FGF19

Gene Summary

Gene:FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19
Location:11q13.3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This growth factor is a high affinity, heparin dependent ligand for FGFR4. Expression of this gene was detected only in fetal but not adult brain tissue. Synergistic interaction of the chick homolog and Wnt-8c has been shown to be required for initiation of inner ear development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 19
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF19 (cancer-related)

Katoh M
FGFR inhibitors: Effects on cancer cells, tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(1):3-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of heart toxicity. Endocrine FGF signaling affects the pathophysiology of cancer patients who are prescribed FGFR inhibitors. Whole-genome sequencing is necessary for the detection of promoter/enhancer alterations of FGFR genes and rare alterations of other genes causing FGFR overexpression. To sustain the health care system in an aging society, a benefit-cost analysis should be performed with a focus on disease-free survival and the total medical cost before implementing genome-based precision medicine for cancer patients.

Heilmann AM, Subbiah V, Wang K, et al.
Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Clinically Advanced Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Oncology. 2016; 90(6):339-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the genomic alterations of cancer-related genes in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma during the course of clinical care.
METHODS: Hybrid-capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 34 consecutive medullary thyroid carcinoma cases to identify all four classes of genomic alterations, and outcome for an index patient was collected.
RESULTS: RET was mutated in 88% (30/34) of cases, with RET M918T being responsible for 70% (21/30) of the RET alterations. The other RET alterations were RET E632_L633del, C634R, C620R, C618G/R/S, V804M, and RET amplification. Two of the four RET wild-type patients harbored mutations in KRAS or HRAS (1/34 each). The next most frequent genomic alterations were amplifications of CCND1, FGF3, and FGF19 and alterations in CDKN2A (3/34 each). One case with a RET M918T mutation developed acquired resistance to progressively dose-escalated vandetanib. When the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was added to continued vandetanib treatment, the patient achieved a second 25% reduction of tumor volume (RECIST 1.1) for 8 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive genomic profiling identified the full breadth of RET alterations in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and possible cooperating oncogenic driver alterations. This approach may refine the use of targeted therapy for these patients.

Wang S, Zhao D, Tian R, et al.
FGF19 Contributes to Tumor Progression in Gastric Cancer by Promoting Migration and Invasion.
Oncol Res. 2016; 23(4):197-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Since patients are often diagnosed at a late stage, very few effective therapies are left in the arsenal. FGF19, as a hormone, has been reported to promote tumor growth in various types of cancer; however, its function in gastric cancer remains unknown. In the current study, we showed that FGF19 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that FGF19 is able to enhance migration and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells. Given its great potency in gastric cancer progression, FGF19 may be an effective target of treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients.

Tan Q, Li F, Wang G, et al.
Identification of FGF19 as a prognostic marker and potential driver gene of lung squamous cell carcinomas in Chinese smoking patients.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18394-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Comprehensive genomic characterizations of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) have been performed, but the differences between smokers (S-LSCC) and never smokers (NS-LSCC) are not clear, as NS-LSCC could be considered as a different disease from S-LSCC. In this study we delineated genomic alterations in a cohort of 21 NS-LSCC and 16 S-LSCC patients, and identified common gene mutations and amplifications as previously reported. Inclusion of more NS-LSCC patients enabled us to identify unreported S-LSCC- or NS-LSCC-specific alterations. Importantly, an amplification region containing FGF19, FGF3, FGF4 and CCND1 was found five-times more frequent in S-LSCC than in NS-LSCC. Amplification of FGF19 was validated in independent LSCC samples. Furthermore, FGF19 stimulated LSCC cell growth in vitro. These data implicate FGF19 as a potential driver gene in LSCC with clinic characteristics as smoking.

Ross JS, Gay LM, Nozad S, et al.
Clinically advanced and metastatic pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast: a comprehensive genomic profiling study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 155(2):405-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pure mucinous breast carcinoma (pmucBC) is a distinctive variant of breast cancer (BC) featuring an excellent overall prognosis. However, on rare occasions, pmucBC pursues an aggressive clinical course. We queried whether comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) would uncover clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGA) that could lead to targeted therapy treatment for patients with an advanced and metastatic form of pmucBC.
METHODS: From a series of 51,238 total cancer samples, which included 5605 cases of clinically advanced BC and 22 cases of stage IV pmucBC, DNA was extracted from 40 microns of FFPE sections. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation-based next generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 564X. The results were analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations (GA) including base substitutions, insertions and deletions, select rearrangements, and copy number changes. Clinically relevant genomic alterations were defined as those indicating possible treatment with anti-cancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.
RESULTS: Samples were obtained from breast (11), lymph nodes (3), chest wall (2), liver (2), soft tissue (2), bone (1), and pleura (1). The median age of the 22 pmucBC patients was 57 years (range 32-79 years). Three pmucBCs were grade 1, 17 were grade 2, and 2 were grade 3. Twenty-one (95 %) pmucBC were ER+, 18 (82 %) were PR+, and 3 (14 %) were HER2+ by IHC and/or FISH. A total of 132 GA were identified (6.0 GA per tumor), including 53 CRGA, for a mean of 2.4 GA per tumor. Amplification of FGFR1 or ZNF703, located within the same amplicon, was found in 8 of 22 cases (36 %). This enrichment of FGFR1 amplification in 36 % of pmucBC versus 11 % of non-mucinous ER+ BC (601 cases) was significant (p < 0.005). Other frequently altered genes of interest in pmucBC were CCND1 and the FGF3/FGF4/FGF19 amplicon (27 %), often co-amplified together. ERBB2/HER2 alterations were identified in 5 pmucBC (23 %): ERBB2 amplification was found in 3 of 3 cases (100 %) that were HER2+ by IHC and/or FISH; 1 pmucBC was negative for HER2 overexpression by IHC, but positive for amplification by CGP; and 2 pmucBC harbored the ERBB2 substitutions D769Y and V777L (one sample also featured ERBB2 amplification). The enrichment of ERBB2 GA in metastatic pmucBC versus non-metastatic primary pmucBC was significant (p = 0.03). CRGA were also found in 20 additional genes including PIK3CA (5), BRCA1 (1), TSC2 (1), STK11 (1), AKT3 (1), and ESR1 (1).
CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic pmucBC is a distinct form of breast cancer that features a relatively high frequency of CRGA, including a significant enrichment of FGFR1 alterations and a high frequency of ERBB2 alterations when compared with non-metastatic pmucBC. These findings suggest that CGP can identify a variety of known and emerging therapy targets that have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with clinically advanced and metastatic forms of this disease.

Hu L, Cong L
Fibroblast growth factor 19 is correlated with an unfavorable prognosis and promotes progression by activating fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2683-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) has been confirmed to be associated with the progression and prognosis of ovarian cancer, while the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated and the clinical significance of its ligand, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), has not been explored. To study the clinical significance of FGF19 in advanced‑stage serous ovarian cancer, we detected the expression of FGF19 and FGFR4 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), evaluated the correlation between FGF19 and clinicopathological factors by Chi-square (χ2) test, and analyzed the association between FGF19, FGFR4 and the overall survival rate using the Kaplan‑Meier method. As a result, we demonstrated that high expression of FGF19 and FGFR4 both predicted unfavorable prognosis (P=0.033 and 0.018, respectively), whereas FGF19-FGFR4 double high expression was a more sensitive prognostic factor of advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer (P<0.001). With experiments in vitro, we demonstrated that both recombinant FGF19 and secreted FGF19 promoted ovarian cancer proliferation and invasion by activating FGFR4 and the subsequent AKT-MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that FGF19-FGFR4 signaling may auto-activate in a paracrine or autocrine manner. In conclusion, FGF19-FGFR4 double high expression was a more sensitive prognostic factor than FGF19 or FGFR4 alone in advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer. The FGF19-FGFR4 signaling pathway can promote ovarian cancer proliferation and invasion by the AKT-MAPK signaling pathway, indicating that FGF19 could be a potential therapeutic drug target of advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer.

Arnold A, Bahra M, Lenze D, et al.
Genome wide DNA copy number analysis in cholangiocarcinoma using high resolution molecular inversion probe single nucleotide polymorphism assay.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(2):344-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to study molecular similarities and differences of intrahepatic (IH-CCA) and extrahepatic (EH-CCA) cholangiocarcinoma, 24 FFPE tumor samples (13 IH-CCA, 11 EH-CCA) were analyzed for whole genome copy number variations (CNVs) using a new high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay. Common in both tumor subtypes the most frequent losses were detected on chromosome 1p, 3p, 6q and 9 while gains were mostly seen in 1q, 8q as well as complete chromosome 17 and 20. Applying the statistical GISTIC (Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer) tool we identified potential novel candidate tumor suppressor- (DBC1, FHIT, PPP2R2A) and oncogenes (LYN, FGF19, GRB7, PTPN1) within these regions of chromosomal instability. Next to common aberrations in IH-CCA and EH-CCA, we additionally found significant differences in copy number variations on chromosome 3 and 14. Moreover, due to the fact that mutations in the Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-1 and IDH-2) genes are more frequent in our IH-CCA than in our EH-CCA samples, we suggest that the tumor subtypes have a different molecular profile. In conclusion, new possible target genes within regions of high significant copy number aberrations were detected using a high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay, which opens a future perspective of fast routine copy number and marker gene identification for gene targeted therapy.

Torrecilla S, Llovet JM
New molecular therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2015; 39 Suppl 1:S80-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem. Mortality owing to liver cancer has increased in the past 20 years, with recent studies reporting an incidence of 780,000 cases/year. Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma are still diagnosed at intermediate or advanced disease stages, where curative approaches are often not feasible. Among the treatment options available, the molecular targeted agent sorafenib is able to significantly increase overall survival in these patients. Afterwards, up to 7 randomized phase III clinical trials investigating other molecular therapies in the first-line and second-line settings have failed to improve survival. Potential reasons for this include intertumor heterogeneity, issues with trial design and a lack of predictive biomarkers of response. Advance in our knowledge of the human genome has provided a comprehensive picture of commonly mutated genes in patients with HCC including mutations in the TERT promoter, CTNNB1, TP53 and ARID1A along with other amplifications (FGF19, VEGFA) or homozygous deletions (p16) as the most frequent alterations. This knowledge points toward specific drivers as candidate for druggable therapies. Thus, progressive implementation of proof-of-concept and enrichment might improve results in clinical trials testing of molecular targeted agents. Ultimately, these studies are aimed at long-term to improve current standards of care and influenced clinical decision-making and practice guidelines.

Dallol A, Buhmeida A, Merdad A, et al.
Frequent methylation of the KLOTHO gene and overexpression of the FGFR4 receptor in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9677-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. The marked heterogeneity of breast cancer is matched only with the heterogeneity in its associated or causative factors. Breast cancer in Saudi Arabia is apparently an early onset with many of the affected females diagnosed before they reach the age of 50 years. One possible rationale underlying this observation is that consanguinity, which is widely spread in the Saudi community, is causing the accumulation of yet undetermined cancer susceptibility mutations. Another factor could be the accumulation of epigenetic aberrations caused by the shift toward a Western-like lifestyle in the past two decades. In order to shed some light into the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer in the Saudi community, we identified KLOTHO (KL) as a tumor-specific methylated gene using genome-wide methylation analysis of primary breast tumors utilizing the MBD-seq approach. KL methylation was frequent as it was detected in 55.3 % of breast cancer cases from Saudi Arabia (n = 179) using MethyLight assay. Furthermore, KL is downregulated in breast tumors with its expression induced following treatment with 5-azacytidine. The involvement of KL in breast cancer led us to investigate its relationship in the context of breast cancer, with one of the protagonists of its function, fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). Overexpression of FGFR4 in breast cancer is frequent in our cohort and this overexpression is associated with poor overall survival. Interestingly, FGFR4 expression is higher in the absence of KL methylation and lower when KL is methylated and presumably silenced, which is suggestive of an intricate relationship between the two factors. In conclusion, our findings further implicate "metabolic" genes or pathways in breast cancer that are disrupted by epigenetic mechanisms and could provide new avenues for understanding this disease in a new context.

Su YZ, Wang CB, Zhou Y, Sun NT
Effects of changes in serum endostatin and fibroblast growth factor 19 on the chemotherapeutic sensitivity in acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):5181-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to explore the changes in serum endostatin and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) in acute myeloid leukemia patients, and to determine their effects on chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Sixty acute myeloid leukemia patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patient serum endostatin and FGF-19 levels were measured on admission, and then, standard chemotherapy was administered. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to chemotherapeutic effects: 21 patients in the chemotherapeutic sensitivity group (complete remission + partial remission) and 39 in the chemotherapeutic resistance group (no remission + degradation). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to analyze the relationship of serum endostatin and FGF-19 levels with chemotherapeutic sensitivity in acute myeloid leukemia patients. The levels of serum endostatin and FGF-19 in acute myeloid leukemia patients before chemotherapy were significantly higher than those in the control group. Moreover, these levels significantly decreased after chemotherapy (P < 0.01). The levels of serum endostatin and FGF-19 in the chemotherapeutic sensitivity group were lower than those in the chemotherapeutic resistance group, both before and after chemotherapy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed that the predictive values of endostatin and FGF-19 were good, and there was no significant difference between these results. In conclusion, serum endostatin and FGF-19 can be used as predictors of chemotherapeutic sensitivity for acute myeloid leukemia patients, and may be important for determining prognosis.

Zucman-Rossi J, Villanueva A, Nault JC, Llovet JM
Genetic Landscape and Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(5):1226-1239.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has emerged as a major cause of cancer-related death. Its mortality has increased in Western populations, with a minority of patients diagnosed at early stages, when curative treatments are feasible. Only the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is available for the management of advanced cases. During the last 10 years, there has been a clear delineation of the landscape of genetic alterations in HCC, including high-level DNA amplifications in chromosome 6p21 (VEGFA) and 11q13 (FGF19/CNND1), as well as homozygous deletions in chromosome 9 (CDKN2A). The most frequent mutations affect TERT promoter (60%), associated with an increased telomerase expression. TERT promoter can also be affected by copy number variations and hepatitis B DNA insertions, and it can be found mutated in preneoplastic lesions. TP53 and CTNNB1 are the next most prevalent mutations, affecting 25%-30% of HCC patients, that, in addition to low-frequency mutated genes (eg, AXIN1, ARID2, ARID1A, TSC1/TSC2, RPS6KA3, KEAP1, MLL2), help define some of the core deregulated pathways in HCC. Conceptually, some of these changes behave as prototypic oncogenic addiction loops, being ideal biomarkers for specific therapeutic approaches. Data from genomic profiling enabled a proposal of HCC in 2 major molecular clusters (proliferation and nonproliferation), with differential enrichment in prognostic signatures, pathway activation and tumor phenotype. Translation of these discoveries into specific therapeutic decisions is an unmet medical need in this field.

Feng S, Wang J, Zhang Y, et al.
FGF23 promotes prostate cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(19):17291-301 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in US men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an endocrine FGF, normally expressed by osteocytes, which plays a critical role in phosphate homeostasis via a feedback loop involving the kidney and vitamin D. We now show that FGF23 is expressed as an autocrine growth factor in all prostate cancer cell lines tested and is present at increased levels in prostate cancer tissues. Exogenous FGF23 enhances proliferation, invasion and anchorage independent growth in vitro while FGF23 knockdown in prostate cancer cell lines decreases these phenotypes. FGF23 knockdown also decreases tumor growth in vivo. Given that classical FGFs and FGF19 are also increased in prostate cancer, we analyzed expression microarrays hybridized with RNAs from of LNCaP cells stimulated with FGF2, FGF19 or FGF23. The different FGF ligands induce overlapping as well as unique patterns of gene expression changes and thus are not redundant. We identified multiple genes whose expression is altered by FGF23 that are associated with prostate cancer initiation and progression. Thus FGF23 can potentially also act as an autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine growth factor in prostate cancer that can promote prostate cancer progression.

Parish A, Schwaederle M, Daniels G, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor family aberrations in cancers: clinical and molecular characteristics.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(13):2121-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor ligands and receptors (FGF and FGFR) play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and several drugs have been developed to target them. We report the biologic correlates of FGF/FGFR abnormalities in diverse malignancies. The medical records of patients with cancers that underwent targeted next generation sequencing (182 or 236 cancer-related genes) were reviewed. The following FGF/FGFR genes were tested: FGF3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 19, 23 and FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4. Of 391 patients, 56 (14.3%) had aberrant FGF (N = 38, all amplifications) and/or FGFR (N = 22 including 5 mutations and one FGFR3-TACC3 fusion). FGF/FGFR aberrations were most frequent in breast cancers (26/81, 32.1%, p = 0.0003). In multivariate analysis, FGF/FGFR abnormalities were independently associated with CCND1/2, RICTOR, ZNF703, RPTOR, AKT2, and CDK8 alterations (all P < 0.02), as well as with an increased median number of alterations (P < 0.0001). FGF3, FGF4, FGF19 and CCND1 were co-amplified in 22 of 391 patients (5.6%, P < 0.0001), most likely because they co-localize on the same chromosomal region (11q13). There was no significant difference in time to metastasis or overall survival when comparing patients harboring FGF/FGFR alterations versus those not. Overall, FGF/FGFR was one of the most frequently aberrant pathways in our population comprising patients with diverse malignancies. These aberrations frequently co-exist with anomalies in a variety of other genes, suggesting that tailored combination therapy may be necessary in these patients.

Schulze K, Imbeaud S, Letouzé E, et al.
Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(5):505-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Genomic analyses promise to improve tumor characterization to optimize personalized treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exome sequencing analysis of 243 liver tumors identified mutational signatures associated with specific risk factors, mainly combined alcohol and tobacco consumption and exposure to aflatoxin B1. We identified 161 putative driver genes associated with 11 recurrently altered pathways. Associations of mutations defined 3 groups of genes related to risk factors and centered on CTNNB1 (alcohol), TP53 (hepatitis B virus, HBV) and AXIN1. Analyses according to tumor stage progression identified TERT promoter mutation as an early event, whereas FGF3, FGF4, FGF19 or CCND1 amplification and TP53 and CDKN2A alterations appeared at more advanced stages in aggressive tumors. In 28% of the tumors, we identified genetic alterations potentially targetable by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. In conclusion, we identified risk factor-specific mutational signatures and defined the extensive landscape of altered genes and pathways in HCC, which will be useful to design clinical trials for targeted therapy.

Sia D, Losic B, Moeini A, et al.
Massive parallel sequencing uncovers actionable FGFR2-PPHLN1 fusion and ARAF mutations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:6087 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a fatal bile duct cancer with dismal prognosis and limited therapeutic options. By performing RNA- and exome-sequencing analyses, we report a novel fusion event, FGFR2-PPHLN1 (16%), and damaging mutations in the ARAF oncogene (11%). Here we demonstrate that the chromosomal translocation t(10;12)(q26;q12) leading to FGFR2-PPHLN1 fusion possesses transforming and oncogenic activity, which is successfully inhibited by a selective FGFR2 inhibitor in vitro. Among the ARAF mutations, N217I and G322S lead to activation of the pathway and N217I shows oncogenic potential in vitro. Screening of a cohort of 107 iCCA patients reveals that FGFR2 fusions represent the most recurrent targetable alteration (45%, 17/107), while they are rarely present in other primary liver tumours (0/100 of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); 1/21 of mixed iCCA-HCC). Taken together, around 70% of iCCA patients harbour at least one actionable molecular alteration (FGFR2 fusions, IDH1/2, ARAF, KRAS, BRAF and FGF19) that is amenable for therapeutic targeting.

Uriarte I, Latasa MU, Carotti S, et al.
Ileal FGF15 contributes to fibrosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma development.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(10):2469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), FGF19 in humans, is a gut-derived hormone and a key regulator of bile acids and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF15 also participates in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy inducing hepatocellular proliferation. FGF19 is overexpressed in a significant proportion of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), and activation of its receptor FGFR4 promotes HCC cell growth. Here we addressed for the first time the role of endogenous Fgf15 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Fgf15(+/+) and Fgf15(-/-) mice were subjected to a clinically relevant model of liver inflammation and fibrosis-associated carcinogenesis. Fgf15(-/-) mice showed less and smaller tumors, and histological neoplastic lesions were also smaller than in Fgf15(+/+) animals. Importantly, ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression was enhanced in mice undergoing carcinogenesis, but at variance with human HCC it was not detected in liver or HCC tissues, while circulating FGF15 protein was clearly upregulated. Hepatocellular proliferation was also reduced in Fgf15(-/-) mice, which also expressed lower levels of the HCC marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Interestingly, lack of FGF15 resulted in attenuated fibrogenesis. However, in vitro experiments showed that liver fibrogenic stellate cells were not direct targets for FGF15/FGF19. Conversely we demonstrate that FGF15/FGF19 induces the expression of the pro-fibrogenic and pro-tumorigenic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in hepatocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an FGF15-triggered CTGF-mediated paracrine action on stellate cells, and an amplification mechanism for the hepatocarcinogenic effects of FGF15 via CTGF production. In summary, our observations indicate that ileal FGF15 may contribute to HCC development in a context of chronic liver injury and fibrosis.

Luo J, Ko B, Elliott M, et al.
A nontumorigenic variant of FGF19 treats cholestatic liver diseases.
Sci Transl Med. 2014; 6(247):247ra100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatic accumulation of bile acids is central to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases. Endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) may reduce hepatic bile acid levels through modulation of bile acid synthesis and prevent subsequent liver damage. However, FGF19 has also been implicated in hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and consequently, the potential risk from prolonged exposure to supraphysiological levels of the hormone represents a major hurdle for developing an FGF19-based therapy. We describe a nontumorigenic FGF19 variant, M70, which regulates bile acid metabolism and, through inhibition of bile acid synthesis and reduction of excess hepatic bile acid accumulation, protects mice from liver injury induced by either extrahepatic or intrahepatic cholestasis. Administration of M70 in healthy human volunteers potently reduces serum levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, a surrogate marker for the hepatic activity of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the enzyme responsible for catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in the classical bile acid synthetic pathway. This study provides direct evidence for the regulation of bile acid metabolism by FGF19 pathway in humans. On the basis of these results, the development of nontumorigenic FGF19 variants capable of modulating CYP7A1 expression represents an effective approach for the prevention and treatment of cholestatic liver diseases as well as potentially for other disorders associated with bile acid dysregulation.

Wheler JJ, Parker BA, Lee JJ, et al.
Unique molecular signatures as a hallmark of patients with metastatic breast cancer: implications for current treatment paradigms.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(9):2349-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Our analysis of the tumors of 57 women with metastatic breast cancer with next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrates that each patient's tumor is unique in its molecular fingerprint. We observed 216 somatic aberrations in 70 different genes, including 131 distinct aberrations. The most common gene alterations (in order of decreasing frequency) included: TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, MYC, HER2 (ERBB2), MCL1, PTEN, FGFR1, GATA3, NF1, PIK3R1, BRCA2, EGFR, IRS2, CDH1, CDKN2A, FGF19, FGF3 and FGF4. Aberrations included mutations (46%), amplifications (45%), deletions (5%), splices (2%), truncations (1%), fusions (0.5%) and rearrangements (0.5%), with multiple distinct variants within the same gene. Many of these aberrations represent druggable targets, either through direct pathway inhibition or through an associated pathway (via 'crosstalk'). The 'molecular individuality' of these tumors suggests that a customized strategy, using an "N-of-One" model of precision medicine, may represent an optimal approach for the treatment of patients with advanced tumors.

Ahn SM, Jang SJ, Shim JH, et al.
Genomic portrait of resectable hepatocellular carcinomas: implications of RB1 and FGF19 aberrations for patient stratification.
Hepatology. 2014; 60(6):1972-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hepatic resection is the most curative treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma, but is associated with a high recurrence rate, which exceeds 50% at 5 years after surgery. Understanding the genetic basis of hepatocellular carcinoma at surgically curable stages may enable the identification of new molecular biomarkers that accurately identify patients in need of additional early therapeutic interventions. Whole exome sequencing and copy number analysis was performed on 231 hepatocellular carcinomas (72% with hepatitis B viral infection) that were classified as early-stage hepatocellular carcinomas, candidates for surgical resection. Recurrent mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Unsupervised genomic analyses identified an association between specific genetic aberrations and postoperative clinical outcomes. Recurrent somatic mutations were identified in nine genes, including TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, RPS6KA3, and RB1. Recurrent homozygous deletions in FAM123A, RB1, and CDKN2A, and high-copy amplifications in MYC, RSPO2, CCND1, and FGF19 were detected. Pathway analyses of these genes revealed aberrations in the p53, Wnt, PIK3/Ras, cell cycle, and chromatin remodeling pathways. RB1 mutations were significantly associated with cancer-specific and recurrence-free survival after resection (multivariate P = 0.038 and P = 0.012, respectively). FGF19 amplifications, known to activate Wnt signaling, were mutually exclusive with CTNNB1 and AXIN1 mutations, and significantly associated with cirrhosis (P = 0.017).
CONCLUSION: RB1 mutations can be used as a prognostic molecular biomarker for resectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Further study is required to investigate the potential role of FGF19 amplification in driving hepatocarcinogenesis in patients with liver cirrhosis and to investigate the potential of anti-FGF19 treatment in these patients.

Xu YF, Yang XQ, Lu XF, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(1):54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P=0.002) and PHCC (P=0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P=0.045) and PHCC (P=0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

Gu DL, Chen YH, Shih JH, et al.
Target genes discovery through copy number alteration analysis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(47):8873-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
High-throughput short-read sequencing of exomes and whole cancer genomes in multiple human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cohorts confirmed previously identified frequently mutated somatic genes, such as TP53, CTNNB1 and AXIN1, and identified several novel genes with moderate mutation frequencies, including ARID1A, ARID2, MLL, MLL2, MLL3, MLL4, IRF2, ATM, CDKN2A, FGF19, PIK3CA, RPS6KA3, JAK1, KEAP1, NFE2L2, C16orf62, LEPR, RAC2, and IL6ST. Functional classification of these mutated genes suggested that alterations in pathways participating in chromatin remodeling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling, JAK/STAT signaling, and oxidative stress play critical roles in HCC tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, because there are few druggable genes used in HCC therapy, the identification of new therapeutic targets through integrated genomic approaches remains an important task. Because a large amount of HCC genomic data genotyped by high density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays is deposited in the public domain, copy number alteration (CNA) analyses of these arrays is a cost-effective way to reveal target genes through profiling of recurrent and overlapping amplicons, homozygous deletions and potentially unbalanced chromosomal translocations accumulated during HCC progression. Moreover, integration of CNAs with other high-throughput genomic data, such as aberrantly coding transcriptomes and non-coding gene expression in human HCC tissues and rodent HCC models, provides lines of evidence that can be used to facilitate the identification of novel HCC target genes with the potential of improving the survival of HCC patients.

Wang D, Zhu W, Li J, et al.
Serum concentrations of fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: association with insulin resistance, adiponectin, and polycystic ovary syndrome history.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e81190 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and FGF21 are considered to be novel adipokines that improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In the current study, we investigated serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and explored their relationships with anthropometric and endocrine parameters.
METHOD: Serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients with GDM (n = 30) and healthy pregnant controls (n = 60) matched for maternal and gestational age. Serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels were correlated with anthropometric, metabolic, and endocrine parameters.
RESULTS: Circulating levels of FGF19 were significantly reduced in patients with GDM relative to healthy pregnant subjects, whereas FGF21 levels were increased in GDM patients. Serum FGF19 levels independently and inversely correlated with insulin resistance (increased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) and were positively related to serum adiponectin in both groups. In contrast, serum FGF21 levels independently and positively correlated with insulin resistance and serum triglycerides and were inversely related to serum adiponectin. In addition, in the combined population of both groups, those women with preconception polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) history had the lowest levels of FGF19, which were significantly lower than those in GDM patients without PCOS history and those in controls without PCOS history.
CONCLUSIONS: Circulating FGF19 levels are reduced in GDM patients, in contrast with FGF21 levels. Both serum FGF19 and FGF21 levels are strongly related to insulin resistance and serum levels of adiponectin. Considering the different situation between FGF19 and FGF21, we suggest that reduced serum FGF19 levels could be involved in the pathophysiology of GDM, while increased serum FGF21 levels could be in a compensatory response to this disease.

Ye YW, Hu S, Shi YQ, et al.
Combination of the FGFR4 inhibitor PD173074 and 5-fluorouracil reduces proliferation and promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2777-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous findings revealed that FGFR4 may be a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a combination of PD173074 (PD) and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) on the biological behavior of gastric cancer cell lines and the relevant mechanisms involved. MKN45, a gastric cancer cell line, was treated with each single agent alone or a combination of FGF19, PD and 5-Fu. Then, a series of functional assays were performed using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of signaling pathway and downstream-related molecules in the MKN45 cells following the different treatments. As the concentration of PD and 5-Fu increased, the cell viability gradually decreased; the viability of the combination group was less than the viability following single administration. Western blot analysis showed that FGFR4 expression was weak in the 5-Fu-treated groups when compared with the control. PD markedly increased the apoptosis rate of MKN45 cells when compared to the control; the apoptosis rate in the cells treated with the combination of PD and 5-Fu was higher than that in the cells following single treatment. Furthermore, PD reduced the expression of p-ERK and Bcl-xl and increased caspase-3 expression. Inhibition of the activity of FGFR4 may be the main mechanisms of PD effect while 5-Fu reduced FGFR4 expression. Furthermore, the effects of the combination of 5-Fu and PD in inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle were superior to these effects following the single agent treatments, suggesting that the two drugs applied in combination may contribute to the effective treatment of gastric cancer.

Ezzat S, Zheng L, Florez JC, et al.
The cancer-associated FGFR4-G388R polymorphism enhances pancreatic insulin secretion and modifies the risk of diabetes.
Cell Metab. 2013; 17(6):929-40 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4)-R388 single-nucleotide polymorphism has been associated with cancer risk and prognosis. Here we show that the FGFR4-R388 allele yields a receptor variant that preferentially promotes STAT3/5 signaling. This STAT activation transcriptionally induces Grb14 in pancreatic endocrine cells to promote insulin secretion. Knockin mice with the FGFR4 variant allele develop pancreatic islets that secrete more insulin, a feature that is reversed through Grb14 deletion and enhanced with FGF19 administration. We also show in humans that the FGFR4-R388 allele enhances islet function and may protect against type 2 diabetes. These data support a common genetic link underlying cancer and hyperinsulinemia.

Feng S, Dakhova O, Creighton CJ, Ittmann M
Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(8):2551-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require α-Klotho (KL) and/or β-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting.

Latasa MU, Salis F, Urtasun R, et al.
Regulation of amphiregulin gene expression by β-catenin signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells: a novel crosstalk between FGF19 and the EGFR system.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52711 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most prevalent liver tumor and a deadly disease with limited therapeutic options. Dysregulation of cell signaling pathways is a common denominator in tumorigenesis, including hepatocarcinogenesis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling system is commonly activated in HCC, and is currently being evaluated as a therapeutic target in combination therapies. We and others have identified a central role for the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AR) in the proliferation, survival and drug resistance of HCC cells. AR expression is frequently up-regulated in HCC tissues and cells through mechanisms not completely known. Here we identify the β-catenin signaling pathway as a novel mechanism leading to transcriptional activation of the AR gene in human HCC cells. Activation of β-catenin signaling, or expression of the T41A β-catenin active mutant, led to the induction of AR expression involving three specific β-catenin-Tcf responsive elements in its proximal promoter. We demonstrate that HCC cells expressing the T41A β-catenin active mutant show enhanced proliferation that is dependent in part on AR expression and EGFR signaling. We also demonstrate here a novel cross-talk of the EGFR system with fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). FGF19 is a recently identified driver gene in hepatocarcinogenesis and an activator of β-catenin signaling in HCC and colon cancer cells. We show that FGF19 induced AR gene expression through the β-catenin pathway in human HCC cells. Importantly, AR up-regulation and EGFR signaling participated in the induction of cyclin D1 and cell proliferation elicited by FGF19. Finally, we demonstrate a positive correlation between FGF19 and AR expression in human HCC tissues, therefore supporting in clinical samples our experimental observations. These findings identify the AR/EGFR system as a key mediator of FGF19 responses in HCC cells involving β-catenin signaling, and suggest that combined targeting of FGF19 and AR/EGFR may enhance therapeutic efficacy.

Hillbertz NS, Hirsch JM, Jalouli J, et al.
Viral and molecular aspects of oral cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(10):4201-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. SCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, virus infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. Herein, we review the available literature regarding high-risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco usage; discuss the roles of human papillomaviruses (HPV), the Epstein-Barr virus, and the human herpes simplex virus (HSV); and evaluate several candidate genes associated with the condition: p53, p16(INK4) and p21(WAF1/CIPI), survivin, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), keratins, Fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3), FGF4, FGF19, Oral cancer overexpressed gene 1 (ORAOV1), and Cyclin D1 (CCND1).

Guagnano V, Kauffmann A, Wöhrle S, et al.
FGFR genetic alterations predict for sensitivity to NVP-BGJ398, a selective pan-FGFR inhibitor.
Cancer Discov. 2012; 2(12):1118-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Patient stratification biomarkers that enable the translation of cancer genetic knowledge into clinical use are essential for the successful and rapid development of emerging targeted anticancer therapeutics. Here, we describe the identification of patient stratification biomarkers for NVP-BGJ398, a novel and selective fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor. By intersecting genome-wide gene expression and genomic alteration data with cell line-sensitivity data across an annotated collection of cancer cell lines called the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, we show that genetic alterations for FGFR family members predict for sensitivity to NVP-BGJ398. For the first time, we report oncogenic FGFR1 amplification in osteosarcoma as a potential patient selection biomarker. Furthermore, we show that cancer cell lines harboring FGF19 copy number gain at the 11q13 amplicon are sensitive to NVP-BGJ398 only when concomitant expression of β-klotho occurs. Thus, our findings provide the rationale for the clinical development of FGFR inhibitors in selected patients with cancer harboring tumors with the identified predictors of sensitivity.
SIGNIFICANCE: The success of a personalized medicine approach using targeted therapies ultimately depends on being able to identify the patients who will benefit the most from any given drug. To this end, we have integrated the molecular profiles for more than 500 cancer cell lines with sensitivity data for the novel anticancer drug NVP-BGJ398 and showed that FGFR genetic alterations are the most significant predictors for sensitivity. This work has ultimately endorsed the incorporation of specific patient selection biomakers in the clinical trials for NVP-BGJ398.

Herraez E, Gonzalez-Sanchez E, Vaquero J, et al.
Cisplatin-induced chemoresistance in colon cancer cells involves FXR-dependent and FXR-independent up-regulation of ABC proteins.
Mol Pharm. 2012; 9(9):2565-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Export pumps often limit the usefulness of anticancer drugs. Here we investigated the effect of cisplatin on the expression of ABC proteins in human colon cancer cells. Short-term incubation of Caco-2 and LS174T cells with cisplatin resulted in up-regulation of several ABC pumps, in particular MRP2 and BCRP. In partially cisplatin-resistant cells (LS174T/R) obtained by long-term exposure to cisplatin, MRP2 and BCRP up-regulation was more marked. This was further enhanced when these cells were cultured under maintained stimulation with cisplatin. The MRP2 promoter (MRP2pr) was cloned, and partially deleted constructs linked to reporter genes were generated. Transfection of LS174T and LS174T/R cells with these constructs revealed the ability of cisplatin to activate MRP2pr. The intensity of this response was dependent on the conserved MRP2pr region. Basal MRP2pr activity was higher in LS174T/R cells, in which the expression of the transcription factors c/EBPβ, HNF1α, HNF3β, and HNF4α, but not PXR, p53, c-Myc, AP1, YB-1, NRF2, and RARα was enhanced. Up-regulation was particularly high for FXR (200-fold) and SHP (50-fold). In LS174T/R cells, GW4064 induced the expression of FGF19, SHP, OSTα/β, but not MRP2 and BCRP, although the sensitivity of these cells to cisplatin was further reduced. In LS174T cells, GW4064-induced chemoresistance was seen only after being transfected with FXR+RXR, when BCRP, but not MRP2, was up-regulated. Protection of LS174T cells against cisplatin was mimicked by transfection with BCRP. In conclusion, in colon cancer cells, cisplatin treatment enhances chemoresistance through FXR-dependent and FXR-independent mechanisms involving the expression of BCRP and MRP2, respectively.

Ying J, Shan L, Li J, et al.
Genome-wide screening for genetic alterations in esophageal cancer by aCGH identifies 11q13 amplification oncogenes associated with nodal metastasis.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39797 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is highly prevalent in China and other Asian countries, as a major cause of cancer-related mortality. ESCC displays complex chromosomal abnormalities, including multiple structural and numerical aberrations. Chromosomal abnormalities, such as recurrent amplifications and homozygous deletions, directly contribute to tumorigenesis through altering the expression of key oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: To understand the role of genetic alterations in ESCC pathogenesis and identify critical amplification/deletion targets, we performed genome-wide 1-Mb array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis for 10 commonly used ESCC cell lines. Recurrent chromosomal gains were frequently detected on 3q26-27, 5p15-14, 8p12, 8p22-24, 11q13, 13q21-31, 18p11 and 20q11-13, with frequent losses also found on 8p23-22, 11q22, 14q32 and 18q11-23. Gain of 11q13.3-13.4 was the most frequent alteration in ESCC. Within this region, CCND1 oncogene was identified with high level of amplification and overexpression in ESCC, while FGF19 and SHANK2 was also remarkably over-expressed. Moreover, a high concordance (91.5%) of gene amplification and protein overexpression of CCND1 was observed in primary ESCC tumors. CCND1 amplification/overexpression was also significantly correlated with the lymph node metastasis of ESCC.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that genomic gain of 11q13 is the major mechanism contributing to the amplification. Novel oncogenes identified within the 11q13 amplicon including FGF19 and SHANK2 may play important roles in ESCC tumorigenesis.

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