|Gene:||CD163; CD163 molecule|
|Aliases: || M130, MM130 |
|Summary:||The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily, and is exclusively expressed in monocytes and macrophages. It functions as an acute phase-regulated receptor involved in the clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages, and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. This protein may also function as an innate immune sensor for bacteria and inducer of local inflammation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]|
|Databases:||OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130|
|Updated:||29 January, 2015|
What does this gene/protein do?
Graph generated 29 January 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 29 January, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: CD163 (cancer-related)
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the progression and prognostication of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of TAM markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of TAM markers and pathological features in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 16 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia, and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. We observed that the protein expression of the TAM markers CD68 and CD163 as well as the cancer stem cell (CSC) markers ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 increased successively from the normal oral mucosa to OSCC. The expressions of CD68 and CD163 were significantly associated with lymph node status, and SOX2 was significantly correlated with pathological grade and lymph node status, whereas ALDH1 was correlated with tumor stage. Furthermore, CD68 was significantly correlated with CD163, SOX2, and ALDH1 (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that OSCC patients overexpressing CD163 had significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.05). TAM markers are associated with cancer stem cell marker and OSCC overall survival, suggesting their potential prognostic value in OSCC.Related: Oral Cancer SOX2 gene
Hattermann K, Sebens S, Helm O, et al.Chemokine expression profile of freshly isolated human glioblastoma-associated macrophages/microglia.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):270-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Several studies have substantiated the hypothesis that tumor progression is not only driven by the tumor cells themselves but also by their interaction with intrinsic and surrounding stromal cells. Tumor-associated macrophages and microglial cells (TAMs) represent one major stromal cell component of glioblastomas. Additionally, in many gliomas, chemokines are highly expressed and some chemokines were already linked to settlement of TAMs in tumors. However, although chemoattraction mechanisms mediated by chemokines and their receptors are well documented, information on their expression and role in TAMs, particularly in patients, is limited. Therefore, we investigated the transcription of the chemokine-receptor combinations CXCL12-CXCR4-CXCR7, CXCL16-CXCR6 and CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in freshly isolated TAMs from 20 human glioblastomas in relation to in vitro polarized M1- and M2-macrophages. We demonstrated that TAMs express both M1- and M2-markers. Compared to in vitro polarized macrophages, the M1-marker interleukin (IL)-6 was similarly expressed, whereas IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were found at lower levels. The M2-marker IL-10 was comparably expressed, while CD163 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were detected with one tenth lower intensities in TAMs. All investigated chemokines/receptors were transcribed at moderate to high levels in TAMs as well as in vitro polarized macrophages. However, CX3CR1 was markedly higher and CXCR7 was somewhat higher expressed in TAMs, whereas M2-macrophages were characterized by the highest CXCL12 and a moderate CX3CL1 expression. Collectively, TAMs share properties of M1- and M2-macrophages and show a considerably higher expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR7 and CX3CR1.
STAT1 has been attributed a function as tumor suppressor. However, in breast cancer data from microarray analysis indicated a predictive value of high mRNA expression levels of STAT1 and STAT1 target genes belonging to the interferon-related signature for a poor response to therapy. To clarify this issue we have determined STAT1 expression levels and activation by different methods, and investigated their association with tumor infiltration by immune cells. Additionally, we evaluated the interrelationship of these parameters and their significance for predicting disease outcome.METHODS:
Expression of STAT1, its target genes SOCS1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, IFIT1, IFITM1, MX1 and genes characteristic for immune cell infiltration (CD68, CD163, PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, CD45, IFN-γ, FOXP3) was determined by RT-PCR in two independent cohorts comprising 132 breast cancer patients. For a subset of patients, protein levels of total as well as serine and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 were ascertained by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting and protein levels of CXCL10 by ELISA.RESULTS:
mRNA expression levels of STAT1 and STAT1 target genes, as well as protein levels of total and serine-phosphorylated STAT1 correlated with each other in neoplastic tissue. However, there was no association between tumor levels of STAT1 mRNA and tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 and between CXCL10 serum levels and CXCL10 expression in the tumor. Tumors with increased STAT1 mRNA amounts exhibited elevated expression of genes characteristic for tumor-associated macrophages and immunosuppressive T lymphocytes. Survival analysis revealed an association of high STAT1 mRNA levels and bad prognosis in both cohorts. A similar prognostically relevant correlation with unfavorable outcome was evident for CXCL10, MX1, CD68, CD163, IFN-γ, and PD-L2 expression in at least one collective. By contrast, activation of STAT1 as assessed by the level of STAT1-Y701 phosphorylation was linked to positive outcome. In multivariate Cox regression, the predictive power of STAT1 mRNA expression was lost when including expression of CXCL10, MX1 and CD68 as confounders.CONCLUSIONS:
Our study confirms distinct prognostic relevance of STAT1 expression levels and STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation in breast cancer patients and identifies an association of high STAT1 levels with elevated expression of STAT1 target genes and markers for infiltrating immune cells.Related: Breast Cancer Signal Transduction
Recent studies have reported the prognostic value of tissue-associated magrophages (TAMs) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In addition, TAMs are implicated in the tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the prognostic relevance of TAMs in relation to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in uniformly treated cases of cHL.METHODS:
Diagnostic tissue from 116 patients with ABVD-treated cHL was evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis for CD68, CD163 and VEGF expression and for CD31 expression as a measure of microvessel density (MVD).RESULTS:
High CD163 expression (≥ 35% of cellularity) correlated with VEGF expression (Pearson's Chi-square test, P = 0.008) and MVD (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.310, P<0.001). High CD163 expression was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS, P = 0.005) and overall survival (OS, P<0.001) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, high CD163 expression was strongly associated with inferior EFS (P = 0.043) and OS (P = 0.008). Patients with high MVD had a lower OS than those with low MVD, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.071, respectively). While high expression of CD68 was also associated with inferior EFS (P = 0.007), it showed no correlation with VEGF or MVD.CONCLUSIONS:
Our data confirms that CD163 expression provides independent prognostic information in cHL. The correlation of CD163 with VEGF expression and MVD suggests the role of CD163-positive cells in tumor angiogenesis of cHL.Related: Hodgkin's Lymphoma Angiogenesis and Cancer VEGFA
Helm O, Held-Feindt J, Grage-Griebenow E, et al.Tumor-associated macrophages exhibit pro- and anti-inflammatory properties by which they impact on pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(4):843-61 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) still ranking 4th in the order of fatal tumor diseases is characterized by a profound tumor stroma with high numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Driven by environmental factors, monocytes differentiate into M1- or M2-macrophages, the latter commonly regarded as being protumorigenic. Because a detailed analysis of TAMs in human PDAC development is still lacking, freshly isolated PDAC-derived TAMs were analyzed for their phenotype and impact on epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) of benign (H6c7) and malignant (Colo357) pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. TAMs exhibited characteristics of M1-macrophages (expression of HLA-DR, IL-1β, or TNF-α) and M2-macrophages (expression of CD163 and IL-10). In the presence of TAMs, H6c7, and Colo357 cells showed an elongated cell shape along with an increased expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and reduced expression of epithelial E-cadherin. Similar to TAMs, in vitro generated M1- and M2-macrophages both mediated EMT in H6c7 and Colo357 cells. M1-macrophages acquired M2-characteristics during coculture that could be prevented by GM-CSF treatment. However, M1-macrophages still potently induced EMT in H6c7 and Colo357 cells although lacking M2-characteristics. Overall, these data demonstrate that TAMs exhibit anti- as well as proinflammatory properties that equally contribute to EMT induction in PDAC initiation and development.Related: IL10 Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer TNF CDH1
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an M2 macrophage phenotype that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and often correlates with poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer frequently present with peritoneal carcinomatosis, but the mechanisms that induce naïve peritoneal macrophages into TAMs are poorly understood. In this study, we found an increased abundance of TAMs in mouse i.p. xenograft models of ovarian cancer that expressed HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. HOXA9 expression in ovarian cancer cells stimulated chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and induced macrophages to acquire TAM-like features. These features included induction of the M2 markers, CD163 and CD206, and the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and chemokine ligand 17, and down-regulation of the immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12. HOXA9-mediated induction of TAMs was primarily due to the combinatorial effects of HOXA9-induced, tumor-derived transforming growth factor-β2 and chemokine ligand 2 levels. High HOXA9 expression in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer was strongly associated with increased abundance of TAMs and intratumoral T-regulatory cells and decreased abundance of CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines were also elevated in ascites fluid of patients with tumors that highly expressed HOXA9. HOXA9 may, therefore, stimulate ovarian cancer progression by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment via paracrine effects on peritoneal macrophages.Related: Ovarian Cancer HOXA9 gene
Ishimoto T, Sugihara H, Watanabe M, et al.Macrophage-derived reactive oxygen species suppress miR-328 targeting CD44 in cancer cells and promote redox adaptation.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1003-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Podgornik H, Sok M, Kern I, et al.Lipoprotein lipase in non-small cell lung cancer tissue is highly expressed in a subpopulation of tumor-associated macrophages.
Pathol Res Pract. 2013; 209(8):516-20 [PubMed
] Related Publications
High lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue strongly predicts shorter patient survival. We tested the hypothesis that in NSCLC tissue, macrophages are the major site of LPL expression. LPL expression in the entire NSCLC tissue and in the adjacent non-cancer lung tissue was compared to the expression of genes preferentially expressed in macrophages. LPL expression at the cellular level was analyzed by mRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the whole cancer tissue (but not in the adjacent non-cancer tissue), expression of LPL correlated with expression of genes preferentially expressed in macrophages (MSR1, CD163, FOLR2), but not with expression of genes preferentially expressed in tumor cells. All cells in the cancer and adjacent non-cancer tissue exhibit low LPL expression. However, in cancer tissue only, there were individual highly LPL-expressing cells which were macrophages. These LPL-overexpressing cells were approximately 10 times less abundant than anti-CD163-stained, tumor-associated macrophages. To conclude, in NSCLC tissue, a subpopulation of tumor-associated macrophages highly expresses LPL. Because tumor-associated macrophages are pro-tumorigenic, these cells should be further characterized to better understand the underlying nature of the close relationship between high LPL activity in NSCLC tissue and shorter patient survival.Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer FISH Lung Cancer
Reinartz S, Schumann T, Finkernagel F, et al.Mixed-polarization phenotype of ascites-associated macrophages in human ovarian carcinoma: correlation of CD163 expression, cytokine levels and early relapse.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(1):32-42 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is typically accompanied by the occurrence of malignant ascites containing large number of macrophages. It has been suggested that these tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are skewed to alternative polarization (M2) and thereby play an essential role in therapy resistance and metastatic spread. In our study, we have investigated the nature, regulation and clinical correlations of TAM polarization in serous ovarian cancer. Macrophage polarization markers on TAMs and ascites cytokine levels were analyzed for 30 patients and associated with relapse-free survival (RFS) in a prospective study with 20 evaluable patients. Surface expression of the M2 marker CD163 on TAMs was inversely associated with RFS (p < 0.01). However, global gene expression profiles determined for 17 of these patients revealed a mixed-polarization phenotype unrelated to the M1/M2 classification. CD163 surface expression also correlated with the ascites levels of IL-6 and IL-10 (p < 0.05), both cytokines induced CD163 expression, and their ascites levels showed a clear inverse association with RFS (p < 0.01). These findings define a subgroup of patients with high CD163 expression, high IL-6 and/or IL-10 levels and poor clinical outcome.Related: Cytokines Ovarian Cancer
Prosniak M, Harshyne LA, Andrews DW, et al.Glioma grade is associated with the accumulation and activity of cells bearing M2 monocyte markers.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(14):3776-86 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study is directed at identifying the cell source(s) of immunomodulatory cytokines in high-grade gliomas and establishing whether the analysis of associated markers has implications for tumor grading.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
Glioma specimens classified as WHO grade II-IV by histopathology were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry to identify the cells producing interleukin (IL)-10, which was confirmed by flow cytometry and factor secretion in culture. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) and mixture discriminant analysis (MDA) were used to investigate associations between expressed genes and glioma grade.RESULTS:
The principle source of glioma-associated IL-10 is a cell type that bears phenotype markers consistent with M2 monocytes but does not express all M2-associated genes. Measures of expression of the M2 cell markers CD14, CD68, CD163, and CD204, which are elevated in high-grade gliomas, and the neutrophil/myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) subset marker CD15, which is reduced, provide the best index of glioma grade.CONCLUSIONS:
Grade II and IV astrocytomas can be clearly differentiated on the basis of the expression of certain M2 markers in tumor tissues, whereas grade III astrocytomas exhibit a range of expression between the lower and higher grade specimens. The content of CD163(+) cells distinguishes grade III astrocytoma subsets with different prognosis.Related: IL10
Tumor cells are often associated with abundant macrophages that resemble the alternatively activated M2 subset. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition is known to prevent breast cancer metastasis. This study hypothesized that COX-2 inhibition affects TAM characteristics potentially relevant to tumor cell metastasis. We found that the specific COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, inhibited human M2 macrophage differentiation, as determined by decreased CD14 and CD163 expressions and increased TNFα production. Several key metastasis-related mediators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, were inhibited in the presence of etodolac as compared to untreated M2 macrophages. Murine bone marrow derived M2 macrophages also showed enhanced surface MHCII IA/IE and CD80, CD86 expressions together with enhanced TNFα expressions with etodolac treatment during differentiation. Using a BALB/c breast cancer model, we found that etodolac significantly reduced lung metastasis, possibly due to macrophages expressing increased IA/IE and TNFα, but decreased M2 macrophage-related genes expressions (Ym1, TGFβ). In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition caused loss of the M2 macrophage characteristics of TAMs and may assist prevention of breast cancer metastasis.Related: Cytokines
Lagrange B, Martin RZ, Droin N, et al.A role for miR-142-3p in colony-stimulating factor 1-induced monocyte differentiation into macrophages.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1833(8):1936-46 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Our previous study has found that the abundance of peritumoral CD68(+) macrophages was associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection. However, CD68 staining could not discriminate the protumoral or tumoricidal subpopulations from pan-macrophages. CD163 is a marker of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, the clinical significance of CD163(+) cells in tumors and peritumoral liver tissues was evaluated in a cohort of 295 patients with HCC after curative resection. We found that the density of CD163(+) cells was well correlated with that of CD68(+) cells in both tumors and peritumoral liver tissues but was much more. Immunostaining on consecutive sections and flow cytometry assay on surgical resected specimens further supported the findings that the CD163(+) cells was more abundant than CD68(+) cells. The density of peritumoral CD68(+) cells was associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS) and poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001, respectively), whereas the CD163(+) cells have no prognostic values either in tumors or in peritumoral liver tissues. In another cohort of 107 HCC patients, preoperative plasma concentration of soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) was associated with active hepatitis-related factors but not associated with the markers of tumor invasion. In conclusion, both the CD163(+) cells local infiltration and plasma sCD163 were of limited significance in HCC, and they were more likely markers related to active hepatitis rather than tumor progression.Related: Liver Cancer
Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional glycoprotein, has three transcripts that have distinct roles in tumors in vitro. Whether OPN transcripts have different functions in tumor processes in vivo is unclear. It has been reported that immune cell-derived OPN can promote tumor formation. We propose a hypothesis that tumor-derived OPN may facilitate tumor immune escape by affecting immune cell differentiation and function. In this study, we constructed lentiviral expression vectors of OPN transcripts and transfected them into the MCF-7 cell line. MCF-7 cells transfected with OPN transcripts were injected into the armpit of nude mice, and tumor growth was monitored. The results showed that all OPN transcripts promoted local tumor formation, but that there was no significant difference among transcripts. We also investigated the effect of the OPN expressed by tumor cells on monocyte differentiation by coculturing monocytes with tumor supernatant. We found OPN-c upregulated CD163 levels compared with OPN-a and OPN-b; however, none of the transcripts affected HLA-DR and CD206 levels. All OPN transcripts significantly inhibited TNF-α and enhanced IL-10 production by monocytes. Furthermore, we found that the overexpression of OPN transcripts significantly upregulated TGF-β1 and MCP-1 production by tumor cells. Using neutralizing antibody and recombinant cytokines, we found that OPN overexpressed by tumor cells regulates the production of TNF-α and IL-10 by monocytes partly via MCP-1 and TGF-β1, respectively. Collectively, our results show that OPN transcripts have no distinct role in breast cancer formation in vivo. We also demonstrate that OPN regulates the alternative activation of monocytes via TGF-β1 and MCP-1, which may represent an additional mechanism for tumor immune escape.Related: Breast Cancer TGFB1
Poole Perry LJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, et al.Reactive retinal astrocytic tumors (so-called vasoproliferative tumors): histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic studies of four cases.
Am J Ophthalmol. 2013; 155(3):593-608.e1 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To evaluate the cellular nature of and diagnostic terminology used in connection with acquired retinal "vasoproliferative tumors."DESIGN:
Retrospective clinicopathologic study.METHODS:
Clinical records and microscopic slides of 4 enucleated globes were reviewed. Special stains and immunohistochemical probes for CD31, CD34, p53, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD163, and Ki67 (cell replication) were employed; ultrastructural and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed.RESULTS:
Tumors were located inferotemporally in middle-aged patients. They were uniformly composed of compacted elongated, GFAP-positive spindle cells (due to intermediate filaments identified ultrastructurally) with a Ki67 index of less than 1%. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies were observed. Hyalinized periodic acid-Schiff-positive vessels were widely separated. CD31 and CD34 revealed a sparse microvasculature. Tumor-associated exudate spread predominantly subretinally. The retinal pigment epithelium had undergone extensive placoid fibrous metaplasia with focal ossification. P53 upregulation, BRAF-KIAA gene rearrangement, and IDH1R132H mutation typically associated with low-grade astrocytic neoplasms were absent.CONCLUSIONS:
Retinal "vasoproliferative" tumors have been mischaracterized, because they actually display a paucity of microvessels. Proliferating fibrous astrocytes with a very low proliferation index predominate, without immunohistochemical or genetic evidence favoring a neoplasm. Subretinal exudate appeared capable of provoking widespread fibrous metaplasia of the pigment epithelium that was mainly responsible for secondary retinal damage. The term "reactive retinal astrocytic tumor" is proposed as more appropriate for this entity. In carefully selected progressive lesions, consideration should be given to earlier surgical intervention before extensive subretinal exudate accumulates and pigment epithelial proliferation with fibrous metaplasia ensues.Related: FISH IDH1 gene
Macrophages have been found to be negative predictors of outcome in patients with uveal melanoma. In particular, recent studies point toward a disease-progressing role of proangiogenic M2 macrophages in melanomas with monosomy 3. Although most studies implicate a protective effect of PPAR-gamma activation in tumors, PPAR-gamma has also been shown to promote the polarization of M1 macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. The purpose of this investigation was first, to characterize the phenotype of tumor infiltrating macrophages and second, to study PPAR-gamma expression in uveal melanomas with molecular gene expression profile as prognostic predictors for patients' outcome. Twenty specimens from patients with uveal melanoma were analyzed for clinical and histologic tumor characteristics. The molecular RNA profile (class 1 or class 2) was commercially determined. Using immunohistochemical techniques, the specimens were dual labeled for CD68 and CD163. CD68 + CD163- M1 macrophages and CD68 + CD163+ M2 macrophages were analyzed in ten high power fields sparing macrophage-poor areas and a mean value was calculated for each tumor. The tumors were immunostained for von Willebrand factor and the micro vascular density (MVD) was analyzed according to Foss. To assess the proliferative rate of each tumor, Ki67 expression was evaluated in ten high power fields followed by calculation of a mean value. Expression of PPAR-gamma was evaluated using a score from 0 (no staining) to 3 (tumor entirely stained). Statistical analysis and a respective correlation were made between histologic characteristics, molecular profile, type of tumor infiltrating macrophages (M1 vs. M2), MVD, proliferative rate, and PPAR-gamma expression. Our results showed a correlation between the ratio of M2/M1 macrophages and the molecular profile with a ratio of approximately 1 corresponding to molecular class 1 and a ratio of approximately 2 corresponding to molecular class 2 (p = 0.01). The ratio of M2/M1 macrophages was higher in tumors with extraocular extension (p = 0.01). PPAR-gamma was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Its expression showed no association with the molecular RNA profile (p = 0.83). This study confirmed that the ratio of M2/M1 macrophages is another prognostic factor in uveal melanoma. Thus, polarization of macrophages plays an important role for patients' outcome. PPAR-gamma is expressed in uveal melanoma tumor cells and further studies are warranted to determine its role in tumor biology.Related: MKI67 Melanoma Ocular Melanoma IntraOcular Melanoma PPARG gene
Children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with metastatic MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma (NBL-NA) are at high risk for disease relapse, whereas those diagnosed at age < 18 months are nearly always cured. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that expression of genes related to tumor-associated inflammatory cells correlates with the observed differences in survival by age at diagnosis and contributes to a prognostic signature.METHODS:
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in localized and metastatic neuroblastomas (n = 71) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of 44 genes representing tumor and inflammatory cells was quantified in 133 metastatic NBL-NAs to assess age-dependent expression and to develop a logistic regression model to provide low- and high-risk scores for predicting progression-free survival (PFS). Tumors from high-risk patients enrolled onto two additional studies (n = 91) served as independent validation cohorts.RESULTS:
Metastatic neuroblastomas had higher infiltration of TAMs than locoregional tumors, and metastatic tumors diagnosed in patients at age ≥ 18 months had higher expression of inflammation-related genes than those in patients diagnosed at age < 18 months. Expression of genes representing TAMs (CD33/CD16/IL6R/IL10/FCGR3) contributed to 25% of the accuracy of a novel 14-gene tumor classification score. PFS at 5 years for children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with NBL-NA with a low- versus high-risk score was 47% versus 12%, 57% versus 8%, and 50% versus 20% in three independent clinical trials, respectively.CONCLUSION:
These data suggest that interactions between tumor and inflammatory cells may contribute to the clinical metastatic neuroblastoma phenotype, improve prognostication, and reveal novel therapeutic targets.Related: Neuroblastoma NTRK2 CAMTA1 MYCN (n-myc)
Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women, and metastasis makes it lethal. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that acquire an alternatively activated macrophage (M2) phenotype may promote metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we examined how TAMs interact with breast cancer cells to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the M2-specific antigen CD163 in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinoma blocks to explore fusion events in breast cancer patients. U937 cells were used as a substitute for human monocytes, and these cells differentiated into M2 macrophages following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and M-CSF stimulation. M2 macrophages and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 fused in the presence of 50% polyethylene glycol. Hybrids were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the relevant cell biological properties were compared with their parental counterparts. Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC)-related markers were quantified by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and/or western blotting. The tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities of the hybrids and their parental counterparts were assessed in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the CD163 expression rate in breast cancer tissues varied significantly and correlated with estrogen receptor status (p<0.05). The fusion efficiency of either breast cancer cell line with M2 macrophages ranged from 1.81 to 6.47% in the presence of PEG, and no significant difference was observed between the breast cancer cell lines used (p>0.05). Characterization of the fusion hybrids revealed a more aggressive phenotype, including increased migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, but reduced proliferative ability, compared with the parental lines. The hybrids also gained a CD44(+)CD24(-/low) phenotype and over-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes. These results indicate that TAMs may promote breast cancer metastasis through cell fusion, and the hybrids may gain a BCSC phenotype.Related: Breast Cancer
Miyazaki K, Sakuma K, Kawamura YI, et al.Colonic epithelial cells express specific ligands for mucosal macrophage immunosuppressive receptors siglec-7 and -9.
J Immunol. 2012; 188(9):4690-700 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Immune cells are known to express specific recognition molecules for cell surface glycans. However, mechanisms involved in glycan-mediated cell-cell interactions in mucosal immunity have largely been left unaccounted for. We found that several glycans preferentially expressed in nonmalignant colonic epithelial cells serve as ligands for sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins (siglecs), the immunosuppressive carbohydrate-recognition receptors carried by immune cells. The siglec ligand glycans in normal colonic epithelial cells included disialyl Lewis(a), which was found to have binding activity to both siglec-7 and -9, and sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis(x), which exhibited significant binding to siglec-7. Expression of these siglec-7/-9 ligands was impaired upon carcinogenesis, and they were replaced by cancer-associated glycans sialyl Lewis(a) and sialyl Lewis(x), which have no siglec ligand activity. When we characterized immune cells expressing siglecs in colonic lamina propriae by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, the majority of colonic stromal immune cells expressing siglec-7/-9 turned out to be resident macrophages characterized by low expression of CD14/CD89 and high expression of CD68/CD163. A minor subpopulation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes also expressed siglec-7/-9. Siglec-7/-9 ligation suppressed LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and PGE(2) production by macrophages. These results suggest that normal glycans of epithelial cells exert a suppressive effect on cyclooxygenase-2 expression by resident macrophages, thus maintaining immunological homeostasis in colonic mucosal membranes. Our results also imply that loss of immunosuppressive glycans by impaired glycosylation during colonic carcinogenesis enhances inflammatory mediator production.Related: COX2 (PTGS2)
Maniecki MB, Etzerodt A, Ulhøi BP, et al.Tumor-promoting macrophages induce the expression of the macrophage-specific receptor CD163 in malignant cells.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(10):2320-31 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a distinct malignancy-promoting phenotype suggested to play a key role in tumor formation and metastasis. We aimed to investigate the expression of the monocyte/macrophage-restricted receptor CD163 in bladder tumor biopsies and assess the potential mechanism inducing the CD163 expression in tumor cells. A high CD163 mRNA expression (n = 87) was significantly associated with a poor 13-year overall survival (log-rank test, χ(2) = 8.931; p = 0.0028). Moreover, CD163 mRNA expression was significantly increased in muscle invasive (T2-T4), p = 0.017, and aggressive (grade III/IV) cancers (p = 0.015). The expression strongly correlated with local expression of IL-6 (r = 0.72; p <0.0001) and IL-10 (r = 0.75; p <0.0001), mediators known to induce CD163 expression in vitro. CD163 immunostaining (n = 46) confirmed the association between dense TAM infiltration and histologically advanced disease. In 39% of the biopsies, CD163 immunoreactivity was also observed in tumor cells, and CD163-expressing metastatic cells were identified in lymph node biopsies (n = 8). Bladder cancer cell lines did not express CD163; however, when cocultured with macrophages the bladder cancer cell expression of CD163 was significantly induced in an IL-6/IL-10 independent manner. In conclusion, we show a strong association between CD163 mRNA expression in bladder cancer biopsies and poor patient outcome. CD163 expression was not confined to the infiltrating TAMs, but was also expressed by a significant portion of the malignant cells in both tumors and lymph nodes. CD163 expressing tumor cells may constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells with a phenotypic shift associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased metastatic activity induced by TAMs.Related: IL10 Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology
Sánchez-Espiridión B, Martin-Moreno AM, Montalbán C, et al.Immunohistochemical markers for tumor associated macrophages and survival in advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(7):1080-4 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A subset of patients with advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is refractory to standard therapies. Therefore, it is relevant to identify new biologically-based prognostic markers. Recently, tumor associated macrophages have been proposed as a factor that predicts survival, although contradictory results have also been reported. Here we analyzed four macrophage markers (CD68, CD163, LYZ, and STAT1) using immunohistochemistry and automated quantification, in two independent series of advanced classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=266 and 103 patients, respectively). Our results did not confirm that specific macrophage immunohistochemical markers could be used as surrogates for gene expression profiling studies. Survival analyses did not show correlation between CD163, LYZ or STAT1 and either failure-free or disease-specific survival. There was an association between CD68 and disease-specific survival, but it was not consistent in both series. In conclusion, individual tumor associated macrophage markers cannot be used to predict outcome before technical standardization and prospective validation in independent series of patients with comparable stages and treatments.Related: Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with a relatively good prognosis. A small but significant percentage of patients, however, will respond poorly to therapy. A recent gene expression profiling study has identified a macrophage signature which has been correlated with primary treatment failure, and immunohistochemical tissue microarray for CD68 was shown to reflect the gene signature as a potentially clinically useful marker to predict adverse prognosis.We examined 44 cases of CHL, mostly nodular sclerosis subtype, in which the immunohistochemical stains for the histiocytic markers CD68 and CD163 were performed. The staining intensity was graded for each stain (< 5, 5-25, and > 25 percent of cells positive in the Hodgkin cell (HC) rich nodules) and background staining characteristics were recorded.CD163 staining was lower than CD68 in HC rich nodules, with lower background staining (p 0.03). There was no significant difference between either CD68 or CD163 and disease recurrence in a subset (N = 41) of cases.In conclusion, we demonstrate that CD163 staining is lower than CD68, with less non-specific staining of background inflammatory cells and Hodgkin cells, therefore is a better marker for tumor associated macrophages. However, we did not identify a correlation between staining for CD68 or CD163 and recurrence of disease.VIRTUAL SLIDES:
The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1460518258831620.Related: Hodgkin's Lymphoma
We have previously investigated the microlocalisation of M1 and M2 macrophages in NSCLC. This study investigated the non-macrophage (NM) expression of proteins associated with M1 and M2 macrophages in NSCLC.METHODS:
Using immunohistochemistry, CD68(+) macrophages and proteins associated with either a cytotoxic M1 phenotype (HLA-DR, iNOS, and MRP 8/14), or a non-cytotoxic M2 phenotype (CD163 and VEGF) were identified. NM expression of the markers was analysed in the islets and stroma of surgically resected tumours from 20 patients with extended survival (ES) (median 92.7 months) and 20 patients with poor survival (PS) (median 7.7 months).RESULTS:
The NM expression of NM-HLA-DR (p<0.001), NM-iNOS (p = 0.02) and NM-MRP 8/14 (p = 0.02) was increased in ES compared to PS patients in the tumour islets. The tumour islet expression of NM-VEGF, was decreased in ES compared to PS patients (p<0.001). There was more NM-CD163 expression (p = 0.04) but less NM-iNOS (p = 0.002) and MRP 8/14 (p = 0.01) expression in the stroma of ES patients compared with PS patients. The 5-year survival for patients with above and below median NM expression of the markers in the islets was 74.9% versus 4.7% (NM-HLA-DR p<0.001), 65.0% versus 14.6% (NM-iNOS p = 0.003), and 54.3% versus 22.2% (NM-MRP 8/14 p = 0.04), as opposed to 34.1% versus 44.4% (NM-CD163 p = 0.41) and 19.4% versus 59.0% (NM-VEGF p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS:
Cell proteins associated with M1 and M2 macrophages are also expressed by other cell types in the tumour islets and stroma of patients with NSCLC. Their tissue and cellular microlocalisation is associated with important differences in clinical outcome.Related: S100A8 S100A9 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer VEGFA
Doyle LA, Fletcher CDEMA positivity in epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
J Cutan Pathol. 2011; 38(9):697-703 [PubMed
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Epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma (EFH) represents a morphologic variant of cutaneous fibrous histiocytoma (FH) but can lack many characteristic features. The presence of epithelioid cytomorphology may mimic other dermal neoplasms. Our anecdotal experience of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression in some examples of EFH has caused diagnostic difficulty. Our aim was to examine the immunohistochemical profile and incidence of EMA expression in EFH.METHODS:
Forty-four cases of EFH were retrieved from consultation files. Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features were evaluated.RESULTS:
Membranous EMA positivity was found in tumor cells in 27/42 cases (64%). Focal positivity for factor XIIIa was found in 10/14 (71%) and D2-40 in 14/27 (52%). Scattered smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive tumor cells were seen in 11/43 (25%). Focal positivity for claudin-1 was found in 3/42 (7%). CD163 staining highlighted stromal macrophages; however, in five cases it was difficult to exclude focal staining of tumor cells. Tumor cells were consistently negative for pan-keratin, AE1/AE3, S100, CD31, CD34, CD68, desmin, p63, GFAP and CD45/LCA.CONCLUSION:
Frequent EMA expression in EFH represents an unexpected finding and constitutes a potential diagnostic pitfall. Although of uncertain significance, this finding, when combined with established morphologic differences, raises the possibility that EFH is unrelated to classic FH.Related: MUC1 gene Skin Cancer
Ysebaert L, Fournié JJGenomic and phenotypic characterization of nurse-like cells that promote drug resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2011; 52(7):1404-6 [PubMed
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Here, we examined both genetic and phenotypic determinants of nurse-like cells (NLCs) to better predict their putative functions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We showed that NLCs belong to the wound-healing macrophage subset (so-called 'M2 subset'), but most of all, unsupervised clustering analysis positions NLCs as CLL-specific tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). Chemokinome assays confirmed that NLCs secrete prototypical M2 cytokines and chemokines. Extending previous reports of fludarabine resistance, NLCs are able to promote multidrug resistance. Altogether, we propose that NLCs are not just nursing, but actively participate in the setting of an environment-mediated drug resistance (EM-DR) and immune escape for CLL cells.Related: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) CLL - Molecular Biology
Ma Z, Zhang T, Wang R, et al.Tissue factor-factor VIIa complex induces epithelial ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis through a monocytes-dependent mechanism.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2011; 21(4):616-24 [PubMed
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Tumor-associated macrophage infiltration and up-regulation of tissue factor-factor VII (TF-FVIIa) complex have been observed in the peritoneum and stroma of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, it is not clear how tumor-associated macrophage and TF-FVIIa complex promotes EOC invasion. In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism by which interaction of TF-FVIIa and monocytes (MOs) promotes EOC metastasis.METHOD:
Matrigel invasion assay was used to analyze the potential of EOC metastasis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect expressions of cytokines and chemokines. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to count the percentage of CD14, CD68, and CD163 of MOs.RESULTS:
We found that the TF-FVIIa complex caused dynamic changes in MOs cytokine and chemokine expression. CD14 and CD163 were also upregulated on MOs by TF-FVIIa. Epithelial ovarian cancer cells were cocultured with TF-FVIIa-stimulated MOs, demonstrating increased invasion potential. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) was proposed as the major chemoattractant mediating EOC invasion based on MOs messenger RNA and protein expression profiles. Anti-IL-8 monoclonal neutralizing antibody attenuated EOC cell invasion in a concentration-dependent manner, and tumor necrosis factor α from TF-FVIIa-stimulated MOs was observed to amplify IL-8 production. The following transcription factors in MOs were activated by TF-FVIIa and inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor: oncogenes HIF-1α, HIF-1β, Oct I, Oct II, and Egr-1; inflammatory mediators c-Fos and c-Rel; and STAT family members STAT5A and STAT5B.CONCLUSIONS:
Our study suggested that the interaction between the TF-FVIIa complex might play a role in mediating EOC invasion and metastasis depending on MOs mechanism.Related: Ovarian Cancer Signal Transduction
Buddingh EP, Kuijjer ML, Duim RA, et al.Tumor-infiltrating macrophages are associated with metastasis suppression in high-grade osteosarcoma: a rationale for treatment with macrophage activating agents.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(8):2110-9 [PubMed
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High-grade osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor with a peak incidence in adolescence. Overall survival (OS) of patients with resectable metastatic disease is approximately 20%. The exact mechanisms of development of metastases in osteosarcoma remain unclear. Most studies focus on tumor cells, but it is increasingly evident that stroma plays an important role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. We investigated the development of metastasis by studying tumor cells and their stromal context.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:
To identify gene signatures playing a role in metastasis, we carried out genome-wide gene expression profiling on prechemotherapy biopsies of patients who did (n = 34) and patients who did not (n = 19) develop metastases within 5 years. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on pretreatment biopsies from 2 additional cohorts (n = 63 and n = 16) and corresponding postchemotherapy resections and metastases.RESULTS:
A total of 118/132 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in patients without metastases. Remarkably, almost half of these upregulated genes had immunological functions, particularly related to macrophages. Macrophage-associated genes were expressed by infiltrating cells and not by osteosarcoma cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) were quantified with IHC and associated with significantly better overall survival (OS) in the additional patient cohorts. Osteosarcoma samples contained both M1- (CD14/HLA-DRα positive) and M2-type TAMs (CD14/CD163 positive and association with angiogenesis).CONCLUSIONS:
In contrast to most other tumor types, TAMs are associated with reduced metastasis and improved survival in high-grade osteosarcoma. This study provides a biological rationale for the adjuvant treatment of high-grade osteosarcoma patients with macrophage activating agents, such as muramyl tripeptide.Related: Bone Cancers Osteosarcoma
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may have an important role in tumor immunity. We studied the activation state of TAMs in cutaneous SCC, the second most common human cancer. CD163 was identified as a more abundant, sensitive, and accurate marker of TAMs when compared with CD68. CD163(+) TAMs produced protumoral factors, matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 11 (MMP9 and MMP11), at the gene and protein levels. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to evaluate M1 and M2 macrophage gene sets in the SCC genes and to identify candidate genes in order to phenotypically characterize TAMs. There was coexpression of CD163 and alternatively activated "M2" markers, CD209 and CCL18 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18). There was enrichment for classically activated "M1" genes in SCC, which was confirmed in situ by colocalization of CD163 and phosphorylated STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1), IL-23p19, IL-12/IL-23p40, and CD127. Also, a subset of TAMs in SCC was bi-activated as CD163(+) cells expressed markers for both M1 and M2, shown by triple-label immunofluorescence. These data support heterogeneous activation states of TAMs in SCC, and suggest that a dynamic model of macrophage activation would be more useful to characterize TAMs.Related: Squamous Cell Carcinoma - Skin Cancer Skin Cancer