Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CCNC (cancer-related)
Somatic mutations in exon 2 of the RNA polymerase II transcriptional Mediator subunit
Liu B, Pan CF, Ma T, et al.Long non‑coding RNA AK001796 contributes to cisplatin resistance of non‑small cell lung cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(4):4107-4112 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cisplatin (DDP)‑based chemotherapy is the most widely used therapy for non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the existence of chemoresistance has become a major limitation in its efficacy. Long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to be involved in chemotherapy drug resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological role of lncRNA AK001796 in cisplatin‑resistant NSCLC A549/DDP cells. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis was performed to monitor the differences in the expression of AK001796 in cisplatin-resistant (A549/DDP) cells and parental A549 cells. Cellular sensitivity to cisplatin and cell viability were examined using an MTT assay. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were measured using flow cytometry. The expression levels of cell cycle proteins cyclin C (CCNC), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5), cyclin‑dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and G2 and S phase‑expressed 1 (GTSE1) were assessed using RT‑qPCR and western blot analyses. It was found that the expression of AK001796 was increased in A549/DDP cells, compared with that in A549 cells. The knockdown of AK001796 by small interfering RNA reduced cellular cisplatin resistance and cell viability, and resulted in cell‑cycle arrest, with a marked increase in the proportion of A549/DDP cells in the G0/G1 phase. By contrast, the knockdown of AK001796 increased the number of apoptotic cancer cells during cisplatin treatment. It was also shown that the knockdown of AK001796 positively induced the expression of cell apoptosis‑associated factors, CCNC and BIRC5, and suppressed the expression of cell cycle‑associated factors, CDK1 and GTSE5. Taken together, these findings indicated that lncRNA AK001796 increased the resistance of NSCLC cells to cisplatin through regulating cell apoptosis and cell proliferation, and thus provides an attractive therapeutic target for NSCLC.
Background: Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common features of human malignancy that fuel genetic heterogeneity. Although tolerance to tetraploidization, an intermediate state that further exacerbates CIN, is frequently mediated by TP53 dysfunction, we find that some genome-doubled tumours retain wild-type TP53. We sought to understand how tetraploid cells with a functional p53/p21-axis tolerate genome-doubling events.
Methods: We performed quantitative proteomics in a diploid/tetraploid pair within a system of multiple independently derived TP53 wild-type tetraploid clones arising spontaneously from a diploid progenitor. We characterized adapted and acute tetraploidization in a variety of flow cytometry and biochemical assays and tested our findings against human tumours through bioinformatics analysis of the TCGA dataset.
Results: Cyclin D1 was found to be specifically overexpressed in early but not late passage tetraploid clones, and this overexpression was sufficient to promote tolerance to spontaneous and pharmacologically induced tetraploidy. We provide evidence that this role extends to D-type cyclins and their overexpression confers specific proliferative advantage to tetraploid cells. We demonstrate that tetraploid clones exhibit elevated levels of functional p53 and p21 but override the p53/p21 checkpoint by elevated expression of cyclin D1, via a stoichiometry-dependent and CDK activity-independent mechanism. Tetraploid cells do not exhibit increased sensitivity to abemaciclib, suggesting that cyclin D-overexpressing tumours might not be specifically amenable to treatment with CDK4/6 inhibitors.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that D-type cyclin overexpression is an acute event, permissive for rapid adaptation to a genome-doubled state in TP53 wild-type tumours and that its overexpression is dispensable in later stages of tumour progression.
Kibel AS, Ahn J, Isikbay M, et al.Genetic variants in cell cycle control pathway confer susceptibility to aggressive prostate carcinoma.
Prostate. 2016; 76(5):479-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Because a significant number of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) are diagnosed with disease unlikely to cause harm, genetic markers associated with clinically aggressive PCa have potential clinical utility. Since cell cycle checkpoint dysregulation is crucial for the development and progression of cancer, we tested the hypothesis that common germ-line variants within cell cycle genes were associated with aggressive PCa.
METHODS: Via a two-stage design, 364 common sequence variants in 88 genes were tested. The initial stage consisted of 258 aggressive PCa patients and 442 controls, and the second stage added 384 aggressive PCa Patients and 463 controls. European-American and African-American samples were analyzed separately. In the first stage, SNPs were typed by Illumina Goldengate assay while in the second stage SNPs were typed by Pyrosequencing assays. Genotype frequencies between cases and controls were compared using logistical regression analysis with additive, dominant and recessive models.
RESULTS: Eleven variants within 10 genes (CCNC, CCND3, CCNG1, CCNT2, CDK6, MDM2, SKP2, WEE1, YWHAB, YWHAH) in the European-American population and nine variants in 7 genes (CCNG1, CDK2, CDK5, MDM2, RB1, SMAD3, TERF2) in the African-American population were found to be associated with aggressive PCa using at least one model. Of particular interest, CCNC (rs3380812) was associated with risk in European-American cohorts from both institutions. CDK2 (rs1045435) and CDK5 (rs2069459) were associated with risk in the African-American cohorts from both institutions. Lastly, variants within MDM2 and CCNG1 were protective for aggressive PCa in both ethnic groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that polymorphisms within cell cycle genes are associated with clinically aggressive PCa. Validation of these markers in additional populations is necessary, but these markers may help identify patients at risk for potentially lethal carcinoma.
CDK8 and its paralog CDK19, in complex with CCNC, MED12 and MED13, are transcriptional regulators that mediate several carcinogenic pathways and the chemotherapy-induced tumor-supporting paracrine network. Following up on our previous observation that CDK8, CDK19 and CCNC RNA expression is associated with shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) in breast cancer, we now found by immunohistochemical analysis that CDK8/19 protein is overexpressed in invasive ductal carcinomas relative to non-malignant mammary tissues. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data revealed that higher CDK8 expression is associated with shorter RFS in all molecular subtypes of breast cancer. These correlations were much stronger in patients who underwent systemic adjuvant therapy, suggesting that CDK8 impacts the failure of systemic therapy. The same associations were found for CDK19, CCNC and MED13. In contrast, MED12 showed the opposite association with a longer RFS. The expression levels of CDK8 in breast cancer samples were directly correlated with the expression of MYC, as well as CDK19, CCNC and MED13 but inversely correlated with MED12. CDK8, CDK19 and CCNC expression was strongly increased and MED12 expression was decreased in tumors with mutant p53. Gene amplification is the most frequent type of genetic alterations of CDK8, CDK19, CCNC and MED13 in breast cancers (9.7% of which have amplified MED13), whereas point mutations are more common in MED12. These results suggest that the expression of CDK8 and its interactive genes has a profound impact on the response to adjuvant therapy in breast cancer in accordance with the role of CDK8 in chemotherapy-induced tumor-supporting paracrine activities.
Mediator is a conserved multi-subunit signal processor through which regulatory informatiosn conveyed by gene-specific transcription factors is transduced to RNA Polymerase II (Pol II). In humans, MED13, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C (CycC) comprise a four-subunit "kinase" module that exists in variable association with a 26-subunit Mediator core. Genetic and biochemical studies have established the Mediator kinase module as a major ingress of developmental and oncogenic signaling through Mediator, and much of its function in signal-dependent gene regulation derives from its resident CDK8 kinase activity. For example, CDK8-targeted substrate phosphorylation impacts transcription factor half-life, Pol II activity and chromatin chemistry and functional status. Recent structural and biochemical studies have revealed a precise network of physical and functional subunit interactions required for proper kinase module activity. Accordingly, pathologic change in this activity through altered expression or mutation of constituent kinase module subunits can have profound consequences for altered signaling and tumor formation. Herein, we review the structural organization, biological function and oncogenic potential of the Mediator kinase module. We focus principally on tumor-associated alterations in kinase module subunits for which mechanistic relationships as opposed to strictly correlative associations are established. These considerations point to an emerging picture of the Mediator kinase module as an oncogenic unit, one in which pathogenic activation/deactivation through component change drives tumor formation through perturbation of signal-dependent gene regulation. It follows that therapeutic strategies to combat CDK8-driven tumors will involve targeted modulation of CDK8 activity or pharmacologic manipulation of dysregulated CDK8-dependent signaling pathways.
Cyclin C was cloned as a growth-promoting G1 cyclin, and was also shown to regulate gene transcription. Here we report that in vivo cyclin C acts as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor, by controlling Notch1 oncogene levels. Cyclin C activates an 'orphan' CDK19 kinase, as well as CDK8 and CDK3. These cyclin-C-CDK complexes phosphorylate the Notch1 intracellular domain (ICN1) and promote ICN1 degradation. Genetic ablation of cyclin C blocks ICN1 phosphorylation in vivo, thereby elevating ICN1 levels in cyclin-C-knockout mice. Cyclin C ablation or heterozygosity collaborates with other oncogenic lesions and accelerates development of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Furthermore, the cyclin C encoding gene CCNC is heterozygously deleted in a significant fraction of human T-ALLs, and these tumours express reduced cyclin C levels. We also describe point mutations in human T-ALL that render cyclin-C-CDK unable to phosphorylate ICN1. Hence, tumour cells may develop different strategies to evade inhibition by cyclin C.
The aim of this study was to identify pathways that have a significant impact during renal carcinogenesis. Sixty-seven paired samples of both noncancerous renal cortex tissue and cancerous tissue from patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) were subjected to whole-exome, methylome and transcriptome analyses using Agilent SureSelect All Exon capture followed by sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray and Agilent SurePrint Human Gene Expression microarray, respectively. Sanger sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were performed for technical verification. MetaCore software was used for pathway analysis. Somatic nonsynonymous single-nucleotide mutations, insertions/deletions and intragenic breaks of 2,153, 359 and 8 genes were detected, respectively. Mutations of GCN1L1, MED12 and CCNC, which are members of CDK8 mediator complex directly regulating β-catenin-driven transcription, were identified in 16% of the RCCs. Mutations of MACF1, which functions in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, were identified in 4% of the RCCs. A combination of methylome and transcriptome analyses further highlighted the significant role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in renal carcinogenesis. Genetic aberrations and reduced expression of ERC2 and ABCA13 were frequent in RCCs, and MTOR mutations were identified as one of the major disrupters of cell signaling during renal carcinogenesis. Our results confirm that multilayer-omics analysis can be a powerful tool for revealing pathways that play a significant role in carcinogenesis.
Schiano C, Casamassimi A, Rienzo M, et al.Involvement of Mediator complex in malignancy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1845(1):66-83 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mediator complex (MED) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein, fundamental for growth and survival of all cells. In eukaryotes, the mRNA transcription is dependent on RNA polymerase II that is associated to various molecules like general transcription factors, MED subunits and chromatin regulators. To date, transcriptional machinery dysfunction has been shown to elicit broad effects on cell proliferation, development, differentiation, and pathologic disease induction, including cancer. Indeed, in malignant cells, the improper activation of specific genes is usually ascribed to aberrant transcription machinery. Here, we focus our attention on the correlation of MED subunits with carcinogenesis. To date, many subunits are mutated or display altered expression in human cancers. Particularly, the role of MED1, MED28, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C in cancer is well documented, although several studies have recently reported a possible association of other subunits with malignancy. Definitely, a major comprehension of the involvement of the whole complex in cancer may lead to the identification of MED subunits as novel diagnostic/prognostic tumour markers to be used in combination with imaging technique in clinical oncology, and to develop novel anti-cancer targets for molecular-targeted therapy.
Dodurga Y, Oymak Y, Gündüz C, et al.Leukemogenesis as a new approach to investigate the correlation between up regulated gene 4/upregulator of cell proliferation (URG4/URGCP) and signal transduction genes in leukemia.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(4):3043-8 [PubMed
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The aim of the study is to the determine the profiles of cell cycle genes and a new candidate oncogene of URG4/URGCP which play role in leukemia, establishing the association between the early prognosis of cancer and the quantitation of genetic changes, and bringing a molecular approach to definite diagnosis. In this study, 36 newly diagnosed patients' with ALL-AML in the range of 0-18 years and six control group patients' bone marrow samples were included. Total RNA was isolated from samples and then complementary DNA synthesis was performed. The obtained cDNAs have been installed 96 well plates after prepared appropriate mixtures and assessed with LightCycler(®) 480 Real-Time PCR quantitatively. CHEK1, URG4/URGCP, CCNG1, CCNC, CDC16, KRAS, CDKN2D genes in the T-ALL group; CCND2, ATM, CDK8, CHEK1, TP53, CHEK2, CCNG2, CDK4, CDKN2A, E2F4, CCNC, KRAS genes in the precursor B-ALL group and CCND2, CDK6 genes in the AML group have shown significant increase in mRNA expression level. In the featured role of acute leukemia the regulating signaling pathways of leukemogenesis partially defined, although identification of new genetic markers in acute leukemia subgroups, will allow the development of early diagnostic and new treatment protocols.
Xu W, Ji JYDysregulation of CDK8 and Cyclin C in tumorigenesis.
J Genet Genomics. 2011; 38(10):439-52 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Appropriately controlled gene expression is fundamental for normal growth and survival of all living organisms. In eukaryotes, the transcription of protein-coding mRNAs is dependent on RNA polymerase II (Pol II). The multi-subunit transcription cofactor Mediator complex is proposed to regulate most, if not all, of the Pol II-dependent transcription. Here we focus our discussion on two subunits of the Mediator complex, cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), because they are either mutated or amplified in a variety of human cancers. CDK8 functions as an oncoprotein in melanoma and colorectal cancers, thus there are considerable interests in developing drugs specifically targeting the CDK8 kinase activity. However, to evaluate the feasibility of targeting CDK8 for cancer therapy and to understand how their dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis, it is essential to elucidate the in vivo function and regulation of CDK8-CycC, which are still poorly understood in multi-cellular organisms. We summarize the evidence linking their dysregulation to various cancers and present our bioinformatics and computational analyses on the structure and evolution of CDK8. We also discuss the implications of these observations in tumorigenesis. Because most of the Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC, are highly conserved during eukaryotic evolution, we expect that investigations using model organisms such as Drosophila will provide important insights into the function and regulation of CDK8 and CycC in different cellular and developmental contexts.
Wang B, Xunsun, Liu JY, et al.The effect of cell cycle and expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin C protein in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and SMMC-7721 after of silencing β-catenin gene.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2012 Mar-Apr; 59(114):515-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormalities in cell cycle regulation are reported to be strongly associated with tumorigenesis and progression of tumors. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and cell cycle play key roles during the genesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current studies indicated that expressions of cyclin A, E and D1 were affected after silencing of β-catenin gene in HCC, but it is unclear if other cyclins are affected.
METHODOLOGY: To determine the relation, small interference RNA (siRNA) against β-catenin was transfected into HCC cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721, and cell cycle and cyclin B1 and cyclin C protein expression were detected.
RESULTS: Cell cycle was arrested in G0/G1 at 72h after transfection and the cell cycle began to transfer from G0/G1 to G2/M through S and had a trend to revert at 96h. In addition, β-catenin protein expression was decreased at both 72 and 96h, although the level was slightly higher at 96h than that at 72h. However, cyclin B1 expression decreased at 72h and increased at 96h, cyclin C expression increased at 72h and decreased at 96h.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that silencing β-catenin gene may induce the changes of cell cycle and cyclin B1 and cyclin C protein expression. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway probably takes part in the genesis and development of HCC through regulating cell cycle and the expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin C.
Sahu SC, Amankwa-Sakyi M, O'Donnell MW, Sprando RLEffects of usnic acid exposure on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture.
J Appl Toxicol. 2012; 32(9):722-30 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Usnic acid, a natural botanical product, is a constituent of some dietary supplements used for weight loss. It has been associated with clinical hepatotoxicity leading to liver failure in humans. The present study was undertaken for metabolism and toxicity evaluations of usnic acid in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells in culture. The cells were treated with the vehicle control and usnic acid at concentrations of 0-100 µm for 24 h at 37 °C in 5% CO2 . Following the treatment period, the cells were evaluated by biochemical and toxicogenomic endpoints of toxicity that included cytochrome P450 activity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and changes in pathway focused gene expression profiles. Usnic acid exposure resulted in increased P450 activity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. The pathway-focused gene expression analysis resulted in significantly altered expression of six genes out of a total of 84 genes examined. Of the six altered genes, three genes were up-regulated and three genes down-regulated. A marked up-regulation of one gene CCL21 associated with inflammation, one gene CCNC associated with proliferation and carcinogenesis and one gene UGT1A4 associated with metabolism as well as DNA damage and repair were observed in the usnic acid-treated cells compared with the vehicle control. Also a marked down-regulation of one gene CSF2 associated with inflammation and two genes (CYP7A1 and CYP2E1) associated with oxidative metabolic stress were observed in the usnic acid-treated cells compared with the control. The biomarkers used in this study demonstrate the toxicity of usnic acid in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells, suggesting an oxidative mechanism of action.
Yu YN, Yip GW, Tan PH, et al.Y-box binding protein 1 is up-regulated in proliferative breast cancer and its inhibition deregulates the cell cycle.
Int J Oncol. 2010; 37(2):483-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), a member of the cold-shock domain RNA-and DNA-binding protein family, has pleiotropic functions such as regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if YB-1 is a proliferative marker in breast cancer and elucidate potential downstream targets involved in YB-1-mediated cell cycle regulation using RNA interference technology. YB-1 protein expression was evaluated in tissue microarrays of 131 breast invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, while the YB-1 gene expression profile was evaluated in the T-47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Silencing of the YB-1 gene in T-47D breast cancer cells was performed using siRNA and the effects of down-regulation of YB-1 on cell growth and regulation of the cell cycle were ascertained. A focused panel of 84 genes involved in cell cycle progression was also examined. In tissue microarrays, YB-1 expression was shown to be associated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. siRNA-mediated silencing of the YB-1 gene inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in T-47D breast cancer cells. Knockdown of the YB-1 gene induced up-regulation of two genes which contribute to G1-arrest (RAD9A and CDKN3 genes) and down-regulation of ten genes associated with positive regulation of the cell cycle (SKP2, SUMO1, ANAPC4, CCNB1, CKS2, MNAT1, CDC20, RBBP8, KPNA2 and CCNC genes). The data obtained from the tissue microarrays and cell lines provide evidence that YB-1 is a reliable marker of cell proliferation and possibly a potential molecular target in breast cancer therapy.
Iqbal J, Joshi S, Patel KN, et al.Clinical implication of genome-wide profiling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other subtypes of B-cell lymphoma.
Indian J Cancer. 2007 Apr-Jun; 44(2):72-86 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The differentiation of lymphoid cells is tightly regulated by transcription factors at various stages during their development. During the maturation processes, different genomic alterations or aberrations such as chromosomal translocation, mutation and deletions may occur that can eventually result in distinct biological and clinical tumors. The different differentiation stages create heterogeneity in lymphoid malignancies, which can complicate the diagnosis. The initial diagnostic scheme for lymphoid diseases was coined by Rappaport followed by Revised European and American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL) and World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. These classification methods were based on histological, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic markers and widely accepted by pathologists and oncologists worldwide. During last several decades, great progress has been made in understanding the etiology, pathogenesis and molecular biology of malignant lymphoma. However, detailed knowledge in the molecular mechanism of lymphomagenesis is largely unknown. New therapeutic protocols based on the new classification have been on clinical trials, but with little success. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the basic biology of the tumor at molecular level. One important approach will be to measure the activity of the tumor genome and this can partly be achieved by the measurement of whole cellular mRNA. One of the key technologies to perform a high-throughput analysis is DNA microarray technology. The genome-wide transcriptional measurement, also called gene expression profile (GEP) can accurately define the biological phenotype of the tumor. In this review, important discoveries made by genome-wide GEP in understanding the biology of lymphoma and additionally the diagnostic and prognostic value of microarrays are discussed.
Vazquez-Ortiz G, García JA, Ciudad CJ, et al.Differentially expressed genes between high-risk human papillomavirus types in human cervical cancer cells.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 Mar-Apr; 17(2):484-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cervical carcinoma (CC) is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide and the first cause of death among the Mexican female population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important etiologic factor for CC. Of the oncogenic types, HPV16 and HPV18 are found in 60-70% of invasive CCs worldwide. HPV18 appears to be associated with a more aggressive form of cervical neoplasia than HPV16 infection. At present, there are no studies on differentially expressed cellular genes between transformed cells harboring HPV16 and HPV18 sequences. Based on previous complementary DNA microarray data from our group, 13 genes were found to be differentially overexpressed between HPV16- and HPV18-transformed cells. These genes were as follows: E6BP, UBE4A, C20orf14, ATF7, ABCC8, SLC6A12, WASF3, SUV39H1, SPAG8, CCNC, E2FFE, BIRC5, and DEDD. Differential expression of six selected genes was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). All real-time RT-PCRs confirmed differential expression between HPV18 and HPV(-) samples. The present work identifies genes from signaling pathways triggered by HPV transformation that could be differentially deregulated between HPV16(+) and HPV18(+) samples.
Yang S, Jeung HC, Jeong HJ, et al.Identification of genes with correlated patterns of variations in DNA copy number and gene expression level in gastric cancer.
Genomics. 2007; 89(4):451-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To identify DNA copy number changes that had a direct influence on mRNA expression in gastric cancer, cDNA microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and gene expression profiling were performed using 17 K cDNA microarrays. A set of 158 genes showing Pearson correlation coefficients over 0.6 between DNA copy number changes and mRNA expression level variations was selected. In an independent gene expression profiling of 60 tissue samples, the 158 genes were able to distinguish most of the normal and tumor tissues in an unsupervised hierarchical clustering, suggesting that the differential expression patterns displayed by this specific group of genes are most likely based on the gene copy number changes. Furthermore, 43 statistically significant (P<0.01) genes were selected that correctly distinguished all of the tissue samples. The copy number changes detected by aCGH can be verified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The selected genes include those that were previously identified as being tumor suppressors or deleted in various tumors, including GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), cyclin C (CCNC), and oncogenes including malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1/MASL1), high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), PPAR binding protein (PPARBP), growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (GRB7), and TBC1 (tre-2, BUB2, cdc16) domain family, member 1 (TBC1D1).
Ohata N, Ito S, Yoshida A, et al.Highly frequent allelic loss of chromosome 6q16-23 in osteosarcoma: involvement of cyclin C in osteosarcoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2006; 18(6):1153-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The molecular pathogenesis of osteosarcoma is very complicated and associated with chaotic abnormalities on many chromosomal arms. We analyzed 12 cases of osteosarcomas with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to identify chromosomal imbalances, and detected highly frequent chromosomal alterations in chromosome 6q, 8p, 10p and 10q. To define the narrow rearranged region on chromosome 6 with higher resolution, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis was performed with 21 microsatellite markers. Out of 31 cases, 23 cases (74%) showed allelic loss at least with one marker on chromosome 6q. We identified two distinct commonly deleted regions on chromosome 6 using markers D6S1565 located at 6q16 and 6q23MS1 at 6q23. The expression analysis of genes located at the deleted region was performed, and the decreased mRNA expression of the CCNC gene, one of the regulators of cell cycle, was detected. Growth of osteosarcoma cell line was significantly suppressed after the CCNC cDNA transfection. Fine mapping of the deleted region containing a possible tumor suppressor gene and the transfection assay suggest that the CCNC is a candidate tumor suppressor gene.
Valladares A, Hernández NG, Gómez FS, et al.Genetic expression profiles and chromosomal alterations in sporadic breast cancer in Mexican women.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006; 170(2):147-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of death among Mexican women >35 years of age. At the molecular level, changes in many genetic pathways have been reported to be associated with this neoplasm. To analyze these changes, we determined gene expression profiles and chromosomal structural alterations in tumors from Mexican women. We obtained mRNA to identify expression profiles with microarray technology, and DNA to determine amplifications and deletions, in 10 fresh sporadic breast tumor biopsies without treatment, as well as in 10 nonaffected breast tissues. Expression profiles were compared with genetic changes observed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We compared the expression profiles against the structural alterations from the studied genes by means of microarrays; at least 17 of these genes correlated with DNA copy number alterations. We found that the following genes were overexpressed: LAMC1, PCTK3, CCNC, CCND1, FGF3, PCTK2, L1CAM, BGN, and PLXNB3 (alias PLEXR). Underexpressed genes included CASP9, FGR, TP73, HSPG2, and ERCC1; genes turned off included FRAP1, EPHA2 (previously ECK), IL12A, E2F5, TNFRSF10B, TNFRSF10A, EFNB3, and BCL2. The results will allow us, in the near future, to outline genes that could serve as diagnostic, prognostic, or target therapy markers for the Mexican population.
Lapouge G, Millon R, Muller D, et al.Cisplatin-induced genes as potential markers for thyroid cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005; 62(1):53-64 [PubMed
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Despite the uncontested role of p53 in cycle arrest/cell death after cisplatin treatment, to date the question whether wild-type p53 confers a resistant or sensitive status on the cell is still a matter of debate. Isogenic and isophenotypic human thyroid papillary carcinoma cell line variants for p53 differently expressed cycle genes after cisplatin treatment. Seven genes (CDC6-related protein, CCNC, GAS1, TFDP2, MAPK10/JNK3, WEE1, RPA1) selected after expression on an Atlas human cell cycle array were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. While cisplatin treatment increased their expression in p53 wild-type cells it decreased it in cells with inactivated p53 and had no or less effect on cells with mutated p53. These results show that in a well-defined system, different alterations of p53 can lead to a different regulation of genes and hence to either resistance or sensitivity to cisplatin. Moreover for the first time, MAPK10/JNK3 was identified in human thyroid cells and tissue. Four of the genes (CDC6-related protein, CCNC, GAS1 and TFDP2) were decreased in human papillary carcinoma tissues. Relevance of these genes (especially a decrease in GAS1 in thyroid papillary carcinoma) in various malignant pathologies has already been shown. These genes may be explored as new markers in advanced thyroid cancer such as metastatic and anaplastic forms displaying p53 alterations.
Fryer CJ, White JB, Jones KAMastermind recruits CycC:CDK8 to phosphorylate the Notch ICD and coordinate activation with turnover.
Mol Cell. 2004; 16(4):509-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Notch signaling releases the Notch receptor intracellular domain (ICD), which complexes with CBF1 and Mastermind (MAM) to activate responsive genes. We previously reported that MAM interacts with CBP/p300 and promotes hyperphosphorylation and degradation of the Notch ICD in vivo. Here we show that CycC:CDK8 and CycT1:CDK9/P-TEFb are recruited with Notch and associated coactivators (MAM, SKIP) to the HES1 promoter in signaling cells. MAM interacts directly with CDK8 and can cause it to localize to subnuclear foci. Purified recombinant CycC:CDK8 phosphorylates the Notch ICD within the TAD and PEST domains, and expression of CycC:CDK8 strongly enhances Notch ICD hyperphosphorylation and PEST-dependent degradation by the Fbw7/Sel10 ubiquitin ligase in vivo. Point mutations affecting conserved Ser residues within the ICD PEST motif prevent hyperphosphorylation by CycC:CDK8 and stabilize the ICD in vivo. These findings suggest a role for MAM and CycC:CDK8 in the turnover of the Notch enhancer complex at target genes.
Sinclair PB, Sorour A, Martineau M, et al.A fluorescence in situ hybridization map of 6q deletions in acute lymphocytic leukemia: identification and analysis of a candidate tumor suppressor gene.
Cancer Res. 2004; 64(12):4089-98 [PubMed
] Related Publications
With the objective of identifying candidate tumor suppressor genes, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map leukemia-related deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q). Twenty of 24 deletions overlapped to define a 4.8-Mb region of minimal deletion between markers D6S1510 and D6S1692 within chromosome 6 band q16. Using reverse transcription-PCR, we found evidence of expression in hematopoietic cells for 3 of 15 genes in the region (GRIK2, C6orf111, and CCNC). Comparison between our own and published deletion data singled out GRIK2 as the gene most frequently affected by deletions of 6q in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Sequence analysis of GRIK2 in 14 ALL cases carrying heterozygous 6q deletions revealed a constitutional and paternally inherited C to G substitution in exon 6 encoding for an amino acid change in one patient. The substitution was absent among 232 normal alleles tested, leaving open the possibility that heterozygous carriers of such mutations may be susceptible to ALL. Although low in all normal hematopoietic tissues, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed higher baseline GRIK2 expression in thymus and T cells than other lineages. Among T-cell ALL patients, 6q deletion was associated with a statistically significant reduction in GRIK2 expression (P = 0.0001). By contrast, elevated GRIK2 expression was measured in the myelomonocytic line THP-1 and in one patient with common ALL. Finally, we detected significant levels of GRIK2 expression in prostate, kidney, trachea, and lung, raising the possibility that this gene may be protective against multiple tumor types.
Jackson A, Carrara P, Duke V, et al.Deletion of 6q16-q21 in human lymphoid malignancies: a mapping and deletion analysis.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(11):2775-9 [PubMed
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Two distinct regions of minimal deletion (RMD) have been identified at 6q25-q27 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RMD-1), and at 6q21-q23 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; RMD-2) by loss of heterozygosity and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. In this study, 30 overlapping yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), 1 expressed sequence tag, and 11 novel YAC ends were identified using bidirectional YAC walks between markers D6S447 (proximal) and D6S246 (distal) in RMD-2. The genes AF6q21, human homologue of the Drosophila tailless (HTLX), CD24 antigen, the Kruppel-like zinc finger BLIMP1, and cyclin C (CCNC), previously mapped to 6q21, were accurately positioned in a telomere-to-centromere orientation. Approximately 3.5 Mb were found to separate the BLIMP1 (adjacent to D6S447) and AF6q21 genes (telomeric to D6S246). Deletions of 6q were investigated in 21 cases of ALL using the newly characterized YAC clones in dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization studies. A region centromeric to D6S447 (containing marker D6S283) and a region telomeric to marker CHLC.GGAT16CO2 (and containing marker D6S268) were identified as distinct and nonoverlapping regions of deletion in ALL.
Li H, Lahti JM, Valentine M, et al.Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) and cyclin E (CCNE) genes: deletion of the CCNC gene in human tumors.
Genomics. 1996; 32(2):253-9 [PubMed
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The human Gi-phase cyclins are important regulators of cell cycle progression that interact with various cyclin-dependent kinases and facilitate entry into S-phase. We have confirmed the localization of the human cyclin C (CCNC) gene to chromosome 6q21 and of human cyclin E (CCNE) to 19q12. The CCNC gene structure was also determined, and we have shown that it is deleted in a subset of acute lymphoblastic leukemias, including a patient sample containing a t(2;6)(p21;q15), with no apparent cytogenetic deletion. Single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis of the remaining CCNC allele from patients with a deletion of one allele established that there were no further mutations within the exons or the flanking intronic sequences. These results suggest either that haploinsufficiency of the cyclin C protein is sufficient to promote tumorigenesis or that the important tumor suppressor gene is linked to the CCNC locus.