Gene Summary

Gene:DACH1; dachshund family transcription factor 1
Aliases: DACH
Summary:This gene encodes a chromatin-associated protein that associates with other DNA-binding transcription factors to regulate gene expression and cell fate determination during development. The protein contains a Ski domain that is highly conserved from Drosophila to human. Expression of this gene is lost in some forms of metastatic cancer, and is correlated with poor prognosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:dachshund homolog 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • RT-PCR
  • Heterografts
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Epigenetics
  • Young Adult
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Leukaemia
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Eye Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Chromosome 13
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Apoptosis
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Protein Binding
  • DNA Methylation
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Messenger RNA
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Lung Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cell Line
  • Staging
  • Cell Movement
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DACH1 (cancer-related)

Araújo T, Khayat A, Quintana L, et al.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(47):5338-5350 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To establish a permanent
METHODS: CRISPR-Cas9 system used was purchased from Dharmacon GE Life Sciences (Lafayette, CO, United States) and permanent knockout was performed according to manufacturer's recommendations. Wound-healing assay was performed to investigate the effect of

Zhang J, Ren X, Wang B, et al.
Effect of DACH1 on proliferation and invasion of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Head Face Med. 2018; 14(1):20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of DACH1 over-expression on proliferation and invasion of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
METHODS: The 120 cases of LSCC tumors and 114 adjacent non-neoplastic tissues were collected to detect the expression of DACH1 by immunohistochemistry. The changes of DACH1 expression from each group were assessed and correlated to the clinical parameters of the patients. Plasmid-DACH1 was transfected into Hep-2 cells to up-regulate the expression of DACH1C. Real-time PCR, Western blot, CCK8 and transwell assay were used to verify the cell proliferation and invasion after plasmid-DACH1 transfection.
RESULTS: The results indicated that DACH1 was downregulated in LSCC tissues as compared to corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Decreased expression of DACH1 was found in the tumors upraglottic tumor, lymph node metastases, T3-4 stage and advanced clinical stage. In Hep-2 cells, transfection with plasmid-DACH1 could suppress cell proliferation, invasion and induce G1 phase extension in cell cycle.
CONCLUSIONS: DACH1 may act as a tumor suppressor gene and could be a potential target for therapeutic intervention of LSCC.

Feng Y, Wang L, Wang M
Alteration of DACH1 methylation patterns in lung cancer contributes to cell proliferation and migration.
Biochem Cell Biol. 2018; 96(5):602-609 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80%-85% of total lung cancer cases. Dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1), is a protein encoded by the DACH1 gene in humans. DACH1 inhibits lung adenocarcinoma invasion and tumor growth but has a lower expression in NSCLC. To investigate the mechanisms of decreased DACH1 expression, its DNA methylation patterns were investigated. The results showed a higher methylation rate in NSCLC compared with the adjacent normal lung tissues. Cell transfection experiments showed that increased methylation impaired transcription factor transactivation. In vivo demethylation treatment and overexpression of DACH1 increased apoptosis and decreased migration and invasion in NSCLC A549 cells. Our research provides new insight into NSCLC pathogenesis and identifies a new therapeutic target.

Cheng Q, Ning D, Chen J, et al.
SIX1 and DACH1 influence the proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma through regulating p53.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(5):381-390 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ABSTRACTS This research aimed to explore effects of SIX1 and DACH1 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. Fifty paired hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were screened for differentially expressed genes. SIX1 and DACH1 expressions were subjected to qRT-PCR and western blot in tumor tissues and cells. The knockdown efficiency of siRNAs and transfection efficiency of cDNAs and siRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR and western blot as well. Then colony formation assay and flow cytometry were applied to observe cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell cycle changes. Immunofluorescence co-localization and immunoprecipitation were used to analyze the interaction between proteins which was quantified using western blot. Effects of SIX1 and DACH1 on tumor growth and their expressions in tumors were confirmed in vitro in nude mice model. Results of these experiments showed that SIX1 was overexpressed while DACH1 was suppressed in HCC tissues and cells. The suppression of SIX1 and overexpression of DACH1 not only inhibited cell proliferation, but also induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase compared with control group. Results of immunofluorescence co-localization suggested that SIX1, p53 and DACH1 were significantly overlapped. Immunoprecipitation showed that DACH1 (marked with Flag tag) could pull down p53 and SIX1, but SIX1 (marked with His tag) could only pull down DACH1, which indicated that an indirect regulation between SIX1 and p53. Validated with western blot afterwards, DACH1 overexpression suppressed tumorigenesis in vivo by up-regulating p53 expression while SIX1 overexpression accelerated tumor growth by down-regulating p53 expression. Therefore, the decrease of SIX1 facilitated the expression of DACH1, thus activated the expression of p53 and suppressed the progression of HCC both in vitro and in vivo.

Lian G, Li L, Ye F, et al.
The screening and analysis of protein signatures and signaling associated with chemoresistance based on Protein Pathway Array technology in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(1):307-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study was aimed to identify proteins associated with signaling pathways involved in chemoresistance, and establish a predictive model for chemoresistance in gastric cancer patients after radical surgery. A total of 140 clinically-staged III gastric cancer samples from patients after D2 radical gastrectomy were enrolled in the present study. Protein Pathway Array (PPA) and 286 antibodies were used to assess the protein expression in tumor tissues of patients. The Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) software and clustering and discriminant analysis were used to identify differentially expressed proteins between chemosensitive and chemoresistant subsets, and a predictive model for chemoresistance was established using the independent predictive factors. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software was also used to investigate the relationship between proteins and the signaling transduction network. A total of 23 proteins were differentially expressed between 67 chemosensitive and 73 chemoresitant tumor tissues. Six proteins including PLK1 and DACH1 were independent risk factors for chemoresistance. A predictive model for chemoresistance by these proteins was established, and the accuracy, the sensitivity, and the specificity of this modal was 89.3, 90.3 and 88.2%, respectively. In addition, the present study revealed that differentially expressed proteins were closely related to cellular activity, DNA methylation and DNA damage and repair, and also involved in the ERK/MAPK, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT, apoptosis and p53 signaling pathways. In conclusion, the predictive model established by PPA may be an effective detection system for predicting the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer patients after D2 gastrectomy.

Xu H, Yu S, Yuan X, et al.
DACH1 suppresses breast cancer as a negative regulator of CD44.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):4361 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1), a key cell fate determination factor, contributes to tumorigenesis, invasion, metastasis of human breast neoplasm. However, the exact molecular mechanisms for the anti-tumor roles of DACH1 in breast carcinoma are still lack of extensive understanding. Herein, we utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and public microarray data analysis showing that DACH1 was higher in normal breast, low-grade and luminal-type cancer in comparison with breast carcinoma, high-grade and basal-like tumors respectively. Additionally, both correlation analysis of public databases of human breast carcinoma and IHC analysis of mice xenograft tumors demonstrated that DACH1 inversely related to cancer stem cells (CSCs) markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers and basal-enriched molecules, while cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) behaved in an opposite manner. Furthermore, mice transplanted tumor model indicated that breast cancer cells Met-1 with up-regulation of DACH1 were endowed with remarkably reduced potential of tumorigenesis. Importantly, meta-analysis of 19 Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases of breast cancer implicated that patients with higher DACH1 expression had prolonged time to death, recurrence and metastasis, while CD44 was a promising biomarker predicting worse overall survival (OS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS). Collectively, our study indicated that CD44 might be a novel target of DACH1 in breast carcinoma.

Xie X, He G, Siddik ZH
Functional Activation of Mutant p53 by Platinum Analogues in Cisplatin-Resistant Cells Is Dependent on Phosphorylation.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(3):328-339 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysfunctionality of the p53 tumor suppressor is a major cause of therapeutic drug resistance in cancer. Recently, we reported that mutant, but otherwise functional, p53

Uehiro N, Sato F, Pu F, et al.
Circulating cell-free DNA-based epigenetic assay can detect early breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has recently been recognized as a resource for biomarkers of cancer progression, treatment response, and drug resistance. However, few have demonstrated the usefulness of cfDNA for early detection of cancer. Although aberrant DNA methylation in cfDNA has been reported for more than a decade, its diagnostic accuracy remains unsatisfactory for cancer screening. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a highly sensitive cfDNA-based system for detection of primary breast cancer (BC) using epigenetic biomarkers and digital PCR technology.
METHODS: Array-based genome-wide DNA methylation analysis was performed using 56 microdissected breast tissue specimens, 34 cell lines, and 29 blood samples from healthy volunteers (HVs). Epigenetic markers for BC detection were selected, and a droplet digital methylation-specific PCR (ddMSP) panel with the selected markers was established. The detection model was constructed by support vector machine and evaluated using cfDNA samples.
RESULTS: The methylation array analysis identified 12 novel epigenetic markers (JAK3, RASGRF1, CPXM1, SHF, DNM3, CAV2, HOXA10, B3GNT5, ST3GAL6, DACH1, P2RX3, and chr8:23572595) for detecting BC. We also selected four internal control markers (CREM, GLYATL3, ELMOD3, and KLF9) that were identified as infrequently altered genes using a public database. A ddMSP panel using these 16 markers was developed and detection models were constructed with a training dataset containing cfDNA samples from 80 HVs and 87 cancer patients. The best detection model adopted four methylation markers (RASGRF1, CPXM1, HOXA10, and DACH1) and two parameters (cfDNA concentration and the mean of 12 methylation markers), and, and was validated in an independent dataset of 53 HVs and 58 BC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for cancer-normal discrimination was 0.916 and 0.876 in the training and validation dataset, respectively. The sensitivity and the specificity of the model was 0.862 (stages 0-I 0.846, IIA 0.862, IIB-III 0.818, metastatic BC 0.935) and 0.827, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our epigenetic-marker-based system distinguished BC patients from HVs with high accuracy. As detection of early BC using this system was comparable with that of mammography screening, this system would be beneficial as an optional method of screening for BC.

Zhang S, Liu X, Liu J, et al.
PGC-1 alpha interacts with microRNA-217 to functionally regulate breast cancer cell proliferation.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:541-548 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study, we explored the functional mechanism of PPARg co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in regulating miR-217-mediated breast cancer development in vitro.
METHODS: Dual-luciferase activity assay was applied to examine the binding of miR-217 on PGC-1α gene. Breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were infected by lentivirus to constitutively downregulate miR-217. Its regulation on PGC-1α expression was investigated by qRT-PCR and western blot. PGC-1α gene was subsequently downregulated by siRNA in miR-217-downregulated breast cancer cells to examine its effect on cancer proliferation and cell-cycle progression. In addition, another downstream target gene of miR-217, DACH1, was further downregulated in breast cancer cells to investigate the functional association of PGC-1α and DACH1 in miR-217-mediated breast cancer regulation.
RESULTS: PGC-1α gene was directly bound by human miR-217. Downregulation of miR-217 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells increased PGC-1α production at both mRNA and protein levels. SiRNA-mediated PGC-1α downregulation reversed the inhibition of miR-217-downregulaiton on breast cancer proliferation and cell-cycle progression. Moreover, siRNA-mediated DACH1 downregulation further reversed miR-217-downregulaiton induced inhibition on cancer proliferation and cell-cycle progression in PGC-1α downregulated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.
CONCLUSION: MiR-217 is the upstream regulator of PGC-1α in breast cancer regulation in vitro, possibly independent of DACH1 signaling pathway.

Bu XN, Qiu C, Wang C, Jiang Z
Inhibition of DACH1 activity by short hairpin RNA represses cell proliferation and tumor invasion in pancreatic cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):745-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer of the pancreas is one of the most lethal diseases worldwide. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis is of great consequence to elevate the survival rate. Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) plays a controversial role in human malignancy progression with its expression being altered in a variety of cancers. Nevertheless, its functional roles and molecular mechanisms in pancreatic cancer remain unknown. The expression of DACH1 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and the ductal epithelial cells were evaluated both at mRNA and protein levels. Three pairs of siRNA targeting the DACH1 gene were designed and synthesized, double-stranded short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were annealed and inserted into pGenesil-1 vector, which was confirmed by enzymatic digestion and sequencing analyses. The successfully constructed recombinant plasmids were transfected into Capan-1 cells and our data indicated that knockdown of DACH1 gene expression showed strong correlation with repressing tumorigenesis. The proliferation of Capan-1 cells was significantly repressed as evaluated by CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Flow cymetry revealed that cell apoptosis was promoted in interference plasmid group compared with control groups (P<0.05), whereas cell cycle had no significant differences among the groups (P>0.05). Transwell assay validated the abilities of migration and invasion as being significantly reduced in pshRNA-DACH1 group. Furthermore, our study suggested that DACH1 expression regulates the pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis through interacting with Bcl-2 signaling axis, whereas it controls cell migration and invasion via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process.

Kong D, Liu Y, Liu Q, et al.
The retinal determination gene network: from developmental regulator to cancer therapeutic target.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):50755-50765 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although originally identified for its function in Drosophila melanogaster eye specification, the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) is essential for the development of multiple organs in mammals. The RDGN regulates proliferation, differentiation and autocrine signaling, and interacts with other key signaling pathways. Aberrant expression of RDGN members such as DACH, EYA and SIX contributes to tumor initiation and progression; indeed, the levels of RDGN members are clinically prognostic factors in various cancer types. Stimulation or suppression of the activities of these crucial components can block cancer cell proliferation, prevent cancer stem cell expansion and even reverse the EMT process, thereby attenuating malignant phenotypes. Thus, cancer therapeutic interventions targeting RDGN members should be pursued in future studies.

Kim SH, Kaschula CH, Priedigkeit N, et al.
Forkhead Box Q1 Is a Novel Target of Breast Cancer Stem Cell Inhibition by Diallyl Trisulfide.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(26):13495-508 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a metabolic byproduct of garlic, is known to inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo This study demonstrates that DATS targets breast cancer stem cells (bCSC). Exposure of MCF-7 and SUM159 human breast cancer cells to pharmacological concentrations of DATS (2.5 and 5 μm) resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of bCSC, as evidenced by a mammosphere assay and flow cytometric analysis of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity and the CD44(high)/CD24(low)/epithelial specific antigen-positive fraction. DATS-mediated inhibition of bCSC was associated with a decrease in the protein level of FoxQ1. Overexpression of FoxQ1 in MCF-7 and SUM159 cells increased ALDH1 activity and the CD49f(+)/CD24(-) fraction. Inhibition of ALDH1 activity and/or mammosphere formation upon DATS treatment was significantly attenuated by overexpression of FoxQ1. In agreement with these results, stable knockdown of FoxQ1 using small hairpin RNA augmented bCSC inhibition by DATS. Expression profiling for cancer stem cell-related genes suggested that FoxQ1 may negatively regulate the expression of Dachshund homolog 1 (DACH1), whose expression is lost in invasive breast cancer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed recruitment of FoxQ1 at the DACH1 promoter. Moreover, inducible expression of DACH1 augmented DATS-mediated inhibition of bCSC. Expression of FoxQ1 protein was significantly higher in triple-negative breast cancer cases compared with normal mammary tissues. Moreover, an inverse association was observed between FoxQ1 and DACH1 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. DATS administration inhibited ALDH1 activity in vivo in SUM159 xenografts. These results indicate that FoxQ1 is a novel target of bCSC inhibition by DATS.

Ma K, Cao B, Guo M
The detective, prognostic, and predictive value of DNA methylation in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Epigenetics. 2016; 8:43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for approximately 90 % of esophageal cancer cases. Genetic and epigenetic changes have been found to accumulate during the development of various cancers, including esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC). Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are two major risk factors for ESCC, and both tobacco and alcohol were found to induce methylation changes in ESCC. Growing evidence demonstrates that aberrant epigenetic changes play important roles in the multiple-step processes of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. DNA methylation may occur in the key components of cancer-related signaling pathways. Aberrant DNA methylation affects genes involved in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, Wnt, TGF-β, and NF-κB signaling pathways, including P16, MGMT, SFRP2, DACH1, and ZNF382. Certain genes methylated in precursor lesions of the esophagus demonstrate that DNA methylation may serve as esophageal cancer early detection marker, such as methylation of HIN1, TFPI-2, DACH1, and SOX17. CHFR methylation is a late stage event in ESCC and is a sensitive marker for taxanes in human ESCC. FHIT methylation is associated with poor prognosis in ESCC. Aberrant DNA methylation changes may serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and chemo-sensitive markers. Characterization of the DNA methylome in ESCC will help to better understand its mechanisms and develop improved therapies.

Zhu J, Wu C, Li H, et al.
DACH1 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma through the downregulation of peroxiredoxin 3.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9781-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study, we found the expression of Dachshund 1 (DACH1) is downregulated while peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) upregulated in both lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cells. Transfection of DACH1 can significantly downregulate PRX3 expression in targeting lung adenocarcinoma cells. Further experimental results demonstrated the evidence that overexpression of DACH1 resulted in significant retardation of in vitro proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Direct upregulation of PRX3 by co-transfection of PRX3 messenger RNA (mRNA) can prevent the above alteration caused by DACH1 transfection. Besides, lower DACH1 expression significantly correlated with tumor diameter and tumor invasion in all the 36 patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma in our hospital during the past months. In conclusion, DACH1 can inhibit the proliferation and invasion of lung adenocarcinoma through the downregulation of PRX3. Decreased expression of DACH1 is involved in the initiation and development of lung cancer, which might be an adverse prognostic factor of lung adenocarcinoma.

Mullapudi N, Ye B, Suzuki M, et al.
Genome Wide Methylome Alterations in Lung Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0143826 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant cytosine 5-methylation underlies many deregulated elements of cancer. Among paired non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), we sought to profile DNA 5-methyl-cytosine features which may underlie genome-wide deregulation. In one of the more dense interrogations of the methylome, we sampled 1.2 million CpG sites from twenty-four NSCLC tumor (T)-non-tumor (NT) pairs using a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme- based HELP-microarray assay. We found 225,350 differentially methylated (DM) sites in adenocarcinomas versus adjacent non-tumor tissue that vary in frequency across genomic compartment, particularly notable in gene bodies (GB; p<2.2E-16). Further, when DM was coupled to differential transcriptome (DE) in the same samples, 37,056 differential loci in adenocarcinoma emerged. Approximately 90% of the DM-DE relationships were non-canonical; for example, promoter DM associated with DE in the same direction. Of the canonical changes noted, promoter (PR) DM loci with reciprocal changes in expression in adenocarcinomas included HBEGF, AGER, PTPRM, DPT, CST1, MELK; DM GB loci with concordant changes in expression included FOXM1, FERMT1, SLC7A5, and FAP genes. IPA analyses showed adenocarcinoma-specific promoter DMxDE overlay identified familiar lung cancer nodes [tP53, Akt] as well as less familiar nodes [HBEGF, NQO1, GRK5, VWF, HPGD, CDH5, CTNNAL1, PTPN13, DACH1, SMAD6, LAMA3, AR]. The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate The unique findings from this study include the discovery of numerous candidate methylation sites in both PR and GB regions not previously identified in NSCLC, and many non-canonical relationships to gene expression. These DNA methylation features could potentially be developed as risk or diagnostic biomarkers, or as candidate targets for newer methylation locus-targeted preventive or therapeutic agents.

Thomsen KG, Lyng MB, Elias D, et al.
Gene expression alterations associated with outcome in aromatase inhibitor-treated ER+ early-stage breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 154(3):483-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aromatase inhibitors (AI), either alone or together with chemotherapy, have become the standard adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal, estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Although AIs improve overall survival, resistance is still a major clinical problem, thus additional biomarkers predictive of outcome of ER+ breast cancer patients treated with AIs are needed. Global gene expression analysis was performed on ER+ primary breast cancers from patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy; half experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6.7 years). Gene expression alterations were validated by qRT-PCR, and functional studies evaluating the effect of siRNA-mediated gene knockdown on cell growth were performed. Twenty-six genes, including TFF3, DACH1, RGS5, and GHR, were shown to exhibit altered expression in tumors from patients with recurrence versus non-recurrent (fold change ≥1.5, p < 0.05), and the gene expression alterations were confirmed using qRT-PCR. Ten of these 26 genes could be linked in a network associated with cellular proliferation, growth, and development. TFF3, which encodes for trefoil factor 3 and is an estrogen-responsive oncogene shown to play a functional role in tamoxifen resistance and metastasis of ER+ breast cancer, was also shown to be upregulated in an AI-resistant cell line model, and reduction of TFF3 levels using TFF3-specific siRNAs decreased the growth of both the AI-resistant and -sensitive parental cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of TFF3 in parental AI-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cells resulted in reduced sensitivity to the AI exemestane, whereas TFF3 overexpression had no effect on growth in the absence of exemestane, indicating that TFF3 mediates growth and survival signals that abrogate the growth inhibitory effect of exemestane. We identified a panel of 26 genes exhibiting altered expression associated with disease recurrence in patients treated with adjuvant AI monotherapy, including TFF3, which was shown to exhibit a growth- and survival-promoting effect in the context of AI treatment.

Majchrzak-Celińska A, Słocińska M, Barciszewska AM, et al.
Wnt pathway antagonists, SFRP1, SFRP2, SOX17, and PPP2R2B, are methylated in gliomas and SFRP1 methylation predicts shorter survival.
J Appl Genet. 2016; 57(2):189-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The deregulation of Wnt signaling is observed in various cancers, including gliomas, and might be related to the methylation of the genes encoding antagonists of this signaling pathway. The aim of the study was to assess the methylation status of the promoter regions of six Wnt negative regulators and to determine their prognostic value in clinical samples of gliomas of different grades. The methylation of SFRP1, SFRP2, PPP2R2B, DKK1, SOX17, and DACH1 was analyzed in 64 glioma samples using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). The results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. Promoter methylation in at least one of the analyzed genes was found in 81.3 % of the tumors. All benign tumors [grade I according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification] lacked the methylation of the studied genes, whereas grade II, III, and IV tumors were, in most cases, methylation-positive. The methylation index correlated with the patient's age. The most frequently methylated genes were SFRP1 and SFRP2 (73.4 % and 46.9 %, respectively), followed by SOX17 (20.3 %) and PPP2R2B (10.9 %); DKK1 and DACH1 were basically unmethylated (1.6 %). SFRP1 methylation negatively correlated with patients' survival time, and was significantly more frequent in older patients and those with higher grade tumors. Overall, the results of this study indicate that aberrant promoter methylation of Wnt pathway antagonists is common in gliomas, which may be the possible cause of up-regulation of this signaling pathway often observed in these tumors. Moreover, SFRP1 promoter methylation can be regarded as a potential indicator of glioma patients' survival.

Liu Y, Han N, Zhou S, et al.
The DACH/EYA/SIX gene network and its role in tumor initiation and progression.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(5):1067-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The functional abnormality of developmental genes is a common phenomenon in cancer initiation and progression. The retinal determination gene network (RDGN) is a key signal in Drosophila eye specification, and this conservative pathway is also required for the development of multiple organs in mammalian species. Recent studies demonstrated that aberrant expressions of RDGN components in vertebrates, mainly Dach, Six, and Eya, represent a novel tumor signal. RDGN regulates proliferation, apoptosis, tumor growth and metastasis through interactions with multiple signaling pathways in a co-ordinated fashion; Dach acts as a tumor suppressor, whereas Six and Eya function as oncogenes. Clinical analyses demonstrated that the expression levels of RDGN correlate with tumor stage, metastasis and survival, suggesting that combinational detection of this pathway might be used as a promising biomarker for the stratification of therapy and for the prediction of the prognosis of cancer patients.

Liu Y, Zhou R, Yuan X, et al.
DACH1 is a novel predictive and prognostic biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma as a negative regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):8621-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cell fate determination factor Dachshund (DACH1) functions as a novel suppressor in the progression of various neoplasms. Previous study has suggested that hypermethylation of promoter region was responsible for the reduction of DACH1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and associated with the progression of HCC, but the clinical significance and the exact molecular mechanisms of DACH1 in the progression of HCC remain unclear. In this study, we employed public microarray data analysis and tissue microarrays (TMAs) technologies and showed that DACH1 expression was reduced in HCC even at early stage and associated with the tumor progression. Notably, Kaplan-Meier analysis further indicated DACH1 could be an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of HCC. Further, mechanistic studies revealed that overexpression of DACH1 inhibited the growth and migration of HCC cell line, which were dependent in part on the inactivation of Wnt pathway via phosphorylation of GSK3β to suppress β-catenin. In agreement, the abundance of DACH1 was inversely correlated with several Wnt target genes. Collectively, our study indicated β-catenin is a novel target of DACH1 in HCC.

Han N, Yuan X, Wu H, et al.
DACH1 inhibits lung adenocarcinoma invasion and tumor growth by repressing CXCL5 signaling.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(8):5877-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) identified that DACH1, is a human homolog of drosophila gene dac, is involved in NSCLC. Here we showed that expression of DACH1 was significantly decreased in human NSCLC tissues and DACH1 abundance was inversely correlated with tumor stages and grades. Restoration of DACH1 expression in NSCLC cells significantly reduced cellular proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as tumor growth in vivo. Unbiased screen and functional study suggested that DACH1 mediated effects were dependent in part on suppression of CXCL5. There was an inverse correlation between DACH1 mRNA levels and CXCL5 in both lung cancer cell lines and human NSCLC tissues. Kaplan-Mier analysis of human NSCLC samples demonstrated that high DACH1 mRNA levels predicted favorable prognosis for relapse-free and overall survival. In agreement, high CXCL5 expression predicted a worse prognosis for survival.

Zhou J, Shaikh LH, Neogi SG, et al.
DACH1, a zona glomerulosa selective gene in the human adrenal, activates transforming growth factor-β signaling and suppresses aldosterone secretion.
Hypertension. 2015; 65(5):1103-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Common somatic mutations in CACNAID and ATP1A1 may define a subgroup of smaller, zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. We have therefore sought signature ZG genes, which may provide insight into the frequency and pathogenesis of ZG-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. Twenty-one pairs of zona fasciculata and ZG and 14 paired aldosterone-producing adenomas from 14 patients with Conn's syndrome and 7 patients with pheochromocytoma were assayed by the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on genes >10-fold upregulated in ZG (compared with zona fasciculata) and >10-fold upregulated in aldosterone-producing adenomas (compared with ZG). DACH1, a gene associated with tumor progression, was further analyzed. The role of DACH1 on steroidogenesis, transforming growth factor-β, and Wnt signaling activity was assessed in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of DACH1 in human ZG. Silencing of DACH1 in H295R cells increased CYP11B2 mRNA levels and aldosterone production, whereas overexpression of DACH1 decreased aldosterone production. Overexpression of DACH1 in H295R cells activated the transforming growth factor-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways but inhibited the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway. Stimulation of primary human adrenal cells with angiotensin II decreased DACH1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, there was little overlap between our top ZG genes and those in rodent ZG. In conclusion, (1) the transcriptome profile of human ZG differs from rodent ZG, (2) DACH1 inhibits aldosterone secretion in human adrenals, and (3) transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway is activated in DACH1 overexpressed cells and may mediate inhibition of aldosterone secretion in human adrenals.

Chen K, Wu K, Jiao X, et al.
The endogenous cell-fate factor dachshund restrains prostate epithelial cell migration via repression of cytokine secretion via a cxcl signaling module.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(10):1992-2004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second leading form of cancer-related death in men. In a subset of prostate cancer patients, increased chemokine signaling IL8 and IL6 correlates with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). IL8 and IL6 are produced by prostate epithelial cells and promote prostate cancer cell invasion; however, the mechanisms restraining prostate epithelial cell cytokine secretion are poorly understood. Herein, the cell-fate determinant factor DACH1 inhibited CRPC tumor growth in mice. Using Dach1(fl/fl)/Probasin-Cre bitransgenic mice, we show IL8 and IL6 secretion was altered by approximately 1,000-fold by endogenous Dach1. Endogenous Dach1 is shown to serve as a key endogenous restraint to prostate epithelial cell growth and restrains migration via CXCL signaling. DACH1 inhibited expression, transcription, and secretion of the CXCL genes (IL8 and IL6) by binding to their promoter regulatory regions in chromatin. DACH1 is thus a newly defined determinant of benign and malignant prostate epithelium cellular growth, migration, and cytokine abundance in vivo.

Paluszczak J, Sarbak J, Kostrzewska-Poczekaj M, et al.
The negative regulators of Wnt pathway-DACH1, DKK1, and WIF1 are methylated in oral and oropharyngeal cancer and WIF1 methylation predicts shorter survival.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2855-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The deregulation of Wnt signaling has recently emerged as one of the drivers of head and neck cancers. This is frequently related to the methylation of several antagonists of this pathway. This study aimed at the assessment of the profile of methylation of Wnt pathway antagonists and the determination of the prognostic value of the methylation of selected genes in oral carcinomas. The methylation of DACH1, DKK1, LKB1, PPP2R2B, RUNX3, SFRP2, and WIF-1 was analyzed in 16 oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The methylation of selected genes was further analyzed in tumor sections from 43 primary oral carcinoma patients. The analysis of oral carcinoma cell lines showed very frequent methylation of SFRP2 and WIF-1 and also a less frequent methylation of DACH1 and DKK1. On the other hand, RUNX3 was methylated only in one cell line, while LKB1 and PPP2R2B were not methylated in any of the cell lines. The biallelic methylation of DKK1 correlated with the low level of expression of this gene. Further evaluation of the methylation of DACH1, DKK1, and WIF1 in a clinical patient group confirmed the frequent methylation of WIF1 and intermediate or low frequency of methylation of DACH1 or DKK1, respectively. Importantly, the methylation of WIF-1 correlated with shorter survival in oral cancer patients. Overall, the methylation of the antagonists of Wnt pathway is frequently detected in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The methylation of WIF1 may be considered a prognostic marker in oral cancers.

Cohen H, Ben-Hamo R, Gidoni M, et al.
Shift in GATA3 functions, and GATA3 mutations, control progression and clinical presentation in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(6):464 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a regulator of mammary luminal cell differentiation, and an estrogen receptor (ER) associated marker in breast cancer. Tumor suppressor functions of GATA3 have been demonstrated primarily in basal-like breast cancers. Here, we focused on its function in luminal breast cancer, where GATA3 is frequently mutated, and its levels are significantly elevated.
METHODS: GATA3 target genes were identified in normal- and luminal cancer- mammary cells by ChIP-seq, followed by examination of the effects of GATA3 expressions and mutations on tumorigenesis-associated genes and processes. Additionally, mutations and expression data of luminal breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed to characterize genetic signatures associated with GATA3 mutations.
RESULTS: We show that some GATA3 effects shift from tumor suppressing to tumor promoting during tumorigenesis, with deregulation of three genes, BCL2, DACH1, THSD4, representing major GATA3-controlled processes in cancer progression. In addition, we identify an altered activity of mutant GATA3, and distinct associated genetic signatures. These signatures depend on the functional domain mutated; and, for a specific subgroup, are shared with basal-like breast cancer patients, who are a clinical group with regard to considerations of mode of treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: The GATA3 dependent mechanisms may call for special considerations for proper prognosis and treatment of patients.

Chu Q, Han N, Yuan X, et al.
DACH1 inhibits cyclin D1 expression, cellular proliferation and tumor growth of renal cancer cells.
J Hematol Oncol. 2014; 7:73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a complex with diverse biological characteristics and distinct molecular signature. New target therapies to molecules that drive RCC initiation and progression have achieved promising responses in some patients, but the total effective rate is still far from satisfaction. Dachshund (DACH1) network is a key signaling pathway for kidney development and has recently been identified as a tumor suppressor in several cancer types. However, its role in renal cell carcinoma has not been fully investigated.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for DACH1, PCNA and cyclin D1 was performed on human renal tissue microarrays and correlation with clinic-pathological characteristics was analyzed. In vitro proliferation, apoptosis and in vivo tumor growth were evaluated on human renal cancer cell lines with decitabine treatment or ectopic expression of DACH1. Downstream targets and potential molecular mechanism were investigated through western blot, immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays.
RESULTS: Expression of DACH1 was significantly decreased in human renal carcinoma tissue. DACH1 protein abundance was inversely correlated with the expression of PCNA and cyclin D1, tumor grade, and TNM stage. Restoration of DACH1 function in renal clear cell cancer cells inhibited in vitro cellular proliferation, S phase progression, clone formation, and in vivo tumor growth. In mechanism, DACH1 repressed cyclin D1 transcription through association with AP-1 protein.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that DACH1 was a novel molecular marker of RCC and it attributed to the malignant behavior of renal cancer cells. Re-activation of DACH1 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

Yan W, Wu K, Herman JG, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of DACH1 induces the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer by activating TGF-β signalling.
J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18(12):2499-511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common malignancy in males and the fifth most common malignancy in females worldwide. DACH1 is frequently methylated in hepatic and colorectal cancer. To further understand the regulation and mechanism of DACH1 in GC, eight GC cell lines, eight cases of normal gastric mucosa, 98 cases of primary GC and 50 cases of adjacent non-tumour tissues were examined. Methylation-specific PCR, western blot, transwell assay and xenograft mice were used in this study. Loss of DACH1 expression correlated with promoter region methylation in GC cells, and re-expression was induced by 5-Aza-2'-deoxyazacytidine. DACH1 is methylated in 63.3% (62/98) of primary GC and 38% (19/50) of adjacent non-tumour tissues, while no methylation was found in normal gastric mucosa. Methylation of DACH1 correlated with reduced expression of DACH1 (P < 0.01), late tumour stage (stage III/IV) (P < 0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). DACH1 expression inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by inhibiting transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling and suppressed GC cell proliferation through inducing G2/M phase arrest. The tumour size is smaller in DACH1-expressed BGC823 cell xenograft mice than in unexpressed group (P < 0.01). Restoration of DACH1 expression also sensitized GC cells to docetaxel. These studies suggest that DACH1 is frequently methylated in human GC and expression of DACH1 was controlled by promoter region methylation. DACH1 suppresses GC proliferation, invasion and metastasis by inhibiting TGF-β signalling pathways both in vitro and in vivo. Epigenetic silencing DACH1 may induce GC cells' resistance to docetaxel.

Elias D, Vever H, Lænkholm AV, et al.
Gene expression profiling identifies FYN as an important molecule in tamoxifen resistance and a predictor of early recurrence in patients treated with endocrine therapy.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(15):1919-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer, we performed gene array analyses and identified 366 genes with altered expression in four unique tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) cell lines vs the parental tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cell line. Most of these genes were functionally linked to cell proliferation, death and control of gene expression, and include FYN, PRKCA, ITPR1, DPYD, DACH1, LYN, GBP1 and PRLR. Treatment with FYN-specific small interfering RNA or a SRC family kinase inhibitor reduced cell growth of TamR cell lines while exerting no significant effect on MCF-7/S0.5 cells. Moreover, overexpression of FYN in parental tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7/S0.5 cells resulted in reduced sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment, whereas knockdown of FYN in the FYN-overexpressing MCF-7/S0.5 cells restored sensitivity to tamoxifen, demonstrating growth- and survival-promoting function of FYN in MCF-7 cells. FYN knockdown in TamR cells led to reduced phosphorylation of 14-3-3 and Cdc25A, suggesting that FYN, by activation of important cell cycle-associated proteins, may overcome the anti-proliferative effects of tamoxifen. Evaluation of the subcellular localization of FYN in primary breast tumors from two cohorts of endocrine-treated ER+ breast cancer patients, one with advanced disease (N=47) and the other with early disease (N=76), showed that in the former, plasma membrane-associated FYN expression strongly correlated with longer progression-free survival (P<0.0002). Similarly, in early breast cancer patients, membrane-associated expression of FYN in the primary breast tumor was significantly associated with increased metastasis-free (P<0.04) and overall (P<0.004) survival independent of tumor size, grade or lymph node status. Our results indicate that FYN has an important role in tamoxifen resistance, and its subcellular localization in breast tumor cells may be an important novel biomarker of response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

Wu L, Herman JG, Brock MV, et al.
Silencing DACH1 promotes esophageal cancer growth by inhibiting TGF-β signaling.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95509 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human Dachshund homologue 1 (DACH1) is a major component of the Retinal Determination Gene Network. Loss of DACH1 expression was found in breast, prostate, lung, endometrial, colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma. To explore the expression, regulation and function of DACH1 in human esophageal cancer, 11 esophageal cancer cell lines, 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa, 51 cases of different grades of dysplasia and 104 cases of primary esophageal squamous cancer were employed. Methylation specific PCR, immunohistochemistry, western blot, flow cytometry, small interfering RNAs, colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that DACH1 expression was regulated by promoter region hypermethylation in esophageal cancer cell lines. 18.8% (6 of 32) of grade 1, 42.1% (8 of 19) of grade 2 and grade 3 dysplasia (ED2,3), and 61.5% (64 of 104) of esophageal cancer were methylated, but no methylation was found in 10 cases of normal esophageal mucosa. The methylation was increased in progression tendency during esophageal carcinogenesis (P<0.01). DACH1 methylation was associated with poor differentiation (P<0.05) and late tumor stage (P<0.05). Restoration of DACH1 expression inhibited cell growth and activated TGF-β signaling in KYSE150 and KYSE510 cells. DACH1 suppressed human esophageal cancer cell tumor growth in xenograft mice. In conclusion, DACH1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer and methylation of DACH1 is involved in the early stage of esophageal carcinogenesis. DACH1 expression is regulated by promoter region hypermethylation. DACH1 suppresses esophageal cancer growth by activating TGF-β signaling.

Vonlanthen J, Okoniewski MJ, Menigatti M, et al.
A comprehensive look at transcription factor gene expression changes in colorectal adenomas.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biological processes are controlled by transcription networks. Expression changes of transcription factor (TF) genes in precancerous lesions are therefore crucial events in tumorigenesis. Our aim was to obtain a comprehensive picture of these changes in colorectal adenomas.
METHODS: Using a 3-pronged selection procedure, we analyzed transcriptomic data on 34 human tissue samples (17 adenomas and paired samples of normal mucosa, all collected with ethics committee approval and written, informed patient consent) to identify TFs with highly significant tumor-associated gene expression changes whose potential roles in colorectal tumorigenesis have been under-researched. Microarray data were subjected to stringent statistical analysis of TF expression in tumor vs. normal tissues, MetaCore-mediated identification of TF networks displaying enrichment for genes that were differentially expressed in tumors, and a novel quantitative analysis of the publications examining the TF genes' roles in colorectal tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: The 261 TF genes identified with this procedure included DACH1, which plays essential roles in the proper proliferation and differentiation of retinal and leg precursor cell populations in Drosophila melanogaster. Its possible roles in colorectal tumorigenesis are completely unknown, but it was found to be markedly overexpressed (mRNA and protein) in all colorectal adenomas and in most colorectal carcinomas. However, DACH1 expression was absent in some carcinomas, most of which were DNA mismatch-repair deficient. When networks were built using the set of TF genes identified by all three selection procedures, as well as the entire set of transcriptomic changes in adenomas, five hub genes (TGFB1, BIRC5, MYB, NR3C1, and TERT) where identified as putatively crucial components of the adenomatous transformation process.
CONCLUSION: The transcription-regulating network of colorectal adenomas (compared with that of normal colorectal mucosa) is characterized by significantly altered expression of over 250 TF genes, many of which have never been investigated in relation to colorectal tumorigenesis.

Fortschegger K, Anderl S, Denk D, Strehl S
Functional heterogeneity of PAX5 chimeras reveals insight for leukemia development.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(4):595-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: PAX5, a transcription factor pivotal for B-cell commitment and maintenance, is one of the most frequent targets of somatic mutations in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A number of PAX5 rearrangements result in the expression of in-frame fusion genes encoding chimeric proteins, which at the N-terminus consistently retain the PAX5 DNA-binding paired domain fused to the C-terminal domains of a markedly heterogeneous group of fusion partners. PAX5 fusion proteins are thought to function as aberrant transcription factors, which antagonize wild-type PAX5 activity. To gain mechanistic insight into the role of PAX5 fusion proteins in leukemogenesis, the biochemical and functional properties of uncharacterized fusions: PAX5-DACH1, PAX5-DACH2, PAX5-ETV6, PAX5-HIPK1, and PAX5-POM121 were ascertained. Independent of the subcellular distribution of the wild-type partner proteins, ectopic expression of all PAX5 fusion proteins showed a predominant nuclear localization, and by chromatin immunoprecipitation all of the chimeric proteins exhibited binding to endogenous PAX5 target sequences. Furthermore, consistent with the presence of potential oligomerization motifs provided by the partner proteins, the self-interaction capability of several fusion proteins was confirmed. Remarkably, a subset of the PAX5 fusion proteins conferred CD79A promoter activity; however, in contrast with wild-type PAX5, the fusion proteins were unable to induce Cd79a transcription in a murine plasmacytoma cell line. These data show that leukemia-associated PAX5 fusion proteins share some dominating characteristics such as nuclear localization and DNA binding but also show distinctive features.
IMPLICATIONS: This comparative study of multiple PAX5 fusion proteins demonstrates both common and unique properties, which likely dictate their function and impact on leukemia development.

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