Gene Summary

Gene:FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This growth factor is a high affinity, heparin dependent ligand for FGFR4. Expression of this gene was detected only in fetal but not adult brain tissue. Synergistic interaction of the chick homolog and Wnt-8c has been shown to be required for initiation of inner ear development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 19
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (14)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (2)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF19 (cancer-related)

Harding JJ, Khalil DN, Abou-Alfa GK
Biomarkers: What Role Do They Play (If Any) for Diagnosis, Prognosis and Tumor Response Prediction for Hepatocellular Carcinoma?
Dig Dis Sci. 2019; 64(4):918-927 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common illness that affects patients worldwide. The disease remains poorly understood though several recent advances have increased the understanding of HCC biology and treatment.
METHODS: A literature review was conducted to understand the role of biomarkers in HCC clinical practice and highlight areas of critical investigation.
RESULTS: Candidate biomarkers may include differential alterations in HCC genomics, epigenomics, gene expression and transcriptomic profiles, protein expression, cellular composition of the microenvironment, and vasculature. To date no circulating or tumor diagnostic markers have been established in this disease. Likewise, prognostication is currently adjudicated by clinicopathologic features and it remains unclear if the incorporation of any biomarkers may help enhance the prognostic understanding following curative intents like surgery, transplant, and select regional therapy or palliative treatment including embolization or systemic therapy. Predictive biomarkers are investigational and are under evaluation for molecular pathways like TOR, MET, VEGFA, and FGF19. Tumoral genomics, HLA allele diversity and tumoral immune activation as predictive markers for immune checkpoint inhibitors are key focuses of ongoing research.
CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tumor and circulating biomarkers for HCC have not been defined though several markers have been proposed to guide patient care.

Gao L, Lang L, Zhao X, et al.
FGF19 amplification reveals an oncogenic dependency upon autocrine FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(13):2394-2404 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor 19 gene FGF19 has previously been reported to be amplified in several cancer types and encodes for a key autocrine signaler known to promote tumorigenic growth. Thus, it is imperative to understand which cancers are oncogenically addicted to FGF19 amplification as well as the role it serves in these cancer types. We report for the first time high FGF19 amplification in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), which is associated with increased autocrine secretion of FGF19 and poor patient outcome in HNSCC. FGF19 amplification corresponded with constitutive activation of FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4)-dependent ERK/AKT-p70S6K-S6 signaling activation in HNSCC cells, and addition of human recombinant FGF19 could promote cell proliferation and soft agar colony formation in HNSCC cells with low FGF19 expression through activation of FGFR4 and downstream signaling cascades. In contrast, FGF19 knockout counteracts the observed effects in HNSCC cells carrying high endogenous FGF19, with knockout of FGF19 significantly suppressing tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of HNSCC. Collectively, this study demonstrates that FGF19 gene amplification corresponds with an increased dependency upon FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling in HNSCC, revealing a therapeutic target for this cancer type.

Wang D, Zhang J, Li Z, et al.
Upregulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 Is Associated with the Initiation of Colorectal Adenoma.
Dig Dis. 2019; 37(3):214-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) promotes tumor growth in various types of cancer, but its function has not been investigated in the context of colorectal adenoma. Here, we report that FGF19 expression was greater in colorectal adenoma than in normal tissues, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry. FGF19 expression was also elevated in a subset of human colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4), the cognate receptor for FGF19, was upregulated in colorectal adenoma tissues. Lipid levels and body mass index values strongly correlated with FGF19 and FGFR4 levels in patients with colon adenomas. These observations indicate that the FGF19/FGFR4 pathway may be involved in the development of neoplasia, and that FGF19 may be a valuable diagnostic marker for the identification of patients with colorectal adenomas.

Liu S, Liu H, Dong Y, et al.
Gastric carcinoma with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor - A case report and literature review.
Med Sci (Paris). 2018; 34 Focus issue F1:15-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric carcinoma (GC) with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is encountered very rarely in the clinic, and few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we present a case involving a 72-year-old man who was diagnosed with gastric antrum adenocarcinoma accompanied by neuroendocrine differentiation and a GIST in the fundus, according to a preoperative examination and postoperative pathology. The patient then underwent a distal radical gastrectomy and GIST resection. After the operation, the patient was administered combined chemo-radiotherapy and subsequently underwent a 9-month follow-up examination. The gene mutations involved in this case were explored via high-throughput sequencing. The high-throughput gene mutation analysis indicated an exon5 mutation in the TP53 gene and copy number amplification of FGF19, CCND1, and FGFR2 in the gastric antrum adenocarcinoma. A gene sequencing analysis of the gastric fundus stromal tumor demonstrated an exon11 non-frame shift deletion mutation in the KIT gene. These findings suggested that this patient's cancer might be sensitive to AZD1775 (a TP53-targeted drug) or targeted drugs such as FGF19, CCND1 and FGFR2, and should be sensitive to imatinib.

Harding JJ, Nandakumar S, Armenia J, et al.
Prospective Genotyping of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Clinical Implications of Next-Generation Sequencing for Matching Patients to Targeted and Immune Therapies.
Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 25(7):2116-2126 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prior molecular profiling of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has identified actionable findings that may have a role in guiding therapeutic decision-making and clinical trial enrollment. We implemented prospective next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinic to determine whether such analyses provide predictive and/or prognostic information for HCC patients treated with contemporary systemic therapies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Matched tumor/normal DNA from patients with HCC (
RESULTS: WNT/β-catenin pathway (45%) and
CONCLUSIONS: Linking NGS to routine clinical care has the potential to identify those patients with HCC likely to benefit from standard systemic therapies and can be used in an investigational context to match patients to genome-directed targeted therapies.

Li JR, Chiu KY, Ou YC, et al.
Alteration in serum concentrations of FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 in patients with urothelial carcinoma.
Biofactors. 2019; 45(1):62-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) 19, 21, and 23 have been reported as functional factors in human metabolic diseases and malignancies. We performed a prospective survey to compare circulating FGF levels in urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients and normal controls. Between 2016 and 2017, 39 patients with UC of the urinary bladder or upper urinary tract who received surgical intervention were included. All the serum samples were obtained before surgeries. The control group included 28 healthy volunteers. Analysis of the circulating FGF19, 21, and 23 levels among all 67 subjects, as well as a subgroup analysis of the 39 UC patients were performed. The median levels of serum FGF19, 21, and 23 in the UC patients were 84.2, 505.3, and 117.6 pg/mL, respectively, which were statistically different from levels found in the healthy controls (P = 0.015, <0.001 and < 0.001, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, the FGF19 and FGF21 levels were significantly higher in end-stage renal disease UC patients, while FGF21 was also higher in the UC patients with cardiovascular diseases and history of recurrent UC. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, FGF19, 21, and 23 were all significant predictors of UC [area under the curve (AUC)] 0.674, P = 0.015; AUC 0.918, P < 0.001; AUC 0.897, P < 0.001, respectively). In UC patients, serum FGF19 level was significantly lower, while FGF21 and 23 were significantly higher, than respective levels in healthy controls. All three markers may serve as good predictors of UC occurrence, and FGF21 level was associated with disease recurrence. © 2018 BioFactors, 45(1):62-68, 2019.

Zhao X, Xu F, Dominguez NP, et al.
FGFR4 provides the conduit to facilitate FGF19 signaling in breast cancer progression.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1616-1625 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although genetic amplification and overexpression of the fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) gene are found in human breast cancer, mechanisms that contribute to such functional alterations remain elusive. We report here that high expression of FGF19 is associated with the aggressive malignant behavior and poor survival outcome of breast cancer patients. FGF19 is particularly highly expressed in luminal molecular subtype of breast tumors and its expression levels are positively associated with its secretion levels from breast cancer cells. Genetic knockout of FGF19 significantly induces repression of breast tumor progression and metastasis in either an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer or an experimental metastasis model. The FGF19 specific receptor, FGFR4, can be activated and subsequently upregulate AKT signaling in breast cancer cell upon FGF19, which is critical for oncogenic role of FGF19. Inactivation of FGFR4 by its inhibitor BLU9931 significantly attenuates FGF19-induced tumor-promoting activity, suggesting interruption of FGFR4 function is sufficient to affect FGF19-driven breast cancer. Overall, these insights support the idea that targeting FGFR4 in breast cancer cells overexpressing FGF19 may represent an effective strategy to suppress cancer development, progression, and metastasis.

DeLeon TT, Ahn DH, Bogenberger JM, et al.
Novel targeted therapy strategies for biliary tract cancers and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Future Oncol. 2018; 14(6):553-566 [PubMed] Related Publications
Worldwide hepatobiliary cancers are the second leading cause of cancer related death. Despite their relevance, hepatobiliary cancers have a paucity of approved systemic therapy options. However, there are a number of emerging therapeutic biomarkers and therapeutic concepts that show promise. In hepatocellular carcinoma, nivolumab appears particularly promising and recently received US FDA approval. In intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, therapies targeting FGFR2 and IDH1 and immune checkpoint inhibitors are the furthest along and generating the most excitement. There are additional biomarkers that merit further exploration in hepatobiliary cancers including FGF19, ERRFI1, TERT, BAP1, BRAF, CDKN2A, tumor mutational burden and ERBB2 (HER2/neu). Development of new and innovative therapies would help address the unmet need for effective systemic therapies in advanced and metastatic hepatobiliary cancers.

Gao L, Shay C, Lv F, et al.
Implications of FGF19 on sorafenib-mediated nitric oxide production in hepatocellular carcinoma cells - a short report.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2018; 41(1):85-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary neoplasm derived from hepatocytes, is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Previous work has shown that fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), an oncogenic driver, acts as a negative regulator of the therapeutic efficacy of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib in HCC cells. The FGF19-mediated mechanism affecting sorafenib treatment, however, still remains to be resolved. Here, we hypothesize that the FGF19-FGFR4 axis may affect the effectiveness of sorafenib in the treatment of HCC.
METHODS: FGF19 and FGFR4 cDNAs were cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector and subsequently used for exogenous over-expression analyses. FGF19 knockdown cells were generated using a lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) methodology and FGFR4 knockout cells were generated using a CRISPR-Cas9 methodology. FGFR4 activation in HCC cells was inhibited by BLU9931. The effects of exogenous gene over-expression, expression knockdown and knockout, as well as drug efficacies in HCC cells, were validated using Western blotting. HCC cell proliferation was assessed using a CellTiter 96
RESULTS: We found that FGF19, when exogenously overexpressed, results in a reduced sorafenib-induced NO generation and a decreased proliferation of HCC cells. In contrast, we found that either FGF19 silencing or knockout of its receptor FGFR4 sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib through the induction of NO generation. Concordantly, we found that inactivation of FGFR4 by BLU9931 enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib.
CONCLUSION: From our data we conclude that the FGF19-FGFR4 axis may play a critical role in the effects elicited by sorafenib in HCC cells. Blocking the FGF19-FGFR4 axis may provide novel opportunities to improve the efficacy of sorafenib in the treatment of patients with HCC.

Teng Y, Zhao H, Gao L, et al.
FGF19 Protects Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress via Activation of FGFR4-GSK3β-Nrf2 Signaling.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(22):6215-6225 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor microenvironment induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in tumor cells, an event that can promote progression, but it is unknown how tumor cells adapt to this stress. In this study, we show that the fibroblast growth factor FGF19, a gene frequently amplified in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), facilitates a survival response to ER stress. Levels of FGF19 expression were increased in stressed HCC cells in culture and in a mouse xenograft model. Induction of ER stress required the transcription factor ATF4, which directly bound the FGF19 promoter. In cells where ER stress was induced, FGF19 overexpression promoted HCC cell survival and increased resistance to apoptosis, whereas FGF19 silencing counteracted these effects. Mechanistic investigations implicated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in regulating nuclear accumulation of the stress-regulated transcription factor Nrf2 activated by FGF19. Our findings show how FGF19 provides a cytoprotective role against ER stress by activating a FGFR4-GSK3β-Nrf2 signaling cascade, with implications for targeting this signaling node as a candidate therapeutic regimen for HCC management.

Upadhyay P, Gardi N, Desai S, et al.
Genomic characterization of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early stage tongue tumors identify MMP10 asa candidate to predict metastases.
Oral Oncol. 2017; 73:56-64 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Nodal metastases status among early stage tongue squamous cell cancer patients plays a decisive role in the choice of treatment, wherein about 70% patients can be spared from surgery with an accurate prediction of negative pathological lymph node status. This underscores an unmet need for prognostic biomarkers to stratify the patients who are likely to develop metastases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed high throughput sequencing of fifty four samples derived from HPV negative early stage tongue cancer patients habitual of chewing betel nuts, areca nuts, lime or tobacco using whole exome (n=47) and transcriptome (n=17) sequencing that were analyzed using in-house computational tools. Additionally, gene expression meta-analyses were carried out for 253 tongue cancer samples. The candidate genes were validated using qPCR and immuno-histochemical analysis in an extended set of 50 early primary tongue cancer samples.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Somatic analysis revealed a classical tobacco mutational signature C:G>A:T transversion in 53% patients that were mutated in TP53, NOTCH1, CDKN2A, HRAS, USP6, PIK3CA, CASP8, FAT1, APC, and JAK1. Similarly, significant gains at genomic locus 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF19, ORAOV1, FADD), 5p15.33 (SHANK2, MMP16, TERT), and 8q24.3 (BOP1); and, losses at 5q22.2 (APC), 6q25.3 (GTF2H2) and 5q13.2 (SMN1) were observed in these samples. Furthermore, an integrated gene-expression analysis of 253 tongue tumors suggested an upregulation of metastases-related pathways and over-expression of MMP10 in 48% tumors that may be crucial to predict nodal metastases in early tongue cancer patients. In overall, we present the first descriptive portrait of somatic alterations underlying the genome of tobacco/nut chewing HPV-negative early tongue cancer, and identify MMP10 asa potential prognostic biomarker to stratify those likely to develop metastases.

Zhang X, Kong M, Zhang Z, et al.
FGF19 genetic amplification as a potential therapeutic target in lung squamous cell carcinomas.
Thorac Cancer. 2017; 8(6):655-665 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although FGF19 gene aberrations are associated with carcinogenesis and progression in human cancers, the roles of FGF19 genetic amplification and expression in Chinese patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and FGF19 amplification as a potential therapeutic target for LSCC are not well understood.
METHODS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and quantitative real-time-PCR was used to detect FGF19 genetic amplification and FGF19 messenger RNA expression in LSCC tumor and paired adjacent samples. Small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA were used to knockdown FGF19 in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: FGF19 amplification was identified in a subset of LSCC patients (37.5%, 15/40), and upregulation of FGF19 expression was found in 60% (24/40) of tumor tissues compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Correlation analysis with clinicopathologic parameters showed that FGF19 upregulation was significantly associated with heavy smoking. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FGF19 led to the significant inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptosis in LSCC cells carrying the amplified FGF19 gene, but these effects was not observed in non-amplified LSCC cells. Interfering FGF19 expression with short hairpin RNA also resulted in tumor growth inhibition and induced apoptosis in LSCC xenografts with amplified FGF19 in tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that FGF19 signaling activation is required for cell growth and survival of FGF19 amplified LSCC cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Intervention of FGF19 activation could be a potential therapeutic strategy for LSCC patients with FGF19 amplification.

Calderaro J, Couchy G, Imbeaud S, et al.
Histological subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma are related to gene mutations and molecular tumour classification.
J Hepatol. 2017; 67(4):727-738 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Our increasing understanding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology holds promise for personalized care, however its translation into clinical practice requires a precise knowledge of its relationship to tumour phenotype.
METHODS: We aimed at investigating molecular-phenotypic correlations in a large series of HCC. To this purpose, 343 surgically resected HCC samples were investigated by pathological review, immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and sequencing.
RESULTS: CTNNB1 (40%) and TP53 (21%) mutations were mutually exclusive and defined two major groups of HCC characterized by distinct phenotypes. CTNNB1 mutated tumours were large (p=0.002), well-differentiated (p<0.001), cholestatic (p<0.001), with microtrabecular (p<0.001) and pseudoglandular (p<0.001) patterns and without inflammatory infiltrates (p<0.001). TP53 mutated tumours were poorly differentiated (p<0.001) with a compact pattern (p=0.02), multinucleated (p=0.01) and pleomorphic (p=0.02) cells and frequent vascular invasion (p=0.02). World Health Organization (WHO) classification of histological subtypes were also strongly related to molecular features. The scirrhous subtype was associated with TSC1/TSC2 mutations (p=0.005), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a progenitor expression profile. The steatohepatitic subtype showed frequent IL-6/JAK/STAT activation without CTNNB1, TERT and TP53 pathway alterations (p=0.01). Pathological review identified a novel subtype, designated as "macrotrabecular-massive" associated with poor survival (p<0.001), high alpha-fetoprotein serum level (p=0.02), vascular invasion (p<0.001), TP53 mutations (p<0.001) and FGF19 amplifications (p=0.02), features also validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Finally, integration of HCC pathological characteristics with its transcriptomic classification showed phenotypically distinct tumour subclasses closely related to G1-G6 subgroups.
CONCLUSION: HCC phenotypes are tightly associated with gene mutations and transcriptomic classification. These findings may help in translating our knowledge of HCC biology into clinical practice. Lay summary: HCC is a very heterogenous tumour, both at the pathological and molecular levels. We show here that HCC phenotype is tightly associated to its molecular alterations and underlying oncogenic pathways.

Zhou M, Yang H, Learned RM, et al.
Non-cell-autonomous activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling mediates FGF19-driven hepatocarcinogenesis.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:15433 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary malignancy of the liver, is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Fibroblast Growth Factor 19 (FGF19) is one of the most frequently amplified genes in HCC patients. Moreover, mice expressing an FGF19 transgene have been shown to develop HCC. However, the downstream signalling pathways that mediate FGF19-dependent tumorigenesis remain to be deciphered. Here we show that FGF19 triggers a previously unsuspected, non-cell-autonomous program to activate STAT3 signalling in hepatocytes through IL-6 produced in the liver microenvironment. We show that the hepatocyte-specific deletion of Stat3, genetic ablation of Il6, treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody or administration of a small-molecule JAK inhibitor, abolishes FGF19-induced tumorigenesis, while the regulatory functions of FGF19 in bile acid, glucose and energy metabolism remain intact. Collectively, these data reveal a key role for the IL-6/STAT3 axis in potentiating FGF19-driven HCC in mice, a finding which may have translational relevance in HCC pathogenesis.

Kim HR, Kang HN, Shim HS, et al.
Co-clinical trials demonstrate predictive biomarkers for dovitinib, an FGFR inhibitor, in lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(6):1250-1259 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: We conducted co-clinical trials in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models to identify predictive biomarkers for the multikinase inhibitor dovitinib in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
Methods: The PDX01-02 were established from LSCC patients enrolled in the phase II trial of dovitinib (NCT01861197) and PDX03-05 were established from LSCC patients receiving surgery. These five PDX tumors were subjected to in vivo test of dovitinib efficacy, whole exome sequencing and gene expression profiling.
Results: The PDX tumors recapitulate histopathological properties and maintain genomic characteristics of originating tumors. Concordant with clinical outcomes of the trial enrolled-LSCC patients, dovitinib produced substantial tumor regression in PDX-01 and PDX-05, whereas it resulted in tumor progression in PDX-02. PDX-03 and -04 also displayed poor antitumor efficacy to dovitinib. Mutational and genome-wide copy number profiles revealed no correlation between genomic alterations of FGFR1-3 and sensitivity to dovitinib. Of note, gene expression profiles revealed differentially expressed genes including FGF3 and FGF19 between PDX-01 and 05 and PDX-02-04. Pathway analysis identified two FGFR signaling-related gene sets, FGFR ligand binding/activation and SHC-mediated cascade pathway were substantially up-regulated in PDX-01 and 05, compared with PDX-02-04. The comparison of gene expression profiles between dovitinib-sensitive versus -resistant lung cancer cell lines in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database also found that transcriptional activation of 18 key signaling components in FGFR pathways can predict the sensitivity to dovitinib both in cell lines and PDX tumors. These results highlight FGFR pathway activation as a key molecular determinant for sensitivity to dovitinib.
Conclusions: FGFR gene expression signatures are predictors for the response to dovitinib in LSCC.

Yoo C, Kang J, Kim D, et al.
Multiplexed gene expression profiling identifies the FGFR4 pathway as a novel biomarker in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):38592-38601 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) pathway is an essential regulatory component of bile acid synthesis, and its relationship with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported. We investigated the gene expression and clinical significance of FGFR4 and related pathways in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA).
RESULTS: The median age was 56 years (range 30-78) and 34 patients (74%) were male. Six patients (13%) had hepatitis B virus infection, with or without liver cirrhosis. Overall survival was significantly associated with FGFR4 (p = 0.004), FGF19 (p = 0.047), FGF21 (p = 0.04), and KLB (p = 0.03) expression. In the multivariate analysis with potential prognostic factors, high expression of FGF19, FGF21, and FGFR4 was significantly associated with better survival. In the analysis using the TCGA iCCA dataset, mRNA overexpression of at least 1 of the FGFR4-related genes was significantly associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.02).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the expression of 98 genes in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue specimens from 46 patients with surgically resected iCCA using a NanoString platform. This included 10 FGF pathway genes (e.g. FGFR1-4, KLB, FGF3, 4, 19, 21, and 23), 19 distal marker genes (e.g. CYP7A1 and CYP17A1), 31 genes relevant to HCC and iCCA (e.g. AFP, TS), 18 copy number variation matched genes, and 20 control genes. Log-transformation of gene expression was performed for normalization and statistical analysis. Overall survival was correlated with gene expression (< median vs. ≥ median) using a log-rank test. The prognostic impact of FGFR4-related genes was validated using the public TCGA dataset for iCCA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that mRNA expression of FGFR4-related genes may be a biomarker to define the distinctive molecular phenotype of iCCA. Future preclinical and clinical validation is required to define the role of the FGFR4 pathway in iCCA.

Zhou M, Luo J, Chen M, et al.
Mouse species-specific control of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism by FGF19/FGF15.
J Hepatol. 2017; 66(6):1182-1192 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bile acid nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key molecular mediator of many metabolic processes, including the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. A significant component of FXR-mediated events essential to its biological activity is attributed to induction of the enteric endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19 or its rodent ortholog, FGF15. In this report, we compared the properties of human FGF19 and murine FGF15 in the regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis and metabolism in various mouse models of disease.
METHODS: Tumorigenicity was assessed in three mouse models (db/db, diet-induced obese, and multi-drug resistance 2 [Mdr2]-deficient) following continuous exposure to FGF19 or FGF15 via adeno-associated viral-mediated gene delivery. Glucose, hemoglobin A1c and β-cell mass were characterized in db/db mice. Oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, and body composition were evaluated in diet-induced obese mice. Serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were assessed in Mdr2-deficient mice. Expression profiles of genes encoding key proteins involved in bile acid synthesis and hepatocarcinogenesis were also determined.
RESULTS: Both FGF15 and FGF19 hormones repressed bile acid synthesis (p<0.001 for both). However, murine FGF15 lacked the protective effects characteristic of human FGF19 in db/db mice with overt diabetes, such as weight-independent HbA1c-lowering and β-cell-protection. Unlike FGF19, FGF15 did not induce hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in three mouse models of metabolic diseases (db/db, diet-induced obese, and multi-drug resistance 2 [Mdr2]-deficient mice), even at supra-pharmacological exposure levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Fundamental species-associated differences between FGF19 and FGF15 may restrict the relevance of mouse models for the study of the FXR/FGF19 pathway, and underscore the importance of clinical assessment of this pathway, with respect to both safety and efficacy in humans.
LAY SUMMARY: Activation of the nuclear receptor, FXR, leads to the production of a hormone called fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and subsequently regulation of multiple metabolic processes. Synthetic activators of FXR have been recently approved or are currently in clinical development for treatment of chronic liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The safety of these activators was partly assessed in mice exposed for prolonged periods of time. However, the results of this study show that mouse FGF15 and human FGF19 exhibit fundamentally different biological activities in mice. This could raise the concern of relying on rodent models for safety assessment of FXR activators. The potential risk of HCC development in patients treated with FXR agonists may need to be monitored.

Massafra V, Milona A, Vos HR, et al.
Quantitative liver proteomics identifies FGF19 targets that couple metabolism and proliferation.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171185 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a gut-derived peptide hormone that is produced following activation of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 is secreted and signals to the liver, where it contributes to the homeostasis of bile acid (BA), lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF19 is a promising therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and cholestatic diseases, but enthusiasm for its use has been tempered by FGF19-mediated induction of proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To inform future rational design of FGF19-variants, we have conducted temporal quantitative proteomic and gene expression analyses to identify FGF19-targets related to metabolism and proliferation. Mice were fasted for 16 hours, and injected with human FGF19 (1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle. Liver protein extracts (containing "light" lysine) were mixed 1:1 with a spike-in protein extract from 13C6-lysine metabolically labelled mouse liver (containing "heavy" lysine) and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our analyses provide a resource of FGF19 target proteins in the liver. 189 proteins were upregulated (≥ 1.5 folds) and 73 proteins were downregulated (≤ -1.5 folds) by FGF19. FGF19 treatment decreased the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, i.e., Fabp5, Scd1, and Acsl3 and increased the expression of Acox1, involved in FA oxidation. As expected, FGF19 increased the expression of proteins known to drive proliferation (i.e., Tgfbi, Vcam1, Anxa2 and Hdlbp). Importantly, many of the FGF19 targets (i.e., Pdk4, Apoa4, Fas and Stat3) have a dual function in both metabolism and cell proliferation. Therefore, our findings challenge the development of FGF19-variants that fully uncouple metabolic benefit from mitogenic potential.

Gao L, Wang X, Tang Y, et al.
FGF19/FGFR4 signaling contributes to the resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma to sorafenib.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor, is used as a standard therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, complete remission has not been achieved and the molecular basis of HCC resistance to sorafenib remains largely unknown. Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis of HCC. Here, we demonstrate the novel role of FGF19 in HCC resistance to sorafenib therapy.
METHODS: FGF19 Knockdown cells were achieved by lentiviral-mediated interference, and FGFR4 knockout cells were achieved by CRISPR-Cas9. Protein levels of FGF19, FGFR4 and c-PARP in various HCC cell lines were measured by Western blotting analysis. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay, apoptosis was determined by DAPI nuclear staining and Western blot of c-PRAP, and ROS generation was determined by DCFH-DA staining and electrochemical biosensor.
RESULTS: We showed that FGF19, when overexpressed, inhibited the effect of sorafenib on ROS generation and apoptosis in HCC. In contrast, loss of FGF19 or its receptor FGFR4 led to a remarkable increase in sorafenib-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of FGF19 in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells significantly enhanced the sensitivity to sorafenib. Importantly, targeting FGF19/FGFR4 axis by ponatinib, a third-generation inhibitor of chronic myeloid leukemia, overcomes HCC resistance of sorafenib by enhancing ROS-associated apoptosis in sorafenib-treated HCC.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide the first evidence that inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling significantly overcomes sorafenib resistance in HCC. Co-treatment of ponatinib and sorafinib may represent an effective therapeutic approach for eradicating HCC.

Futami T, Okada H, Kihara R, et al.
ASP5878, a Novel Inhibitor of FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4, Inhibits the Growth of FGF19-Expressing Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(1):68-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Fibroblast growth factor 19, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family, is a ligand for fibroblast growth factor receptor 4. Moreover, it plays a crucial role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. ASP5878 is a novel inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1, 2, 3, and 4 that is under development. It inhibits fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 kinase activity with an IC

Gao Q, Wang ZC, Duan M, et al.
Cell Culture System for Analysis of Genetic Heterogeneity Within Hepatocellular Carcinomas and Response to Pharmacologic Agents.
Gastroenterology. 2017; 152(1):232-242.e4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: No targeted therapies have been found to be effective against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), possibly due to the large degree of intratumor heterogeneity. We performed genetic analyses of different regions of HCCs to evaluate levels of intratumor heterogeneity and associate alterations with responses to different pharmacologic agents.
METHODS: We obtained samples of HCCs (associated with hepatitis B virus infection) from 10 patients undergoing curative resection, before adjuvant therapy, at hospitals in China. We collected 4-9 spatially distinct samples from each tumor (55 regions total), performed histologic analyses, isolated cancer cells, and carried them low-passage culture. We performed whole-exome sequencing, copy-number analysis, and high-throughput screening of the cultured primary cancer cells. We tested responses of an additional 105 liver cancer cell lines to a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 4 inhibitor.
RESULTS: We identified a total of 3670 non-silent mutations (3192 missense, 94 splice-site variants, and 222 insertions or deletions) in the tumor samples. We observed considerable intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution in all 10 tumors; the mean percentage of heterogeneous mutations in each tumor was 39.7% (range, 12.9%-68.5%). We found significant mutation shifts toward C>T and C>G substitutions in branches of phylogenetic trees among samples from each tumor (P < .0001). Of note, 14 of the 26 oncogenic alterations (53.8%) varied among subclones that mapped to different branches. Genetic alterations that can be targeted by existing pharmacologic agents (such as those in FGF19, DDR2, PDGFRA, and TOP1) were identified in intratumor subregions from 4 HCCs and were associated with sensitivity to these agents. However, cells from the remaining subregions, which did not have these alterations, were not sensitive to these drugs. High-throughput screening identified pharmacologic agents to which these cells were sensitive, however. Overexpression of FGF19 correlated with sensitivity of cells to an inhibitor of FGFR 4; this observation was validated in 105 liver cancer cell lines (P = .0024).
CONCLUSIONS: By analyzing genetic alterations in different tumor regions of 10 HCCs, we observed extensive intratumor heterogeneity. Our patient-derived cell line-based model, integrating genetic and pharmacologic data from multiregional cancer samples, provides a platform to elucidate how intratumor heterogeneity affects sensitivity to different therapeutic agents.

Kaibori M, Sakai K, Ishizaki M, et al.
Increased FGF19 copy number is frequently detected in hepatocellular carcinoma with a complete response after sorafenib treatment.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(31):49091-49098 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib is clinically approved for the treatment of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously reported that fibroblast growth factor 3 and 4 (FGF3/FGF4) amplification is a predictor of a response to sorafenib. This study aims to analyze the relationship between FGF-FGF receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations and the response to sorafenib. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from HCC patients who had achieved a complete response (CR, N=6) or non-CR (N=39) to sorafenib were collected and were examined for FGF-FGFR gene alterations using next generation sequencing and copy number assay. FGFR mutations were detected in 5 of 45 (11.1%) cases. There was no significant association between FGFR mutation status and the response to sorafenib. We detected no increase in the FGF3/FGF4 copy number in CR cases. An FGF19 copy number gain was detected more frequently among CR cases (2/6, 33.3%) than among non-CR cases (2/39, 5.1%) (P = 0.024, Chi-squared test). In conclusion, a copy number gain for FGF19 may be a predictor of a response to sorafenib, in addition to FGF3/FGF4 amplification.

Katoh M
FGFR inhibitors: Effects on cancer cells, tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(1):3-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of heart toxicity. Endocrine FGF signaling affects the pathophysiology of cancer patients who are prescribed FGFR inhibitors. Whole-genome sequencing is necessary for the detection of promoter/enhancer alterations of FGFR genes and rare alterations of other genes causing FGFR overexpression. To sustain the health care system in an aging society, a benefit-cost analysis should be performed with a focus on disease-free survival and the total medical cost before implementing genome-based precision medicine for cancer patients.

Ye C, Tao R, Cao Q, et al.
Whole-genome DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation profiling for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(2):589-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common solid tumor worldwide with a poor prognosis. Accumulating evidence has implicated important regulatory roles of epigenetic modifications in the occurrence and progression of HCC. In the present study, we analyzed 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) levels in the tumor tissues and paired adjacent peritumor tissues (APTs) from four individual HCC patients using a (hydroxy)methylated DNA immunoprecipitation approach combined with deep sequencing [(h)MeDIP-Seq]. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the 5-mC levels in the promoter regions of 2796 genes and the 5-hmC levels in 507 genes differed significantly between HCC tissues and APTs. These differential genes were grouped into various clusters and pathways and found to be particularly enriched in the 'metabolic pathways' that include 'Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis', 'Oxidative phosphorylation' and 'Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)', implicating a potential role of metabolic alterations in HCC. Furthermore, 144 genes had both 5-mC and 5-hmC changes in HCC patients, and 10 of them (PCNA, MDM2, STAG1, E2F4, FGF4, FGF19, RHOBTB2, UBE2QL1, DCN and HSP90AA1) were enriched and interconnected in five pathways including the 'Cell cycle', 'Pathway in cancer', 'Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis', 'Melanoma' and 'Prostate cancer' pathways. The genome-wide mapping of 5-mC and 5-hmC in HCC tissues and APTs indicated that both 5-mC and 5-hmC epigenetic modifications play important roles in the regulation of HCC, and there may be some interconnections between them. Taken together, in the present study we conducted the first genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation combined with hydroxymethylation in HBV-related HCC and provided a series of potential novel epigenetic biomarkers for HCC.

Heilmann AM, Subbiah V, Wang K, et al.
Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Clinically Advanced Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Oncology. 2016; 90(6):339-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the genomic alterations of cancer-related genes in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma during the course of clinical care.
METHODS: Hybrid-capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 34 consecutive medullary thyroid carcinoma cases to identify all four classes of genomic alterations, and outcome for an index patient was collected.
RESULTS: RET was mutated in 88% (30/34) of cases, with RET M918T being responsible for 70% (21/30) of the RET alterations. The other RET alterations were RET E632_L633del, C634R, C620R, C618G/R/S, V804M, and RET amplification. Two of the four RET wild-type patients harbored mutations in KRAS or HRAS (1/34 each). The next most frequent genomic alterations were amplifications of CCND1, FGF3, and FGF19 and alterations in CDKN2A (3/34 each). One case with a RET M918T mutation developed acquired resistance to progressively dose-escalated vandetanib. When the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was added to continued vandetanib treatment, the patient achieved a second 25% reduction of tumor volume (RECIST 1.1) for 8 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive genomic profiling identified the full breadth of RET alterations in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and possible cooperating oncogenic driver alterations. This approach may refine the use of targeted therapy for these patients.

Tiong KH, Tan BS, Choo HL, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) autocrine enhance breast cancer cells survival.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(36):57633-57650 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive tumor subtype with poor prognosis. The discovery of underlying mechanisms mediating tumor cell survival, and the development of novel agents to target these pathways, is a priority for patients with basal-like breast cancer. From a functional screen to identify key drivers of basal-like breast cancer cell growth, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) as a potential mediator of cell survival. We found that FGFR4 mediates cancer cell survival predominantly via activation of PI3K/AKT. Importantly, a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells also secrete fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a canonical ligand specific for FGFR4. siRNA-mediated silencing of FGF19 or neutralization of extracellular FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody (1A6) decreases AKT phosphorylation, suppresses cancer cell growth and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity only in the FGFR4+/FGF19+ breast cancer cells. Consistently, FGFR4/FGF19 co-expression was also observed in 82 out of 287 (28.6%) primary breast tumors, and their expression is strongly associated with AKT phosphorylation, Ki-67 staining, higher tumor stage and basal-like phenotype. In summary, our results demonstrated the presence of an FGFR4/FGF19 autocrine signaling that mediates the survival of a subset of basal-like breast cancer cells and suggest that inactivation of this autocrine loop may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for future treatment of breast cancers.

Wan ZY, Tian JS, Tan HW, et al.
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 is an essential mediator of metabolic and mitogenic effects of fibroblast growth factor 19 in hepatoma cells.
Hepatology. 2016; 64(4):1289-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is an important postprandial enterokine which regulates liver metabolism and hepatocyte proliferation. However, the precise mechanism by which FGF19 regulates these cellular effects is poorly understood. Given that mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates numerous postprandial adaptations, we investigated the potential role of mTORC1 in FGF19 action. We found that FGF19 activated mTORC1 in HepG2 and HuH7 human hepatoma cells, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mouse liver. FGF19 activates the mTORC1-p70S6K and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)-p90RSK pathways independently to regulate S6 in an additive manner in hepatoma cells, but it uses mTORC1 as the primary pathway to regulate S6 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Thus, mTORC1 is a novel mediator of FGF19 signaling, which can act in parallel with Erk or function as the primary pathway to regulate S6. The FGF19-induced mTORC1 pathway requires amino acids for efficient signaling; thus, involvement of mTORC1 confers amino acid sensitivity to FGF19 signaling. Although Akt and Erk are known to activate mTORC1, we found that FGF19 signals to mTORC1 through a third recently identified mTORC1 regulator, Ras-like (Ral) protein. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of RalA or RalB abolished FGF19-induced mTORC1 activation, demonstrating that Ral proteins are required for FGF19 to activate mTORC1. FGF19 induced metabolic gene expression, fatty acid oxidation, cell growth, and proliferation in HepG2 cells; and these effects were abolished by mTORC1 inhibition, demonstrating an essential role of mTORC1 in FGF19 action.
CONCLUSION: mTORC1 is a novel and essential mediator of FGF19 action on metabolic and mitogenic programs; thus, the involvement of mTORC1 in FGF19 signaling is an important factor to consider when targeting the pathway for cancer or diabetes therapy. (Hepatology 2016;64:1289-1301).

Wang S, Zhao D, Tian R, et al.
FGF19 Contributes to Tumor Progression in Gastric Cancer by Promoting Migration and Invasion.
Oncol Res. 2016; 23(4):197-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Since patients are often diagnosed at a late stage, very few effective therapies are left in the arsenal. FGF19, as a hormone, has been reported to promote tumor growth in various types of cancer; however, its function in gastric cancer remains unknown. In the current study, we showed that FGF19 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that FGF19 is able to enhance migration and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells. Given its great potency in gastric cancer progression, FGF19 may be an effective target of treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients.

Tan Q, Li F, Wang G, et al.
Identification of FGF19 as a prognostic marker and potential driver gene of lung squamous cell carcinomas in Chinese smoking patients.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18394-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
Comprehensive genomic characterizations of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) have been performed, but the differences between smokers (S-LSCC) and never smokers (NS-LSCC) are not clear, as NS-LSCC could be considered as a different disease from S-LSCC. In this study we delineated genomic alterations in a cohort of 21 NS-LSCC and 16 S-LSCC patients, and identified common gene mutations and amplifications as previously reported. Inclusion of more NS-LSCC patients enabled us to identify unreported S-LSCC- or NS-LSCC-specific alterations. Importantly, an amplification region containing FGF19, FGF3, FGF4 and CCND1 was found five-times more frequent in S-LSCC than in NS-LSCC. Amplification of FGF19 was validated in independent LSCC samples. Furthermore, FGF19 stimulated LSCC cell growth in vitro. These data implicate FGF19 as a potential driver gene in LSCC with clinic characteristics as smoking.

Ross JS, Gay LM, Nozad S, et al.
Clinically advanced and metastatic pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast: a comprehensive genomic profiling study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 155(2):405-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pure mucinous breast carcinoma (pmucBC) is a distinctive variant of breast cancer (BC) featuring an excellent overall prognosis. However, on rare occasions, pmucBC pursues an aggressive clinical course. We queried whether comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) would uncover clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGA) that could lead to targeted therapy treatment for patients with an advanced and metastatic form of pmucBC.
METHODS: From a series of 51,238 total cancer samples, which included 5605 cases of clinically advanced BC and 22 cases of stage IV pmucBC, DNA was extracted from 40 microns of FFPE sections. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation-based next generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 564X. The results were analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations (GA) including base substitutions, insertions and deletions, select rearrangements, and copy number changes. Clinically relevant genomic alterations were defined as those indicating possible treatment with anti-cancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.
RESULTS: Samples were obtained from breast (11), lymph nodes (3), chest wall (2), liver (2), soft tissue (2), bone (1), and pleura (1). The median age of the 22 pmucBC patients was 57 years (range 32-79 years). Three pmucBCs were grade 1, 17 were grade 2, and 2 were grade 3. Twenty-one (95 %) pmucBC were ER+, 18 (82 %) were PR+, and 3 (14 %) were HER2+ by IHC and/or FISH. A total of 132 GA were identified (6.0 GA per tumor), including 53 CRGA, for a mean of 2.4 GA per tumor. Amplification of FGFR1 or ZNF703, located within the same amplicon, was found in 8 of 22 cases (36 %). This enrichment of FGFR1 amplification in 36 % of pmucBC versus 11 % of non-mucinous ER+ BC (601 cases) was significant (p < 0.005). Other frequently altered genes of interest in pmucBC were CCND1 and the FGF3/FGF4/FGF19 amplicon (27 %), often co-amplified together. ERBB2/HER2 alterations were identified in 5 pmucBC (23 %): ERBB2 amplification was found in 3 of 3 cases (100 %) that were HER2+ by IHC and/or FISH; 1 pmucBC was negative for HER2 overexpression by IHC, but positive for amplification by CGP; and 2 pmucBC harbored the ERBB2 substitutions D769Y and V777L (one sample also featured ERBB2 amplification). The enrichment of ERBB2 GA in metastatic pmucBC versus non-metastatic primary pmucBC was significant (p = 0.03). CRGA were also found in 20 additional genes including PIK3CA (5), BRCA1 (1), TSC2 (1), STK11 (1), AKT3 (1), and ESR1 (1).
CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic pmucBC is a distinct form of breast cancer that features a relatively high frequency of CRGA, including a significant enrichment of FGFR1 alterations and a high frequency of ERBB2 alterations when compared with non-metastatic pmucBC. These findings suggest that CGP can identify a variety of known and emerging therapy targets that have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with clinically advanced and metastatic forms of this disease.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FGF19, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/FGF19.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999