Gene Summary

Gene:GAS7; growth arrest specific 7
Summary:Growth arrest-specific 7 is expressed primarily in terminally differentiated brain cells and predominantly in mature cerebellar Purkinje neurons. GAS7 plays a putative role in neuronal development. Several transcript variants encoding proteins which vary in the N-terminus have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:growth arrest-specific protein 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (11)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Exons
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transfection
  • Vincristine
  • Transcriptome
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • p53 Protein
  • Young Adult
  • GAS7
  • Adolescents
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • KMT2A
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Leukaemia
  • DNA Methylation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • CpG Islands
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Base Sequence
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • c-MET
  • Mutation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Amplification
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • Promoter Regions
  • Survival Rate
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Chromosome 17
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Lung Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Translocation
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GAS7 (cancer-related)

Tseng RC, Chang JW, Mao JS, et al.
Growth-arrest-specific 7C protein inhibits tumor metastasis via the N-WASP/FAK/F-actin and hnRNP U/β-TrCP/β-catenin pathways in lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44207-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Growth-arrest-specific 7 (GAS7) belongs to a group of adaptor proteins that coordinate the actin cytoskeleton. Among human GAS7 isoforms, only GAS7C possesses a Src homology 3 domain. We report here that GAS7C acts as a migration suppressor and can serve as a prognostic biomarker in lung cancer. GAS7C overexpression reduces lung cancer migration, whereas GAS7C knockdown enhances cancer cell migration. Importantly, ectopically overexpressed GAS7C binds tightly with N-WASP thus inactivates the fibronectin/integrin/FAK pathway, which in turn leads to the suppression of F-actin dynamics. In addition, overexpression of GAS7C sequesters hnRNP U and thus decreases the level of β-catenin protein via the β-TrCP ubiquitin-degradation pathway. The anti-metastatic effect of GAS7C overexpression was also confirmed using lung cancer xenografts. Our clinical data indicated that 23.6% (25/106) of lung cancer patients showed low expression of GAS7C mRNA which correlated with a poorer overall survival. In addition, low GAS7C mRNA expression was detected in 60.0% of metastatic lung cancer patients, indicating an association between low GAS7C expression and cancer progression. A significant inverse correlation between mRNA expression and promoter hypermethylation was also found, which suggests that the low level of GAS7C expression was partly due to promoter hypermethylation. Our results provide novel evidence that low GAS7C correlates with poor prognosis and promotes metastasis in lung cancer. Low GAS7C increases cancer cell motility by promoting N-WASP/FAK/F-actin cytoskeleton dynamics. It also enhances β-catenin stability via hnRNP U/β-TrCP complex formation. Therefore, GAS7C acts as a metastasis suppressor in lung cancer.

Rambow F, Job B, Petit V, et al.
New Functional Signatures for Understanding Melanoma Biology from Tumor Cell Lineage-Specific Analysis.
Cell Rep. 2015; 13(4):840-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular signatures specific to particular tumor types are required to design treatments for resistant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether tumors and corresponding cell lines used for drug development share such signatures. We developed similarity core analysis (SCA), a universal and unsupervised computational framework for extracting core molecular features common to tumors and cell lines. We applied SCA to mRNA/miRNA expression data from various sources, comparing melanoma cell lines and metastases. The signature obtained was associated with phenotypic characteristics in vitro, and the core genes CAPN3 and TRIM63 were implicated in melanoma cell migration/invasion. About 90% of the melanoma signature genes belong to an intrinsic network of transcription factors governing neural development (TFAP2A, DLX2, ALX1, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, LEF1, and GAS7) and miRNAs (211-5p, 221-3p, and 10a-5p). The SCA signature effectively discriminated between two subpopulations of melanoma patients differing in overall survival, and classified MEKi/BRAFi-resistant and -sensitive melanoma cell lines.

Torabi K, Miró R, Fernández-Jiménez N, et al.
Patterns of somatic uniparental disomy identify novel tumor suppressor genes in colorectal cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(10):1103-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by specific patterns of copy number alterations (CNAs), which helped with the identification of driver oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). More recently, the usage of single nucleotide polymorphism arrays provided information of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity, thus suggesting the occurrence of somatic uniparental disomy (UPD) and uniparental polysomy (UPP) events. The aim of this study is to establish an integrative profiling of recurrent UPDs/UPPs and CNAs in sporadic CRC. Our results indicate that regions showing high frequencies of UPD/UPP mostly coincide with regions typically involved in genomic losses. Among them, chromosome arms 3p, 5q, 9q, 10q, 14q, 17p, 17q, 20p, 21q and 22q preferentially showed UPDs/UPPs over genomic losses suggesting that tumor cells must maintain the disomic state of certain genes to favor cellular fitness. A meta-analysis using over 300 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed our findings. Several regions affected by recurrent UPDs/UPPs contain well-known TSGs, as well as novel candidates such as ARID1A, DLC1, TCF7L2 and DMBT1. In addition, VCAN, FLT4, SFRP1 and GAS7 were also frequently involved in regions of UPD/UPP and displayed high levels of methylation. Finally, sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the gene APC underlined that a somatic UPD event might represent the second hit to achieve biallelic inactivation of this TSG in colorectal tumors. In summary, our data define a profile of somatic UPDs/UPPs in sporadic CRC and highlights the importance of these events as a mechanism to achieve the inactivation of TSGs.

Li YF, Hsiao YH, Lai YH, et al.
DNA methylation profiles and biomarkers of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(3):229-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes >90% of oral cancers and is the sixth most common malignancy among males worldwide and the fourth leading cause of death due to cancer among males in Taiwan. However, most patients do not receive a diagnosis of OSCC until the late stages, which have a lower survival rate. The use of molecular marker analysis to identify early-stage OSCC would permit optimal timing for treatments and consequently prolong survival. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of OSCC using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel, which comprised a total of 1,505 CpG sites covering 807 genes. Samples of buccal mucosa resected from 40 OSCC patients and normal tissue samples obtained from 15 patients (normal mucosa from OSCC patients or from patients undergoing surgery unrelated to OSCC) were analyzed. Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) methylation exhibited a perfect specificity for detecting OSCC, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91 for both all-stage and early-stage OSCC. Methylation of 7 genes (ASCL1, FGF3, FLT4, GAS7, KDR, TERT, and TFPI2) constitutes the top-20 panels for detecting OSCC. The top-20 panels for detecting early-stage OSCC contain 8 genes: ADCYAP1, EPHA7, FLT4, GSTM2, KDR, MT1A, NPY, and TFPI2. FLT4 RNA expression and methylation level were validated using RT-PCR and a pyrosequencing methylation assay. The median level of FLT4 expression was 2.14-fold for normal relative to OSCC tissue samples (P < 0.0001). Among the 8 pyrosequenced FLT4 CpG sites, methylation level was much higher in the OSCC samples. In conclusion, methylation statuses of selected genes, and especially FLT4, KDR, and TFPI2, might be of great potential as biomarkers for early detection of buccal OSCC.

Conway K, Edmiston SN, May R, et al.
DNA methylation profiling in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study defines cancer subclasses differing in clinicopathologic characteristics and survival.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(5):450 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several intrinsic subtypes differing by hormone receptor (HR) status, molecular profiles, and prognosis. However, the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer development and progression and its relationship with the intrinsic tumor subtypes are not fully understood.
METHODS: A microarray targeting promoters of cancer-related genes was used to evaluate DNA methylation at 935 CpG sites in 517 breast tumors from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of invasive breast cancer.
RESULTS: Consensus clustering using methylation (β) values for the 167 most variant CpG loci defined four clusters differing most distinctly in HR status, intrinsic subtype (luminal versus basal-like), and p53 mutation status. Supervised analyses for HR status, subtype, and p53 status identified 266 differentially methylated CpG loci with considerable overlap. Genes relatively hypermethylated in HR+, luminal A, or p53 wild-type breast cancers included FABP3, FGF2, FZD9, GAS7, HDAC9, HOXA11, MME, PAX6, POMC, PTGS2, RASSF1, RBP1, and SCGB3A1, whereas those more highly methylated in HR-, basal-like, or p53 mutant tumors included BCR, C4B, DAB2IP, MEST, RARA, SEPT5, TFF1, THY1, and SERPINA5. Clustering also defined a hypermethylated luminal-enriched tumor cluster 3 that gene ontology analysis revealed to be enriched for homeobox and other developmental genes (ASCL2, DLK1, EYA4, GAS7, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB13, IHH, IPF1, ISL1, PAX6, TBX1, SOX1, and SOX17). Although basal-enriched cluster 2 showed worse short-term survival, the luminal-enriched cluster 3 showed worse long-term survival but was not independently prognostic in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, likely due to the mostly early stage cases in this dataset.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that epigenetic patterns are strongly associated with HR status, subtype, and p53 mutation status and may show heterogeneity within tumor subclass. Among HR+ breast tumors, a subset exhibiting a gene signature characterized by hypermethylation of developmental genes and poorer clinicopathologic features may have prognostic value and requires further study. Genes differentially methylated between clinically important tumor subsets have roles in differentiation, development, and tumor growth and may be critical to establishing and maintaining tumor phenotypes and clinical outcomes.

Perez-Carbonell L, Balaguer F, Toiyama Y, et al.
IGFBP3 methylation is a novel diagnostic and predictive biomarker in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e104285 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aberrant hypermethylation of cancer-related genes has emerged as a promising strategy for the development of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in human cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to perform a systematic and comprehensive analysis of a panel of CRC-specific genes as potential diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in a large, population-based CRC cohort.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Methylation status of the SEPT9, TWIST1, IGFBP3, GAS7, ALX4 and miR137 genes was studied by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing in a population-based cohort of 425 CRC patients.
RESULTS: Methylation levels of all genes analyzed were significantly higher in tumor tissues compared to normal mucosa (p<0.0001); however, cancer-associated hypermethylation was most frequently observed for miR137 (86.7%) and IGFBP3 (83%) in CRC patients. Methylation analysis using the combination of these two genes demonstrated greatest accuracy for the identification of colonic tumors (sensitivity 95.5%; specificity 90.5%). Low levels of IGFBP3 promoter methylation emerged as an independent risk factor for predicting poor disease free survival in stage II and III CRC patients (HR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, p = 0.01). Our results also suggest that stage II & III CRC patients with high levels of IGFBP3 methylation do not benefit from adjuvant 5FU-based chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: By analyzing a large, population-based CRC cohort, we demonstrate the potential clinical significance of miR137 and IGFBP3 hypermethylation as promising diagnostic biomarkers in CRC. Our data also revealed that IGFBP3 hypermethylation may serve as an independent prognostic and predictive biomarker in stage II and III CRC patients.

Ashktorab H, Daremipouran M, Goel A, et al.
DNA methylome profiling identifies novel methylated genes in African American patients with colorectal neoplasia.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(4):503-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The identification of genes that are differentially methylated in colorectal cancer (CRC) has potential value for both diagnostic and therapeutic interventions specifically in high-risk populations such as African Americans (AAs). However, DNA methylation patterns in CRC, especially in AAs, have not been systematically explored and remain poorly understood. Here, we performed DNA methylome profiling to identify the methylation status of CpG islands within candidate genes involved in critical pathways important in the initiation and development of CRC. We used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) in colorectal cancer and adenoma tissues that were compared with DNA methylome from a healthy AA subject's colon tissue and peripheral blood DNA. The identified methylation markers were validated in fresh frozen CRC tissues and corresponding normal tissues from AA patients diagnosed with CRC at Howard University Hospital. We identified and validated the methylation status of 355 CpG sites located within 16 gene promoter regions associated with CpG islands. Fifty CpG sites located within CpG islands-in genes ATXN7L1 (2), BMP3 (7), EID3 (15), GAS7 (1), GPR75 (24), and TNFAIP2 (1)-were significantly hypermethylated in tumor vs. normal tissues (P<0.05). The methylation status of BMP3, EID3, GAS7, and GPR75 was confirmed in an independent, validation cohort. Ingenuity pathway analysis mapped three of these markers (GAS7, BMP3 and GPR) in the insulin and TGF-β1 network-the two key pathways in CRC. In addition to hypermethylated genes, our analysis also revealed that LINE-1 repeat elements were progressively hypomethylated in the normal-adenoma-cancer sequence. We conclude that DNA methylome profiling based on RRBS is an effective method for screening aberrantly methylated genes in CRC. While previous studies focused on the limited identification of hypermethylated genes, ours is the first study to systematically and comprehensively identify novel hypermethylated genes, as well as hypomethylated LINE-1 sequences, which may serve as potential biomarkers for CRC in African Americans. Our discovered biomarkers were intimately linked to the insulin/TGF-B1 pathway, further strengthening the association of diabetic disorders with colon oncogenic transformation.

Kim YH, Lee HC, Kim SY, et al.
Epigenomic analysis of aberrantly methylated genes in colorectal cancer identifies genes commonly affected by epigenetic alterations.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2011; 18(8):2338-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Determination of the profile of genes that are commonly methylated aberrantly in colorectal cancer (CRC) will have substantial value for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, there is limited knowledge of the DNA methylation pattern in CRC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the methylation profile of 27,578 CpG sites spanning more than 14,000 genes in CRC and in the adjacent normal mucosa with bead-chip array-based technology.
RESULTS: We identified 621 CpG sites located in promoter regions and CpG islands that were greatly hypermethylated in CRC compared to normal mucosa. The genes on chromosome 18 showed promoter hypermethylation most frequently. According to gene ontology analysis, the most common biologically relevant class of genes affected by methylation was the class associated with the cadherin signaling pathway. Compared to the genome-wide expression array, mRNA expression was more likely to be downregulated in the genes demonstrating promoter hypermethylation, even though this was not statistically significant. We validated ten CpG sites that were hypermethylated (ADHFE1, BOLL, SLC6A15, ADAMTS5, TFPI2, EYA4, NPY, TWIST1, LAMA1, GAS7) and 2 CpG sites showing hypomethylation (MAEL, SFT2D3) in CRC compared to the normal mucosa in the array studies using pyrosequencing. The methylation status measured by pyrosequencing was consistent with the methylation array data.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation profiling based on bead-chip arrays is an effective method for screening aberrantly methylated genes in CRC. In addition, we identified novel methylated genes that are candidate diagnostic or prognostic markers for CRC.

Rønneberg JA, Fleischer T, Solvang HK, et al.
Methylation profiling with a panel of cancer related genes: association with estrogen receptor, TP53 mutation status and expression subtypes in sporadic breast cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2011; 5(1):61-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that can be divided in subtypes based on histology, gene expression profiles as well as differences in genomic aberrations. Distinct global DNA methylation profiles have been reported in normal breast epithelial cells as well as in breast tumors. However, the influence of the tumor methylome on the previously described subgroups of breast cancer is not fully understood. Here we report the DNA methylation profiles of 80 breast tumors using a panel of 807 cancer related genes interrogating 1505 CpG sites. We identified three major clusters based on the methylation profiles; one consisting of mainly tumors of myoepithelial origin and two other clusters with tumors of predominantly luminal epithelial origin. The clusters were different with respect to estrogen receptor status, TP53 status, ErbB2 status and grade. The most significantly differentially methylated genes including HDAC1, TFF1, OGG1, BMP3, FZD9 and HOXA11 were confirmed by pyrosequencing. Gene Ontology analysis revealed enrichment for genes involved in developmental processes including homeobox domain genes (HOXA9, HOXA11, PAX6, MYBL2, ISL1 and IPF1) and (ETS1, HDAC1, CREBBP, GAS7, SPI1 and TBX1). Extensive correlation to mRNA expression was observed. Pathway analyses identified a significant association with canonical (curated) pathways such as hepatic fibrosis including genes like EGF, NGFR and TNF, dendritic cell maturation and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results show that breast tumor expression subtypes harbor major epigenetic differences and tumors with similar gene expression profiles might belong to epigenetically different subtypes. Some of the transcription factors identified, with key roles in differentiation and development might play a role in inducing and maintaining the different phenotypes.

Hung FC, Chao CC
Knockdown of growth-arrest-specific gene 7b (gas7b) using short-hairpin RNA desensitizes neuroblastoma cells to cisplatin: Implications for preventing apoptosis of neurons.
J Neurosci Res. 2010; 88(16):3578-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Efficient control of cell survival and cell proliferation is critical for the development of neuron cells. Earlier, we observed that growth arrest-specific gene 7 (Gas7) plays a role in controlling neuritogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we report that the Gas7b isoform is involved in controlling growth arrest and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells in response to various stimuli. Accordingly, knockdown of Gas7b using small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) was shown to reduce apoptosis induced either by serum starvation or by the antineoplastic agents cisplatin and nocodazole in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Gas7b knockdown also enhanced the ability of the treated cells to form clones in response to cisplatin. On the other hand, forced expression of Gas7a or Gas7b isoform in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells, which express a defective Gas7 gene, rendered the cells proapoptotic and vulnerable to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In addition, Neuro2A cells that overexpressed Gas7 showed a reduced ability to form clones. Overexpression of Gas7 produced similar but less extensive effects in nonneuronal HEK293 cells. Taken together, our observations suggest that Gas7b is involved not only in neuritogenesis but also in the regulation of neuronal cell death.

Tseng RC, Hsieh FJ, Hsu HS, Wang YC
Minimal deletion regions in lung squamous cell carcinoma: association with abnormality of the DNA double-strand break repair genes and their applications on gene identification and prognostic biomarkers.
Lung Cancer. 2008; 59(3):332-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells frequently exhibit markers of chromosome instability such as high fractional allelic loss (FAL). We postulated that alterations in the p53 damage responsive gene and in the double-strand break (DSB) repair genes, BRCA1 and XRCC5, are involved in patients with high FAL. In addition, chromosomal deletion analysis enables the delineation of the likely locations of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and could provide molecular markers for disease classification.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: To define the minimal deletion regions (MDRs), we used 92 microsatellites spanning 29 regions identified in our previous genome-wide chromosomal deletion study in 36 lung SCC patients to verify the maximal contiguous deletion loci.
RESULTS: Eight MDRs at 2q35, 3p14.1-3p14.3, 3p22.2-p23, 3p25.3-3p26.3, 5q35.1-q35.2, 9p23-p24.1, 13q14.11-q14.2, and 17p13.1-p13.2 were found in lung SCC. The candidate genes GAS7 and OVCA2 in the MDR17pA (17p13.1-p13.2) were further examined for mRNA expression. Low expression of the GAS7 gene in 57% of patients analyzed suggested its importance in lung SCC tumorigenesis. In addition, we found a panel of five microsatellites (D3S1766, D4S2397, D4S2361, D13S175, and D17S974), which can be used as prognostic biomarkers in lung SCC. Furthermore, alteration in more than two genes in DSB repair-related pathways was more apparent in high FAL patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide biomarkers that may be used for monitoring tumor progression and for positional cloning of new TSGs. Importantly, our data show direct evidence that alterations in DSB repair-related pathways are involved in the genomic instability verified by intensive microsatellites of lung SCC.

Ebinger M, Senf L, Wachowski O, Scheurlen W
Expression of GAS7 in childhood CNS tumors.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006; 46(3):325-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of growth arrest-specific (Gas) genes is observed during growth arrest in terminally differentiating cells during development of peripheral nerves. Gas7 is expressed predominantly in the brain and is required for neurite formation. Human GAS7 is located on chromosome 17p11.3 close to or within the putative breakpoint of isochromosome 17q (i(17q)) in medulloblastoma, indicating a potential role as a tumor suppressor gene, lost by formation of i(17q). However in the present study, the expression of GAS7 was detected in 20 of 29 childhood medulloblastoma samples regardless of the presence of i(17q). Therefore, GAS7 is not likely to be a tumor suppressor gene in medulloblastoma development.

Zhou J, Dudley ME, Rosenberg SA, Robbins PF
Persistence of multiple tumor-specific T-cell clones is associated with complete tumor regression in a melanoma patient receiving adoptive cell transfer therapy.
J Immunother. 2005 Jan-Feb; 28(1):53-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The authors recently reported that adoptive immunotherapy with autologous tumor-reactive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) immediately following a conditioning nonmyeloablative chemotherapy regimen resulted in an enhanced clinical response rate in patients with metastatic melanoma. These observations led to the current studies, which are focused on a detailed analysis of the T-cell antigen reactivity as well as the in vivo persistence of T cells in melanoma patient 2098, who experienced a complete regression of all metastatic lesions in lungs and soft tissues following therapy. Screening of an autologous tumor cell cDNA library using transferred TILs resulted in the identification of novel mutated growth arrest-specific gene 7 (GAS7) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene transcripts. Direct sequence analysis of the expressed T-cell receptor beta chain variable regions showed that the transferred TILs contained multiple T-cell clonotypes, at least six of which persisted in peripheral blood for a month or more following transfer. The persistent T cells recognized both the mutated GAS7 and GAPDH. These persistent tumor-reactive T-cell clones were detected in tumor cell samples obtained from the patient following adoptive cell transfer and appeared to be represented at higher levels in the tumor sample obtained 1 month following transfer than in the peripheral blood obtained at the same time. Overall, these results indicate that multiple tumor-reactive T cells can persist in the peripheral blood and at the tumor site for prolonged times following adoptive transfer and thus may be responsible for the complete tumor regression in this patient.

Shain SA
Exogenous fibroblast growth factors maintain viability, promote proliferation, and suppress GADD45alpha and GAS6 transcript content of prostate cancer cells genetically modified to lack endogenous FGF-2.
Mol Cancer Res. 2004; 2(11):653-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding processes regulating prostate cancer cell survival is critical to management of advanced disease. We used prostate cancer cell transfectants genetically modified to be deficient in either endogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) or endogenous FGF-2 to examine FGF maintenance of transfectant survival and proliferation and FGF-2-regulated expression of transfectant growth arrest DNA damage (GADD) and growth arrest sequences (GAS) family genes (known modulators of cell cycle progression and survival) and the AS3 gene (an androgen-modulated effector of prostate cell proliferation). When propagated in the absence of exogenous FGFs, FGF-2-deficient transfectants undergo exponential death, whereas FGF-1-deficient transfectants proliferate. Exogenous FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-7, or FGF-8 promote survival and proliferation of FGF-2-deficient transfectants and enhance FGF-1-deficient transfectant proliferation. Transfectants express FGF receptor FGFR1, FGFR2(IIIb), FGFR2(IIIc), and FGFR3 transcripts, findings consistent with the effects of exogenous FGFs. FGF-2-deficient transfectants express high levels of AS3, GADD45alpha, GADD45gamma, GAS8, and GAS11 transcripts and moderate levels of GADD153, GAS2, GAS3, and GAS6 transcripts and lack demonstrable GAS1 or GAS5 transcripts. FGF withdrawal-mediated death of FGF-2-deficient transfectants did not significantly affect cell AS3, GADD153, GADD45gamma, GAS2, GAS3, GAS7, GAS8, or GAS11 transcript content, whereas GADD45alpha and GAS6 transcript content was elevated. These studies establish that endogenous FGF-2 dominantly regulates prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation and that exogenous FGFs may assume this function in the absence of endogenous FGF-2. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that FGFs regulate prostate GADD45alpha and GAS6 transcript content. The latter observations suggest that GADD45alpha and GAS6 proteins may be effectors of processes that regulate prostate cancer cell survival. Additional studies are required to examine this possibility in detail.

Squire JA, Pei J, Marrano P, et al.
High-resolution mapping of amplifications and deletions in pediatric osteosarcoma by use of CGH analysis of cDNA microarrays.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 38(3):215-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Conventional cytogenetic and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies have shown that osteosarcomas (OSs) are characterized by complex structural and numerical chromosomal alterations and gene amplification. In this study, we used high-resolution CGH to investigate recurrent patterns of genomic imbalance by use of DNA derived from nine OS tumors hybridized to a 19,200-clone cDNA microarray. In six OSs, there was copy number gain or amplification of 6p, with a minimal region of gain centering on segment 6p12.1. In seven OSs, the pattern of amplification affecting chromosome arm 8q showed high-level gains of 8q12-21.3 and 8q22-q23, with amplification of the MYC oncogene at 8q24.2. Seven OSs showed copy number gain or amplification of 17p between the loci bounded by GAS7 and PMI (17p11.2-17p12), and three of these tumors also showed small losses at 17p13, including the region containing TP53. An in silico analysis of the distribution of segmental duplications (duplicons) in this region identified a large number of tracts consisting of paralogous sequences mapping to the 17p region, encompassing the region of deletions and amplifications in OS. Interestingly, within this same region there were clusters of duplicons and several genes that are expressed during bone morphogenesis and in OS. In summary, microarray CGH analysis of the chromosomal imbalances of OS confirm the overall pattern observed by use of metaphase CGH and provides a more precise refinement of the boundaries of genomic gains and losses that characterize this tumor.

So CW, Lin M, Ayton PM, et al.
Dimerization contributes to oncogenic activation of MLL chimeras in acute leukemias.
Cancer Cell. 2003; 4(2):99-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
MLL is a histone methyltransferase that can be converted into an oncoprotein by acquisition of transcriptional effector domains following heterologous protein fusions with a variety of nuclear transcription factors, cofactors, or chromatin remodeling proteins in acute leukemias. Here we demonstrate an alternative mechanism for activation of MLL following fusions with proteins (AF1p/Eps15 and GAS7) that normally reside in the cytoplasm. The coiled-coil oligomerization domains of these proteins are necessary and sufficient for leukemogenic transformation induced by the respective MLL fusion proteins. Furthermore, homodimerization of MLL by synthetic dimerization modules mimics bona fide MLL fusion proteins resulting in Hox gene activation and enhanced self-renewal of hematopoietic progenitors. Our studies support an oligomerization-dependent mechanism for oncogenic conversion of MLL, presumably in part by recruitment of accessory factors through the dimerized MLL moiety of the chimeric protein.

So CW, Karsunky H, Passegué E, et al.
MLL-GAS7 transforms multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and induces mixed lineage leukemias in mice.
Cancer Cell. 2003; 3(2):161-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
A specific association with mixed lineage leukemias suggests that MLL oncoproteins may selectively target early multipotent hematopoietic progenitors or stem cells. We demonstrate here that a representative MLL fusion protein, MLL-GAS7, impairs the differentiation and enhances the in vitro growth of murine hematopoietic cells with multipotent features. The multilineage differentiation potential of these cells was suggested by their immuno-phenotypes and transcriptional programs and confirmed by their ability to induce three pathologically distinct leukemias in mice, including an acute biphenotypic leukemia (ABL) that recapitulates the distinctive hallmark features of many MLL-associated leukemias in humans. This experimental modeling of ABL in mice highlights its origin from multipotential progenitors that arrest at a bipotential stage specifically targeted or induced by MLL oncogenes.

Megonigal MD, Cheung NK, Rappaport EF, et al.
Detection of leukemia-associated MLL-GAS7 translocation early during chemotherapy with DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97(6):2814-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leukemias with MLL gene translocations are a complication of primary cancer treatment with DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors. How early translocations appear during primary cancer treatment has not been investigated. We tracked the leukemic clone with an MLL gene translocation during neuroblastoma therapy in a child who developed acute myeloid leukemia. The karyotype of the leukemic clone showed del(11)(q23). We used panhandle PCR-based methods to isolate the breakpoint junction involving MLL and an unknown partner gene. Marrow DNA from neuroblastoma diagnosis and DNA and RNA from serial preleukemic marrows were examined for the translocation. The karyotypic del(11)(q23) was a cryptic t(11;17). GAS7, a growth arrest-specific gene at chromosome band 17p13, was the partner gene of MLL. Two different MLL-GAS7 fusion transcripts were expressed. The translocation was already detectable by 1.5 months after the start of neuroblastoma treatment. The translocation was not detectable in the marrow at neuroblastoma diagnosis or in peripheral blood lymphocyte DNAs of six normal subjects. GAS7 is a new partner gene of MLL in treatment-related acute myeloid leukemia. MLL gene translocations can be present early during anticancer treatment at low cumulative doses of DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors. Although MLL has many partner genes and most have not been characterized, panhandle PCR strategies afford new means for detecting MLL gene translocations early during therapy when the partner gene is unknown.

Mueller HW, Michel A, Heckel D, et al.
Identification of an amplified gene cluster in glioma including two novel amplified genes isolated by exon trapping.
Hum Genet. 1997; 101(2):190-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene amplification, which occurs in more than 50% of malignant gliomas, is considered to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. There are, however, few studies aimed toward the isolation of novel genes from amplified sequences. Previously, we reported amplification of the protooncogene MET (hepatocyte growth factor receptor; 7q31) in more than 20% of glioblastomas. For an approximate size estimation of the amplification unit we analyzed three glioblastomas all of which carried an amplified MET gene, by Southern blot analysis and/or competitive polymerase chain reaction using eight DNA markers. Although the extent of the amplified domain varied, the close vicinity of the MET gene was the only region consistently amplified in these glioblastomas. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig of 900 kb was refined spanning the amplified region flanking the MET gene. The YAC inserts were subcloned into 59 cosmids, which were used for exon trapping. Eight sequences were identical to parts of the genes MET and CAPZA2 (human actin capping protein alpha-subunit). Two newly identified exons and the CAPZA2 exons were amplified in tumor TX3095, which retains an amplified MET gene. The new exons were localized close to MET and CAPZA2. Characterization of the clones, which were termed glioma-amplified sequence (GAS)7-1 and GAS7-2, showed an open reading frame and a different expression pattern in multiple human tissues. This study reports the identification of a cluster of amplified genes including two novel genes in a region amplified in more than 20% of glioblastomas.

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