Gene Summary

Gene:CCNC; cyclin C
Aliases: CycC
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin family of proteins. The encoded protein interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 8 and induces the phophorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. The level of mRNAs for this gene peaks in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CCNC (cancer-related)

Birkenheuer CH, Brewster CD, Quackenbush SL, Rovnak J
Retroviral cyclin controls cyclin-dependent kinase 8-mediated transcription elongation and reinitiation.
J Virol. 2015; 89(10):5450-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/11/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) infection is associated with the seasonal development and regression of walleye dermal sarcoma. Previous work showed that the retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin), encoded by WDSV, has separable cyclin box and transcription activation domains. It binds to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and enhances its kinase activity. CDK8 is evolutionarily conserved and is frequently overexpressed in human cancers. It is normally activated by cyclin C and is required for transcription elongation of the serum response genes (immediate early genes [IEGs]) FOS, EGR1, and cJUN. The IEGs drive cell proliferation, and their expression is brief and highly regulated. Here we show that constitutive expression of RV-cyclin in the HCT116 colon cancer cell line significantly increases the level of IEG expression in response to serum stimulation. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and nuclear run-on assays provide evidence that RV-cyclin does not alter the initiation of IEG transcription but does enhance the overall rate of transcription elongation and maintains transcription reinitiation. RV-cyclin does not increase activating phosphorylation events in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and does not inhibit decay of IEG mRNAs. At the EGR1 gene locus, RV-cyclin increases and maintains RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy after serum stimulation, in conjunction with increased and extended EGR1 gene expression. The RV-cyclin increases CDK8 occupancy at the EGR1 gene locus before and after serum stimulation. Both of RV-cyclin's functional domains, i.e., the cyclin box and the activation domain, are necessary for the overall enhancement of IEG expression. RV-cyclin presents a novel and ancient mechanism of retrovirus-induced oncogenesis.
IMPORTANCE: The data reported here are important to both virology and cancer biology. The novel mechanism pinpoints CDK8 in the development of walleye dermal sarcoma and sheds light on CDK8's role in many human cancers. CDK8 controls expression from highly regulated genes, including the interferon-stimulated genes. Its function is likely the target of many viral interferon-resistance mechanisms. CDK8 also controls cellular responses to metabolic stimuli, stress, and hypoxia, in addition to the serum response. The retroviral cyclin (RV-cyclin) represents a highly selected probe of CDK8 function. RV-cyclin does not control CDK8 specificity but instead enhances CDK8's effects on regulated genes, an important distinction for its use to delineate natural CDK8 targets. The outcomes of this research are applicable to investigations of normal and abnormal CDK8 functions. The mechanisms defined here will contribute directly to the dermal sarcoma model in fish and clarify an important path for oncogenesis and innate resistance to viruses.

Li N, Fassl A, Chick J, et al.
Cyclin C is a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor.
Nat Cell Biol. 2014; 16(11):1080-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/11/2015 Related Publications
Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an 'orphan' CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin-C-CDK complexes phosphorylate the Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin-C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborates with other oncogenic lesions and accelerates development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C encoding gene CCNC is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALLs, and these tumours express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin-C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumour cells may develop different strategies to evade inhibition by cyclin C.

Kämpjärvi K, Park MJ, Mehine M, et al.
Mutations in Exon 1 highlight the role of MED12 in uterine leiomyomas.
Hum Mutat. 2014; 35(9):1136-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mediator regulates transcription by connecting gene-specific transcription factors to the RNA polymerase II initiation complex. We recently discovered by exome sequencing that specific exon 2 mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) are extremely common in uterine leiomyomas. Subsequent screening studies have focused on this mutational hot spot, and mutations have been detected in uterine leiomyosarcomas, extrauterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, endometrial polyps, and colorectal cancers. All mutations have been missense changes or in-frame insertions/deletions. Here, we have analyzed 611 samples representing all above-mentioned tumor types for possible exon 1 mutations. Five mutations were observed, all of which were in-frame insertion/deletions in uterine leiomyomas. Transcriptome-wide expression data revealed that MED12 exon 1 and exon 2 mutations lead to the same unique global gene expression pattern with RAD51B being the most upregulated gene. Immunoprecipitation and kinase activity assays showed that both exon 1 and exon 2 mutations disrupt the interaction between MED12 and Cyclin C and CDK8/19 and abolish the mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. These results further emphasize the role of MED12 in uterine leiomyomas, show that exon 1 and exon 2 exert their tumorigenic effect in similar manner, and stress that exon 1 should be included in subsequent MED12 screenings.

Arai E, Sakamoto H, Ichikawa H, et al.
Multilayer-omics analysis of renal cell carcinoma, including the whole exome, methylome and transcriptome.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(6):1330-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/11/2015 Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify pathways that have a significant impact during renal carcinogenesis. Sixty-seven paired samples of both noncancerous renal cortex tissue and cancerous tissue from patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) were subjected to whole-exome, methylome and transcriptome analyses using Agilent SureSelect All Exon capture followed by sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray and Agilent SurePrint Human Gene Expression microarray, respectively. Sanger sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were performed for technical verification. MetaCore software was used for pathway analysis. Somatic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide mutations, insertions/deletions and intragenic breaks of 2,153, 359 and 8 genes were detected, respectively. Mutations of GCN1L1, MED12 and CCNC, which are members of CDK8 mediator complex directly regulating β-catenin-driven transcription, were identified in 16% of the RCCs. Mutations of MACF1, which functions in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, were identified in 4% of the RCCs. A combination of methylome and transcriptome analyses further highlighted the significant role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in renal carcinogenesis. Genetic aberrations and reduced expression of ERC2 and ABCA13 were frequent in RCCs, and MTOR mutations were identified as one of the major disrupters of cell signaling during renal carcinogenesis. Our results confirm that multilayer-omics analysis can be a powerful tool for revealing pathways that play a significant role in carcinogenesis.

Schiano C, Casamassimi A, Rienzo M, et al.
Involvement of Mediator complex in malignancy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1845(1):66-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mediator complex (MED) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein, fundamental for growth and survival of all cells. In eukaryotes, the mRNA transcription is dependent on RNA polymerase II that is associated to various molecules like general transcription factors, MED subunits and chromatin regulators. To date, transcriptional machinery dysfunction has been shown to elicit broad effects on cell proliferation, development, differentiation, and pathologic disease induction, including cancer. Indeed, in malignant cells, the improper activation of specific genes is usually ascribed to aberrant transcription machinery. Here, we focus our attention on the correlation of MED subunits with carcinogenesis. To date, many subunits are mutated or display altered expression in human cancers. Particularly, the role of MED1, MED28, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C in cancer is well documented, although several studies have recently reported a possible association of other subunits with malignancy. Definitely, a major comprehension of the involvement of the whole complex in cancer may lead to the identification of MED subunits as novel diagnostic/prognostic tumour markers to be used in combination with imaging technique in clinical oncology, and to develop novel anti-cancer targets for molecular-targeted therapy.

Georgantas RW, Streicher K, Luo X, et al.
MicroRNA-206 induces G1 arrest in melanoma by inhibition of CDK4 and Cyclin D.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014; 27(2):275-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression profiling of microRNAs in melanoma lesional skin biopsies compared with normal donor skin biopsies, as well as melanoma cell lines compared with normal melanocytes, revealed that hsa-miR-206 was down-regulated in melanoma (-75.4-fold, P = 1.7 × 10(-4)). MiR-206 has been implicated in a large number of cancers, including breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and prostate cancers; however, its role in tumor development remains largely unknown, its biologic function is poorly characterized, and its targets affecting cancer cells are largely unknown. MiR-206 reduced growth and migration/invasion of multiple melanoma cell lines. Bioinformatics identified cell cycle genes CDK2, CDK4, Cyclin C, and Cyclin D1 as strong candidate targets. Western blots and 3'UTR reporter gene assays revealed that miR-206 inhibited translation of CDK4, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin C. Additionally, hsa-miR-206 transfection induced G1 arrest in multiple melanoma cell lines. These observations support hsa-miR-206 as a tumor suppressor in melanoma and identify Cyclin C, Cyclin D1, and CDK4 as miR-206 targets.

Dodurga Y, Oymak Y, Gündüz C, et al.
Leukemogenesis as a new approach to investigate the correlation between up regulated gene 4/upregulator of cell proliferation (URG4/URGCP) and signal transduction genes in leukemia.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(4):3043-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study is to the determine the profiles of cell cycle genes and a new candidate oncogene of URG4/URGCP which play role in leukemia, establishing the association between the early prognosis of cancer and the quantitation of genetic changes, and bringing a molecular approach to definite diagnosis. In this study, 36 newly diagnosed patients' with ALL-AML in the range of 0-18 years and six control group patients' bone marrow samples were included. Total RNA was isolated from samples and then complementary DNA synthesis was performed. The obtained cDNAs have been installed 96 well plates after prepared appropriate mixtures and assessed with LightCycler(®) 480 Real-Time PCR quantitatively. CHEK1, URG4/URGCP, CCNG1, CCNC, CDC16, KRAS, CDKN2D genes in the T-ALL group; CCND2, ATM, CDK8, CHEK1, TP53, CHEK2, CCNG2, CDK4, CDKN2A, E2F4, CCNC, KRAS genes in the precursor B-ALL group and CCND2, CDK6 genes in the AML group have shown significant increase in mRNA expression level. In the featured role of acute leukemia the regulating signaling pathways of leukemogenesis partially defined, although identification of new genetic markers in acute leukemia subgroups, will allow the development of early diagnostic and new treatment protocols.

Xu W, Ji JY
Dysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis.
J Genet Genomics. 2011; 38(10):439-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Appropriately controlled gene expression is fundamental for normal growth and survival of all living organisms. In eukaryotes, the transcription of protein-coding mRNAs is dependent on RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The multi-subunit transcription cofactor Mediator complex is proposed to regulate most, if not all, of the Pol II-dependent transcription. Here we focus our discussion on two subunits of the Mediator complex, cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), because they are either mutated or amplified in a variety of human cancers. CDK8 functions as an oncoprotein in melanoma and colorectal cancers, thus there are considerable interests in developing drugs specifically targeting the CDK8 kinase activity. However, to evaluate the feasibility of targeting CDK8 for cancer therapy and to understand how their dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis, it is essential to elucidate the in vivo function and regulation of CDK8-CycC, which are still poorly understood in multi-cellular organisms. We summarize the evidence linking their dysregulation to various cancers and present our bioinformatics and computational analyses on the structure and evolution of CDK8. We also discuss the implications of these observations in tumorigenesis. Because most of the Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC, are highly conserved during eukaryotic evolution, we expect that investigations using model organisms such as Drosophila will provide important insights into the function and regulation of CDK8 and CycC in different cellular and developmental contexts.

Wang B, Xunsun, Liu JY, et al.
The effect of cell cycle and expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin C protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and SMMC-7721 after of silencing β-catenin gene.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2012 Mar-Apr; 59(114):515-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormalities in cell cycle regulation are reported to be strongly associated with tumorigenesis and progression of tumors. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cell cycle play key roles during the genesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current studies indicated that expressions of cyclin A, E and D1 were affected after silencing of β-catenin gene in HCC, but it is unclear if other cyclins are affected.
METHODOLOGY: To determine the relation, small interference RNA (siRNA) against β-catenin was transfected into HCC cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721, and cell cycle and cyclin B1 and cyclin C protein expression were detected.
RESULTS: Cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 at 72h after transfection and the cell cycle began to transfer from G0/G1 to G2/M through S and had a trend to revert at 96h. In addition, β-catenin protein expression was decreased at both 72 and 96h, although the level was slightly higher at 96h than that at 72h. However, cyclin B1 expression decreased at 72h and increased at 96h, cyclin C expression increased at 72h and decreased at 96h.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that silencing β-catenin gene may induce the changes of cell cycle and cyclin B1 and cyclin C protein expression. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway probably takes part in the genesis and development of HCC through regulating cell cycle and the expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin C.

Sahu SC, Amankwa-Sakyi M, O'Donnell MW, Sprando RL
Effects of usnic acid exposure on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture.
J Appl Toxicol. 2012; 32(9):722-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Usnic acid, a natural botanical product, is a constituent of some dietary supplements used for weight loss. It has been associated with clinical hepatotoxicity leading to liver failure in humans. The present study was undertaken for metabolism and toxicity evaluations of usnic acid in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture. The cells were treated with the vehicle control and usnic acid at concentrations of 0-100 µm for 24 h at 37 °C in 5% CO2 . Following the treatment period, the cells were evaluated by biochemical and toxicogenomic endpoints of toxicity that included cytochrome P450 activity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and changes in pathway focused gene expression profiles. Usnic acid exposure resulted in increased P450 activity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. The pathway-focused gene expression analysis resulted in significantly altered expression of six genes out of a total of 84 genes examined. Of the six altered genes, three genes were up-regulated and three genes down-regulated. A marked up-regulation of one gene CCL21 associated with inflammation, one gene CCNC associated with proliferation and carcinogenesis and one gene UGT1A4 associated with metabolism as well as DNA damage and repair were observed in the usnic acid-treated cells compared with the vehicle control. Also a marked down-regulation of one gene CSF2 associated with inflammation and two genes (CYP7A1 and CYP2E1) associated with oxidative metabolic stress were observed in the usnic acid-treated cells compared with the control. The biomarkers used in this study demonstrate the toxicity of usnic acid in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells, suggesting an oxidative mechanism of action.

Yu YN, Yip GW, Tan PH, et al.
Y-box binding protein 1 is up-regulated in proliferative breast cancer and its inhibition deregulates the cell cycle.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 37(2):483-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), a member of the cold-shock domain RNA-and DNA-binding protein family, has pleiotropic functions such as regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if YB-1 is a proliferative marker in breast cancer and elucidate potential downstream targets involved in YB-1-mediated cell cycle regulation using RNA interference technology. YB-1 protein expression was evaluated in tissue microarrays of 131 breast invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, while the YB-1 gene expression profile was evaluated in the T-47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Silencing of the YB-1 gene in T-47D breast cancer cells was performed using siRNA and the effects of down-regulation of YB-1 on cell growth and regulation of the cell cycle were ascertained. A focused panel of 84 genes involved in cell cycle progression was also examined. In tissue microarrays, YB-1 expression was shown to be associated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. siRNA-mediated silencing of the YB-1 gene inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in T-47D breast cancer cells. Knockdown of the YB-1 gene induced up-regulation of two genes which contribute to G1-arrest (RAD9A and CDKN3 genes) and down-regulation of ten genes associated with positive regulation of the cell cycle (SKP2, SUMO1, ANAPC4, CCNB1, CKS2, MNAT1, CDC20, RBBP8, KPNA2 and CCNC genes). The data obtained from the tissue microarrays and cell lines provide evidence that YB-1 is a reliable marker of cell proliferation and possibly a potential molecular target in breast cancer therapy.

Kaur M, Velmurugan B, Tyagi A, et al.
Silibinin suppresses growth of human colorectal carcinoma SW480 cells in culture and xenograft through down-regulation of beta-catenin-dependent signaling.
Neoplasia. 2010; 12(5):415-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/11/2015 Related Publications
Mutations in APC/beta-catenin resulting in an aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway are common in colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting that targeting the beta-catenin pathway with chemopreventive/anticancer agents could be a potential translational approach to control CRC. Using human CRC cell lines harboring mutant (SW480) versus wildtype (HCT116) APC gene and alteration in beta-catenin pathway, herein we performed both in vitro and in vivo studies to examine for the first time whether silibinin targets beta-catenin pathway in its efficacy against CRC. Silibinin treatment inhibited cell growth, induced cell death, and decreased nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of beta-catenin in SW480 but not in HCT116 cells, suggesting its selective effect on the beta-catenin pathway and associated biologic responses. Other studies, therefore, were performed only in SW480 cells where silibinin significantly decreased beta-catenin-dependent T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4) transcriptional activity and protein expression of beta-catenin target genes such as c-Myc and cyclin D1. Silibinin also decreased cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), a CRC oncoprotein that positively regulates beta-catenin activity, and cyclin C expression. In a SW480 tumor xenograft study, 100- and 200-mg/kg doses of silibinin feeding for 6 weeks inhibited tumor growth by 26% to 46% (P < .001). Analyses of xenografts showed that similar to cell culture findings, silibinin decreases proliferation and expression of beta-catenin, cyclin D1, c-Myc, and CDK8 but induces apoptosis in vivo. Together, these findings suggest that silibinin inhibits the growth of SW480 tumors carrying the mutant APC gene by down-regulating CDK8 and beta-catenin signaling and, therefore, could be an effective agent against CRC.

Iqbal J, Joshi S, Patel KN, et al.
Clinical implication of genome-wide profiling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other subtypes of B-cell lymphoma.
Indian J Cancer. 2007 Apr-Jun; 44(2):72-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The differentiation of lymphoid cells is tightly regulated by transcription factors at various stages during their development. During the maturation processes, different genomic alterations or aberrations such as chromosomal translocation, mutation and deletions may occur that can eventually result in distinct biological and clinical tumors. The different differentiation stages create heterogeneity in lymphoid malignancies, which can complicate the diagnosis. The initial diagnostic scheme for lymphoid diseases was coined by Rappaport followed by Revised European and American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) and World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. These classification methods were based on histological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic markers and widely accepted by pathologists and oncologists worldwide. During last several decades, great progress has been made in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis and molecular biology of malignant lymphoma. However, detailed knowledge in the molecular mechanism of lymphomagenesis is largely unknown. New therapeutic protocols based on the new classification have been on clinical trials, but with little success. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the basic biology of the tumor at molecular level. One important approach will be to measure the activity of the tumor genome and this can partly be achieved by the measurement of whole cellular mRNA. One of the key technologies to perform a high-throughput analysis is DNA microarray technology. The genome-wide transcriptional measurement, also called gene expression profile (GEP) can accurately define the biological phenotype of the tumor. In this review, important discoveries made by genome-wide GEP in understanding the biology of lymphoma and additionally the diagnostic and prognostic value of microarrays are discussed.

Galamb O, Sipos F, Molnar B, et al.
Evaluation of malignant and benign gastric biopsy specimens by mRNA expression profile and multivariate statistical methods.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2007; 72(5):299-309 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: mRNA expression array and multivariate statistical analysis of gastric biopsies can yield insight into the molecular biology basis of local alterations, supporting expression-based identification of morphological alterations.
METHODS: From 11 patients with erosive gastritis(EG), 5 with adenocarcinoma (GC), 11 with atrophic gastritis (AG) gastric biopsies were collected, total RNA isolated, T7 amplification and expression analysis of 1047 mRNAs was performed using commercial glass arrays (Clontech, USA). After microarray quality control, applicable data were available from 7 EG, 4 GC, and 5 AG. Multivariate statistical and cell functional analysis were performed. Real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for validation.
RESULTS: GC was characterized by overregulated v-raf, v-erb-a, BCL2-associated- athanogene, immediate-early-response-3, Polo-like kinase, CDK-2, cyclin-C, Pin1 genes, and downregulated ADP-ribosyltransferase, sialophorin and DCC. AG cases had increased PDGF-receptor, TGF-beta-receptor-3, and decreased death-associated-protein-3, beta-1-catenin, topoisomerase-1 levels. In EG upregulation of IGF-receptor-1, CD9, transferrin receptor, integrins, and underexpression of keratin-5, caspase-4 was found. Discriminant analysis could reclassify all samples correctly using four parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: mRNA expression array analysis of gastric biopsies yields previously known and new data in the evaluation of local gastric alterations.

Vazquez-Ortiz G, García JA, Ciudad CJ, et al.
Differentially expressed genes between high-risk human papillomavirus types in human cervical cancer cells.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 Mar-Apr; 17(2):484-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cervical carcinoma (CC) is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the first cause of death among the Mexican female population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important etiologic factor for CC. Of the oncogenic types, HPV16 and HPV18 are found in 60-70% of invasive CCs worldwide. HPV18 appears to be associated with a more aggressive form of cervical neoplasia than HPV16 infection. At present, there are no studies on differentially expressed cellular genes between transformed cells harboring HPV16 and HPV18 sequences. Based on previous complementary DNA microarray data from our group, 13 genes were found to be differentially overexpressed between HPV16- and HPV18-transformed cells. These genes were as follows: E6BP, UBE4A, C20orf14, ATF7, ABCC8, SLC6A12, WASF3, SUV39H1, SPAG8, CCNC, E2FFE, BIRC5, and DEDD. Differential expression of six selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All real-time RT-PCRs confirmed differential expression between HPV18 and HPV(-) samples. The present work identifies genes from signaling pathways triggered by HPV transformation that could be differentially deregulated between HPV16(+) and HPV18(+) samples.

Yang S, Jeung HC, Jeong HJ, et al.
Identification of genes with correlated patterns of variations in DNA copy number and gene expression level in gastric cancer.
Genomics. 2007; 89(4):451-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify DNA copy number changes that had a direct influence on mRNA expression in gastric cancer, cDNA microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression profiling were performed using 17 K cDNA microarrays. A set of 158 genes showing Pearson correlation coefficients over 0.6 between DNA copy number changes and mRNA expression level variations was selected. In an independent gene expression profiling of 60 tissue samples, the 158 genes were able to distinguish most of the normal and tumor tissues in an unsupervised hierarchical clustering, suggesting that the differential expression patterns displayed by this specific group of genes are most likely based on the gene copy number changes. Furthermore, 43 statistically significant (P<0.01) genes were selected that correctly distinguished all of the tissue samples. The copy number changes detected by aCGH can be verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The selected genes include those that were previously identified as being tumor suppressors or deleted in various tumors, including GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), cyclin C (CCNC), and oncogenes including malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1/MASL1), high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), PPAR binding protein (PPARBP), growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (GRB7), and TBC1 (tre-2, BUB2, cdc16) domain family, member 1 (TBC1D1).

Ohata N, Ito S, Yoshida A, et al.
Highly frequent allelic loss of chromosome 6q16-23 in osteosarcoma: involvement of cyclin C in osteosarcoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2006; 18(6):1153-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma is very complicated and associated with chaotic abnormalities on many chromosomal arms. We analyzed 12 cases of osteosarcomas with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify chromosomal imbalances, and detected highly frequent chromosomal alterations in chromosome 6q, 8p, 10p and 10q. To define the narrow rearranged region on chromosome 6 with higher resolution, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was performed with 21 microsatellite markers. Out of 31 cases, 23 cases (74%) showed allelic loss at least with one marker on chromosome 6q. We identified two distinct commonly deleted regions on chromosome 6 using markers D6S1565 located at 6q16 and 6q23MS1 at 6q23. The expression analysis of genes located at the deleted region was performed, and the decreased mRNA expression of the CCNC gene, one of the regulators of cell cycle, was detected. Growth of osteosarcoma cell line was significantly suppressed after the CCNC cDNA transfection. Fine mapping of the deleted region containing a possible tumor suppressor gene and the transfection assay suggest that the CCNC is a candidate tumor suppressor gene.

Valladares A, Hernández NG, Gómez FS, et al.
Genetic expression profiles and chromosomal alterations in sporadic breast cancer in Mexican women.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 170(2):147-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of death among Mexican women >35 years of age. At the molecular level, changes in many genetic pathways have been reported to be associated with this neoplasm. To analyze these changes, we determined gene expression profiles and chromosomal structural alterations in tumors from Mexican women. We obtained mRNA to identify expression profiles with microarray technology, and DNA to determine amplifications and deletions, in 10 fresh sporadic breast tumor biopsies without treatment, as well as in 10 nonaffected breast tissues. Expression profiles were compared with genetic changes observed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We compared the expression profiles against the structural alterations from the studied genes by means of microarrays; at least 17 of these genes correlated with DNA copy number alterations. We found that the following genes were overexpressed: LAMC1, PCTK3, CCNC, CCND1, FGF3, PCTK2, L1CAM, BGN, and PLXNB3 (alias PLEXR). Underexpressed genes included CASP9, FGR, TP73, HSPG2, and ERCC1; genes turned off included FRAP1, EPHA2 (previously ECK), IL12A, E2F5, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10A, EFNB3, and BCL2. The results will allow us, in the near future, to outline genes that could serve as diagnostic, prognostic, or target therapy markers for the Mexican population.

Husdal A, Bukholm G, Bukholm IR
The prognostic value and overexpression of cyclin A is correlated with gene amplification of both cyclin A and cyclin E in breast cancer patient.
Cell Oncol. 2006; 28(3):107-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Deregulation of cell cycle control is a hallmark of cancer. The primary cyclins (A, B1, D1, D3 and E) are crucial for cell cycle progression. Secondary cyclins (C and H) have putative indirect effects on cell cycle propulsion and are not previously evaluated in breast cancer. We have examined protein expression and gene amplification of cyclins in breast carcinomas and correlated the findings with clinical follow-up data. We have previously demonstrated that over-expression of cyclin A is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. In this study we wanted to evaluate the mechanisms behind overexpression of cyclin A, as well as the impact of other cyclins, both at the gene level and at the protein level, on prognosis of breast cancer patients. The impact of TP53 gene mutations on gene amplification of cyclins was also evaluated.
METHODS: Real-Time Quantitative PCR was used to detect gene amplification of cyclins in tumour tissue from 86 patients operated for invasive breast carcinomas, while immunohistochemistry was applied to detect protein expression of the same cyclins.
RESULT: Of the 80-breast tumour samples available for cyclin A gene amplification analyses, 26.7% (23/80) was defined to have cyclin A gene amplification. 37.2% (32/79) had cyclin B1 gene amplification, 82.6% (71/82) of the samples harboured amplification of cyclin C gene, 74.4% (64/82) had cyclin D1 gene amplification, 41.9% (36/86) had cyclin D3 gene amplification, 29.1% (25/81) of the patients had cyclin E gene amplification and 9.3% (8/86) of the samples showed amplification of the cyclin H gene. When correlation between gene amplification and protein expression was evaluated, we observed a statistical significant correlation between gene amplification and protein expression of cyclin A (p=0.009) and cyclin D3 (p<0.001). However, the correlation between gene amplification and protein expression of cyclin A, as well as the prognostic value of cyclin A overexpression, was affected by gene amplification of cyclin E. Gene amplification of none of the other cyclins was associated with patient prognosis. There was a statistical significant correlation between TP53 gene mutations and gene amplification of cyclins A, D3 and B1. No correlation was observed between gene amplification of secondary cyclins (H and C) and TP53 gene mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of cyclin A is correlated to gene amplification of both cyclin A and cyclin E. Over-expression of cyclin A is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. When analysed in a multivariate analyses model, gene amplification as well as protein expression of none of the other cyclins than cyclin A are associated with patient prognosis in breast carcinomas. TP53 gene mutation seems to correlate with gene amplification of primary, but not secondary cyclins.

Bondi J, Husdal A, Bukholm G, et al.
Expression and gene amplification of primary (A, B1, D1, D3, and E) and secondary (C and H) cyclins in colon adenocarcinomas and correlation with patient outcome.
J Clin Pathol. 2005; 58(5):509-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/11/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Deregulation of cell cycle control is a hallmark of cancer. The primary cyclins (A, B1, D1, D3, and E) are crucial for cell cycle progression. Secondary cyclins (C and H) have putative indirect effects on cell cycle progression and have not previously been evaluated in colon cancer. This study examined cyclin protein expression and gene amplification in colon adenocarcinoma and the correlation with patient outcome.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to determine cyclin expression and gene amplification in 219 tumours. The results were compared with clinical variables and patient outcomes.
RESULTS: Cyclin H was overexpressed in all tumours, cyclin C in 88%, cyclin B1 in 58%, cyclin A in 83%, cyclin D3 in 36%, cyclin E in 25%, and cyclin D1 in 11% of the tumours. Extra gene copies of cyclin A were seen in 6.2% of the tumours, cyclin B1 in 9%, cyclin C in 26.9%, cyclin D1 in 55%, cyclin D3 in 20.5%, cyclin E in 19.1%, and cyclin H in 5.1%. A significant correlation between protein overexpression and gene amplification was seen for cyclin C only. High expression of cyclin A was independently associated with improved survival. Amplification of cyclin C was independently associated with an unfavourable prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Amplification of the cyclin C gene was related to an unfavourable prognosis and high protein expression of cyclin A was associated with a better outcome in colon adenocarcinoma.

Lapouge G, Millon R, Muller D, et al.
Cisplatin-induced genes as potential markers for thyroid cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005; 62(1):53-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the uncontested role of p53 in cycle arrest/cell death after cisplatin treatment, to date the question whether wild-type p53 confers a resistant or sensitive status on the cell is still a matter of debate. Isogenic and isophenotypic human thyroid papillary carcinoma cell line variants for p53 differently expressed cycle genes after cisplatin treatment. Seven genes (CDC6-related protein, CCNC, GAS1, TFDP2, MAPK10/JNK3, WEE1, RPA1) selected after expression on an Atlas human cell cycle array were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. While cisplatin treatment increased their expression in p53 wild-type cells it decreased it in cells with inactivated p53 and had no or less effect on cells with mutated p53. These results show that in a well-defined system, different alterations of p53 can lead to a different regulation of genes and hence to either resistance or sensitivity to cisplatin. Moreover for the first time, MAPK10/JNK3 was identified in human thyroid cells and tissue. Four of the genes (CDC6-related protein, CCNC, GAS1 and TFDP2) were decreased in human papillary carcinoma tissues. Relevance of these genes (especially a decrease in GAS1 in thyroid papillary carcinoma) in various malignant pathologies has already been shown. These genes may be explored as new markers in advanced thyroid cancer such as metastatic and anaplastic forms displaying p53 alterations.

Fryer CJ, White JB, Jones KA
Mastermind recruits CycC:CDK8 to phosphorylate the Notch ICD and coordinate activation with turnover.
Mol Cell. 2004; 16(4):509-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Notch signaling releases the Notch receptor intracellular domain (ICD), which complexes with CBF1 and Mastermind (MAM) to activate responsive genes. We previously reported that MAM interacts with CBP/p300 and promotes hyperphosphorylation and degradation of the Notch ICD in vivo. Here we show that CycC:CDK8 and CycT1:CDK9/P-TEFb are recruited with Notch and associated coactivators (MAM, SKIP) to the HES1 promoter in signaling cells. MAM interacts directly with CDK8 and can cause it to localize to subnuclear foci. Purified recombinant CycC:CDK8 phosphorylates the Notch ICD within the TAD and PEST domains, and expression of CycC:CDK8 strongly enhances Notch ICD hyperphosphorylation and PEST-dependent degradation by the Fbw7/Sel10 ubiquitin ligase in vivo. Point mutations affecting conserved Ser residues within the ICD PEST motif prevent hyperphosphorylation by CycC:CDK8 and stabilize the ICD in vivo. These findings suggest a role for MAM and CycC:CDK8 in the turnover of the Notch enhancer complex at target genes.

Sinclair PB, Sorour A, Martineau M, et al.
A fluorescence in situ hybridization map of 6q deletions in acute lymphocytic leukemia: identification and analysis of a candidate tumor suppressor gene.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(12):4089-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
With the objective of identifying candidate tumor suppressor genes, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map leukemia-related deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q). Twenty of 24 deletions overlapped to define a 4.8-Mb region of minimal deletion between markers D6S1510 and D6S1692 within chromosome 6 band q16. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we found evidence of expression in hematopoietic cells for 3 of 15 genes in the region (GRIK2, C6orf111, and CCNC). Comparison between our own and published deletion data singled out GRIK2 as the gene most frequently affected by deletions of 6q in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Sequence analysis of GRIK2 in 14 ALL cases carrying heterozygous 6q deletions revealed a constitutional and paternally inherited C to G substitution in exon 6 encoding for an amino acid change in one patient. The substitution was absent among 232 normal alleles tested, leaving open the possibility that heterozygous carriers of such mutations may be susceptible to ALL. Although low in all normal hematopoietic tissues, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed higher baseline GRIK2 expression in thymus and T cells than other lineages. Among T-cell ALL patients, 6q deletion was associated with a statistically significant reduction in GRIK2 expression (P = 0.0001). By contrast, elevated GRIK2 expression was measured in the myelomonocytic line THP-1 and in one patient with common ALL. Finally, we detected significant levels of GRIK2 expression in prostate, kidney, trachea, and lung, raising the possibility that this gene may be protective against multiple tumor types.

Liu LX, Jiang HC, Liu ZH, et al.
Gene expression profiles of hepatoma cell line BEL-7402.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2003 Sep-Oct; 50(53):1496-501 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the gene expression of cancer related genes in hepatoma cell line BEL-7402 through the usage of Atlas Human Cancer Array with 588 well-characterized human genes related with cancer biology.
METHODOLOGY: Hybridization of cDNA membrane was performed with 32P-labeled cDNA probes synthesized from RNA isolated from Human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402 and non-cirrhotic normal liver which was liver transplantation donor. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the result. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of 24 pairs of specimens and northern blot of 4 pairs of specimens were used to confirm the expression pattern of some genes identified by Atlas arrays hybridization.
RESULTS: The differential expression cell cycle/growth regulator in hepatoma cell line BEL-7402 showed a stronger tendency toward cell proliferation with up-regulation of E2F-3 and TFDP-2. The anti-apoptotic factors such as Akt-1 were up-regulated. Whereas the promotive genes of apoptosis were down-regulated, such as BAK and caspase-3. Besides this, some genes were up-regulated, such as Integrin beta 8, DNA-PK, CSPCP, cyclin C etc. A number of genes were down-regulated, which included LAR, ABL2, SKY, TDGF1 etc. In general, expression of the cancer progression genes were up-regulated, while expression of anti-cancer progression genes were down-regulated. The results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of 24 pairs of specimens and Northern Blot of 4 pairs of specimens were consistent with the expression pattern of some genes identified by Atals arrays hybridization.
CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of gene expression profile of hepatoma cell line BEL-7402 should help to disclose the molecular mechanism of the onset, progression and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The quick and high-throughout method of profiling gene expression by cDNA array provides us with an overview of key factors that may be involved in hepatocellular carcinoma, and may find the clue to the study of hepatocellular carcinoma carcinogenesis and molecular targets of diagnosis and therapy.

Liu LX, Liu ZH, Jiang HC, et al.
Gene expression profiles of hepatoma cell line HLE.
World J Gastroenterol. 2003; 9(4):683-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the global gene expression of cancer related genes in hepatoma cell line HLE using Atlas Human Cancer Array membranes with 588 well-characterized human genes related with cancer and tumor biology.
METHODS: Hybridization of cDNA blotting membrane was performed with (32)P-labeled cDNA probes synthesized from RNA isolated from Human hepatoma cell line HLE and non-cirrhotic normal liver which was liver transplantation donor. AtlasImage, a software specific to array, was used to analyze the result. The expression pattern of some genes identified by Atlas arrays hybridization was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 24 pairs of specimens and Northern blot of 4 pairs of specimens.
RESULTS: The differential expression of cell cycle/growth regulator in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showed a stronger tendency toward cell proliferation with more than 1.5-fold up-regulation of Cyclin C, ERK5, ERK6, E2F-3, TFDP-2 and CK4. The anti-apoptotic factors such as Akt-1 were up-regulated, whereas the promotive genes of apoptosis such as ABL2 were down-regulated. Among oncogene/tumors suppressors, SKY was down-regulated. Some genes such as Integrin beta 8, Integrin beta 7, DNA-PK, CSPCP, byglycan, Tenacin and DNA Topo were up-regulated. A number of genes, including LAR, MEK1, eps15, TDGF1, ARHGDIA were down-regulated. In general, expression of the cancer progression genes was up-regulated, while expression of anti-cancer progression genes was down-regulated. These differentially expressed genes tested with RT-PCR were in consistent with cDNA array findings.
CONCLUSION: Investigation of these genes in HCC is helpful in disclosing molecular mechanism of pathogenesis and progression of HCC. For the first time few genes were discovered in HCC. Further study is required for the precise relationship between the altered genes and their correlation with the pathogenesis of HCC.

Jackson A, Carrara P, Duke V, et al.
Deletion of 6q16-q21 in human lymphoid malignancies: a mapping and deletion analysis.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(11):2775-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Two distinct regions of minimal deletion (RMD) have been identified at 6q25-q27 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RMD-1), and at 6q21-q23 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; RMD-2) by loss of heterozygosity and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. In this study, 30 overlapping yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), 1 expressed sequence tag, and 11 novel YAC ends were identified using bidirectional YAC walks between markers D6S447 (proximal) and D6S246 (distal) in RMD-2. The genes AF6q21, human homologue of the Drosophila tailless (HTLX), CD24 antigen, the Kruppel-like zinc finger BLIMP1, and cyclin C (CCNC), previously mapped to 6q21, were accurately positioned in a telomere-to-centromere orientation. Approximately 3.5 Mb were found to separate the BLIMP1 (adjacent to D6S447) and AF6q21 genes (telomeric to D6S246). Deletions of 6q were investigated in 21 cases of ALL using the newly characterized YAC clones in dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. A region centromeric to D6S447 (containing marker D6S283) and a region telomeric to marker CHLC.GGAT16CO2 (and containing marker D6S268) were identified as distinct and nonoverlapping regions of deletion in ALL.

Li H, Lahti JM, Valentine M, et al.
Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) and cyclin E (CCNE) genes: deletion of the CCNC gene in human tumors.
Genomics. 1996; 32(2):253-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human Gi-phase cyclins are important regulators of cell cycle progression that interact with various cyclin-dependent kinases and facilitate entry into S-phase. We have confirmed the localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) gene to chromosome 6q21 and of human cyclin E (CCNE) to 19q12. The CCNC gene structure was also determined, and we have shown that it is deleted in a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemias, including a patient sample containing a t(2;6)(p21;q15), with no apparent cytogenetic deletion. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of the remaining CCNC allele from patients with a deletion of one allele established that there were no further mutations within the exons or the flanking intronic sequences. These results suggest either that haploinsufficiency of the cyclin C protein is sufficient to promote tumorigenesis or that the important tumor suppressor gene is linked to the CCNC locus.

Akiyama N, Sasaki H, Katoh O, et al.
Increment of the cyclin D1 mRNA level in TPA-treated three human myeloid leukemia cell lines: HEL, CMK and HL-60 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993; 195(2):1041-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
To study the involvement of cyclins in cell-cycle progression, changes of mRNA levels for three G1 cyclins (cyclin C, D1 and E) and cyclin A were studied in a leukemia cell line, HEL cells, before and after incubation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Unexpectedly, the cyclin D1 mRNA level markedly increased in the HEL cells when the cells were growth-arrested by TPA, while the amounts of cyclin E and A mRNAs decreased to an almost undetectable level in HEL cells after incubation with TPA. The similar marked increment of the cyclin D1 mRNA level was observed in other leukemia cell lines, CMK and HL-60 cells, after incubation with TPA. The cyclin C mRNA was not detected in HEL cells before and after incubation with TPA.

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