Gene Summary

Gene:ATF2; activating transcription factor 2
Aliases: HB16, CREB2, TREB7, CREB-2, CRE-BP1
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ATF2 (cancer-related)

Jia H, Xu M, Bo Y, et al.
Ras-ERK1/2 signaling accelerates the progression of colorectal cancer via mediation of H2BK5ac.
Life Sci. 2019; 230:89-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) is a key downstream gene of Ras pathway. Activation of Ras-ERK1/2 has been testified to be linked to the progression of diverse cancers. Nonetheless, whether Ras-ERK1/2-tumorigenic pathway is mediated by epigenetic factors remains indistinct. The purpose of the research attempted to disclose the functions of H2BK5ac in Ras-ERK1/2-evoked CRC cell phenotypes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot assay was implemented for exploration of the relevancy between Ras-ERK1/2 and H2BK5ac. H2BK5Q was established and its functions in cell viability, colony formation and migration were appraised via utilizing MTT, soft-agar colony formation and Transwell assays. The mRNA and transcription of ERK1/2 downstream genes were estimated via RT-qPCR and ChIP assays. HDAC2 functions in SW48 cell phenotypes were evaluated after co-transfection with pEGFP-Ras
KEY FINDINGS: H2BK5ac expression was evidently repressed by Ras-ERK1/2 pathway in SW48 cells. Moreover, Ras-ERK1/2-elevated cell viability, the number of colonies and migration were both impeded by H2BK5ac. The mRNA and transcriptions of CYR61, IGFBP3, WNT16B, NT5E, GDF15 and CARD16 were both mediated by H2BK5ac. Additionally, HDAC2 silence overtly recovered H2BK5ac expression inhibited by Ras-ERK1/2, meanwhile abated Ras-ERK1/2-affected SW48 cell phenotypes. Beyond that, restrained H2BK5ac induced by Ras-ERK1/2 was concerned with MDM2-mediated ATF2 degradation.
SIGNIFICANCE: These investigations testified that Ras-ERK1/2 pathway affected SW48 cell phenotypes through repressing H2BK5ac expression. Otherwise, declined H2BK5ac might be linked to MDM2-mediated ATF2 degradation.

Zhang S, Ding L, Li X, Fan H
Identification of biomarkers associated with the recurrence of osteosarcoma using ceRNA regulatory network analysis.
Int J Mol Med. 2019; 43(4):1723-1733 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to identify the important mRNAs, micro (mi)RNAs and long non‑coding (lnc)RNAs that are associated with osteosarcoma recurrence. The GSE3905 dataset, which contains two sub‑datasets (GSE39040 and GSE39055), was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Prognosis‑associated RNAs were identified by performing Cox regression univariate analysis and were subsequently used to construct a competing endogenous (ce)RNA regulatory network for Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis was used to determine the associations between expression levels and survival prognosis. In addition, another independent miRNA profile, GSE79181, was downloaded from GEO for validation. Among the differentially expressed RNAs, 417 RNAs (5 lncRNAs, 19 miRNAs, and 393 mRNAs) were observed to be associated with prognosis. The GSEA for the ceRNA regulatory network revealed that 'Mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway', 'Chemokine signaling pathway' and 'Spliceosome' were markedly associated with osteosarcoma. In addition, three lncRNAs [long intergenic non‑protein coding RNA 28 (LINC00028), LINC00323, and small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1)] and two miRNAs (hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7) regulating three mRNAs [Ras‑related protein Rap‑1b (RAP1B), activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1B (PPM1B)] participated in the MAPK signaling pathway. The Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis also demonstrated that samples with lower expression levels of LINC00323 and SNHG1 had better prognosis, and samples with increased expression levels of LINC00028, hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7 had better prognosis. Overexpression of RAP1B, ATF2 and PPM1B was positively associated with osteosarcoma recurrence. The roles of hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7 in osteosarcoma recurrence were also validated using GSE79181. Thus, in conclusions, the three lncRNAs (LINC00028, LINC00323 and SNHG1), two miRNAs (hsa‑miR‑124 and hsa‑miR‑7) and three mRNAs (RAP1B, ATF2, and PPM1B) were associated with osteosarcoma recurrence.

Jiang Y, Jiang J, Jia H, et al.
Recovery of miR-139-5p in Ovarian Cancer Reverses Cisplatin Resistance by Targeting C-Jun.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(1):129-141 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In platinum-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, acquired drug resistance is a frequent occurrence. Because recent studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is partly responsible for the induction of acquired drug resistance in cancers, we hypothesized that correcting the dysregulation of key miRNAs would reverse the acquired resistance to platinum-based drugs in ovarian cancer.
METHODS: Cisplatin-resistant SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3-R and A2780-R, respectively) were established by long-term exposure to cisplatin. MTT assays were performed to evaluate the viability of SKOV3, SKOV3-R, A2780, and A2780-R cells. Quantitative PCR was used to examine the expression of miR-139-5p in these cell lines. The regulatory mechanism was confirmed by western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assays. After treatment with miR-139-5p and cisplatin, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis were measured by using flow cytometry. Interaction with c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) was evaluated by co-immunoprecipitation. Expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl) and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were detected by western blotting.
RESULTS: Expression of miR-139-5p was decreased in SKOV3-R and A2780-R cells. Recovery of miR-139-5p increased the sensitivity of SKOV3-R and A2780-R cells to cisplatin treatment, inhibited the interaction of c-Jun and ATF2, and decreased Bcl-xl expression in SKOV3-R and A2780-R cells. Expression of miR-139-5p promoted cisplatin-induced mitochondrial apoptosis through binding the 3' untranslated region of c-Jun mRNA.
CONCLUSION: Recovery of miR-139-5p suppressed the expression of c-Jun and thus reversed cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer.

Hu Z, Tie Y, Lv G, et al.
Transcriptional activation of miR-320a by ATF2, ELK1 and YY1 induces cancer cell apoptosis under ionizing radiation conditions.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(4):1691-1702 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including development, proliferation, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. It has been reported that miRNA expression is induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, endogenous miR‑320a and its primary precursor (pri‑miR‑320a) were assayed by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR). Luciferase activities were measured using a dual‑luciferase reporter assay system. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expressions of upstream and downstream genes of miR‑320a. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V apoptosis assay and cell proliferation was measured using the trypan blue exclusion method. The results revealed that miR‑320a expression increased linearly with the IR dose and treatment duration. Three transcription factors, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), ETS transcription factor (ELK1) and YY1 transcription factor (YY1), were activated by p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mitogen‑activated protein kinase 8 (JNK) and by upregulated miR‑320a expression under IR conditions. In addition, it was identified that X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) was an miR‑320a target gene during the IR response. By targeting XIAP, miR‑320a induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of the cancer cells. On the whole, the results of this study demonstrated that miRNA‑320a, regulated by the p38 MAPK/JNK pathway, enhanced the radiosensitivity of cancer cells by inhibiting XIAP and this may thus prove to be a potential therapeutic approach with which to overcome radioresistance in cancer treatment.

Ma J, Chang K, Peng J, et al.
SPOP promotes ATF2 ubiquitination and degradation to suppress prostate cancer progression.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing of the exome and genome of prostate cancers has identified numerous genetic alterations. SPOP (Speckle-type POZ Protein) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in primary prostate cancer, suggesting that SPOP may be a potential driver of prostate cancer. The aim of this work was to investigate how SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer development and progression.
METHODS: To identify molecular mediators of the tumor suppressive function of SPOP, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen in a HeLa cDNA library using the full-length SPOP as bait. Immunoprecipitation and Western Blotting were used to analyze the interaction between SPOP and ATF2. Cell migration and invasion were determined by Transwell assays. Immunohistochemistry were used to analyze protein levels in patients' tumor samples.
RESULTS: Here we identified ATF2 as a bona fide substrate of the SPOP-CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. SPOP recognizes multiple Ser/Thr (S/T)-rich degrons in ATF2 and triggers ATF2 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Strikingly, prostate cancer-associated mutants of SPOP are defective in promoting ATF2 degradation in prostate cancer cells and contribute to facilitating prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
CONCLUSION: SPOP promotes ATF2 ubiquitination and degradation, and ATF2 is an important mediator of SPOP inactivation-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Lu R, Yang Z, Xu G, Yu S
miR-338 modulates proliferation and autophagy by PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in cervical cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 105:633-644 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical cancer (CC) is a malignant solid tumor, which is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in women. Given that autophagy is an important factor promoting tumor progression, we aim to investigate the functional role of miR-338 in autophagy and proliferation of cervical cancer. In our study, expression of miR-338 was validated by quantitative RT-PCR in 30 paired cervical cancer tissues and normal tissues. We performed MTT, colony formation and cell cycle assay to explore the effect of miR-338 on cell proliferation. The level of autophagy was evaluated by observing the expression of LC3 formation under fluorescence microscope and detected the LC3 expression by western blot. We used luciferase reporter assays to identify the target gene about miR-338. We not only found that the level of miR-338 is decreased in cervical cancer tissues and cells, but also negatively correlated with the protein level of ATF2. In turn, restoring the expression of miR-338 inhibited proliferation in Hela and SiHa cells. Further mechanistic study identified that ATF2 as a direct target of miR-338. Forced lowexpression of miR-338 directly led to increased the level of autophagy in cervical cancer cells, which was similar to the mTOR signaling inhibitor rapamycin. The western blot analysis show that inhibited miR-338 expression could decrease the p-mTOR and p-p70S6 expression. Thus, we infer that miR-338 decreases autophagy level in cervical cancer cells by activating mTOR signaling pathway. In summary, our study demonstrate that miR-338 could inhibites proliferation and autophagy by targeting ATF2 via mTOR signaling pathway on cervical cancer cells. These results suggest a potential application of miR-338 in cervical cancer as a novel mechanism of tumor therapeutic.

Song L, Peng L, Hua S, et al.
miR-144-5p Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells via Targeting ATF2.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:5109497 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are involved in many biological processes such as cell proliferation and migration, stem cell differentiation, inflammation, and apoptosis. In particular, miR-144-3p is downregulated in various cancers, and its overexpression inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. However, the role of miR-144-5p in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially radiosensitivity, is unknown. In this study, we found that miR-144-5p was downregulated in NSCLC clinical specimens as well as NSCLC cell lines exposed to radiation. Enhanced expression of miR-144-5p promoted the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells

Murillo-Garzón V, Gorroño-Etxebarria I, Åkerfelt M, et al.
Frizzled-8 integrates Wnt-11 and transforming growth factor-β signaling in prostate cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):1747 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wnt-11 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion independently of β-catenin but the receptors involved remain unknown. Here, we provide evidence that FZD

Luo L, Cai L, Luo L, et al.
Silencing activating transcription factor 2 promotes the anticancer activity of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(6):8053-8060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of sorafenib combined with silencing of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms. Huh‑7 HCC cell line was selected for the present study. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)‑ATF2 sequence was constructed to silence ATF2 expression. The experiment was divided into 6 groups: i) Control; ii) vector; iii) sorafenib (6.8 µM); iv) vector+sorafenib; v) siRNA‑ATF2; and vi) siRNA‑ATF2+sorafenib groups. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were detected following treatments with sorafenib and/or ATF2 silencing. Additionally, expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) was detected using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The current findings revealed that siRNA‑ATF2 significantly reduced ATF2 expression. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities in the sorafenib and siRNA‑ATF2 groups were significantly reduced compared with the control group (P<0.05). Apoptotic rate in the sorafenib and siRNA‑ATF2 groups was significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of ATF2 in the sorafenib or siRNA‑ATF2 groups was significantly reduced when compared with control group. The phosphorylation of ATF2 was also reduced following sorafenib treatment or ATF2 silence. Although JNK3 mRNA expression level was not affected, the phosphorylation level of JNK3 was significantly promoted following sorafenib treatment or ATF2 silencing. Additionally, TNF‑α mRNA and protein expression levels were increased following sorafenib treatment or ATF2 silencing. It is of note that siRNA‑ATF2 treatment promoted the anticancer activity of sorafenib in Huh‑7 cells. Additionally, siRNA‑ATF2+sorafenib treatment combined additionally promoted TNF‑α expression and phosphorylation of JNK3. Combined siRNA‑ATF2 and sorafenib treatment had a greater anticancer effect compared with sorafenib or ATF2 silencing alone. The possible mechanism involved in the anticancer effect of sorafenib and ATF2 silencing may be associated with the activation of the TNF‑α/JNK3 signaling pathway.

Tang J, Liao Y, He S, et al.
Autocrine parathyroid hormone-like hormone promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation via increased ERK/JNK-ATF2-cyclinD1 signaling.
J Transl Med. 2017; 15(1):238 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is an aggressive tumor with a high fatality rate. It was recently found that parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) was frequently overexpressed in ICC compared with non-tumor tissue. This study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of PTHLH in ICC development.
METHODS: The CCK-8 assay, colony formation assays, flow cytometry and a xenograft model were used to examine the role of PTHLH in ICC cells proliferation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot assays were used to detect target proteins. Luciferase reporter, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA pull-down assays were used to verify the transcription regulation of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2).
RESULTS: PTHLH was significantly upregulated in ICC compared with adjacent and normal tissues. Upregulation of PTHLH indicated a poor pathological differentiation and intrahepatic metastasis. Functional study demonstrated that PTHLH silencing markedly suppressed ICC cells growth, while specific overexpression of PTHLH has the opposite effect. Mechanistically, secreted PTHLH could promote ICC cell growth by activating extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, and subsequently upregulated ATF2 and cyclinD1 expression. Further study found that the promoter activity of PTHLH were negatively regulated by ATF2, indicating that a negative feedback loop exists.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that the ICC-secreted PTHLH plays a characteristic growth-promoting role through activating the canonical ERK/JNK-ATF2-cyclinD1 signaling pathways in ICC development. We identified a negative feedback loop formed by ATF2 and PTHLH. In this study, we explored the therapeutic implication for ICC patients.

Wan S, Meyer AS, Weiler SME, et al.
Cytoplasmic localization of the cell polarity factor scribble supports liver tumor formation and tumor cell invasiveness.
Hepatology. 2018; 67(5):1842-1856 [PubMed] Related Publications
The loss of epithelial cell polarity plays an important role in the development and progression of liver cancer. However, the specific molecular mechanisms supporting tumor initiation and progression are poorly understood. In this study, transcriptome data and immunofluorescence stains of tissue samples derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients revealed that overexpression associated with cytoplasmic localization of the basolateral cell polarity complex protein scribble (Scrib) correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients. In comparison with HCC cells stably expressing wild-type Scrib (Scrib
CONCLUSION: Perturbation of hepatocellular polarity due to overexpression and cytoplasmic enrichment of Scrib supports tumor initiation and HCC cell dissemination through specific molecular mechanisms. Biomarker signatures identified in this study can be used for the identification of HCC patients with higher risk for the development of metastasis. (Hepatology 2018;67:1842-1856).

Lutgendorf SK, Thaker PH, Arevalo JM, et al.
Biobehavioral modulation of the exosome transcriptome in ovarian carcinoma.
Cancer. 2018; 124(3):580-586 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Social factors in the patient macroenvironment have been shown to influence molecular events in the tumor microenvironment and thereby influence cancer progression. However, biomarkers providing a window into the longitudinal effects of biobehavioral factors on tumor biology over time are lacking. Exosome analysis is a novel strategy for in vivo monitoring of dynamic changes in tumor cells. This study examined exosomal profiles from patients with low or high levels of social support for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and β-adrenergic signaling.
METHODS: Exosomes were isolated from plasma sampled from a series of 40 women before primary surgical resection of advanced-stage, high-grade ovarian carcinoma. Samples were selected for analysis on the basis of extremes of low and high levels of social support. After exosomal isolation and RNA extraction, a microarray analysis of the transcriptome was performed.
RESULTS: Primary analyses identified significant upregulation of 67 mesenchymal-characteristic gene transcripts and downregulation of 63 epithelial-characteristic transcripts in patients with low social support; this demonstrated increased EMT polarization (P = .0002). Secondary analyses using promoter sequence bioinformatics supported a priori hypotheses linking low social support to 1) increased activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) family transcription factors that mediate the β-adrenergic response to catecholamines via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling pathway (mean fold change for CREB: 2.24 ± 0.65; P = .0019; mean fold change for ATF: 2.00 ± 0.55; P = .0049) and 2) increased activity of the proinflammatory nuclear factor κB/Rel family of transcription factors (mean fold change: 2.10 ± 0.70; P = .0109).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the possibility of leveraging exosomes as a noninvasive assessment of biobehavioral factors to help to direct personalized treatment approaches. Cancer 2018;124:580-6. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Song WJ, Dong Y, Luo C, Chen YY
p38MAPK family isoform p38α and activating transcription factor 2 are associated with the malignant phenotypes and poor prognosis of patients with ovarian adenocarcinoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(10):1282-1288 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was to identify the biomarkers for the malignancy and poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. The protein expression of p38MAPK family isoform p38α (p38α) and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) was measured in 120 ovarian serous adenocarcinomas and 34 normal fallopian tubes using immunohistochemistry. Stable OV-90 cells expressing p38α and ATF2 inhibitor were established using shRNA lentivirus. Cell proliferation, invasion, and migration were analyzed in vitro. Tumor growth and chemosensitivity were investigated in xenograft tumor models. The percentage of positive p38α and ATF2 expression was significantly higher in ovarian serous adenocarcinomas than that in normal fallopian tubes. Positive p38α and ATF2 expression were significantly associated with high clinical stage (III/IV), lymph node metastasis, and shorter overall survival. Silencing of p38α and ATF2 gene expression in OV-90 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. OV-90 cells with p38α and ATF2 gene being silenced grew significantly slow and were significantly sensitive to the chemotherapy compared to cells with high p38α and ATF2 expression. p38α and ATF2 expression play a crucial role in the malignant phenotypes of ovarian tumor cells and are a marker for the poor prognosis of patients with ovarian serous adenocarcinomas.

Wang T, Yu Q, Li J, et al.
O-GlcNAcylation of fumarase maintains tumour growth under glucose deficiency.
Nat Cell Biol. 2017; 19(7):833-843 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromatin-associated fumarase (FH) affects histone methylation via its metabolic activity. However, whether this effect is involved in gene transcription remains to be clarified. In this study, we show that under glucose deprivation conditions, AMPK phosphorylates FH at Ser75, which in turn forms a complex with ATF2 and participates in promoter activation. FH-catalysed fumarate in promoter regions inhibits KDM2A demethylase activity, and thus maintains the H3K36me2 profile and facilitates gene expression for cell growth arrest. On the other hand, FH is found to be O-GlcNAcylated at the AMPK phosphorylation site; FH-ATF2-mediated downstream events are impeded by FH O-GlcNAcylation, especially in cancer cells that display robust O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) activity. Consistently, the FH-Ser75 phosphorylation level inversely correlates with the OGT level and poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients. These findings uncover a previously uncharacterized mechanism underlying transcription regulation by FH and the linkage between dysregulated OGT activity and growth advantage of cancer cells under glucose deficiency.

Zhang X, Zhang Y, Fan C, et al.
Noxin promotes proliferation of breast cancer cells via P38-ATF2 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317705515 [PubMed] Related Publications
Noxin (also called chromosome 11 open reading frame 82 or DNA damage-induced apoptosis suppressor) is associated with anti-apoptosis and cell proliferation in response to stress signals. However, to our knowledge, the role of Noxin in regulating cell proliferation is still controversial and there are no reports of the function and clinicopathological association in breast cancer. In this study, immunohistochemistry results showed that Noxin expression was significantly correlated with advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage ( p = 0.027), positive regional lymph node metastasis ( p = 0.002), and poor overall survival ( p = 0.002). Proliferation assay results showed that Noxin obviously promoted the ability of proliferation of normal breast cells. Subsequent western blot results revealed that Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 were upregulated by overexpressing Noxin, whereas Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 were downregulated after depleting Noxin. The levels of phosphorylated P38 and activating transcription factor 2 were obviously increased after overexpressing Noxin, and their expression was downregulated accordingly by transfecting Noxin-small interfering RNA. Moreover, P38 inhibitor counteracted the elevating expression of phosphorylated activating transcription factor 2, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E1 induced by Noxin overexpression and thereby reversed the effect of Noxin overexpression on facilitating cell growth. Taken together, our studies indicated that Noxin was overexpressed in breast cancer and its positive expression was significantly correlated with advance tumor-node-metastasis stage, positive lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Noxin facilitated the expression of Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E1 through activating P38-activating transcription factor 2 signaling pathway, thus enhanced cell growth of breast cancer.

Hocsak E, Szabo V, Kalman N, et al.
PARP inhibition protects mitochondria and reduces ROS production via PARP-1-ATF4-MKP-1-MAPK retrograde pathway.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2017; 108:770-784 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress induces DNA breaks and PARP-1 activation which initiates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death through pathways not yet identified. Here, we show the mechanism by which PARP-1 influences these processes via PARylation of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) responsible for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression and thereby regulates MAP kinases. PARP inhibitor, or silencing, of PARP induced MKP-1 expression by ATF4-dependent way, and inactivated JNK and p38 MAP kinases. Additionally, it induced ATF4 expression and binding to cAMP-response element (CRE) leading to MKP-1 expression and the inactivation of MAP kinases. In contrast, PARP-1 activation induced the PARylation of ATF4 and reduced its binding to CRE sequence in vitro. CHIP-qPCR analysis showed that PARP inhibitor increased the ATF4 occupancy at the initiation site of MKP-1. In oxidative stress, PARP inhibition reduced ROS-induced cell death, suppressed mitochondrial ROS production and protected mitochondrial membrane potential on an ATF4 and MKP-1 dependent way. Basically identical results were obtained in WRL-68, A-549 and T24/83 human cell lines indicating that the aforementioned mechanism can be universal. Here, we provide the first description of PARP-1-ATF4-MKP-1-JNK/p38 MAPK retrograde pathway, which is responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity, ROS production and cell death in oxidative stress, and may represent a new mechanism of PARP in cancer therapy since cancer stem cells development is JNK-dependent.

Sun X, Lou L, Zhong K, Wan L
MicroRNA-451 regulates chemoresistance in renal cell carcinoma by targeting ATF-2 gene.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017; 242(12):1299-1305 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a malignant tumor, which severely threatens human's life, moreover, the multi-drug resistance (MDR) under RCC undoubtedly strengthen the difficulties in the treatment. MiR-451 has been considered to play an important role in regulation of MDR in several cancers, but the role of it in MDR of RCC has not been explored. This study aims to explore the mechanism of miR-451 as a target to regulate chemotherapy resistance, which is crucial for further exploring novel therapy for RCC. Two human cell lines (ACHN and GRC-1) were performed in this study and adriamycin (ADM) was used to construct MDR cell lines. qRT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of miR-451 and ATF-2. Weston blot was used to determine protein expression. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used for assessing cell viability and apoptosis, individually. Luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the targeting of miR-451 and ATF-2. Results presented that the expression of miR-451 was higher in low MDR cell line (ACHN) comparing with the high MDR cell line (GRC-1), while the expression of ATF-2 revealed an opposite results. MiR-451 targeted ATF-2 and regulated its expression. Overexpression of miR-451 strengthened drug resistance, decreased cell viability, and increased cell apoptosis of GRC-1 pretreated by ADM, while overexpressed ATF-2 reversed the effect induced by miR-451 overexpression. Then miR-451 knockdown improved drug susceptibility, decreased cell apoptosis, and increased cell viability of ACHN induced by ADM, however, ATF-2 suppression reversed the low rate of cell apoptosis and high rate of cell viability induced by miR-451 knockdown. Our results revealed that miR-451 regulates the drug resistance of RCC by targeting ATF-2 gene, which might be critical for overcoming MDR in RCC patients. Impact statement This is the first study to emphasize the expression of miR-451 on regulating multi-drug resistance (MDR) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our study found that miR-451 regulates the drug resistance of RCC by targeting ATF-2, which might be critical for overcoming MDR in RCC patients. This study not only provides solid theory foundation for the clinical therapy, but also offers unique insights for the further RCC research. Furthermore, the study helps us to understand the mechanism of MDR, which was crucial for identifying the chemoresistance on several related tumors.

Pu Y, Zhao F, Wang H, Cai S
MiR-34a-5p promotes multi-chemoresistance of osteosarcoma through down-regulation of the DLL1 gene.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:44218 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MiR-34a-5p has been implicated in the tumorigenesis and progression of several types of cancer. However, the role of miR-34a-5p in osteosarcoma (OS) remains largely unknown. This study was performed in two multi-chemosensitive (G-292 and MG63.2) and two resistant (SJSA-1 and MNNG/HOS) OS cell lines. MiR-34a-5p promotes OS multi-chemoresistance via its repression of the Delta-like ligand 1 (DLL1) gene, the ligand of the Notch pathway, and thus negatively correlates with OS chemoresistance. The siRNA-mediated repression of the DLL1 gene suppressed cell apoptosis and de-sensitized G-292 and MG63.2 cells, while overexpression of DLL1 sensitized SJSA-1 and MNNG/HOS cells to drug-induced cell death. In agreement with the changes in the drug-induced cell death, the activity of the ATF2/ATF3/ATF4 signaling pathway was significantly altered by a forced reversal of miR-34a-5p or DLL1 levels in OS cells. DLL1 is a target of miR-34a-5p and negatively regulates the multi-chemoresistance of OS. This study suggested that miR-34a-5p, DLL1 and the ATF2/ATF3/ATF4 signaling pathway-associated genes are the potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets for an effective chemotherapy of OS. Our results also provide novel insights into the effective chemotherapy for OS patients.

Shen Y, Park CS, Suppipat K, et al.
Inactivation of KLF4 promotes T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and activates the MAP2K7 pathway.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(6):1314-1324 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with a high incidence of relapse in pediatric ALL. Although most T-ALL patients exhibit activating mutations in NOTCH1, the cooperating genetic events required to accelerate the onset of leukemia and worsen disease progression are largely unknown. Here, we show that the gene encoding the transcription factor KLF4 is inactivated by DNA methylation in children with T-ALL. In mice, loss of KLF4 accelerated the development of NOTCH1-induced T-ALL by enhancing the G1-to-S transition in leukemic cells and promoting the expansion of leukemia-initiating cells. Mechanistically, KLF4 represses the gene encoding the kinase MAP2K7. Our results showed that in murine and pediatric T-ALL, loss of KLF4 leads to aberrant activation of MAP2K7 and of the downstream effectors JNK and ATF2. As a proof-of-concept for the development of a targeted therapy, administration of JNK inhibitors reduced the expansion of leukemia cells in cell-based and patient-derived xenograft models. Collectively, these data uncover a novel function for KLF4 in regulating the MAP2K7 pathway in T-ALL cells, which can be targeted to eradicate leukemia-initiating cells in T-ALL patients.

De Robertis M, Loiacono L, Fusilli C, et al.
Dysregulation of EGFR Pathway in EphA2 Cell Subpopulation Significantly Associates with Poor Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(1):159-170 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: EphA2 receptor is involved in multiple cross-talks with other cellular networks, including EGFR, FAK, and VEGF pathways, with which it collaborates to stimulate cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Colorectal cancer (CRC) EphA2 overexpression has also been correlated to stem-like properties of cells and tumor malignancy. We investigated the molecular cross-talk and miRNAs modulation of the EphA2 and EGFR pathways. We also explored the role of EphA2/EGFR pathway mediators as prognostic factors or predictors of cetuximab benefit in patients with CRC.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression analysis was performed in EphA2
RESULTS: We identified a gene expression pattern (EphA2, Efna1, Egfr, Ptpn12, and Atf2) reflecting the activation of EphA2 and EGFR pathways and a coherent dysregulation of mir-26b and mir-200a. Such a pattern showed prognostic significance in patients with stage I-III CRC, in both univariate and multivariate analysis. In patients with stage IV and WT KRAS, EphA2/Efna1/Egfr gene expression status was significantly associated with poor response to cetuximab treatment. Furthermore, EphA2 and EGFR overexpression showed a combined effect relative to cetuximab resistance, independently from KRAS mutation status.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that EphA2/Efna1/Egfr genes, linked to a possible control by miR-200a and miR-26b, could be proposed as novel CRC prognostic biomarkers. Moreover, EphA2 could be linked to a mechanism of resistance to cetuximab alternative to KRAS mutations. Clin Cancer Res; 23(1); 159-70. ©2016 AACR.

Wu DS, Chen C, Wu ZJ, et al.
ATF2 predicts poor prognosis and promotes malignant phenotypes in renal cell carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, which has been shown to participate in the pathobiology of numerous cancers. However, the role of ATF2 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear.
METHODS: ATF2 knockdown and overexpression studies were performed in RCC cells to evaluate changes in cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Xenograft models were used to examine the tumorigenic and metastatic capability of RCC cells upon ATF2 suppression. The expression of ATF2 in human RCC samples was determined using immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray.
RESULTS: ATF2 knockdown in RCC cells reduced their proliferative and metastatic potentials, whereas ATF2 overexpression enhanced these properties. Mechanistic studies revealed that the transcription of CyclinB1, CyclinD1, Snail and Vimentin was directly regulated by ATF2 in RCC cells. Moreover, ATF2 was shown to be highly expressed in RCC tissues, especially in tumors with metastases. High expression of ATF2 correlated with aggressive clinico-pathological characteristics and predicted poor prognosis of RCC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: ATF2 exerts an oncogenic role in RCC and could serve as an important prognostic biomarker.

Claps G, Cheli Y, Zhang T, et al.
A Transcriptionally Inactive ATF2 Variant Drives Melanomagenesis.
Cell Rep. 2016; 15(9):1884-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most lethal cutaneous malignancies, characterized by chemoresistance and a striking propensity to metastasize. The transcription factor ATF2 elicits oncogenic activities in melanoma, and its inhibition attenuates melanoma development. Here, we show that expression of a transcriptionally inactive form of Atf2 (Atf2(Δ8,9)) promotes development of melanoma in mouse models. Atf2(Δ8,9)-driven tumors show enhanced pigmentation, immune infiltration, and metastatic propensity. Similar to mouse Atf2(Δ8,9), we have identified a transcriptionally inactive human ATF2 splice variant 5 (ATF2(SV5)) that enhances the growth and migration capacity of cultured melanoma cells and immortalized melanocytes. ATF2(SV5) expression is elevated in human melanoma specimens and is associated with poor prognosis. These findings point to an oncogenic function for ATF2 in melanoma development that appears to be independent of its transcriptional activity.

Zhang S, Gao L, Thakur A, et al.
miRNA-204 suppresses human non-small cell lung cancer by targeting ATF2.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):11177-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Deregulated expression of miR-204 has been reported in several cancers, but the mechanism through which miR-204 modulates human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the expression and functional role of miR-204 in human NSCLC tissues and cell lines. RNA isolation, qRT-PCR, MTT, colony formation assay, cell cycle assay, cell apoptosis assay, cell migration assay, and Western blot were performed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18.0 software and statistical significance was accepted at p value <0.05. miR-204 level was significantly reduced in NSCLC tissues as compared to that of non-neoplastic tissues. Transient over-expression of miR-204 by transfecting with miR-204 mimics suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and induced apoptosis and G1 arrest, whereas inhibition of miR-204 showed the converse effects. Additionally, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2), an important transcription factor, was demonstrated as a potential target gene of miR-204. Subsequent investigations found a negative correlation between miR-204 level and ATF2 expression in NSCLC tissue samples. Moreover, we observed that miR-204 expression inversely affected endogenous ATF2 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in vitro. Taken together, miR-204 may act as a tumor suppressor by directly targeting ATF2 in NSCLC.

Wu CF, Seo EJ, Klauck SM, Efferth T
Cryptotanshinone deregulates unfolded protein response and eukaryotic initiation factor signaling in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
Phytomedicine. 2016; 23(2):174-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Unfolded protein responses (UPR) determine cell fate and are recognized as anticancer targets. In a previous research, we reported that cryptotanshinone (CPT) exerted cytotoxic effects toward acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
PURPOSE: In the present study, we further investigated the role of UPR in CPT-induced cytotoxicity on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by applying tools of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics.
METHODS: Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization. Potential transcription factor binding motifs were identified in the promoter regions of the deregulated genes by Cistrome software. Molecular docking on eIF-4A and PI3K was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of CPT on translation initiation.
RESULTS: CPT regulated genes related to UPR and eIF2 signaling pathways. The DNA-Damage-Inducible Transcript 3 (DDIT3) gene, which is activated as consequence of UPR malfunction during apoptosis, was induced and validated by in vitro experiments. Transcription factor binding motif analysis of the microarrary-retrieved deregulated genes in the promoter region emphasized the relevance of transcription factors, such as ATF2, ATF4 and XBP1, regulating UPR and cell apoptosis. Molecular docking suggested inhibitory effects of CPT by binding to eIF-4A and PI3K providing evidence for a role of CPT's in the disruption of protein synthesis.
CONCLUSION: CPT triggered UPR and inhibited protein synthesis via eIF-mediated translation initiation, potentially supporting CPT-induced cytotoxic effects toward acute leukemia cells.

Juilland M, Gonzalez M, Erdmann T, et al.
CARMA1- and MyD88-dependent activation of Jun/ATF-type AP-1 complexes is a hallmark of ABC diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Blood. 2016; 127(14):1780-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. Here, we show that AP-1, like NF-κB, was controlled by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor signaling component caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and/or the Toll-like receptor signaling component myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in ABC DLBCL cell lines. In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. Inhibition of these complexes by a dominant-negative approach led to impaired growth of a majority of ABC DLBCL cell lines. Individual silencing of c-Jun, ATF2, or ATF3 decreased cellular survival and revealed c-Jun/ATF2-dependent control of ATF3 expression. As a consequence, ATF3 expression was much higher in ABC vs GCB DLBCL cell lines. Samples derived from DLBCL patients showed a clear trend toward high and nuclear ATF3 expression in nodal DLBCL of the non-GC or ABC subtype. These findings identify the activation of AP-1 complexes of the Jun/ATF-type as an important element controlling the growth of ABC DLBCL.

Zhang W, Zhang ZZ, Tang LY, et al.
Genetic variants in EBV reactivation-related genes and the risk and survival of breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8337-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101) and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) have been suggested to involve in the reactivation of EBV which has implications in the development and progression of breast cancer. Therefore, the polymorphisms of TSG101 and ATF2 may associate with breast cancer risk and prognosis. A case-control study with 1551 breast cancer cases and 1605 age-matched controls were conducted in Guangzhou, China. We have also successfully followed up 1168 cases until December 31, 2014. The variant allele of TSG101 rs2292179 was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly among women with BMI < 24 (kg/m(2)) (P for interaction <0.05). For ATF2 rs3845744, the variant allele was also associated with a significantly reduced breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) 0.86 (0.74∼1.00)], and the association occurred among only postmenopausal women [OR (95 % CI) 0.69 (0.54∼0.88)] (P for interaction <0.05). Breast cancer risk was further reduced with the increasing numbers of the variant G alleles of the two polymorphisms (P for trend <0.05). We did not find an overall association of the two loci with breast cancer prognosis, while the hazard ratios of the two loci (AG/GG vs. AA) were significantly higher among postmenopausal women than premenopausal women (P = 0.046, 0.016 for TSG101 rs2292179 and ATF2 rs3845744, respectively). In summary, the variant alleles of TSG101 rs2292179 and ATF2 rs3845744 were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly for subjects with BMI <24 (kg/m(2)) and postmenopausal women, respectively. The two SNPs and menopausal status may have a significant interaction on breast cancer progression.

Lau E, Feng Y, Claps G, et al.
The transcription factor ATF2 promotes melanoma metastasis by suppressing protein fucosylation.
Sci Signal. 2015; 8(406):ra124 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most lethal skin cancers worldwide, primarily because of its propensity to metastasize. Thus, the elucidation of mechanisms that govern metastatic propensity is urgently needed. We found that protein kinase Cε (PKCε)-mediated activation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) controls the migratory and invasive behaviors of melanoma cells. PKCε-dependent phosphorylation of ATF2 promoted its transcriptional repression of the gene encoding fucokinase (FUK), which mediates the fucose salvage pathway and thus global cellular protein fucosylation. In primary melanocytes and cell lines representing early-stage melanoma, the abundance of PKCε-phosphorylated ATF2 was low, thereby enabling the expression of FUK and cellular protein fucosylation, which promoted cellular adhesion and reduced motility. In contrast, increased expression of the gene encoding PKCε and abundance of phosphorylated, transcriptionally active ATF2 were observed in advanced-stage melanomas and correlated with decreased FUK expression, decreased cellular protein fucosylation, attenuated cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. Restoring fucosylation in mice either by dietary fucose supplementation or by genetic manipulation of murine Fuk expression attenuated primary melanoma growth, increased the number of intratumoral natural killer cells, and decreased distal metastasis in murine isograft models. Tumor microarray analysis of human melanoma specimens confirmed reduced fucosylation in metastatic tumors and a better prognosis for primary melanomas that had high abundance of fucosylation. Thus, inhibiting PKCε or ATF2 or increasing protein fucosylation in tumor cells may improve clinical outcome in melanoma patients.

Peng B, Chai Y, Li Y, et al.
CIP2A overexpression induces autoimmune response and enhances JNK signaling pathway in human lung cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) is a recently characterized oncoprotein, which promotes cancer cell proliferation. But the role of CIP2A in lung cancer progression is still not well understood.
METHODS: The expression level of CIP2A in lung cancer tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry. CIP2A-associated cell proliferation was performed by knock down or overexpression of CIP2A in lung cancer cells. Phospho-array was used to screen kinase candidates related to expression change of CIP2A. Western-blot and luciferase reporter assay were used to validate phospho-array results.
RESULTS: Overexpression of CIP2A in lung cancer not only triggers immune response in lung cancer patients but also promotes lung cancer cell proliferation. By phospho-array, several kinase candidates were identified, one of which is c-Jun activated kinases (JNK). The knock down of CIP2A decreased JNK phosphorylation, and the phosphorylation of downstream transcriptional factors, ATF2 and c-Jun, whose transcriptional activity were decreased as well. Furthermore, the expression level of CIP2A also affected the phosphorylation of the upstream kinase of JNK, MKK4/MKK7. At last, treatment with JNK inhibitor partially abolished CIP2A-induced cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: CIP2A is a tumor-associated autoantigen in lung cancer, which promote lung cancer proliferation partially through MKK4/7-JNK signaling pathway.

Wang W, Corrigan-Cummins M, Barber EA, et al.
Aberrant Levels of miRNAs in Bone Marrow Microenvironment and Peripheral Blood of Myeloma Patients and Disease Progression.
J Mol Diagn. 2015; 17(6):669-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of multiple myeloma (MM) is reported to play a role in the biology of disease. In this study, we found that the extracellular BM microenvironment in MM contains a unique miRNA signature detectable by miRNA microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, which is partially represented in the peripheral blood. Eleven miRNAs were significantly decreased in both BM and serum of MM patients in comparison with controls. Evaluation of these miRNAs in plasma of a separate cohort of MM patients and controls confirmed significantly aberrant levels of let-7a, let-7b, let-7i, miR-15b, miR-16, and miR-20a in both serum and plasma. We then studied the myeloma precursor diseases and found that a subset of the MM miRNAs exhibited aberrant expression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering myeloma. miRNA analysis of enriched CD138(+) plasma cells from MM and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance found that most of the validated MM BM signature miRNAs were significantly decreased in MM plasma cells. Gene expression profiling indicated that multiple targets of the decreased miRNAs found increased expression in MM plasma cells, including ATF2, HRAS, HDAC4, TGFB1, TGFBR1, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. The findings suggest that these miRNAs are detectable in aberrant levels in the peripheral blood of patients with plasma cell proliferation and may play a role in aberrant plasma cell proliferation and disease progression.

Bhullar KS, Jha A, Rupasinghe HP
Novel carbocyclic curcumin analog CUR3d modulates genes involved in multiple apoptosis pathways in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 242:107-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anticancer activity of a novel curcumin analog (E)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-5-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acryloyl)cyclopentanone (CUR3d) was studied using a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). The results showed that CUR3d completely inhibits the tumor cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CUR3d at 100 μmol/L activated the pro-apoptotic caspase-3 along with downregulation of anti-apoptotic BIRC5 and Bcl2. CUR3d treatment controlled the cancer cell growth by downregulating the expression of PI3K/Akt (Akt1, Akt2) pathway along with NF-κB. CUR3d down-regulated the members of epidermal growth receptor family (EGFR, ERBB3, ERBB2) and insulin like growth receptors (IGF1, IGF-1R, IGF2). This correlated with the downregulation of G-protein (RHOA, RHOB) and RAS (ATF2, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS) pathway signaling. CUR3d also arrested cell cycle via inhibition of CDK2, CDK4, CDK5, CDK9, MDM2, MDM4 and TERT genes. Cell cycle essential aurora kinases (AURKα, AURKβ) and polo-like kinases (PLK1, PLK2, PLK3) were also modulated by CUR3d. Topoisomerases (TOP2α, TOP2β), important factors in cancer cell immortality, as well as HIF-1α were downregulated following CUR3d treatment. The expression of protein kinase-C family (PRKC-A, PRKC-D, PRKC-E) was also attenuated by CUR3d. The downregulation of histone deacetylases (Class I, II, IV) and PARP I further strengthened the anticancer efficacy of CUR3d. Downregulation of carcinogenic cathepsins (CTSB, CTSD) and heat shock proteins exhibited CUR3d's potency as a potential immunological adjuvant. Finally, the non-toxic manifestation of CUR3d in healthy liver and lung cells along with downregulation of drug resistant gene ABCC1 further warrant need for advance investigations.

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