FGFR4

Gene Summary

Gene:FGFR4; fibroblast growth factor receptor 4
Aliases: TKF, JTK2, CD334
Location:5q35.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein would consist of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. The genomic organization of this gene, compared to members 1-3, encompasses 18 exons rather than 19 or 20. Although alternative splicing has been observed, there is no evidence that the C-terminal half of the IgIII domain of this protein varies between three alternate forms, as indicated for members 1-3. This particular family member preferentially binds acidic fibroblast growth factor and, although its specific function is unknown, it is overexpressed in gynecological tumor samples, suggesting a role in breast and ovarian tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor receptor 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGFR4 (cancer-related)

Giannetta E, Isidori AM, Durante C, et al.
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and foscarnet use in a multitarget treatment documented by 18F-FDG PET/CT: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(6):e5621 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: The case reported the rapid remission of disease recurrence achieved adding foscarnet, a DNA polymerase inhibitor that interacts with fibroblast growth factor 2, to low molecular weight heparin and sunitinib for the first time in a patient with an anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC).
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 65-year-old woman with a multinodular goiter referred for a rapid enlargement of a nodule. Histological examination revealed an ATC with a little area of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The patient was resistant to selective single-target treatment.
DIAGNOSES: Immunophenotyping and gene analyses found a significant increase in FGF2 and FGFR1 expression in the primary ATC area (FGF2 = 38.2 ± 6.2% in ATC vs 34.6 ± 6.0% in the differentiated area of PTC, P < 0.05; FGFR1: 41.7 ± 6.0% in ATC vs 34.4 ± 4.2% in PTC, P < 0.001) and in metastatic neck lymph nodes (P < 0.001 vs normal control tissues). Unlike conventional imaging, F-FDG PET/CT with PERCIST 1.0 criteria promptly and quantitatively detected disease recurrence and remission before and after multitarget therapy, combining anatomic, metabolic, and functional data.
INTERVENTIONS: Foscarnet was administered given the positivity for FGF2, FGFR1 and FGFR4 in ATC. Low molecular wight heparin and Sunitinib were coadministere to limiti metastatic progression and on neck tumor masse, respectively.
OUTCOMES: The rationale for the clinical response to this innovative multitarget association with foscarnet is based on the histological and genetic finding that fibroblast growth factors and their receptor super-family are up-regulated in the primary anaplastic thyroid tumor and in the metastatic lymph node of our patient.
LESSONS: We propose that fibroblast growth factors and their receptor super-family play a key role as potential therapeutic targets in anaplastic thyroid cancer and the positive relevance of this suggestion for patient care, especially for an individualized management.

Hibi M, Kaneda H, Tanizaki J, et al.
FGFR gene alterations in lung squamous cell carcinoma are potential targets for the multikinase inhibitor nintedanib.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(11):1667-1676 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene alterations are relatively frequent in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and are a potential targets for therapy with FGFR inhibitors. However, little is known regarding the clinicopathologic features associated with FGFR alterations. The angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib has shown promising activity in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer. We have now applied next-generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize FGFR alterations in LSCC patients as well as examined the antitumor activity of nintedanib in LSCC cell lines positive for FGFR1 copy number gain (CNG). The effects of nintedanib on the proliferation of and FGFR signaling in LSCC cell lines were examined in vitro, and its effects on tumor formation were examined in vivo. A total of 75 clinical LSCC specimens were screened for FGFR alterations by NGS. Nintedanib inhibited the proliferation of FGFR1 CNG-positive LSCC cell lines in association with attenuation of the FGFR1-ERK signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. FGFR1 CNG (10.7%), FGFR1 mutation (2.7%), FGFR2 mutation (2.7%), FGFR4 mutation (5.3%), and FGFR3 fusion (1.3%) were detected in LSCC specimens by NGS. Clinicopathologic features did not differ between LSCC patients positive or negative for FGFR alterations. However, among the 36 patients with disease recurrence after surgery, prognosis was significantly worse for those harboring FGFR alterations. Screening for FGFR alterations by NGS warrants further study as a means to identify patients with LSCC recurrence after surgery who might benefit from nintedanib therapy.

Selli C, Pearce DA, Sims AH, Tosun M
Differential expression of store-operated calcium- and proliferation-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells following TRPC1 ion channel silencing.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 420(1-2):129-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRPC1 and store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry have previously been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to determine genes and processes associated with TRPC1 down-regulation and the resulting increase of SOC entry and decrease in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation. For this purpose, transcriptome analysis was performed to determine differentially expressed genes in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. SOC entry- and proliferation-related genes correlated with TRPC1 down-regulation were also examined. Changes in SOC entry and cell proliferation were monitored in the TRPC1-silenced and parental cells and found to be significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in TRPC1-silenced cells. A total of 71 genes were significantly differentially expressed (40 up- and 31 down-regulated), including four mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling-associated genes. STIM1 levels were significantly up-regulated and negatively correlated with TRPC1 levels. In addition, expression of two cell cycle regulation genes, CDK11A/11B and URGCP, was observed to decrease, whereas ERBB3 and FGFR4, pro-survival genes, increased significantly in TRPC1-silenced cells. In conclusion, these results suggest reciprocal alterations in TRPC1 and STIM1 levels and a role for STIM1 in the regulation of SOC entry in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. In addition to TRPC1, STIM1 may participate in Huh7 cell proliferation by regulating SOC entry. Alterations in MAPK signalling genes may be involved in diminished cell proliferation in TRPC1-silenced Huh7 cells. Similarly, changes in cell cycle regulating genes in TRPC1-silenced cells indicate possible cell cycle arrest along with compensatory up-regulation of ERBB3 growth factor receptor-amongst others-to maintain hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

Katoh M
FGFR inhibitors: Effects on cancer cells, tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(1):3-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of heart toxicity. Endocrine FGF signaling affects the pathophysiology of cancer patients who are prescribed FGFR inhibitors. Whole-genome sequencing is necessary for the detection of promoter/enhancer alterations of FGFR genes and rare alterations of other genes causing FGFR overexpression. To sustain the health care system in an aging society, a benefit-cost analysis should be performed with a focus on disease-free survival and the total medical cost before implementing genome-based precision medicine for cancer patients.

Lim SM, Park HS, Kim S, et al.
Next-generation sequencing reveals somatic mutations that confer exceptional response to everolimus.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(9):10547-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Given the modest responses to everolimus, a mTOR inhibitor, in multiple tumor types, there is a pressing need to identify predictive biomarkers for this drug. Using targeted ultra-deep sequencing, we aimed to explore genomic alterations that confer extreme sensitivity to everolimus.
RESULTS: We collected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor/normal pairs from 39 patients (22 with exceptional clinical benefit, 17 with no clinical benefit) who were treated with everolimus across various tumor types (13 gastric cancers, 15 renal cell carcinomas, 2 thyroid cancers, 2 head and neck cancer, and 7 sarcomas). Ion AmpliSeqTM Comprehensive Cancer Panel was used to identify alterations across all exons of 409 target genes. Tumors were sequenced to a median coverage of 552x. Cancer genomes are characterized by 219 somatic single-nucleotide variants (181 missense, 9 nonsense, 7 splice-site) and 22 frameshift insertions/deletions, with a median of 2.1 mutations per Mb (0 to 12.4 mutations per Mb). Overall, genomic alterations with activating effect on mTOR signaling were identified in 10 of 22 (45%) patients with clinical benefit and these include MTOR, TSC1, TSC2, NF1, PIK3CA and PIK3CG mutations. Recurrently mutated genes in chromatin remodeling genes (BAP1; n = 2, 12%) and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling (FGFR4; n = 2, 12%) were noted only in patients without clinical benefit.
CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of different cancer types, mTOR-pathway-activating mutations confer sensitivity to everolimus. Targeted sequencing of mTOR pathway genes facilitates identification of potential candidates for mTOR inhibitors.

Whittle SB, Reyes S, Du M, et al.
A Polymorphism in the FGFR4 Gene Is Associated With Risk of Neuroblastoma and Altered Receptor Degradation.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2016; 38(2):131-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Outcomes for children with high-risk neuroblastoma are poor, and improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying neuroblastoma pathogenesis, recurrence, and treatment resistance will lead to improved outcomes. Aberrant growth factor receptor expression and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling are associated with the pathogenesis of many malignancies. A germline polymorphism in the FGFR4 gene is associated with increased receptor expression and activity and with decreased survival, treatment resistance, and aggressive disease for many malignancies. We therefore investigated the role of this FGFR4 polymorphism in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Germline DNA from neuroblastoma patients and matched controls was assessed for the FGFR4 Gly/Arg388 polymorphism by RT-PCR. Allele frequencies were assessed for association with neuroblastoma patient outcomes and prognostic features. Degradation rates of the FGFR4 Arg388 and Gly388 receptors and rates of receptor internalization into the late endosomal compartment were measured.
RESULTS: Frequency of the FGFR4 AA genotype and the prevalence of the A allele were significantly higher in patients with neuroblastoma than in matched controls. The Arg388 receptor demonstrated slower degradation than the Gly388 receptor in neuroblastoma cells and reduced internalization into multivesicular bodies.
CONCLUSIONS: The FGFR4 Arg388 polymorphism is associated with an increased prevalence of neuroblastoma in children, and this association may be linked to differences in FGFR4 degradation rates. Our study provides the first evidence of a role for FGFR4 in neuroblastoma, suggesting that FGFR4 genotype and the pathways regulating FGFR4 trafficking and degradation may be relevant for neuroblastoma pathogenesis.

Ulaganathan VK, Sperl B, Rapp UR, Ullrich A
Germline variant FGFR4  p.G388R exposes a membrane-proximal STAT3 binding site.
Nature. 2015; 528(7583):570-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Variant rs351855-G/A is a commonly occurring single-nucleotide polymorphism of coding regions in exon 9 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR4 (CD334) gene (c.1162G>A). It results in an amino-acid change at codon 388 from glycine to arginine (p.Gly388Arg) in the transmembrane domain of the receptor. Despite compelling genetic evidence for the association of this common variant with cancers of the bone, breast, colon, prostate, skin, lung, head and neck, as well as soft-tissue sarcomas and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the underlying biological mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that substitution of the conserved glycine 388 residue to a charged arginine residue alters the transmembrane spanning segment and exposes a membrane-proximal cytoplasmic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) binding site Y(390)-(P)XXQ(393). We demonstrate that such membrane-proximal STAT3 binding motifs in the germline of type I membrane receptors enhance STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation by recruiting STAT3 proteins to the inner cell membrane. Remarkably, such germline variants frequently co-localize with somatic mutations in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Using Fgfr4 single nucleotide polymorphism knock-in mice and transgenic mouse models for breast and lung cancers, we validate the enhanced STAT3 signalling induced by the FGFR4 Arg388-variant in vivo. Thus, our findings elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the genetic association of rs351855 with accelerated cancer progression and suggest that germline variants of cell-surface molecules that recruit STAT3 to the inner cell membrane are a significant risk for cancer prognosis and disease progression.

Li J, Ye Y, Wang M, et al.
The over-expression of FGFR4 could influence the features of gastric cancer cells and inhibit the efficacy of PD173074 and 5-fluorouracil towards gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6881-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim was to investigate the function of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in gastric cancer (GC) and explore the treatment value of agent targeted to FGFR4. Function assays in vitro and in vivo were performed to investigate the discrepancy of biological features among the GC cells with different expression of FGFR4. GC cells were treated with the single and combination of PD173074 (PD, an inhibitor of FGFR4) and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu). The invasion ability were stronger, and the apoptosis rates were lower in MGC803 and BGC823 cells treated with FGFR4-LV5 (over-expression of FGFR4 protein) (P < 0.05). The proliferation ability of GC cells is reduced when treated by the single and combination of 5-Fu and PD while that of the FGFR4-LV5 group was less inhibited compared with control group (P < 0.05). The apoptosis rates are remarkably increased in GC cells treated with the single and combination of 5-Fu and PD (P < 0.05). However, the apoptosis rate obviously is reduced in GC cells treated with FGFR4-LV5 compared with control group (P < 0.05). The expression of PCNA and Bcl-XL is remarkably decreased, and the expression of Caspase-3 and cleaved Caspase-3 is obviously increased in GC cells treated with the single and combination of 5-Fu and PD. The tumor volumes of nude mice in FGFR4-LV5 group were much more increased (P < 0.05). The over-expression of FGFR4 enhanced the proliferation ability of GC in vitro and in vivo. The combination of 5-Fu and PD exerted synergetic effect in weakening the proliferation ability and promoting apoptosis in GC cells, while the over-expression of FGFR4 might inhibit the efficacy of two drugs.

Koole K, van Kempen PM, van Bockel LW, et al.
FGFR4 Is a Potential Predictive Biomarker in Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Pathobiology. 2015; 82(6):280-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) could serve as a potential therapeutic target, prognostic biomarker or biomarker predicting radiotherapy sensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).
METHODS: FGFR4 immunohistochemistry and FGFR4/CEN5q FISH were performed on tissue microarrays from 212 OSCC and 238 OPSCC patients. FGFR4 genotypes were determined by PCR and DNA sequencing in 76 random OPSCC samples. The response to radiotherapy was evaluated 3 months after the last radiotherapy treatment session by a head and neck radiation oncologist and/or surgeon during clinic visits. The results were correlated to overall survival and response to radiotherapy.
RESULTS: The FGFR4 protein was overexpressed in 64% (153/238) of OPSCCs and 41% (87/212) of OSCCs. The FGFR4 gene was amplified in 0.47% (1/212) of OSCCs and 0.42% (1/238) of OPSCCs, and the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism was detected in 62% (47/76) of OPSCCs. FGFR4 protein expression, FGFR4 gene copy numbers and FGFR4 genotypes were not related to overall survival or response to radiotherapy in OSCC or OPSCC.
CONCLUSION: FGFR4 is frequently overexpressed in OSCC and OPSCC in the absence of gene amplification, and may serve as a potential predictive marker for FGFR4-directed targeted therapy in OSCC and OPSCC.

Schmidt B, Wei L, DePeralta DK, et al.
Molecular subclasses of hepatocellular carcinoma predict sensitivity to fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibition.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(6):1494-505 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A recent gene expression classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes a poor survival subclass termed S2 representing about one-third of all HCC in clinical series. S2 cells express E-cadherin and c-myc and secrete AFP. As the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) differs between S2 and non-S2 HCC, this study investigated whether molecular subclasses of HCC predict sensitivity to FGFR inhibition. S2 cell lines were significantly more sensitive (p < 0.001) to the FGFR inhibitors BGJ398 and AZD4547. BGJ398 decreased MAPK signaling in S2 but not in non-S2 cell lines. All cell lines expressed FGFR1 and FGFR2, but only S2 cell lines expressed FGFR3 and FGFR4. FGFR4 siRNA decreased proliferation by 44% or more in all five S2 cell lines (p < 0.05 for each cell line), a significantly greater decrease than seen with knockdown of FGFR1-3 with siRNA transfection. FGFR4 knockdown decreased MAPK signaling in S2 cell lines, but little effect was seen with knockdown of FGFR1-3. In conclusion, the S2 molecular subclass of HCC is sensitive to FGFR inhibition. FGFR4-MAPK signaling plays an important role in driving proliferation of a molecular subclass of HCC. This classification system may help to identify those patients who are most likely to benefit from inhibition of this pathway.

Jiang Y, Sun S, Wei W, et al.
Association of FGFR3 and FGFR4 gene polymorphisms with breast cancer in Chinese women of Heilongjiang province.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):34023-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor pathway is activated in many tumors. FGFR2 has been identified as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other FGF receptors might also affect breast cancer risk. We carried out a case-control study to investigate associations of variants in FGFR3 and FGFR4 with breast cancer in women from Heilongjiang Province.
METHODS: SNP rs2234909 and rs3135848 in FGFR3 and rs1966265 and rs351855 in FGFR4 were successfully genotyped in 747 breast cancer patients and 716 healthy controls using the SNaPshot method. The associations between SNPs and breast cancer were examined by logistic regression. The associations between SNPs and disease characteristics were examined by chi-square tests or one-way ANOVA as needed.
RESULTS: The minor alleles of rs1966265 and rs351855 in FGFR4 were strongly associated with breast cancer in the population, with odds ratios of 1.335 (95%CI = 1.154-1.545) and 1.364 (95%CI = 1.177-1.580), respectively. However, no significant associations were detected between other SNPs and breast cancer. Analyses of the disease characteristics showed that SNP rs351855 was associated with lymph-node-positive breast cancer with a dose-dependent effect of the minor allele (P = 0.008).
CONCLUSIONS: SNPs rs1966265 and rs351855 in FGFR4 were associated with breast cancer in a northern Chinese population.

Giordano G, Febbraro A, Tomaselli E, et al.
Cancer-related CD15/FUT4 overexpression decreases benefit to agents targeting EGFR or VEGF acting as a novel RAF-MEK-ERK kinase downstream regulator in metastatic colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related immune antigens in the tumor microenvironment could represent an obstacle to agents targeting EGFR "cetuximab" or VEGF "bevacizumab" in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.
METHODS: Infiltrating immune cells into tumor tissues, cancer-related expression of immune antigens (CD3, CD8, CD68, CD73, MPO, CD15/FUT4) from 102 mCRC patients receiving first-line Cetuximab or Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy were assessed by immunohistochemistry and validated in an independent tissue microarrays of 140 patients. Genome-wide expression profiles from 436 patients and 60 colon cancer cell lines were investigated using bioinformatics analysis. In vitro kinase assays of target genes activated by chemokines or growth factors were performed.
RESULTS: Here, we report that cancer-related CD15/FUT4 is overexpressed in most of mCRCs patients (43 %) and associates with lower intratumoral CD3+ and CD8+ T cells, higher systemic inflammation (NLR at diagnosis >5) and poorer outcomes, in terms of response and progression-free survival than those CD15/FUT4-low or negative ones (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.92; 95 % CI = 1.86-4.41; P < 0.001). Overexpression of CD15/FUT4 is induced through RAF-MEK-ERK kinase cascade, suppressed by MEK inhibitors and exhibits a close connection with constitutive oncogenic signalling pathways that respond to ERBB3 or FGFR4 activation (P < 0.001). CD15/FUT4-high expressing colon cancer cells with primary resistance to cetuximab or bevacizumab are significantly more sensitive to MEK inhibitors than CD15/FUT4-low counterparts.
CONCLUSION: Cancer-related CD15/FUT4 overexpression participates in cetuximab or bevacizumab mechanisms of resistance in mCRC patients. CD15/FUT4 as a potential target of the antitumor immune response requires further evaluation in clinical studies.

Helsten T, Elkin S, Arthur E, et al.
The FGFR Landscape in Cancer: Analysis of 4,853 Tumors by Next-Generation Sequencing.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(1):259-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Molecular profiling may have prognostic and predictive value, and is increasingly used in the clinical setting. There are more than a dozen fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors in development. Optimal therapeutic application of FGFR inhibitors requires knowledge of the rates and types of FGFR aberrations in a variety of cancer types.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed frequencies of FGFR aberrations in 4,853 solid tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One.
RESULTS: FGFR aberrations were found in 7.1% of cancers, with the majority being gene amplification (66% of the aberrations), followed by mutations (26%) and rearrangements (8%). FGFR1 (mostly amplification) was affected in 3.5% of 4,853 patients; FGFR2 in 1.5%; FGFR3 in 2.0%; and FGFR4 in 0.5%. Almost every type of malignancy examined showed some patients with FGFR aberrations, but the cancers most commonly affected were urothelial (32% FGFR-aberrant); breast (18%); endometrial (∼13%), squamous lung cancers (∼13%), and ovarian cancer (∼9%). Among 35 unique FGFR mutations seen in this dataset, all but two are found in COSMIC. Seventeen of the 35 are known to be activating, and 11 are transforming.
CONCLUSIONS: FGFR aberrations are common in a wide variety of cancers, with the majority being gene amplifications or activating mutations. These data suggest that FGFR inhibition could be an important therapeutic option across multiple tumor types.

Hu L, Cong L
Fibroblast growth factor 19 is correlated with an unfavorable prognosis and promotes progression by activating fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2683-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) has been confirmed to be associated with the progression and prognosis of ovarian cancer, while the underlying mechanism has not been well elucidated and the clinical significance of its ligand, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), has not been explored. To study the clinical significance of FGF19 in advanced‑stage serous ovarian cancer, we detected the expression of FGF19 and FGFR4 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), evaluated the correlation between FGF19 and clinicopathological factors by Chi-square (χ2) test, and analyzed the association between FGF19, FGFR4 and the overall survival rate using the Kaplan‑Meier method. As a result, we demonstrated that high expression of FGF19 and FGFR4 both predicted unfavorable prognosis (P=0.033 and 0.018, respectively), whereas FGF19-FGFR4 double high expression was a more sensitive prognostic factor of advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer (P<0.001). With experiments in vitro, we demonstrated that both recombinant FGF19 and secreted FGF19 promoted ovarian cancer proliferation and invasion by activating FGFR4 and the subsequent AKT-MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that FGF19-FGFR4 signaling may auto-activate in a paracrine or autocrine manner. In conclusion, FGF19-FGFR4 double high expression was a more sensitive prognostic factor than FGF19 or FGFR4 alone in advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer. The FGF19-FGFR4 signaling pathway can promote ovarian cancer proliferation and invasion by the AKT-MAPK signaling pathway, indicating that FGF19 could be a potential therapeutic drug target of advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer.

Charehbili A, de Groot S, van der Straaten T, et al.
Exploratory analysis of candidate germline gene polymorphisms in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline-containing chemotherapy and associations with febrile neutropenia.
Pharmacogenomics. 2015; 16(11):1267-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: SNPs may be associated with (side) effects of chemotherapy and may be useful as biomarkers to predict febrile neutropenia.
PATIENTS & METHODS: 187 DNA samples extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from patients with stage II/III HER2-negative breast cancer were genotyped.
RESULTS: Candidate SNPs were selected and explored for association with febrile neutropenia and/or pathological complete response. TT genotype of 388 C>T in FGFR4 (rs351855) had a tendency toward higher incidence of febrile neutropenia during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, compared with the CT (p = 0.383) genotype and compared with the CC genotype (p = 0.068).
CONCLUSION: The TT genotype of 388 C>T FGFR4 may be related to incidence of febrile neutropenia during neoadjuvant TAC (docetaxel, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy and is possibly useful as a patient-related risk factor when assessing febrile neutropenia risk. Original submitted 23 January 2015; Revision submitted 26 May 2015.

Hernández-Ramírez LC, Gabrovska P, Dénes J, et al.
Landscape of Familial Isolated and Young-Onset Pituitary Adenomas: Prospective Diagnosis in AIP Mutation Carriers.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(9):E1242-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) due to aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene mutations is an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance. Clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIP mutation (AIPmut) carriers could identify previously unrecognized disease.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the AIP mutational status of FIPA and young pituitary adenoma patients, analyzing their clinical characteristics, and to perform clinical screening of apparently unaffected AIPmut carrier family members.
DESIGN: This was an observational, longitudinal study conducted over 7 years.
SETTING: International collaborative study conducted at referral centers for pituitary diseases.
PARTICIPANTS: FIPA families (n 216) and sporadic young-onset (30 y) pituitary adenoma patients (n 404) participated in the study.
INTERVENTIONS: We performed genetic screening of patients for AIPmuts, clinical assessment of their family members, and genetic screening for somatic GNAS1 mutations and the germline FGFR4 p.G388R variant.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): We assessed clinical disease in mutation carriers, comparison of characteristics of AIPmut positive and negative patients, results of GNAS1, and FGFR4 analysis.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven FIPA families and 34 sporadic patients had AIPmuts. Patients with truncating AIPmuts had a younger age at disease onset and diagnosis, compared with patients with nontruncating AIPmuts. Somatic GNAS1 mutations were absent in tumors from AIPmut-positive patients, and the studied FGFR4 variant did not modify the disease behavior or penetrance in AIPmut-positive individuals. A total of 164 AIPmut-positive unaffected family members were identified; pituitary disease was detected in 18 of those who underwent clinical screening.
CONCLUSIONS: A quarter of the AIPmut carriers screened were diagnosed with pituitary disease, justifying this screening and suggesting a variable clinical course for AIPmut-positive pituitary adenomas.

Dallol A, Buhmeida A, Merdad A, et al.
Frequent methylation of the KLOTHO gene and overexpression of the FGFR4 receptor in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9677-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. The marked heterogeneity of breast cancer is matched only with the heterogeneity in its associated or causative factors. Breast cancer in Saudi Arabia is apparently an early onset with many of the affected females diagnosed before they reach the age of 50 years. One possible rationale underlying this observation is that consanguinity, which is widely spread in the Saudi community, is causing the accumulation of yet undetermined cancer susceptibility mutations. Another factor could be the accumulation of epigenetic aberrations caused by the shift toward a Western-like lifestyle in the past two decades. In order to shed some light into the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer in the Saudi community, we identified KLOTHO (KL) as a tumor-specific methylated gene using genome-wide methylation analysis of primary breast tumors utilizing the MBD-seq approach. KL methylation was frequent as it was detected in 55.3 % of breast cancer cases from Saudi Arabia (n = 179) using MethyLight assay. Furthermore, KL is downregulated in breast tumors with its expression induced following treatment with 5-azacytidine. The involvement of KL in breast cancer led us to investigate its relationship in the context of breast cancer, with one of the protagonists of its function, fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4). Overexpression of FGFR4 in breast cancer is frequent in our cohort and this overexpression is associated with poor overall survival. Interestingly, FGFR4 expression is higher in the absence of KL methylation and lower when KL is methylated and presumably silenced, which is suggestive of an intricate relationship between the two factors. In conclusion, our findings further implicate "metabolic" genes or pathways in breast cancer that are disrupted by epigenetic mechanisms and could provide new avenues for understanding this disease in a new context.

Seki M, Nishimura R, Yoshida K, et al.
Integrated genetic and epigenetic analysis defines novel molecular subgroups in rhabdomyosarcoma.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7557 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood. Here we studied 60 RMSs using whole-exome/-transcriptome sequencing, copy number (CN) and DNA methylome analyses to unravel the genetic/epigenetic basis of RMS. On the basis of methylation patterns, RMS is clustered into four distinct subtypes, which exhibits remarkable correlation with mutation/CN profiles, histological phenotypes and clinical behaviours. A1 and A2 subtypes, especially A1, largely correspond to alveolar histology with frequent PAX3/7 fusions and alterations in cell cycle regulators. In contrast, mostly showing embryonal histology, both E1 and E2 subtypes are characterized by high frequency of CN alterations and/or allelic imbalances, FGFR4/RAS/AKT pathway mutations and PTEN mutations/methylation and in E2, also by p53 inactivation. Despite the better prognosis of embryonal RMS, patients in the E2 are likely to have a poor prognosis. Our results highlight the close relationships of the methylation status and gene mutations with the biological behaviour in RMS.

Ipenburg NA, Koole K, Liem KS, et al.
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Family Members as Prognostic Biomarkers in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.
Target Oncol. 2016; 11(1):17-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Since head and neck cancer is characterized by poor survival rates, there is a demand for novel therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers. An upcoming therapeutic target is the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. However, their prognostic role in head and neck cancer remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review current evidence on the prognostic value of FGFR family members in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed for publications up to 14 May 2014. Two reviewers screened all articles and included prognostic studies on the molecular biomarkers FGFR1-5 in any type of HNSCC. Relevant studies were assessed on risk of bias using the Quality in Prognostic Studies (QUIPS) tool. Data on FGFR aberrations and survival outcome were extracted from relevant studies. The prognostic value of FGFR aberrations was compared among studies.
RESULTS: The initial search yielded 1568 publications of which 12 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four studies reported FGFR1 gene amplification (9.3-17.4 %) and FGFR1 protein overexpression (11.8 %) in HNSCC. FGFR1 protein expression by cancer-associated fibroblasts correlated with poor survival outcome in one study (p < 0.01). Eight studies reported high rates of FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphisms (32.5-54.2 %) and FGFR4 protein overexpression (16-35 %), with varying correlations with survival. So far, no studies assessed the prognostic role of FGFR2, FGFR3, or FGFR5 in HNSCC.
LIMITATIONS: Significant risk of bias has been identified among included studies. Therefore, cautious interpretation of the results is recommended.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, evidence was found for prognostic value of FGFR1 expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts in HNSCC. Prognostic evidence on the other FGFR family members in HNSCC is limited and conflicting. This emphasizes the need for future well-conducted prognostic studies.

Butkiewicz D, Krześniak M, Drosik A, et al.
The VEGFR2, COX-2 and MMP-2 polymorphisms are associated with clinical outcome of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(10):2332-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Certain common inherited variations in genes involved in tumor angiogenesis, progression and metastasis may contribute to cancer therapy outcome and prognosis by altering the gene expression and protein activity. In this report, we examined the effect of functional polymorphisms in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, VEGF, VEGFR2, FGFR4 and COX-2 genes on overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 350 Caucasian patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results of multivariate analysis indicated that VEGFR2 -906C and COX-2 -1195G alleles were strongly associated with poor OS and PFS (p = 0.002 and 0.015, respectively, for OS; p = 0.009 and 0.015, respectively, for PFS), while MMP-2 -1306 T allele carriers had significantly reduced PFS (p = 0.010). Moreover, an increased risk of death and progression was significantly associated with the number of adverse alleles for VEGFR2/COX-2 (p = 0.0005 for OS and 0.0006 for PFS in >1 adverse allele carriers) and VEGFR2/COX-2/MMP-2 combinations (p = 0.0003 for OS and 0.0001 for PFS in patients with >2 adverse alleles). Finally, VEGFR2 TC/CC, COX-2 AG/GG and MMP-2 CT/TT genotypes as well as "at risk" allele combinations were identified as independent predictors of unfavorable OS and PFS in the group. In conclusion, the data suggest that selected VEGFR2, COX-2 and MMP-2 polymorphisms may be potential prognostic markers in unresectable NSCLC treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, although further validation studies are warranted to confirm our observations.

Sheu MJ, Hsieh MJ, Chiang WL, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphism is associated with liver cirrhosis in hepatocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0122961 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) polymorphisms are positively correlated with tumor progression in numerous malignant tumors. However, the association between FGFR4 genetic variants and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been determined. In this study, we investigated the potential associations of FGFR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathological characteristics.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four SNPs in FGFR4 (rs1966265, rs351855, rs2011077, and rs7708357) were analyzed among 884 participants, including 595 controls and 289 patients with HCC. The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of HCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC. After adjusting for other covariants, HCC patients who carrying at least one A genotype (GA and AA) at rs351855 were observed to have a higher risk of liver cirrhosis compared with those carrying the wild-type genotype (GG) (OR: 2.113, 95% CI: 1.188-3.831). Moreover, the patients with at least one A genotype were particularly showed a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphism in FGFR4 rs351855 may be associated with the risk of HCC coupled with liver cirrhosis and may markedly increase the AFP level in Taiwanese patients with HCC. In addition, this is the first study that evaluated the risk factors associated with FGFR4 polymorphism variants in Taiwanese patients with HCC.

Ang D, Ballard M, Beadling C, et al.
Novel mutations in neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: possible therapeutic targets.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015; 23(2):97-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant, accounting for only 2% to 5% of diagnosed breast cancers, and may have relatively aggressive behavior. Mutational profiling of invasive ductal breast cancers has yielded potential targets for directed cancer therapy, yet most studies have not included neuroendocrine carcinomas. In a tissue microarray screen, we found a 2.4% prevalence (9/372) of neuroendocrine breast carcinoma, including several with lobular morphology. We then screened primary or metastatic neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (excluding papillary and mucinous) for mutations in common cancer genes using polymerase chain reaction-mass spectroscopy (643 hotspot mutations across 53 genes), or semiconductor-based next-generation sequencing analysis (37 genes). Mutations were identified in 5 of 15 tumors, including 3 with PIK3CA exon 9 E542K mutations, 2 of which also harbored point mutations in FGFR family members (FGFR1 P126S, FGFR4 V550M). Single mutations were found in each of KDR (A1065T) and HRAS (G12A). PIK3CA mutations are common in other types of breast carcinoma. However, FGFR and RAS family mutations are exceedingly rare in the breast cancer literature. Likewise, activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase KDR (VEGFR2) have been reported in angiosarcomas and non-small cell lung cancers; the KDR A1065T mutation is reported to be sensitive to VEGFR kinase inhibitors, and fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors are in trials. Our findings demonstrate the utility of broad-based genotyping in the study of rare tumors such as neuroendocrine breast cancer.

André F, Cortés J
Rationale for targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 150(1):1-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is involved in multiple biological processes, including cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Given its role in the activation of critical signaling pathways, aberrant FGFR signaling has been implicated in multiple cancer types. A comprehensive search of PubMed and congress abstracts was conducted to identify reports on FGFR pathway components in breast cancer. In breast cancers, FGFR1 and FGFR4 gene amplification and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FGFR2 and FGFR4 have been detected. Commonly, these FGFR aberrations and gene amplifications lead to increased FGFR signaling and have been linked with poor prognosis and resistance to breast cancer treatments. Here, we review the role of FGFR signaling and the impact of FGFR genetic amplifications/aberrations on breast tumors. In addition, we summarize the most recent preclinical and clinical data on FGFR-targeted therapies in breast cancer. Finally, we highlight the ongoing clinical trials of the FGFR-targeted agents dovitinib, AZD4547, lucitanib, BGJ398, and JNJ-42756493, which are selected for patients with FGFR pathway-amplified breast cancer. Aberrant FGFR pathway amplification may drive some breast cancers. Inhibition of FGFR signaling is being explored in the clinic, and data from these trials may refine our ability to select patients who would best respond to these treatments.

Bohanes P, Rankin CJ, Blanke CD, et al.
Pharmacogenetic Analysis of INT 0144 Trial: Association of Polymorphisms with Survival and Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with 5-FU and Radiation.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(7):1583-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We tested whether 18 polymorphisms in 16 genes (GSTP1, COX2, IL10, EGFR, EGF, FGFR4, CCDN1, VEGFR2, VEGF, CXCR2, IL8, MMP3, ICAM1, ERCC1, RAD51, and XRCC3) would predict disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity in the INT0144 trial, which was designed to investigate different postoperative regimens of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancers: Arm 1 consisted of bolus 5-FU followed by 5-FU protracted venous infusion (PVI) with radiotherapy; arm 2 was induction and concomitant PVI 5-FU with radiotherapy and arm 3 was induction and concomitant bolus 5-FU with radiotherapy.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DNA from 746 stage II/III rectal patients enrolled in the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) S9304 phase III trial was analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue. The polymorphisms were analyzed using direct DNA-sequencing or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: GSTP1-Ile105Val (rs1695) was significantly associated with DFS and OS and its effect did not vary by treatment arm. The five-year DFS and OS were 53% and 58%, respectively, for G/G, 66% and 72% for G/A, and 57% and 66% for A/A patients. In arm 2, IL8-251A/A genotype (rs4073) was associated with a lower risk of toxicities (P = 0.04). The VEGFR2 H472Q Q/Q genotype (rs1870377) was associated with a higher risk of grade 3-5 proximal upper gastrointestinal tract (PUGIT) mucositis (P = 0.04) in arm 2. However, in arm 1, this genotype was associated with a lower risk of PUGIT mucositis (P = 0.004).
CONCLUSION: rs1695 may be prognostic in patients with rectal cancer treated with adjuvant CRT. rs4073 and rs1870377 may exhibit different associations with toxicity, according to the 5-FU schedule.

Uriarte I, Latasa MU, Carotti S, et al.
Ileal FGF15 contributes to fibrosis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma development.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(10):2469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), FGF19 in humans, is a gut-derived hormone and a key regulator of bile acids and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF15 also participates in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy inducing hepatocellular proliferation. FGF19 is overexpressed in a significant proportion of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), and activation of its receptor FGFR4 promotes HCC cell growth. Here we addressed for the first time the role of endogenous Fgf15 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Fgf15(+/+) and Fgf15(-/-) mice were subjected to a clinically relevant model of liver inflammation and fibrosis-associated carcinogenesis. Fgf15(-/-) mice showed less and smaller tumors, and histological neoplastic lesions were also smaller than in Fgf15(+/+) animals. Importantly, ileal Fgf15 mRNA expression was enhanced in mice undergoing carcinogenesis, but at variance with human HCC it was not detected in liver or HCC tissues, while circulating FGF15 protein was clearly upregulated. Hepatocellular proliferation was also reduced in Fgf15(-/-) mice, which also expressed lower levels of the HCC marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Interestingly, lack of FGF15 resulted in attenuated fibrogenesis. However, in vitro experiments showed that liver fibrogenic stellate cells were not direct targets for FGF15/FGF19. Conversely we demonstrate that FGF15/FGF19 induces the expression of the pro-fibrogenic and pro-tumorigenic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in hepatocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an FGF15-triggered CTGF-mediated paracrine action on stellate cells, and an amplification mechanism for the hepatocarcinogenic effects of FGF15 via CTGF production. In summary, our observations indicate that ileal FGF15 may contribute to HCC development in a context of chronic liver injury and fibrosis.

Feng S, Zhou L, Nice EC, Huang C
Fibroblast growth factor receptors: multifactorial-contributors to tumor initiation and progression.
Histol Histopathol. 2015; 30(1):13-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), encoded by four genes (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4) are tightly associated with many biological processes such as organ development, cell proliferation and migration. Studies over the past decades have validated the pivotal roles FGFRs play in tumorigenesis due to the regulation of diverse tumorigenesis-related processes, including cell survival, proliferation, inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. Interestingly, FGFR mutations in somatic cells leading to tumorigenesis and those in germ cells leading to developmental disorders are identical, suggesting that FGFR mutations result in different diseases due to their spatio-temporal expression. Thus, discoveries in developmental biology may also be applicable to cancer. FGFRs regulate the expression and/or the activity of a myriad of molecules (e.g. matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and Snail) that are tightly linked to tumorigenesis by four main signaling pathways (RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ-PIP2, and STAT), as well as other minor branches. Epigenetic and genetic alteration of FGFR genes, including DNA methylation, histone remodeling, microRNA regulation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene missense mutations, amplification, and fusion of FGFRs with other genes, which result in gain or loss of FGFR function, have been identified in many types of cancer. In this review, we focus in particular on recent advances in the relationship between FGFR disorders and tumorigenesis.

Gauglhofer C, Paur J, Schrottmaier WC, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4: a putative key driver for the aggressive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(10):2331-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we found upregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in a subset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the role of FGFR4-mediated signalling for the aggressive behaviour of HCC cells. To overexpress FGFR4, hepatoma/hepatocarcinoma cells were transfected with a construct coding for FGFR4. For downmodulation of endogenous FGFR4, we used small interfering RNA or adenoviral infection with dominant-negative FGFR4 constructs being either kinase dead (kdFGFR4) or coding for the autoinhibitory soluble domain (solFGFR4). FGFR4 overexpression in non-tumourigenic hepatocarcinoma cells significantly reduced cell-matrix adhesion, enabled cells to grow anchorage-independently in soft agar, to disintegrate the lymph-/blood-endothelial barrier for intra-/extravasation of tumour cells and to form tumours in SCID mice. Transcriptome analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell-matrix interactions. Conversely, in highly tumourigenic cell lines, kdFGFR4 or solFGFR4 lowered the proportion of cells in S phase of the cell cycle, enhanced the G0/G1 and G2/M-phase proportions, reduced anchorage-independent growth in vitro and attenuated disintegration of the lymph-/blood-endothelium and tumour formation in vivo. These findings were confirmed by altered expression profiles of genes being important for late stages of cell division. Deregulated FGFR4 expression appears to be one of the key drivers of the malignant phenotype of HCC cells. Accordingly, blockade of FGFR4-mediated signalling by soluble dominant-negative constructs, like solFGFR4, may be a feasible and promising therapeutic approach to antagonize aggressive behaviour of hepatoma/hepatocarcinoma cells.

Yadav DS, Chattopadhyay I, Verma A, et al.
A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

Wang X, Cao X
Regulation of metastasis of pediatric multiple myeloma by MMP13.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8715-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanism underlying metastasis of pediatric multiple myeloma (MM) remains elusive. Here, we showed that the levels of MMP13 are significantly higher in MM from young patients than those from adult patients. Moreover, a strong correlation of the MMP13 and phosphorylated fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) levels was detected in MM from young patients. To prove a causal link between activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) signaling pathway and MMP13 expression, we used a human MM line, RPMI-8226 (8226), to study the underlying molecular basis. We found that FGF1-induced FGFR4 phosphorylation in 8,226 cells resulted in significant activation of MMP13, and consequently, an increase in cancer invasiveness. FGFR4 inhibition in 8,226 cells abolished FGF1-stimulated MMP13 expression, suggesting that activation of FGFR signaling pathway in MM may promote cancer metastasis by inducing MMP13 expression. To define the signaling cascades downstream of FGFR4 activation for MMP13 activation, we applied specific inhibitors for PI3K, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and ERK/MAPK, respectively, to the FGF1-stimulated 8,226 cells. We found that only inhibition of ERK1/2 significantly decreased the activation of MMP13 in response to FGF stimulation, suggesting that activation of FGFR signaling may activate ERK/MAPK, rather than JNK or PI3K pathway to activate MMP13 expression in 8,226 cells. Our study thus highlights FGFR4 signaling pathway and MMP13 as novel therapeutic targets for MM.

Xu YF, Yang XQ, Lu XF, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(1):54-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P=0.002) and PHCC (P=0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P=0.045) and PHCC (P=0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

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