhibiting apoptosis making it a potential gene therapy target for gastric cancer.

Ainger SA, Jagirdar K, Lee KJ, et al.
Skin Pigmentation Genetics for the Clinic.
Dermatology. 2017; 233(1):1-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human pigmentation characteristics play an important role in the effects of sun exposure, skin cancer induction and disease outcomes. Several of the genes most important for this diversity are involved in the regulation and distribution of melanin pigmentation or enzymes involved in melanogenesis itself within the melanocyte cell present in the skin, hair and eyes. The single nucleotide polymorphisms and extended haplotypes within or surrounding these genes have been identified as risk factors for skin cancer, in particular, melanoma. These same polymorphisms have been under selective pressure leading towards lighter pigmentation in Europeans in the last 5,000-20,000 years that have driven the increase in frequency in modern populations. Although pigmentation is a polygenic trait, due to interactive and quantitative gene effects, strong phenotypic associations are readily apparent for these major genes. However, predictive value and utility are increased when considering gene polymorphism interactions. In melanoma, an increased penetrance is found in cases when pigmentation gene risk alleles such as MC1R variants are coincident with mutation of higher-risk melanoma genes including CDKN2A, CDK4 and MITF E318K, demonstrating an interface between the pathways for pigmentation, naevogenesis and melanoma. The clinical phenotypes associated with germline changes in pigmentation and naevogenic genes must be understood by clinicians, and will be of increasing relevance to dermatologists, as genomics is incorporated into the delivery of personalised medicine.

Goyal S, Jamal S, Shanker A, Grover A
Structural Basis for Drug Resistance Mechanisms Against EGFR.
Curr Top Med Chem. 2017; 17(22):2509-2521 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the kinase domain encoding region of EGFR gene causes drug resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors such as erlotinib and gefitinib. This problem can be addressed by a new lead compound effective against all mutants of EGFR. To predict positions of residues possessing the potential to render EGFR drug resistant upon mutation, residual positions known to interact with Erlotinib and Gefitinib were assessed using five parameters (conservation index, binding site RMSD, protein structure stability and change in ATP and drug binding affinity). Structural screening protocol was followed to identify novel lead compound. Four positions, Lys 745, Cys 797, Asp 800 and Thr 854, were most likely observed to acquire drug resistance by altering drug binding affinity without destabilizing the protein and ATP binding ability. A compound DHO was observed to possess better binding affinity for all EGFR models in comparison to Erlotinib and Gefitinib, using docking protocol. This information would pave the way for designing drugs effective against wild-type (WT) EGFR as well as against variant EGFRs models. Thus, authors report a lead compound as a long-term potential with the ability to inhibit predicted models of mutant, wild and known SNPs EGFR.

Gill BS, Kumar S, Navgeet
Ganoderic acid targeting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in lung cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317695530 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer causes huge mortality worldwide, and targeting new pathway may provide an alternative in modulating signaling in cancer. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is the major regulator of endogenous and exogenous stress by activating numerous antioxidant genes critical in cancer, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and inflammatory bowel diseases. Ganoderic acid is a triterpene from basiodiomycetes fungus Ganoderma lucidum with numerous therapeutic effects. In this study, ganoderic acid and its 50 isomers and natural activators were docked by receptor-based molecular docking using Maestro 9.6 (Schrödinger Inc.) in the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling pathway. The receptor-based molecular docking reveals the best binding interaction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and ganoderic acid A with GScore (-9.69) (kcal/mol), Lipophilic EvdW (-1.83), Electro (-0.72), Glide emodel (-73.369), H bond (-1.1), molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (-75.541) with Leu 718, Asp 800, Cys 797 residues involved in hydrogen bonding. The calculated docking energy highlights the lipophilic, hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking interactions, and non-covalent bonding. Analysis showed the involvement of cysteine and serine residues which were crucial in the activation and translocation from cytoplasm to the nucleus in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling process. The molecular docking tool QikProp analyzed the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity but needs some modifications in their structure to satisfy Lipinski's rule. Ganoderic acid A is a best docked isoform which inhibits the cell proliferation, viability, migration, and reactive oxygen species and messenger RNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in H460 cells.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ASIP, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 29 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999