Gene Summary

Gene:BBC3; BCL2 binding component 3
Aliases: JFY1, PUMA, JFY-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 family of proteins. This family member belongs to the BH3-only pro-apoptotic subclass. The protein cooperates with direct activator proteins to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. It can bind to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation. Because of its pro-apoptotic role, this gene is a potential drug target for cancer therapy and for tissue injury. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bcl-2-binding component 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (24)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BBC3 (cancer-related)

Rahman FU, Ali A, Khan IU, et al.
Novel phenylenediamine bridged mixed ligands dimetallic square planner Pt(II) complex inhibits MMPs expression via p53 and caspase-dependent signaling and suppress cancer metastasis and invasion.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 125:1064-1075 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel phenylenediamine bridged mixed ligands dimetallic square planner Pt(II) complex (L-Pt-Py) was synthesized from simple commercially available precursors in good yield and characterized by (1)H, (13)C, 2D NOESY NMR and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). The stability of L-Pt-Py was checked by (1)H NMR in mixed DMSO-d6/D2O solvents. L-Pt-Py showed considerable in vitro cytotoxicity in lung (A549), breast (MCF-7) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines and strong in vivo growth inhibition in Escherichia coli (E. coli). These results were compared to the well-known market available platinum anticancer drug cisplatin. L-Pt-Py has strong ability to suppress the growth of multiple cancer cells. Mechanistically, it enhanced p53 protein expression and regulated p53-dependent genes expression such as p21, PUMA, MYC and hTERT. The TUNEL assay showed that L-Pt-Py induced cell death in cancer cells. Inhibition of caspase signaling with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK suggested that cell death induced by this complex was caspase-dependent. Importantly, L-Pt-Py has the ability to suppress the invasion and migration of human lung and luminal-like breast cancer cells. Similarly L-Pt-Py suppressed the expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7 and MMP-9 to inhibit lung and breast cancer cell metastasis. L-Pt-Py showed stronger inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and also resulted in filamentous morphology of bacterial cells. The gel electrophoresis study of DNA migration revealed the strong interaction of L-Pt-Py with DNA. Taken altogether, L-Pt-Py was highly stable and the in vitro and in vivo biological study results corroborated this complex to be effective anticancer agent.

Azumi J, Tsubota T, Sakabe T, Shiota G
miR-181a induces sorafenib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through downregulation of RASSF1 expression.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(9):1256-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, is the only standard clinical drug for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, development of sorafenib resistance in HCC often prevents its long-term efficacy. Therefore, novel targets and strategies are urgently needed to improve the antitumor effect of sorafenib. In the present study, we examined the novel mechanisms of sorafenib resistance of HCC cells by investigating the difference in sorafenib sensitivity between two HCC cell lines. Sorafenib induced more apoptosis of HepG2 cells compared to Hep3B cells. Sorafenib exposure to HepG2 cells but not Hep3B cells increased the expression of proapoptotic factor PUMA, and activated PARP and caspase-3. Notably, microRNA-181a (miR-181a) expression levels were lower in HepG2 cells than in Hep3B cells. Exogenous miR-181a expression in HepG2 cells reduced apoptosis, whereas inhibition of miR-181a in Hpe3B cells increased apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-181a directly targets RASSF1, a MAPK signaling factor, and knockdown of RASSF1 increased sorafenib resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-181a provokes sorafenib resistance through suppression of RASSF1. Our data provide important insight into the novel therapeutic strategy against sorafenib resistance of HCC cells by targeting of miR-181a pathway.

Gong EY, Shin YJ, Hwang IY, et al.
Combined treatment with vitamin C and sulindac synergistically induces p53- and ROS-dependent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2016; 258:126-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sulindac has anti-neoplastic properties against colorectal cancers; however, its use as a chemopreventive agent has been limited due to toxicity and efficacy concerns. Combinatorial treatment of colorectal cancers has been attempted to maximize anti-cancer efficacy with minimal side effects by administrating NSAIDs in combination with other inhibitory compounds or drugs such as l-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), which is known to exhibit cytotoxicity towards various cancer cells at high concentrations. In this study, we evaluated a combinatorial strategy utilizing sulindac and vitamin C. The death of HCT116 cells upon combination therapy occurred via a p53-mediated mechanism. The combination therapeutic resistance developed in isogenic p53 null HCT116 cells and siRNA-mediated p53 knockdown HCT116 cells, but the exogenous expression of p53 in p53 null isogenic cells resulted in the induction of cell death. In addition, we investigated an increased level of intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species), which was preceded by p53 activation. The expression level of PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis), but not Bim, was significantly increased in HCT116 cells in response to the combination treatment. Taken together, our results demonstrate that combination therapy with sulindac and vitamin C could be a novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy for p53 wild type colon cancers.

Zhang D, Li Y, Wang R, et al.
Inhibition of REST Suppresses Proliferation and Migration in Glioblastoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with poor prognosis and a lack of effective therapeutic options. The aberrant expression of transcription factor REST (repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor) had been reported in different kinds of tumors. However, the function of REST and its mechanisms in GBM remain elusive. Here, REST expression was inhibited by siRNA silencing in U-87 and U-251 GBM cells. Then CCK-8 assay showed significantly decreased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of migration was verified by scratch wound healing assay and transwell assay. Using cell cycle analysis and Annexin V/PI straining assay, G1 phase cell cycle arrest was found to be a reason for the suppression of cell proliferation and migration upon REST silencing, while apoptosis was not affected by REST silencing. Further, the detection of REST-downstream genes involved in cytostasis and migration inhibition demonstrated that CCND1 and CCNE1 were reduced; CDK5R1, BBC3, EGR1, SLC25A4, PDCD7, MAPK11, MAPK12, FADD and DAXX were enhanced, among which BBC3 and DAXX were direct targets of REST, as verified by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) and Western blotting. These data suggested that REST is a master regulator that maintains GBM cells proliferation and migration, partly through regulating cell cycle by repressing downstream genes, which might represent a potential target for GBM therapy.

Ghanizadeh-Vesali S, Zekri A, Zaker F, et al.
Significance of AZD1152 as a potential treatment against Aurora B overexpression in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Ann Hematol. 2016; 95(7):1031-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aurora B kinase as a chromosomal passenger protein plays multiple roles in regulating mitosis and cytokinesis. The function of Aurora B in leukemic cells has made it an important treatment target. In this study, we explored the expressions of Aurora (A, B, and C) kinases in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. In addition, we investigated the effects of AZD1152 as a specific inhibitor of Aurora B on cell survival, DNA synthesis, nuclear morphology, apoptosis induction, cell cycle distribution, and gene expression in an APL-derived NB4 cell line. Our results showed that Aurora B was overexpressed in 88 % of APL patients. AZD1152 treatment of NB4 cells led to viability reduction and G2/M arrest followed by an increase in cell size and polyploidy induction. These giant cells showed morphological evidence of mitotic catastrophe. AZD1152 treatment induced activation of G2/M checkpoint which in turn led to transient G2/M arrest in a p21-independent manner. Lack of functional p53 in NB4 cells might provide an opportunity to escape from G2/M block and to endure repeated rounds of replication and polyploidy. Treated cells were probably eliminated via p73-mediated overexpression of BAX, PUMA, and APAF1 and downregulation of survivin and MCL-1. In summary, AZD1152 treatment led to endomitosis and polyploidy in TP53-mutated NB4 cells. These giant polyploid cells might undergo mitotic catastrophe and p73-mediated apoptosis. It seems that induction of polyploidy via AZD1152 could be a novel form of anti-cancer therapy for APL that may be clinically accessible in the near future.

Feng Y, Yang Y, Fan C, et al.
Pterostilbene Inhibits the Growth of Human Esophageal Cancer Cells by Regulating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(3):1226-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pterostilbene (PTE), a natural dimethylated resveratrol analog from blueberries, is known to have diverse pharmacological activities, including anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anticancer activity of PTE against human esophageal cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo and explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS) signaling in this process.
METHODS: Cell viability, the apoptotic index, Caspase 3 activity, adhesion, migration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and glutathione (GSH) levels were detected to explore the effect of PTE on human EC109 esophageal cancer cells. Furthermore, siRNA transfection and a chemical inhibitor were employed to confirm the role of ERS.
RESULTS: PTE treatment dose- and time-dependently decreased the viability of human esophageal cancer EC109 cells. PTE also decreased tumor cell adhesion, migration and intracellular GSH levels while increasing the apoptotic index, Caspase 3 activity and ROS levels, which suggest the strong anticancer activity of PTE. Furthermore, PTE treatment increased the expression of ERS-related molecules (GRP78, ATF6, p-PERK, p-eIF2α and CHOP), upregulated the pro-apoptosis-related protein PUMA and downregulated the anti-apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 while promoting the translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and the activation of Caspase 9 and Caspase 12. The downregulation of ERS signaling by CHOP siRNA desensitized esophageal cancer cells to PTE treatment, whereas upregulation of ERS signaling by thapsigargin (THA) had the opposite effect. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, also desensitized esophageal cancer cells to PTE treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results indicate that PTE is a potent anti-cancer pharmaceutical against human esophageal cancer, and the possible mechanism involves the activation of ERS signaling pathways.

Kuppusamy P, Ichwan SJ, Al-Zikri PN, et al.
In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Au, Ag Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Commelina nudiflora L. Aqueous Extract Against HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016; 173(2):297-305 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, metal nanoparticles have been getting great medical and social interests due to their potential physico-chemical properties such as higher affinity, low molecular weight, and larger surface area. The biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles are spherical, triangular in shape with an average size of 24-150 nm as reported in our earlier studies. The biological properties of synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles are demonstrated in this paper. The different in vitro assays such as MTT, flow cytometry, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) techniques were used to evaluate the in vitro anticancer properties of synthesized metal nanoparticles. The biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles have shown reduced cell viability and increased cytotoxicity in HCT-116 colon cancer cells with IC50 concentration of 200 and 100 μg/ml, respectively. The flow cytometry experiments revealed that the IC50 concentrations of gold and silver nanoparticle-treated cells that have significant changes were observed in the sub-G1 cell cycle phase compared with the positive control. Additionally, the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) gene expressions of HCT-116 cells were studied by RT-qPCR techniques. The pro-apoptotic genes such as PUMA (++), Caspase-3 (+), Caspase-8 (++), and Caspase-9 (++) were upregulated in the treated HCT-116 cells compared with cisplatin. Overall, these findings have proved that the synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles could be potent anti-colon cancer drugs.

Valente LJ, Aubrey BJ, Herold MJ, et al.
Therapeutic Response to Non-genotoxic Activation of p53 by Nutlin3a Is Driven by PUMA-Mediated Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(8):1858-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21, Puma, and Noxa, we found that only loss of PUMA conferred profound protection against Nutlin3a-induced killing in both non-transformed lymphoid cells and Eμ-Myc lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the PUMA gene rendered human hematopoietic cancer cell lines markedly resistant to Nutlin3a-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that PUMA-mediated apoptosis, but not p21-mediated cell-cycle arrest or senescence, is a critical determinant of the therapeutic response to non-genotoxic p53 activation by Nutlin3a. Importantly, in human cancer, PUMA expression may predict patient responses to treatment with MDM2 antagonists.

Xie C, Subhash VV, Datta A, et al.
Melanoma associated antigen (MAGE)-A3 promotes cell proliferation and chemotherapeutic drug resistance in gastric cancer.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(2):175-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE)-A3 is a member of the family of cancer-testis antigens and has been found to be epigenetically regulated and aberrantly expressed in various cancer types. It has also been found that MAGE-A3 expression may correlate with an aggressive clinical course and with chemo-resistance. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between MAGE-A3 promoter methylation and expression and (1) gastric cancer patient survival and (2) its functional consequences in gastric cancer-derived cells.
METHODS: Samples from two independent gastric cancer cohorts (including matched non-malignant gastric samples) were included in this study. MAGE-A3 methylation and mRNA expression levels were determined by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), respectively. MAGE-A3 expression was knocked down in MKN1 gastric cancer-derived cells using miRNAs. In addition, in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, drug treatment, immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays were performed.
RESULTS: Clinical analysis of 223 primary patient-derived samples (ntumor = 161, nnormal = 62) showed a significant inverse correlation between MAGE-A3 promoter methylation and expression in the cancer samples (R = -0.63, p = 5.99e-19). A lower MAGE-A3 methylation level was found to be associated with a worse patient survival (HR: 1.5, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.37, p = 0.04). In addition, we found that miRNA-mediated knockdown of MAGE-A3 expression in MKN1 cells caused a reduction in its proliferation and colony forming capacities, respectively. Under stress conditions MAGE-A3 was found to regulate the expression of Bax and p21. MAGE-A3 knock down also led to an increase in Puma and Noxa expression, thus contributing to an enhanced docetaxel sensitivity in the gastric cancer-derived cells.
CONCLUSIONS: From our results we conclude that MAGE-A3 expression is regulated epigenetically by promoter methylation, and that its expression contributes to gastric cell proliferation and drug sensitivity. This study underscores the potential implications of MAGE-A3 as a therapeutic target and prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients.

Wang CY, Guo ST, Wang JY, et al.
Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 Preferentially Kills Mutant KRAS Colon Cancer Cells by Activating Bim through ER Stress.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(3):448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic mutations of KRAS pose a great challenge in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here we report that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are nevertheless more susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 than those carrying wild-type KRAS. Although AUY922 inhibited HSP90 activity with comparable potency in colon cancer cells irrespective of their KRAS mutational statuses, those with mutant KRAS were markedly more sensitive to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was associated with upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim, Bik, and PUMA. However, only Bim appeared essential, in that knockdown of Bim abolished, whereas knockdown of Bik or PUMA only moderately attenuated apoptosis induced by AUY922. Mechanistic investigations revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was responsible for AUY922-induced upregulation of Bim, which was inhibited by a chemical chaperone or overexpression of GRP78. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of GRP78 or XBP-1 enhanced AUY922-induced apoptosis. Remarkably, AUY922 inhibited the growth of mutant KRAS colon cancer xenografts through activation of Bim that was similarly associated with ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AUY922 is a promising drug in the treatment of mutant KRAS colon cancers, and the agents that enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of Bim may be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

Ju W, Zhang M, Wilson KM, et al.
Augmented efficacy of brentuximab vedotin combined with ruxolitinib and/or Navitoclax in a murine model of human Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(6):1624-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite relative success of therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), novel therapeutic agents are needed for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Recently, anti-PD1 immunotherapy or treatment with the anti-CD30 toxin conjugate brentuximab vedotin (BV) have been associated with remissions; however, the median responses of complete responses (CRs) with the latter were only 6.7 mo. To obtain curative therapy, other effective agents, based on HL biology, would have to be given in combination with BV. Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells secrete cytokines including IL-6 and -13, leading to constitutive activation of JAK/STAT signaling. In the present study the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT6 and expression of c-Myc in the HL cell line HDLM-2. These changes were enhanced when, on the basis of a matrix screen of drug combinations, ruxolitinib was combined with the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor Navitoclax. The combination augmented expression of Bik, Puma, and Bax, and attenuated Bcl-xL expression and the phosphorylation of Bad. The use of the two-agent combination of either ruxolitinib or Navitoclax with BV or the three-agent combination strongly activated Bax and increased activities of cytochrome c and caspase-9 and -3 that, in turn, led to cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase and Mcl-1. Either ruxolitinib combined with Navitoclax or BV alone prolonged survival but did not cure HDLM-2 tumor-bearing mice, whereas BV combined with ruxolitinib and/or with Navitoclax resulted in a sustained, complete elimination of the HDLM-2 HL. These studies provide scientific support for a clinical trial to evaluate BV combined with ruxolitinib in select patients with HL.

Wu W, Xu C, Ling X, et al.
Targeting RING domains of Mdm2-MdmX E3 complex activates apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e2035 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reactivation of tumor-suppressor p53 for targeted cancer therapy is an attractive strategy for cancers bearing wild-type (WT) p53. Targeting the Mdm2-p53 interface or MdmX ((MDM4), mouse double minute 4)-p53 interface or both has been a focus in the field. However, targeting the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2-MdmX really interesting new gene (RING)-RING interaction as a novel anticancer strategy has never been explored. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors targeting Mdm2-MdmX RING-RING interaction as a new class of E3 ligase inhibitors. With a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based E3 activity assay in high-throughput screening of a chemical library, we identified inhibitors (designated as MMRis (Mdm2-MdmX RING domain inhibitors)) that specifically inhibit Mdm2-MdmX E3 ligase activity toward Mdm2 and p53 substrates. MMRi6 and its analog MMRi64 are capable of disrupting Mdm2-MdmX interactions in vitro and activating p53 in cells. In leukemia cells, MMRi64 potently induces downregulation of Mdm2 and MdmX. In contrast to Nutlin3a, MMRi64 only induces the expression of pro-apoptotic gene PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) with minimal induction of growth-arresting gene p21. Consequently, MMRi64 selectively induces the apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells. Owing to the distinct mechanisms of action of MMRi64 and Nutlin3a, their combination synergistically induces p53 and apoptosis. Taken together, this study reveals that Mdm2-MdmX has a critical role in apoptotic response of the p53 pathway and MMRi64 may serve as a new pharmacological tool for p53 studies and a platform for cancer drug development.

Luan QC, Sun YR, Han P, Chen Y
Ad-PUMA sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(23):4525-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer accounted for the first cause of death in female reproductive system tumor even with the operation and chemotherapy. We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential of p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) in ovarian cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An adenovirus expressing PUMA (Ad-PUMA), alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents, was used to treat two different ovarian cancer cell lines. The mechanism of PUMA-mediated growth suppression and apoptosis was investigated by analysis of caspase-9 activation and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm).
RESULTS: The exogenous PUMA was expressed 6 h after Ad-PUMA infection, which increased the chemosensitivity of the cancer cells and decreased the IC50 of chemotherapeutic agents compared with uninfected cells. The apoptotic percentage of OVCAR-3 and SKOV3 increased greatly compared with Taxol or Cisplatin alone. There was shear zone in caspase-9 and Δψm decrease after Ad-PUMA infection which suggested apoptosis started in mitochondrial mediated pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: PUMA plays a role in suppressing tumor growth and sensitizing ovarian cancer cells to anticancer drugs and may be a promising tool for cancer biotherapy.

Roh JL, Park JY, Kim EH, Jang HJ
Targeting acid ceramidase sensitises head and neck cancer to cisplatin.
Eur J Cancer. 2016; 52:163-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acid ceramidase (AC), a key enzyme in ceramide metabolism, plays a role in cancer progression and resistance to therapy. However, the role of AC in head and neck cancer (HNC) has not been addressed. Here, we investigate the effect of AC inhibition on the response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy for HNC.
METHODS: AC protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were examined in primary tumours and paired normal tissues, and in HNC cell lines. The effects of genetic and pharmacological AC inhibition using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and N-oleoyl-ethanolamine (NOE), alone and in combination with cisplatin, were assessed in human HNC cells by measuring cell viability, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, mRNA, and protein expression, and in preclinical tumour xenograft mouse models.
FINDINGS: AC overexpression was observed in four of six primary tumour tissues and six of nine HNC cell lines. Cisplatin sensitivity was significantly decreased by AC overexpression and significantly increased by AC downregulation in HNC cells (P<0.01). NOE or AC shRNA-mediated AC inhibition enhanced cisplatin-induced HNC cell death by increasing ceramide production and activating pro-apoptotic proteins, and these effects were abrogated by PUMA small interfering RNA transfection. AC inhibition promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HNC cells in vitro and in vivo.
INTERPRETATIONS: AC overexpression is associated with cisplatin sensitivity, suggesting its potential role as a chemotherapeutic target for HNC. Genetic or pharmacological AC inhibition promotes cisplatin cytotoxicity in HNC cells.

Fujimori H, Sato A, Kikuhara S, et al.
A comprehensive analysis of radiosensitization targets; functional inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 3B radiosensitizes by disrupting DNA damage regulation.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:18231 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A comprehensive genome-wide screen of radiosensitization targets in HeLa cells was performed using a shRNA-library/functional cluster analysis and DNMT3B was identified as a candidate target. DNMT3B RNAi increased the sensitivity of HeLa, A549 and HCT116 cells to both γ-irradiation and carbon-ion beam irradiation. DNMT3B RNAi reduced the activation of DNA damage responses induced by γ-irradiation, including HP1β-, γH2AX- and Rad51-foci formation. DNMT3B RNAi impaired damage-dependent H2AX accumulation and showed a reduced level of γH2AX induction after γ-irradiation. DNMT3B interacted with HP1β in non-irradiated conditions, whereas irradiation abrogated the DNMT3B/HP1β complex but induced interaction between DNMT3B and H2AX. Consistent with radiosensitization, TP63, BAX, PUMA and NOXA expression was induced after γ-irradiation in DNMT3B knockdown cells. Together with the observation that H2AX overexpression canceled radiosensitization by DNMT3B RNAi, these results suggest that DNMT3B RNAi induced radiosensitization through impairment of damage-dependent HP1β foci formation and efficient γH2AX-induction mechanisms including H2AX accumulation. Enhanced radiosensitivity by DNMT3B RNAi was also observed in a tumor xenograft model. Taken together, the current study implies that comprehensive screening accompanied by a cluster analysis enabled the identification of radiosensitization targets. Downregulation of DNMT3B, one of the targets identified using this method, radiosensitizes cancer cells by disturbing multiple DNA damage responses.

Choi SW, Shin TH, Uddin MH, et al.
STB-HO, a novel mica fine particle, inhibits the teratoma-forming ability of human embryonic stem cells after in vivo transplantation.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(3):2684-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although pluripotent stem cell (PSC) therapy has advantages for clinical applications because of the self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation abilities of PSCs, it also has disadvantages in terms of the potential for PSCs to undergo malignant transformation or unexpected differentiation. The prevention of teratoma formation is the largest hurdle of all. Despite intensive studies that have investigated ways to block teratomas, such methods have yet to be further developed for clinical use. Here, a new approach has focused on exerting anti-tumorigenic effects using a novel mica fine particle (MFP) designated STB-HO. Treatment with STB-HO regulated pluripotency- and apoptosis-related genes in differentiating human embryonic stem (hES) cells, while there is no effects in undifferentiated hES cells. In particular, STB-HO blocked the anti-apoptotic gene BIRC5 and activated p53, p21 and the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim, Puma and p-Bad during early spontaneous differentiation. Moreover, STB-HO-pretreated differentiating hES cells did not give rise to teratomas following in vivo stem cell transplantation. Our in vitro and in vivo results suggest a method for teratoma prevention in the context of PSC-derived cell transplantation. This novel MFP could break through the limitations of PSC therapy.

Liu X, Kang J, Liu F, et al.
Overexpression of iASPP-SV in glioma is associated with poor prognosis by promoting cell viability and antagonizing apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6323-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP), encoded by PPP1R13L gene, is often overexpressed in human cancers. From the PPP1R13L gene, at least two isoforms, iASPP-L and iASPP-SV, are produced through alternative splicing. However, the role of these isoforms in glioma is still elusive. In this study, we examined the expression of iASPP-SV in astrocytic glioma tissues with different grades and normal human cerebral tissues. The result showed a higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of iASPP-SV in astrocytic glioma patients with World Health Organization (WHO) grade II to IV in comparison to the normal controls. Additionally, mRNA expression level of iASPP-SV was gradually increased with the raise of the grade in glioma. High mRNA expression level of iASPP-SV was significantly associated with malignant WHO grades (P < 0.001). The protein expression level of iASPP-SV was consistent with the mRNA expression level. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that high iASPP-SV mRNA expression significantly affected overall survival and progression-free survival (both P < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that the mRNA expression of iASPP-SV was an independent prognostic marker in glioma (P < 0.001). To further explore the role of iASPP-SV in glioma, U87 cells were transfected with iASPP-SV by lentivirus and then treated with temozolomide (TMZ). Overexpression of iASPP-SV promoted the cell viability and downregulated the expression of pro-apoptosis genes (Bax, Puma, p21, and Noxa) to inhibit apoptosis induced by TMZ. Our study provides the first evidence that high iASPP-SV expression may be a novel prognostic factor and therapeutic target for glioma.

Hu ZB, Liao XH, Xu ZY, et al.
PLK2 phosphorylates and inhibits enriched TAp73 in human osteosarcoma cells.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(1):74-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TAp73, a member of the p53 tumor suppressor family, can substitute for p53 function, especially in p53-null and p53-mutant cells. However, TAp73 enrichment and phosphorylation change its transcriptional activity. Previously, we found that the antitumor function of TAp73 was reactivated by dephosphorylation. Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) plays an important role in bone development. Using a biological information database and phosphorylation prediction software, we hypothesized that PLK2 phosphorylates TAp73 and inhibits TAp73 function in osteosarcomas. Actually,we determined that PLK2 physically binds to and phosphorylates TAp73 when TAp73 protein abundance is up-regulated by cisplatin. PLK2-phosphorylated TAp73 at residue Ser48 within the TA domain; phosphorylation of TAp73 was abolished by mutating this residue. Moreover, PLK2 inhibition combined with cisplatin treatment in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells up-regulated p21 and puma mRNA expression to a greater extent than cisplatin treatment alone. Inhibiting PLK2 in TAp73-enriched Saos2 cells resulted in inhibited cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, G1 phase arrest, and decreased cell invasion. However, these changes did not occur in TAp73 knockdown Saos2 cells. In conclusion, these findings reveal a novel PLK2 function in the phosphorylation of TAp73, which prevents TAp73 activity in osteosarcoma cells. Thereby, this research provides an insight into the clinical treatment of malignant tumors overexpressing TAp73.

Hua Y, Hu Q, Piao Y, et al.
Effect of capilliposide for induction apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-2 cells through up-regulating PUMA expression.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015; 11 Suppl:C239-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To observe the apoptosis of capilliposide against human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-2 cells and to study its primary mechanisms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vectors pSilencer-PUMA-small interfering RNA (siRNA) were constructed to transcribe functional siRNA specially targeting PUMA. The interfering plasmids were used to transfect CNE-2 cells with lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. PUMA messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The proliferation of CNE-2 cells was detected using MTT colorimetry. Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining was applied to detect the apoptosis rate of CNE-2 cells. The protein levels of p53, PUMA, and Bax were detected using Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Recombinant siRNA expression vector targeting PUMA was constructed. MTT assays showed capilliposide inhibited the proliferation of CNE-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was strengthened along with increased concentrations. Apoptosis detected by flow cytometry in control group, drug group, siRNA group, and drug combined siRNA group was 9.3 ± 2.3%, 31.4 ± 5.6%, 12.3 ± 4.1%, and 13.2 ± 3.7%, respectively. After pretreated by capilliposide, PUMA protein was upregulated, and BAX was distributed to mitochondria in CNE-2 cells using Western blot analysis, but this effect can be interrupted by PUMA-siRNA.
CONCLUSIONS: Capilliposide could induce the apoptosis of CNE-2 cells, which might be related with the increasing in PUMA-Bax pathway.

Punganuru SR, Madala HR, Venugopal SN, et al.
Design and synthesis of a C7-aryl piperlongumine derivative with potent antimicrotubule and mutant p53-reactivating properties.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 107:233-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small molecules that can restore biological function to the p53 mutants found in human cancers have been highly sought to increase the anticancer efficacy. In efforts to generate hybrid anticancer drugs that can impact two or more targets simultaneously, we designed and developed piperlongumine (PL) derivatives with an aryl group inserted at the C-7 position. This insertion bestowed a combretastatin A4 (CA4, an established microtubule disruptor) like structure while retaining the piperlongumine configuration. The new compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activities against eight cancer cell lines, in particular, were more cytotoxic against the SKBR-3 breast cancer cells which harbor a R175H mutation in p53 suppressor. KSS-9, a representative aryl PL chosen for further studies induced abundant ROS generation and protein glutathionylation. KSS-9 strongly disrupted the tubulin polymerization in vitro, destabilized the microtubules in cells and induced a potent G2/M cell cycle block. More interestingly, KSS-9 showed the ability to reactivate the p53 mutation and restore biological activity to the R175H mutant protein present in SKBR3 cells. Several procedures, including immunocytochemistry using conformation-specific antibodies for p53, immunoprecipitation combined with western blotting, electrophoretic shift mobility shift assays showed a reciprocal loss of mutant protein and generation of wild-type like protein. p53 reactivation was accompanied by the induction of the target genes, MDM2, p21cip1 and PUMA. Mechanistically, the redox-perturbation in cancer cells by the hybrid drug appears to underlie the p53 reactivation process. This anticancer drug approach merits further development.

Jagadish N, Parashar D, Gupta N, et al.
A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) a promising therapeutic target of colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:142 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among the estimated cancer cases and cancer related mortalities in the Western world. Early detection and efficient therapy of CRC remains a major health challenge. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel tumor markers for early diagnosis and treatment of CRC.
METHODS: A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) gene and protein expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and Western blotting in normal colon tissue lysate, normal colon epithelial cells and in colon cancer cell lines viz., Caco-2, COLO205, COLO320DM, HCT-15, HCT116, HT-29, SW480, and SW620. The effect of AKAP4 on cellular growth, migration and invasion abilities was studied using gene silencing approach. The role of AKAP4 in various pathways involved in cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence was investigated in in vitro and in human xenograft mouse model.
RESULTS: Our studies showed that AKAP4 gene and protein expression was expressed in all colon cancer cells while no expression was detectable in normal colon cells. Ablation of AKAP4 led to reduced cellular growth, migration, invasion and increased apoptosis and senescence of CRC cells in in vitro assays and tumor growth in human xenograft mouse. Human colon xenograft studies showed a significant decrease in the levels of cyclins B1, D and E and cyclin dependent kinases such as CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6. Interestingly, an up-regulation in the levels of p16 and p21 was also observed. Besides, an increase in the levels of pro-apoptotic molecules AIF, APAF1, BAD, BID, BAK, BAX, PARP1, NOXA, PUMA and cyt-C and Caspase 3, 7, 8 and 9 was also found in cancer cells as well as in xenograft tissue sections. However, anti-apoptotic molecules BCL2, Bcl-xL, cIAP2, XIAP, Axin2 and Survivin were down regulated in these samples. Our data also revealed elevated expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and down regulation of EMT markers N-cadherin, P-cadherin, SLUG, α-SMA, SNAIL, TWIST and Vimentin. Further ablation of AKAP4 resulted in the down regulation of invasion molecules matrix metalloproteinase MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9.
CONCLUSION: AKAP4 appears to be a novel CRC-associated antigen with a potential for developing as a new clinical therapeutic target.

Zhang H, Zhou X, Xu C, et al.
Synergistic tumor suppression by adenovirus-mediated ING4/PTEN double gene therapy for gastric cancer.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(1):13-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) have been shown to be strong candidate tumor suppressors. However, the combined efficacy of ING4 and PTEN for human gastric cancer remains to be determined. In this report, we constructed a multiple promoter expression cassette-based recombinant adenovirus coexpressing ING4 and PTEN (AdVING4/PTEN), assessed the combined effects of AdVING4/PTEN on gastric cancer using wild-type p53 AGS and SNU-1 human gastric cancer cell lines, and elucidated its underlying mechanisms. We found that AdVING4/PTEN-induced synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in vitro AGS or SNU-1 tumor cells and in vivo AGS xenografted tumors subcutaneously inoculated in athymic BALB/c nude mice. Mechanistically, AdVING4/PTEN exhibited an enhanced effect on upregulation of p53, Ac-p53 (K382), P21, Bax, PUMA, Noxa, cleaved Caspase-9, cleaved Caspase-3 and cleaved PARP as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 in vitro and in vivo. In addition, AdVING4/PTEN synergistically downregulated tumor vessel CD34 expression and reduced microvessel density, and additively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vivo. The synergistic tumor suppression elicited by AdVING4/PTEN was closely associated with the synergistic induction of apoptosis possibly via enhancement of endogenous p53 responses through cooperatively facilitating p53's stability and acetylation, and the synergistic inhibition of tumor angiogenesis probably via overlapping reduction of VEGF through cooperatively downregulating hypoxia inducible factor-1α's level and transcription activity. Thus, our results indicate that cancer gene therapy combining ING4 and PTEN may constitute a novel and effective therapeutic modality for human gastric cancer and other cancers.

Saxena R, Gupta G, Manohar M, et al.
Spiro-oxindole derivative 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one triggers apoptosis in breast cancer cells via restoration of p53 function.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016; 70:105-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer remains a significant health problem due to the involvement of multiple aberrant and redundant signaling pathways in tumorigenesis and the development of resistance to the existing therapeutic agents. Therefore, the search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for effective management of breast cancer is still warranted. In an effort to develop new anti-breast cancer agents, we have synthesized and identified novel spiro-oxindole derivative G613 i.e. 5-chloro-4',5'-diphenyl-3'-(4-(2-(piperidin-1-yl) ethoxy) benzoyl) spiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidin]-2-one, which has shown growth inhibitory activity in breast cancer cells. The present study was aimed to explore the mechanism of anti-tumorigenic action of this newly identified spiro-oxindole compound. Compound G613 inhibited the Mdm2-p53 interaction in breast cancer cells and tumor xenograft. It caused restoration of p53 function by activating its promoter activity, triggering its nuclear accumulation and preventing its ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Supportively, molecular docking studies revealed considerable homology in the docking mode of G613 and the known Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3, to p53 binding pocket of Mdm2. The activation of p53 led to upregulation of p53 dependent pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax, Pumaα and Noxa and enhanced interaction of p53 with bcl2 member proteins thus triggering both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptosis, respectively. Additionally, the compound decreased estrogen receptor activity through sequestration of estrogen receptor α by p53 thereby causing a decreased transcriptional activation and expression of proliferation markers. In conclusion, G613 represents a potent small-molecule inhibitor of the Mdm2-p53 interaction and can serve as a promising lead for developing a new class of anti-cancer therapy for breast cancer patients.

Lee SH, Kim DY, Jing F, et al.
Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Dec 4-11; 468(1-2):92-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma.

Wu J, Zhu Y, Xu C, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated p53 and ING4 gene co-transfer elicits synergistic antitumor effects through enhancement of p53 acetylation in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):243-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multigene-based combination therapy may be an effective practice in cancer gene therapy. Substantial studies have demonstrated that tumor suppressor p53 acetylation is indispensable for p53 activation. Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), as a novel tumor suppressor, is capable of remarkably enhancing p53 acetylation and its transcriptional activity. Hence, we assumed that combined treatment of p53 and ING4 double tumor suppressors would exhibit enhanced antitumor effects. The combined therapeutic efficacy of p53 and ING4 for human cancers has not been previously reported. We thus generated multiple promoter expression cassette-based recombinant adenovirus-co-expressing ING4 and p53 double tumor suppressor genes (AdVING4/p53), evaluated the combined effects of AdVING4/p53 on breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 (mutant p53) human breast cancer cell line, and also elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. We demonstrated that AdVING4/p53-mediated p53 and ING4 co-expression induced synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis as well as enhanced effects on upregulation of acetylated p53, P21, Bax, PUMA, Noxa, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2, CD31 and microvessel density (MVD) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer in vitro and/or in vivo subcutaneous (s.c.) xenografted tumors. The synergistic antitumor activity elicited by AdVING4/p53 was closely associated with the enhanced activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and synergistic inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, very possibly via ING4-mediated enhancement of p53 acetylation and activity. Thus, our results indicate that cancer gene therapy combining two or more tumor suppressors such as p53 and ING4 may constitute a novel and effective therapeutic modality for human breast cancer and other cancers.

Gullà A, Di Martino MT, Gallo Cantafio ME, et al.
A 13 mer LNA-i-miR-221 Inhibitor Restores Drug Sensitivity in Melphalan-Refractory Multiple Myeloma Cells.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(5):1222-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The onset of drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in multiple myeloma. Although increasing evidence is defining the role of miRNAs in mediating drug resistance, their potential activity as drug-sensitizing agents has not yet been investigated in multiple myeloma.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Here we studied the potential utility of miR-221/222 inhibition in sensitizing refractory multiple myeloma cells to melphalan.
RESULTS: miR-221/222 expression inversely correlated with melphalan sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells. Inhibition of miR-221/222 overcame melphalan resistance and triggered apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells in vitro, in the presence or absence of human bone marrow (BM) stromal cells. Decreased multiple myeloma cell growth induced by inhibition of miR-221/222 plus melphalan was associated with a marked upregulation of pro-apoptotic BBC3/PUMA protein, a miR-221/222 target, as well as with modulation of drug influx-efflux transporters SLC7A5/LAT1 and the ABC transporter ABCC1/MRP1. Finally, in vivo treatment of SCID/NOD mice bearing human melphalan-refractory multiple myeloma xenografts with systemic locked nucleic acid (LNA) inhibitors of miR-221 (LNA-i-miR-221) plus melphalan overcame drug resistance, evidenced by growth inhibition with significant antitumor effects together with modulation of PUMA and ABCC1 in tumors retrieved from treated mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings provide the proof of concept that LNA-i-miR-221 can reverse melphalan resistance in preclinical models of multiple myeloma, providing the framework for clinical trials to overcome drug resistance, and improve patient outcome in multiple myeloma.

Zhang ZW, Xiao J, Luo W, et al.
Caffeine Suppresses Apoptosis of Bladder Cancer RT4 Cells in Response to Ionizing Radiation by Inhibiting Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated-Chk2-p53 Axis.
Chin Med J (Engl). 2015; 128(21):2938-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Caffeine suppresses ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activities; ATM is the major kinase for DNA damage detection. This study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on DNA damage responses in cells from the bladder cancer cell line RT4 those were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR).
METHODS: Immunofluorescent staining was performed to investigate changes in the proteins involved in DNA damage responses with or without caffeine. A mouse xenograft model was used to study the effects of caffeine on the DNA damage responses. Western blotting was used to investigate the effects of caffeine pretreatment on the ATM-Chk2-p53-Puma axis, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assessed changes in messenger RNA levels of p53 and downstream targets responding to IR. Finally, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling assay. Western blotting and colony formation assay were used to measure the effects of caffeine on radiation-related apoptosis. All of the data were analyzed with a two-tailed Student's t-test.
RESULTS: Immunofluorescent staining showed that caffeine pretreatment profoundly suppressed the formation of γH2AXand p53-binding protein 1 foci in RT4 cells in response to irradiation. Cellular and animal experiments suggested that this suppression was mediated by suppression of the ATM-Chk2-p53-Puma DNA damage-signaling axis. RT-PCR indicated caffeine also attenuated transactivation of p53 and p53-inducible genes. The colony formation assay revealed that caffeine displayed radioprotective effects on RT4 cells in response to low-dose radiation compared to the radiosensitization effects on T24 cells.
CONCLUSION: Caffeine may inhibit IR-related apoptosis of bladder cancer RT4 cells by suppressing activation of the ATM-Chk2-p53-Puma axis.

Fahrioğlu U, Dodurga Y, Elmas L, Seçme M
Ferulic acid decreases cell viability and colony formation while inhibiting migration of MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 3):476-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Novel and combinatorial treatment methods are becoming sought after entities in cancer treatment and these treatments are even more valuable for pancreatic cancer. The scientists are always on the lookout for new chemicals to help them in their fight against cancer. In this study, we examine the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound, on gene expression, viability, colony formation and migration/invasion in the cultured MIA PaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cell. Cytotoxic effects of FA were determined by using trypan blue dye exclusion test and Cell TiterGlo (CTG) assay. IC50 dose in MIA PaCa-2 cells was detected as 500μM/ml at the 72nd hour. Expression profiles of certain cell cycle and apoptosis genes such as CCND1 (cyclin D1),CDK4, CDK6, RB, p21, p16, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8, caspase-10, Bcl-2, BCL-XL,BID, DR4,DR5,FADD,TRADD,PARP, APAF, Bax, Akt, PTEN, PUMA, NOXA, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1 and TIMP2 were determined by real-time PCR. The effect of FA on cell viability was determined by CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. Additionally, effects of FA on colony formation and invasion were also investigated. It was observed that FA caused a significant decrease in the expression of CCND1, CDK 4/6, Bcl2 and caspase 8 and 10 in the MIA PaCa-2 cells while causing an increase in the expression of p53, Bax, PTEN caspase 3 and 9. FA was observed to decrease colony formation while inhibiting cell invasion and migration as observed by the BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chamber guide and colony formation assays. In conclusion, FA is thought to behave as an anti-cancer agent by affecting cell cycle, apoptotic, invasion and colony formation behavior of MIA PaCa-2 cells. Therefore, FA is placed as a strong candidate for further studies aimed at finding a better, more effective treatment approach for pancreatic cancer.

Li F, Wang Z, Huang Y, et al.
Delivery of PUMA Apoptosis Gene Using Polyethyleneimine-SMCC-TAT/DNA Nanoparticles: Biophysical Characterization and In Vitro Transfection Into Malignant Melanoma Cells.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015; 11(10):1776-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
A synthesized PEI-based gene delivery system, wherein PEI was crosslinked with sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC) conjugating trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT), yielding PEI-SMCC-TAT (PST), a novel non-viral vector for apoptosis-related gene PUMA (p53 up regulated modulator of apoptosis), was designed and evaluated. Sulfo-SMCC is a commonly used heterobifunctional crosslinker and is soluble in water, making the crosslinking easier without organic reagent like DMSO or chloroform. The PST/pDNA nanoparticles were 171.9 nm at the optimal N/P ratio (50:1). DNA complexes of all the PST conjugation had much lower toxicity and exhibited enhancement in transfection efficiency in comparison with single PEI vector. The results also showed that the transfection efficiency of PST/pEGFP nanoparticles into malignant melanoma A375 cell increased, and PST carrying PUMA gene induced the apoptosis of A375 cells. It was suggested that PST could be a promising melanoma tumor-targeting nanovector, and have a good potential in clinical application.

Zhang S, Zhang D, Yi C, et al.
MicroRNA-22 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting SIRT1 in renal cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(1):559-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that microRNA-22 (miR-22) was deregulated in many types of cancers and was involved in various cellular processes related to carcinogenesis. However, the exact roles and mechanisms of miR-22 remain unknown in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, the relationship between miR-22 expression pattern and clinicopathological features of patients with EOC were determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, the role of miR-22 and possible molecular mechanisms in EOC were investigated by several in vitro approaches and in a nude mouse model. Results from qRT-PCR showed that miR-22 was significantly downregulated in RCC samples compared with corresponding non-cancerous tissues, which was significantly associated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Functional study demonstrated that enforced overexpression of miR-22 in renal cancer cells inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In addition, SIRT1 was identified as a direct target of miR-22 by a luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-22 activated p53 and its downstream target p21 and PUMA, and the apoptosis markers cleaved CASP3 and PARP, and inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). These findings showed that miR-22 functioned as tumor suppressor in RCC and blocked RCC growth and metastasis by directly targeting SIRT1 in RCC, indicating a potential novel therapeutic role in RCC treatment.

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