Gene Summary

Gene:GPRC6A; G protein-coupled receptor class C group 6 member A
Aliases: GPCR, bA86F4.3
Summary:Members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, such as GPRC6A, are characterized by an evolutionarily conserved amino acid-sensing motif linked to an intramembranous 7-transmembrane loop region. Several members of GPCR family C, including GPRC6A, also have a long N-terminal domain (summary by Pi et al., 2005 [PubMed 16199532]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:G-protein coupled receptor family C group 6 member A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • Chromosome 6
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Chromosome 13
  • FOXP4
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Genotype
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Carcinoma
  • Chromosome 8
  • Alleles
  • regulatory factor X transcription factors
  • Asian Americans
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DNA Replication
  • C2orf43
  • Cell Movement
  • Genetics, Population
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genetic Loci
  • Linkage Disequilibrium
  • RFX6
  • China
  • GPRC6A
  • Gene Targeting
  • Xenograft Models
  • Transcription Factors
  • Slc39a9 protein, human
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Odds Ratio
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GPRC6A (cancer-related)

Hu Q, Ye Y, Chan LC, et al.
Oncogenic lncRNA downregulates cancer cell antigen presentation and intrinsic tumor suppression.
Nat Immunol. 2019; 20(7):835-851 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
How tumor cells genetically lose antigenicity and evade immune checkpoints remains largely elusive. We report that tissue-specific expression of the human long noncoding RNA LINK-A in mouse mammary glands initiates metastatic mammary gland tumors, which phenotypically resemble human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). LINK-A expression facilitated crosstalk between phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate and inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathways, attenuating protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM71. Consequently, LINK-A expression enhanced K48-polyubiquitination-mediated degradation of the antigen peptide-loading complex (PLC) and intrinsic tumor suppressors Rb and p53. Treatment with LINK-A locked nucleic acids or GPCR antagonists stabilized the PLC components, Rb and p53, and sensitized mammary gland tumors to immune checkpoint blockers. Patients with programmed ccll death protein-1(PD-1) blockade-resistant TNBC exhibited elevated LINK-A levels and downregulated PLC components. Hence we demonstrate lncRNA-dependent downregulation of antigenicity and intrinsic tumor suppression, which provides the basis for developing combinational immunotherapy treatment regimens and early TNBC prevention.

Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Bagnato A
Methods to Investigate β-Arrestin-1/β-Catenin Signaling in Ovarian Cancer Cells.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 1957:393-406 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which acts through the endothelin A receptor (ET

Wang Z, Sun H, Provaznik J, et al.
Pancreatic cancer-initiating cell exosome message transfer into noncancer-initiating cells: the importance of CD44v6 in reprogramming.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):132 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer-initiating cell (CIC) exosomes (CIC-TEX) are suggested reprogramming Non-CIC. Mode of message transfer and engagement of CIC-markers being disputed, we elaborated the impact of CD44v6 and Tspan8 on the response of Non-CIC.
METHODS: Non-metastasizing CD44v6- and Tspan8-knockdown (kd) pancreatic cancer cells served as Non-CIC. CIC-TEX coculture-induced changes were evaluated by deep-sequencing and functional assays. Tumor progression was surveyed during in vivo CIC-TEX treatment.
RESULTS: Deep-sequencing of CIC-TEX-cocultured CD44v6kd-Non-CIC revealed pronounced mRNA changes in signaling, transport, transcription and translation; altered miRNA affected metabolism, signaling and transcription. CIC-TEX coculture-induced changes in Tspan8kd-Non-CIC mostly relied on CIC-TEX-Tspan8 being required for targeting. CIC-TEX transfer supported apoptosis resistance and significantly promoted epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion and (lymph)angiogenesis of the kd Non-CIC in vitro and in vivo, deep-sequencing allowing individual mRNA and miRNA assignment to altered functions. Importantly, CIC-TEX act as a hub, initiated by CD44v6-dependent RTK, GPCR and integrin activation and involving CD44v6-assisted transcription and RNA processing. Accordingly, a kinase inhibitor hampered CIC-TEX-fostered tumor progression, which was backed by an anti-Tspan8 blockade of CIC-TEX binding.
CONCLUSIONS: This in depth report on the in vitro and in vivo impact of CIC-TEX on CD44v6kd and Tspan8kd Non-CIC unravels hub CIC-TEX activity, highlighting a prominent contribution of the CIC-markers CD44v6 to signaling cascade activation, transcription, translation and miRNA processing in Non-CIC and of Tspan8 to CIC-TEX targeting. Blocking CIC-TEX binding/uptake and uptake-initiated target cell activation significantly mitigated the deleterious CIC-TEX impact on CD44v6kd and Tspan8kd Non-CIC.

Gabrielli AP, Manzardo AM, Butler MG
GeneAnalytics Pathways and Profiling of Shared Autism and Cancer Genes.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Recent research revealed that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and cancer may share common genetic architecture, with evidence first reported with the

Ostrovskaya A, Hick C, Hutchinson DS, et al.
Expression and activity of the calcitonin receptor family in a sample of primary human high-grade gliomas.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):157 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain cancer. With median survival of less than 15 months, identification and validation of new GBM therapeutic targets is of critical importance.
RESULTS: In this study we tested expression and performed pharmacological characterization of the calcitonin receptor (CTR) as well as other members of the calcitonin family of receptors in high-grade glioma (HGG) cell lines derived from individual patient tumours, cultured in defined conditions. Previous immunohistochemical data demonstrated CTR expression in GBM biopsies and we were able to confirm CALCR (gene encoding CTR) expression. However, as assessed by cAMP accumulation assay, only one of the studied cell lines expressed functional CTR, while the other cell lines have functional CGRP (CLR/RAMP1) receptors. The only CTR-expressing cell line (SB2b) showed modest coupling to the cAMP pathway and no activation of other known CTR signaling pathways, including ERK
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that GPCR signaling can display significant variation depending on cellular system used, and effects seen in model recombinant cell lines or tumour cell lines are not always reproduced in a more physiologically relevant system and vice versa.

Kalyvianaki K, Panagiotopoulos AA, Malamos P, et al.
Membrane androgen receptors (OXER1, GPRC6A AND ZIP9) in prostate and breast cancer: A comparative study of their expression.
Steroids. 2019; 142:100-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence during the last decades revealed that androgens exert membrane-initiated actions leading to the modulation of significant cellular processes, important for cancer cell growth and metastasis (including prostate and breast), that involve signaling via specific kinases. Collectively, many nonclassical, cell surface-initiated androgen actions are mediated by novel membrane androgen receptors (mARs), unrelated to nuclear androgen receptors. Recently, our group identified the G protein coupled oxo-eicosanoid receptor 1 (OXER1) (a receptor of the arachidonic acid metabolite, 5-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid, 5-oxoETE) as a novel mAR involved in the rapid effects of androgens. However, two other membrane proteins, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A) and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9) have also been portrayed as mARs, related to the extranuclear action of androgens. In the present work, we present a comparative study of in silico pharmacology, gene expression and immunocytochemical data of the three receptors in various prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of these receptors in human tumor and non-tumoral specimens and provide a pattern of expression and intracellular distribution.

Kanazawa T, Misawa K, Shinmura K, et al.
Promoter methylation of galanin receptors as epigenetic biomarkers for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2019; 19(2):137-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: While remarkable progress has been made in standard treatments for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), the long-term survival remains at an unsatisfactory 40-50%. To improve the survival rate, biomarkers for optimal treatment selection and prognostic prediction, as well as novel, low-toxicity treatment strategies, are required. Galanin receptor (GALR) 1 and GALR2 are well-studied tumor suppressors in HNSCCs. Compared with other clinicopathological factors, the epigenetic variants of GALRs have been found to be the most powerful markers to predict the prognosis of HNSCC patients. Areas covered: This review outlines the functions and signaling pathways of GALRs and explains the potential of GALR promoter methylation as a biomarker for HNSCC prognosis. We also summarize recent developments in promoter methylation studies in HNSCC and indicate future directions for GALR promoter methylation studies. Expert commentary: GALR studies have highlighted two major aspects with implications in HNSCC - that G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) act as tumor suppressor genes and that GALR promoter methylation is significantly related to the carcinogenesis of HNSCC. The findings of GALR studies can be applied to studies on other GPCRs and further in-depth DNA methylation studies. Deeper insights into GPCR epigenetics are expected to markedly improve HNSCC treatment.

Zhu Z, Wei D, Li X, et al.
RNA-binding protein QKI regulates contact inhibition via Yes-associate protein in ccRCC.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2019; 51(1):9-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Contact inhibition adjusts organ size to the proper size and ensures the cultured cells growing to a monolayer. By regulating the downstream coordinator YAP, the evolutionarily conserved Hippo transduction pathway attunes cell growth and death in response to cell contact inhibition, polarity, self-renewal, and differentiation. Dysregulation of this pathway is involved in various diseases such as cancer. RNA-binding protein QKI regulates cell proliferation, metabolism, division, and immunity in various cancer models, but its role in cancer cell contact inhibition remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationship between QKI and YAP, and the role of their interaction in cell contact inhibition. We found a lower QKI expression level in sparse condition, whereas a higher expression level in confluent condition by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. QKI knockdown elevated cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Strikingly, the results of CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and transwell assay showed that the phenomenon was in accord with the expression level of pYAP and reverse with YAP. Higher levels of Wnt3a and β-catenin were also found in xenografts of QKI-knockdown clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) CAKI-1 cells by western blot analysis and immumohistochemical staining. Finally, a positive correlation between QKI and pYAP was found in clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry. Thus, as a negative regulator of YAP, QKI attuned the cell contact inhibition, leading to inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and invasion through Wnt and GPCR pathway.

Kim HJ, Kang TW, Haam K, et al.
Whole genome MBD-seq and RRBS analyses reveal that hypermethylation of gastrointestinal hormone receptors is associated with gastric carcinogenesis.
Exp Mol Med. 2018; 50(12):156 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
DNA methylation is a regulatory mechanism in epigenetics that is frequently altered during human carcinogenesis. To detect critical methylation events associated with gastric cancer (GC), we compared three DNA methylomes from gastric mucosa (GM), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gastric tumor (GT) cells that were microscopically dissected from an intestinal-type early gastric cancer (EGC) using methylated DNA binding domain sequencing (MBD-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis. In this study, we focused on differentially methylated promoters (DMPs) that could be directly associated with gene expression. We detected 2,761 and 677 DMPs between the GT and GM by MBD-seq and RRBS, respectively, and for a total of 3,035 DMPs. Then, 514 (17%) of all DMPs were detected in the IM genome, which is a precancer of GC, supporting that some DMPs might represent an early event in gastric carcinogenesis. A pathway analysis of all DMPs demonstrated that 59 G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes linked to the hypermethylated DMPs were significantly enriched in a neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway. Furthermore, among the 59 GPCRs, six GI hormone receptor genes (NPY1R, PPYR1, PTGDR, PTGER2, PTGER3, and SSTR2) that play an inhibitory role in the secretion of gastrin or gastric acid were selected and validated as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis or prognosis of GC patients in two cohorts. These data suggest that the loss of function of gastrointestinal (GI) hormone receptors by promoter methylation may lead to gastric carcinogenesis because gastrin and gastric acid have been known to play a role in cell differentiation and carcinogenesis in the GI tract.

Nag JK, Bar-Shavit R
Transcriptional Landscape of PARs in Epithelial Malignancies.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of cell receptors, act as important regulators of diverse signaling pathways. Our understanding of the impact of GPCRs in tumors is emerging, yet there is no therapeutic platform based on GPCR driver genes. As cancer progresses, it disrupts normal epithelial organization and maintains the cells outside their normal niche. The dynamic and flexible microenvironment of a tumor contains both soluble and matrix-immobilized proteases that contribute to the process of cancer advancement. An example is the activation of cell surface protease-activated receptors (PARs). Mammalian PARs are a subgroup of GPCRs that form a family of four members, PAR

A P, Xu X, Wang C, et al.
A Bioinformatic Profile of Gene Expression of Colorectal Carcinoma Derived Organoids.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:2594076 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the common cancers in human. It has been intensely debated whether the

Krishna BA, Miller WE, O'Connor CM
US28: HCMV's Swiss Army Knife.
Viruses. 2018; 10(8) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications

Sbrissa D, Semaan L, Govindarajan B, et al.
A novel cross-talk between CXCR4 and PI4KIIIα in prostate cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(3):332-344 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Chemokine signaling regulates cell migration and tumor metastasis. CXCL12, a member of the chemokine family, and its receptor, CXCR4, a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), are key mediators of prostate-cancer (PC) bone metastasis. In PC cells androgens activate CXCR4 gene expression and receptor signaling on lipid rafts, which induces protease expression and cancer cell invasion. To identify novel lipid-raft-associated CXCR4 regulators supporting invasion/metastasis, we performed a SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of lipid-rafts derived from PC3 stable cell lines with overexpression or knockdown of CXCR4. This analysis identified the evolutionarily conserved phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KIIIα), and SAC1 phosphatase that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate as potential candidate CXCR4 regulators. CXCR4 interacted with PI4KIIIα membrane targeting machinery recruiting them to the plasma membrane for PI4P production. Consistent with this interaction, PI4KIIIα was found tightly linked to the CXCR4 induced PC cell invasion. Thus, ablation of PI4KIIIα in CXCR4-expressing PC3 cells reduced cellular invasion in response to a variety of chemokines. Immunofluorescence microscopy in CXCR4-expressing cells revealed localized production of PI4P on the invasive projections. Human tumor studies documented increased PI4KIIIα expression in metastatic tumors vs. the primary tumor counterparts, further supporting the PI4KIIIα role in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, we also identified an unexpected function of PI4KIIIα in GPCR signaling where CXCR4 regulates PI4KIIIα activity and mediate tumor metastasis. Altogether, our study identifies a novel cross-talk between PI4KIIIα and CXCR4 in promoting tumor metastasis and suggests that PI4KIIIα pharmacological targeting may have therapeutic benefit for advanced prostate cancer patients.

Fukushima K, Takahashi K, Kusaka M, et al.
Induction of GPR40 positively regulates cell motile and growth activities in breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2018; 38(4):311-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
Free fatty acid (FFA) receptors belong to a member of G-protein-coupled receptors. GPCR 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 are identified as FFA receptors and activated via the binding of long- and medium-chain FFAs. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of GPR120 and GPR40 on cell motility and growth in breast cancer cells treated with tamoxifen (TAM). MCF-7 cells were continuously treated with TAM for approximately 6 months. The expression level of GPR40 gene was markedly higher in the long-term TAM treated (MCF-TAM) cells than in MCF-7 cells. In cell motility assay, MCF-TAM cells indicated the high cell motile activity, compared with MCF-7 cells. The cell motile activity of MCF-TAM cells was suppressed by a selective GPR40 antagonist, GW1100. To evaluate the effects of GPR40 on cell growth activity under estrogen-free conditions, cells were maintained in serum-free DMEM without phenol red for 2 days. In estrogen-free conditioned medium, the cell growth rate of MCF-TAM cells was significantly higher than that of MCF-7 cells. In addition, treatment of GW1100 reduced the cell growth rate of MCF-TAM cells. These results suggest that the cell motile and growth activities may be positively regulated through the induction of GPR40 by the long-term TAM treatment in MCF-7 cells.

Ji B, Feng Y, Sun Y, et al.
GPR56 promotes proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and enhances metastasis via epithelial‑mesenchymal transition through PI3K/AKT signaling activation.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(4):1885-1896 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
G protein‑coupled receptor 56 (GPR56), a member of the orphan GPCR family, has been reported to be an oncogene in various malignancies. However, little is known regarding the detailed molecular mechanism of GPR56 in colorectal cancer (CRC). The present study aimed to detect the expression level and biological function of GPR56 in CRC. We examined the expression of GPR56 in CRC tissues and cell lines by quantitative real time (qRT)‑PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis. The prognostic significance of GPR56 in CRC patients was evaluated by Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis. The influence of GPR56 on tumor cell proliferation (via Cell Counting Kit‑8, and a tumor formation assay in mice), apoptosis (flow cytometry), cell cycle distribution (flow cytometry) and migration (Transwell assay) was explored. We also investigated the underlying mechanism of GPR56 by western blot analysis. We found GPR56 expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues and cell lines compared to corresponding normal controls. Higher GPR56 expression in patients predicted poorer prognosis. Depletion of GPR56 markedly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. GPR56 overexpression promoted CRC cell metastasis by expediting epithelial‑mesenchymal transition by activating PI3K/AKT signaling. In conclusion, GPR56 played an important role in CRC progression and may represent a new therapeutic target to reduce CRC metastasis.

Godwin TD, Kelly ST, Brew TP, et al.
E-cadherin-deficient cells have synthetic lethal vulnerabilities in plasma membrane organisation, dynamics and function.
Gastric Cancer. 2019; 22(2):273-286 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) is frequently mutated in diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer, and germline mutations predispose to the cancer syndrome Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer. We are taking a synthetic lethal approach to identify druggable vulnerabilities in CDH1-mutant cancers.
METHODS: Density distributions of cell viability data from a genome-wide RNAi screen of isogenic MCF10A and MCF10A-CDH1
CONCLUSIONS: E-cadherin loss leads to disturbances in receptor signalling and plasma membrane trafficking and organisation, creating druggable vulnerabilities.

Jia Y, French B, Tillman B, French S
Different roles of FAT10, FOXO1, and ADRA2A in hepatocellular carcinoma tumorigenesis in patients with alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) vs non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 105(1):144-149 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Among others, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) are the two major risk factors as both of them may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) if left untreated. However, patients with NASH progress to HCC at a rate around 0.5% annually, while 3-10% ASH patients may progress to HCC annually. The present study is to demonstrate the molecular differences in oncogenesis pathway between NASH and ASH. By using immunofluorescence study and quantitating the fluorescence intensity morphometrically in liver biopsied specimens from NASH and ASH patients, the protein expression of candidate molecules within hepatocytes cytoplasm are studied, including two HCC-related molecules FAT10 and FOXO1, and one GPCR pathway related molecule ADRA2A. Compared with the control group patients, the expression levels of all the molecules were upregulated in the ASH group of patients (p < 0.001 in all molecules), while FAT10 and ADRA2A were upregulated, FOXO1 did not change in the NASH group of patients. The most important finding is that compared with the ASH group of patients, the expression levels of all three molecules were significantly lower than in the NASH group of patients (p < 0.001 in all molecules). These results confirmed our previous finding that there are significant differences of molecules change in ASH compared to NASH. Thus, we conclude that there are significantly different molecules and pathways involved during the pathogenesis of HCC development in ASH compared to NASH which could help explain why the tumorigenic rate is different in ASH and NASH.

Shah K, Moharram SA, Kazi JU
Acute leukemia cells resistant to PI3K/mTOR inhibition display upregulation of P2RY14 expression.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
The PI3K/mTOR pathway is the second most frequently deregulated pathway in a majority of cancers such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanomas as well as leukemia. Mutations in the genes coding for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are quite common in all forms of acute leukemia. This can be a major cause of deregulation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway. To understand how cells display resistance to the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, we used a panel of 25 acute leukemia cell lines. We observed that while a number of cell lines displayed sensitivity to the dual PI3K/mTOR pathway inhibitor PKI-587, many cells displayed substantial resistance. Cells sensitive to PKI-587 also showed aberrant activation of PI3K/mTOR pathway components such as AKT and S6K and also displayed sensitivity to a panel of various other PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. Using RNA sequencing data, we observed that expression of a G protein-coupled receptor, P2RY14, was upregulated nine-fold in cells showing resistance to the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor. P2RY14 has not been much studied in hematologic malignancies. However, this receptor seems to have a role in the localization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and in promoting regenerative capabilities following injury. We observed that acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with higher expression of P2RY14 mRNA displayed relatively poor survival compared to patients carrying lower expression of P2RY14 suggesting a role of P2RY14 in patient survival. To understand the role of this receptor in cell signaling, we used phospho-protein arrays and observed activation of distinct signaling cascades. Furthermore, array data were verified using murine pro-B cell line Ba/F3 stably transfected with P2RY14. We observed that activation of P2RY14 by its ligand, UDP-glucose, resulted in selective induction of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that acute leukemia cells resistant to PI3K/mTOR inhibition display upregulation of a GPCR, P2RY14, which has a role in patient survival and also couples to the activation of ERK signaling.

Huang G, Jiang H, Lin Y, et al.
LncGPR107 drives the self-renewal of liver tumor initiating cells and liver tumorigenesis through GPR107-dependent manner.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):121 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With self-renewal and differentiation properties, liver tumor initiating cells (TICs) are the reasons for tumor initiation, metastasis and drug resistance. G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are critical modulators in many physiological and pathological processes. While, their roles in liver TICs are unknown.
METHODS: An unbiased screening was performed using online-available data dataset. Liver TICs were sorted by FACS with surface marker CD133, or enriched by oncosphere formation. TIC self-renewal was examined by oncosphere formation and tumor initiation assay. Loss of function and gain of function assays were performed to examine the role of lncRNA. RNA pulldown, RNA immunoprecipitation, ChIP, western blot and double FISH were used explore the molecular mechanism of lncRNA.
RESULTS: We performed an unbiased screening for GPCR expression in liver cancers, and found GPR107 was the most highly expressed GPCR in liver cancer and liver TICs. GPR107 was essential for the self-renewal of liver TICs. The expression of GPR107 was regulated by a long noncoding RNA lncGPR107. LncGPR107 was also highly expressed in liver cancers and liver TICs. LncGPR107 drove the self-renewal of liver TICs through GPR107. Moreover, lncGPR107 recruited SRCAP complex to GPR107 promoter to drive its transcriptional activation. LncGPR107 depletion inhibited the binding of SRCAP complex and GPR107 promoter and subsequent GPR107 expression. Moreover, LncGPR107-SRCAP-GPR107 can be targeted for liver TIC elimination.
CONCLUSION: GPR107 was the most highly expressed GPCR in liver cancer and liver TICs. LncGPR107 participated in the transcriptional regulation of GPR107 in cis, through recruiting SRCAP remodeling complex to GPR107 promoter. This work revealed the important role of GPCR signaling in liver TIC self-renewal and added a new layer for liver TIC and GPCR regulation.

Zhu D, Osuka S, Zhang Z, et al.
BAI1 Suppresses Medulloblastoma Formation by Protecting p53 from Mdm2-Mediated Degradation.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 33(6):1004-1016.e5 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs) encompass 33 human transmembrane proteins with long N termini involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We show the ADGRB1 gene, which encodes Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1), is epigenetically silenced in medulloblastomas (MBs) through a methyl-CpG binding protein MBD2-dependent mechanism. Knockout of Adgrb1 in mice augments proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors, and leads to accelerated tumor growth in the Ptch1

Yu OM, Benitez JA, Plouffe SW, et al.
YAP and MRTF-A, transcriptional co-activators of RhoA-mediated gene expression, are critical for glioblastoma tumorigenicity.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(41):5492-5507 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
The role of YAP (Yes-associated protein 1) and MRTF-A (myocardin-related transcription factor A), two transcriptional co-activators regulated downstream of GPCRs (G protein-coupled receptors) and RhoA, in the growth of glioblastoma cells and in vivo glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor development was explored using human glioblastoma cell lines and tumor-initiating cells derived from patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Knockdown of these co-activators in GSC-23 PDX cells using short hairpin RNA significantly attenuated in vitro self-renewal capability assessed by limiting dilution, oncogene expression, and neurosphere formation. Orthotopic xenografts of the MRTF-A and YAP knockdown PDX cells formed significantly smaller tumors and were of lower morbidity than wild-type cells. In vitro studies used PDX and 1321N1 glioblastoma cells to examine functional responses to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a GPCR agonist that activates RhoA signaling, demonstrated that YAP signaling was required for cell migration and invasion, whereas MRTF-A was required for cell adhesion; both YAP and MRTF-A were required for proliferation. Gene expression analysis by RNA-sequencing of S1P-treated MRTF-A or YAP knockout cells identified 44 genes that were induced through RhoA and highly dependent on YAP, MRTF-A, or both. Knockdown of F3 (tissue factor (TF)), a target gene regulated selectively through YAP, blocked cell invasion and migration, whereas knockdown of HBEGF (heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor), a gene selectively induced through MRTF-A, prevented cell adhesion in response to S1P. Proliferation was sensitive to knockdown of target genes regulated through either or both YAP and MRTF-A. Expression of TF and HBEGF was also selectively decreased in tumors from PDX cells lacking YAP or MRTF-A, indicating that these transcriptional pathways are regulated in preclinical GBM models and suggesting that their activation through GPCRs and RhoA contributes to growth and maintenance of human GBM.

Liu H, Du S, Lei T, et al.
Multifaceted regulation and functions of YAP/TAZ in tumors (Review).
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):16-28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
The Hippo pathway, initially identified through screenings for mutant tumor suppressors in Drosophila, is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Abnormal regulation of the Hippo pathway may lead to cancer in mammals. As the major downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway, unphosphorylated Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its homolog transcriptional co-activator TAZ (also called WWTR1) (hereafter called YAP/TAZ) are translocated into the nucleus. In the nucleus, in order to induce target gene expression, YAP/TAZ bind to the TEA domain (TEAD) proteins, and this binding subsequently promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. In contrast, as key regulators of tumorigenesis and development, YAP/TAZ are phosphorylated and regulated by multiple molecules and pathways including Lats1/2 of Hippo, Wnt and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, with a regulatory role in cell physiology, tumor cell development and pathological abnormalities simultaneously. In particular, the crucial role of YAP/TAZ in tumors ensures their potential as targets in designing anticancer drugs. To date, mounting research has elucidated the suppression of YAP/TAZ via effective inhibitors, which significantly highlights their application in cancer treatment. In the present review, we focus on the functions of YAP/TAZ in cancer, discuss their potential as new therapeutic target for tumor treatment, and provide valuable suggestions for further study in this field.

Yin Y, Xu X, Tang J, et al.
CD97 Promotes Tumor Aggressiveness Through the Traditional G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2018; 68(5):1865-1878 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cluster of differentiation 97 (CD97) is a member of the epidermal growth factor seven-transmembrane family belonging to the class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The protein affects tumor aggressiveness through its cellular ligand CD55 stimulation and exhibits adhesive properties. Studies have demonstrated the involvement of CD97 in dedifferentiation, migration, invasiveness, and metastasis of tumors. However, little information is currently available on the specific role of CD97 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we have shown that CD97 up-regulation in HCCs is positively correlated with tumor metastasis. Functionally, CD97 promoted cell migration and invasion in vitro. In an in vivo mouse model, overexpression of CD97 in HCC cells led to accelerated lung metastasis. Mechanistically, CD97 cooperated with the altered regulator, GPCR kinase 6 (GRK6), to mediate GPCR desensitization and internalization. Down-regulation of GRK6 suppressed CD97 internalization and promoted CD97 expression. Integrated regulatory interactions between CD97 and GRK6 stimulated downstream matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 secretion and, consequently, HCC metastasis. Conclusion: Our collective findings support the utility of CD97 as an effective potential prognosticator and therapeutic target for HCC.

St-Jean M, Ghorayeb NE, Bourdeau I, Lacroix A
Aberrant G-protein coupled hormone receptor in adrenal diseases.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 32(2):165-187 [PubMed] Related Publications
The regulation of cortisol or aldosterone production when ACTH of pituitary origin or the renin-angiotensin systems are suppressed in primary adrenal Cushing's syndrome or in primary aldosteronism is exerted by diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. In addition to recently identified mutations in various genes implicated in the cyclic AMP or ion channel pathways, steroidogenesis is not really autonomous as it is frequently regulated by the aberrant adrenocortical expression of diverse hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) which can substitute for the normal function of ACTH or angiotensin-II. In addition, paracrine or autocrine production of ligands for the aberrant GPCR such as ACTH or serotonin is found in some adrenal tumors or hyperplasias and participates in a complex regulatory loop causing steroid excess. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant ligands or their receptors could become useful in the future, particularly for patients with bilateral source of steroid excess.

Bhat RR, Yadav P, Sahay D, et al.
GPCRs profiling and identification of GPR110 as a potential new target in HER2+ breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 170(2):279-292 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of druggable targets in human genome. Although several GPCRs can cross-talk with the human epidermal growth factor receptors (HERs), the expression and function of most GPCRs remain unknown in HER2+ breast cancer (BC). In this study, we aimed to evaluate gene expression of GPCRs in tumorigenic or anti-HER2 drug-resistant cells and to understand the potential role of candidate GPCRs in HER2+ BC.
METHODS: Gene expression of 352 GPCRs was profiled in Aldeflur+ tumorigenic versus Aldeflur- population and anti-HER2 therapy-resistant derivatives versus parental cells of HER2+ BT474 cells. The GPCR candidates were confirmed in 7 additional HER2+ BC cell line models and publicly available patient dataset. Anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent cell growth, mammosphere formation, and migration/invasion were evaluated upon GPR110 knockdown by siRNA in BT474 and SKBR3 parental and lapatinib+ trastuzumab-resistant (LTR) cells.
RESULTS: Adhesion and class A GPCRs were overexpressed in Aldeflur+ and anti-HER2 therapy-resistant population of BT474 cells, respectively. GPR110 was the only GPCR overexpressed in Aldeflur+ and anti-HER2 therapy-resistant population in BT474, SKBR3, HCC1569, MDA-MB-361, AU565, and/or HCC202 cells and in HER2+ BC subtype in patient tumors. Using BT474 and SKBR3 parental and LTR cells, we found that GPR110 knockdown significantly reduced anchorage-dependent/independent cell growth as well as migration/invasion of parental and LTR cells and mammosphere formation in LTR derivatives and not in parental cells.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a potential role of GPR110 in tumorigenicity and in tumor cell dissemination in HER2+ BC.

Indio V, Astolfi A, Tarantino G, et al.
Integrated Molecular Characterization of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) Harboring the Rare D842V Mutation in PDGFRA Gene.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) carrying the D842V activating mutation in the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (

Zheng CJ, Yang LL, Liu J, Zhong L
JTC-801 exerts anti-proliferative effects in human osteosarcoma cells by inducing apoptosis.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2018; 38(2):133-140 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The research of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a promising strategy for drug discovery. In cancer therapy, there is a need to discover novel agents that can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. JTC-801 is a novel GPCR antagonist with the function of reversing pain and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to investigate the antitumor effects of JTC-801 on human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) and elucidate the underlying mechanism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to detect the viability of U2OS cells treated with JTC-801 in vitro. The cell apoptosis was evaluated using a flow cytometry assay with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. The inhibitory effect of JTC-801 on invasion and migration of U2OS cells were determined by the Transwell assays. Western blot assay was performed to measure the levels of proteins related to cell apoptosis and its mechanism.
RESULTS: The JTC-801 significantly decreased the viability of U2OS cells (p < .05) as a result of its anti-proliferative effect through induction of apoptosis associated with activation of BAX, Caspase-3 and down-regulating BCL-2 expression. The invasive and migratory cells were obviously reduced after JTC-801 treatment (p < .05). Further, the phosphorylated AKT, mTOR and active p70 S6 protein kinase in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were obviously lessened in the JTC-801 treated U2OS group (p < .05).
CONCLUSIONS: JTC-801 may exert osteosarcoma cell growth inhibition by promoting cell apoptosis, through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway participation.

Arakaki AKS, Pan WA, Lin H, Trejo J
The α-arrestin ARRDC3 suppresses breast carcinoma invasion by regulating G protein-coupled receptor lysosomal sorting and signaling.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(9):3350-3362 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
Aberrant G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expression and activation has been linked to tumor initiation, progression, invasion, and metastasis. However, compared with other cancer drivers, the exploitation of GPCRs as potential therapeutic targets has been largely ignored, despite the fact that GPCRs are highly druggable. Therefore, to advance the potential status of GPCRs as therapeutic targets, it is important to understand how GPCRs function together with other cancer drivers during tumor progression. We now report that the α-arrestin domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3) acts as a tumor suppressor in part by controlling signaling and trafficking of the GPCR, protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1). In a series of highly invasive basal-like breast carcinomas, we found that expression of ARRDC3 is suppressed whereas PAR1 is aberrantly overexpressed because of defective lysosomal sorting that results in persistent signaling. Using a lentiviral doxycycline-inducible system, we demonstrate that re-expression of ARRDC3 in invasive breast carcinoma is sufficient to restore normal PAR1 trafficking through the ALG-interacting protein X (ALIX)-dependent lysosomal degradative pathway. We also show that ARRDC3 re-expression attenuates PAR1-stimulated persistent signaling of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in invasive breast cancer. Remarkably, restoration of ARRDC3 expression significantly reduced activated PAR1-induced breast carcinoma invasion, which was also dependent on JNK signaling. These findings are the first to identify a critical link between the tumor suppressor ARRDC3 and regulation of GPCR trafficking and signaling in breast cancer.

Campbell H, Fleming N, Roth I, et al.
∆133p53 isoform promotes tumour invasion and metastasis via interleukin-6 activation of JAK-STAT and RhoA-ROCK signalling.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):254 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
∆122p53 mice (a model of ∆133p53 isoform) are tumour-prone, have extensive inflammation and elevated serum IL-6. To investigate the role of IL-6 we crossed ∆122p53 mice with IL-6 null mice. Here we show that loss of IL-6 reduced JAK-STAT signalling, tumour incidence and metastasis. We also show that ∆122p53 activates RhoA-ROCK signalling leading to tumour cell invasion, which is IL-6-dependent and can be reduced by inhibition of JAK-STAT and RhoA-ROCK pathways. Similarly, we show that Δ133p53 activates these pathways, resulting in invasive and migratory phenotypes in colorectal cancer cells. Gene expression analysis of colorectal tumours showed enrichment of GPCR signalling associated with ∆133TP53 mRNA. Patients with elevated ∆133TP53 mRNA levels had a shorter disease-free survival. Our results suggest that ∆133p53 promotes tumour invasion by activation of the JAK-STAT and RhoA-ROCK pathways, and that patients whose tumours have high ∆133TP53 may benefit from therapies targeting these pathways.

Scarlett KA, White EZ, Coke CJ, et al.
Agonist-induced CXCR4 and CB2 Heterodimerization Inhibits Gα13/RhoA-mediated Migration.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(4):728-739 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 03/12/2019 Related Publications
G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heterodimerization has emerged as a means by which alternative signaling entities can be created; yet, how receptor heterodimers affect receptor pharmacology remains unknown. Previous observations suggested a biochemical antagonism between GPCRs, CXCR4 and CB2 (CNR2), where agonist-bound CXCR4 and agonist-bound CB2 formed a physiologically nonfunctional heterodimer on the membrane of cancer cells, inhibiting their metastatic potential

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