HSP90AA1

Gene Summary

Gene:HSP90AA1; heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1
Aliases: EL52, HSPN, LAP2, HSP86, HSPC1, HSPCA, Hsp89, Hsp90, LAP-2, HSP89A, HSP90A, HSP90N, Hsp103, HSPCAL1, HSPCAL4, HEL-S-65p
Location:14q32.31
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an inducible molecular chaperone that functions as a homodimer. The encoded protein aids in the proper folding of specific target proteins by use of an ATPase activity that is modulated by co-chaperones. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:heat shock protein HSP 90-alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HSP90AA1 (cancer-related)

Tang M, Etokidem E, Lai K
The Leloir Pathway of Galactose Metabolism - A Novel Therapeutic Target for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(12):6265-6271 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal types of cancer worldwide, with poor prognosis and limited treatments. In order to identify novel therapeutic targets that will lead to development of effective therapies with manageable side effects, we tested the hypothesis that knocking-down galactokinase (GALK1) or galactose-1 phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT) gene expression would control the growth of cultured hepatoma cells. Our results showed small interfering RNA (siRNA) against GALK1 or GALT inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot analysis revealed simultaneous down-regulation of multiple players of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) growth signaling pathway, as well as heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data, however, showed no significant mRNA reduction of the encoded genes. Our study thus not only supports GALK1 and GALT as being possible novel targets for treating HCC, but also uncovers new post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that link the galactose metabolic pathway to protein expression of the PI3K/AKT pathway in hepatoma.

Gümus M, Ozgur A, Tutar L, et al.
Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitors in Human Breast Cancer and Its Metastasis.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2016; 17(14):1231-1245 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite development of novel cancer drugs, invasive ductal breast carcinoma and its metastasis are still highly morbid. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are being developed and Hsp90 is an important target for drug design. For this purpose, a series of benzodiazepine derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel Hsp90 inhibitor.
METHODS: Benzodiazepine derivatives anticancer activities were determined by XTT cell proliferation assay against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Effects of the compounds on endothelial function were monitored on human vascular endothelium (HUVEC) cell line as well. In order to determine the anti-proliferative mechanism of the compounds, in silico molecular docking studies were performed between Hsp90 ATPase domain and the benzodiazepine derivatives. Further, these compounds perturbation on Hsp90 ATPase function were tested. Fluorescence binding experiments showed that the derivatives bind Hsp90 effectively. Expression analysis of known cancer drug target genes by PCR array experiments suggest that the benzodiazepine derivatives have remarkable anticancer activity.
RESULTS: A representative Benzodiazepine derivative D5 binds Hsp90 with Kd value of 3,93 μM and with estimated free energy of binding -7.99 (kcal/mol). The compound decreases Hsp90 ATPase function and inhibit Hsp90 client protein folding activity. The compound inhibits expression of both Hsp90 isoforms and key proteins (cell cycle receptors; PLK2 and TERT, kinases; PI3KC3 and PRKCE, and growth factors; IGF1, IGF2, KDR, and PDGFRA) on oncogenic pathways.
CONCLUSION: Benzodiazepine derivatives presented here display anticancer activity. The compounds effect on both breast cancer and endothelial cell lines show their potential as drug templates to inhibit breast cancer and its metastasis.

Rodina A, Wang T, Yan P, et al.
The epichaperome is an integrated chaperome network that facilitates tumour survival.
Nature. 2016; 538(7625):397-401 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Transient, multi-protein complexes are important facilitators of cellular functions. This includes the chaperome, an abundant protein family comprising chaperones, co-chaperones, adaptors, and folding enzymes-dynamic complexes of which regulate cellular homeostasis together with the protein degradation machinery. Numerous studies have addressed the role of chaperome members in isolation, yet little is known about their relationships regarding how they interact and function together in malignancy. As function is probably highly dependent on endogenous conditions found in native tumours, chaperomes have resisted investigation, mainly due to the limitations of methods needed to disrupt or engineer the cellular environment to facilitate analysis. Such limitations have led to a bottleneck in our understanding of chaperome-related disease biology and in the development of chaperome-targeted cancer treatment. Here we examined the chaperome complexes in a large set of tumour specimens. The methods used maintained the endogenous native state of tumours and we exploited this to investigate the molecular characteristics and composition of the chaperome in cancer, the molecular factors that drive chaperome networks to crosstalk in tumours, the distinguishing factors of the chaperome in tumours sensitive to pharmacologic inhibition, and the characteristics of tumours that may benefit from chaperome therapy. We find that under conditions of stress, such as malignant transformation fuelled by MYC, the chaperome becomes biochemically 'rewired' to form a network of stable, survival-facilitating, high-molecular-weight complexes. The chaperones heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70) are nucleating sites for these physically and functionally integrated complexes. The results indicate that these tightly integrated chaperome units, here termed the epichaperome, can function as a network to enhance cellular survival, irrespective of tissue of origin or genetic background. The epichaperome, present in over half of all cancers tested, has implications for diagnostics and also provides potential vulnerability as a target for drug intervention.

Chatterjee S, Bhattacharya S, Socinski MA, Burns TF
HSP90 inhibitors in lung cancer: promise still unfulfilled.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2016; 14(5):346-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite recent advances in the treatment of lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and worldwide, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 17%. Analysis of the molecular drivers of NSCLC led to the recognition that NSCLC is a collection of distinct, molecularly driven neoplasms. Several subsets of NSCLC with clinical relevance to targeted therapies are defined based on alterations in EGFR, ALK, and other key oncogenic drivers. However, for many oncogenic drivers-such as mutant KRAS-targeted therapies are lacking. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent molecular chaperone that is critically required for the stability of its clientele, many of which are driver oncoproteins. Therefore, HSP90 inhibitors could prove to be an effective and alternate approach to treat patients with NSCLC that has a specific molecular background or that has acquired resistance to other drugs. Over the last 2 decades, several HSP90 inhibitors have been developed that produced promising preclinical and clinical results. The quest is far from over, however. In this review, we discuss the development and the preclinical and clinical profiles of some of the HSP90 inhibitors that may help to improve the targeted treatment of NSCLC.

Koca İ, Özgür A, Er M, et al.
Design and synthesis of pyrimidinyl acyl thioureas as novel Hsp90 inhibitors in invasive ductal breast cancer and its bone metastasis.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 122:280-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common breast malignancies tumors and has tendency to bone metastases. Many oncogenic client proteins involved in formation of metastatic pathways. Stabilization, regulation, and maintenance of these oncogenic client proteins are provided with Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). Hsp90 perform these processes through its ATP binding and subsequent hydrolysis energy. Therefore, designing Hsp90 inhibitors is a novel cancer treatment method. However, many Hsp90 inhibitors have solubility problems and showed adverse effects in clinical trials. Thus, we designed and synthesized novel pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives to selectively inhibit Hsp90 alpha in human invasive ductal breast (MCF-7) and human bone osteosarcoma (Saos-2) cell lines. In vitro experiments showed that the compounds inhibited cell proliferation, ATP hydrolysis, and exhibited cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines. Further, gene expression was analyzed by microarray studies on MCF-7 cell lines. Several genes that play vital roles in breast cancer pathogenesis displayed altered gene expression in the presence of a selected pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea compound. Molecular docking studies were also performed to determine interaction between Hsp90 ATPase domain and pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives. The results indicated that the compounds are able to interact with Hsp90 ATP binding pocket and inhibit ATPase function. The designed compounds powerfully inhibit Hsp90 by an average of 1 μM inhibition constant. And further, the compounds perturb Hsp90 N terminal domain proper orientation and ATP may not provide required conformational change for Hsp90 function as evidenced by in silico experiments. Therefore, the designed compounds effectively inhibited both invasive ductal breast carcinoma and bone metastasis. Pyrimidinyl acyl thiourea derivatives may provide a drug template for effective treatment of invasive ductal breast carcinoma and its bone metastasis as well as new therapeutic perspective for drug design.

Mellatyar H, Talaei S, Nejati-Koshki K, Akbarzadeh A
Targeting HSP90 Gene Expression with 17-DMAG Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(5):2453-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of HSP90 gene expression is known to take place in breast cancer. Here we used D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid-polyethylene glycol-17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (PLGA-PEG-17DMAG) complexes and free 17-DMAG to inhibit the expression of HSP90 gene in the T47D breast cancer cell line. The purpose was to determine whether nanoencapsulating 17DMAG improves the anti-cancer effects as compared to free 17DMAG.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The T47D breast cancer cell line was grown in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FBS. Encapsulation of 17DMAG was conducted through a double emulsion method and properties of copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Assessment of drug cytotoxicity was by MTT assay. After treatment of T47D cells with a given amount of drug, RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized. In order to assess HSP90 gene expression, real-time PCR was performed.
RESULTS: Taking into account drug load, IC50 was significant decreased in nanocapsulated 17DMAG in comparison with free 17DMAG. This finding was associated with decrease of HSP90 gene expression.
CONCLUSIONS: PLGA-PEG-17DMAG complexes can be more effective than free 17DMAG in down-regulating of HSP90 expression, at the saesm time exerting more potent cytotoxic effects. Therefore, PLGA-PEG could be a superior carrier for this type of hydrophobic agent.

Ansa-Addo EA, Thaxton J, Hong F, et al.
Clients and Oncogenic Roles of Molecular Chaperone gp96/grp94.
Curr Top Med Chem. 2016; 16(25):2765-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
As an endoplasmic reticulum heat shock protein (HSP) 90 paralogue, glycoprotein (gp) 96 possesses immunological properties by chaperoning antigenic peptides for activation of T cells. Genetic studies in the last decade have unveiled that gp96 is also an essential master chaperone for multiple receptors and secreting proteins including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), integrins, the Wnt coreceptor, Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6), the latent TGFβ docking receptor, Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), Glycoprotein (GP) Ib and insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Clinically, elevated expression of gp96 in a variety of cancers correlates with the advanced stage and poor survival of cancer patients. Recent preclinical studies have also uncovered that gp96 expression is closely linked to cancer progression in multiple myeloma, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and inflammation-associated colon cancer. Thus, gp96 is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The chaperone function of gp96 depends on its ATPase domain, which is structurally distinct from other HSP90 members, and thus favors the design of highly selective gp96-targeted inhibitors against cancer. We herein discuss the strategically important oncogenic clients of gp96 and their underlying biology. The roles of cell-intrinsic gp96 in T cell biology are also discussed, in part because it offers another opportunity of cancer therapy by manipulating levels of gp96 in T cells to enhance host immune defense.

Kasai S, Arakawa N, Okubo A, et al.
NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase-1 Expression Sensitizes Malignant Melanoma Cells to the HSP90 Inhibitor 17-AAG.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153181 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
The KEAP1-NRF2 pathway regulates cellular redox homeostasis by transcriptional induction of genes associated with antioxidant synthesis and detoxification in response to oxidative stress. Previously, we reported that KEAP1 mutation elicits constitutive NRF2 activation and resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and dacarbazine (DTIC) in human melanomas. The present study was conducted to clarify whether an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, efficiently eliminates melanoma with KEAP1 mutation, as the NRF2 target gene, NQO1, is a key enzyme in 17-AAG bioactivation. In melanoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines with or without KEAP1 mutations, NQO1 expression and 17-AAG sensitivity are inversely correlated. NQO1 is highly expressed in normal melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines despite the presence of wild-type KEAP1, and the NQO1 expression is dependent on NRF2 activation. Because either CDDP or DTIC produces reactive oxygen species that activate NRF2, we determined whether these agents would sensitize NQO1-low melanoma cells to 17-AAG. Synergistic cytotoxicity of the 17-AAG and CDDP combination was detected in four out of five NQO1-low cell lines, but not in the cell line with KEAP1 mutation. These data indicate that 17-AAG could be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma with KEAP1 mutation or NQO1 expression.

Mostafavinia SE, Khorashadizadeh M, Hoshyar R
Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Crocin Combined with Hyperthermia on Human Breast Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(7):340-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the suppressive effects of crocin alone and in combination with hyperthermia (HT) on proliferation of breast cancer cells. Cell viability, colony formation ability, and apoptosis were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), soft agar, Hoechst 33258 staining, and percentage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release methods, respectively. The mRNA levels Hsp27, Hsp70, Hsp90, Bax, and Bcl-2 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Crocin in combination with HT significantly inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. There was a degree of synergism in the combined treatment. However, crocin did not show the high cytotoxic effect on normal cells. This treatment decreased colony formation of cancer cells up to 94%. Changed nuclear morphology and increased LDH indicated that crocin combined with HT has a more apoptotic effect than crocin alone. Furthermore, in treated cells Bax/Bcl-2 ratio markedly increased, whereas expression of heat-induced genes decreased. Also, the Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins decreased in the treated cells. Our study indicated that combination of crocin and HT has strong antiproliferative and apoptotic activities against breast cancer cells. Hence, it is suggested that more studies are warranted to apply crocin as a possible, safe, and promising anticancer agent in cancer.

Jarosz D
Hsp90: A Global Regulator of the Genotype-to-Phenotype Map in Cancers.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:225-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells have the unusual capacity to limit the cost of the mutation load that they harbor and simultaneously harness its evolutionary potential. This property fuels drug resistance, a key failure mode in oncogene-directed therapy. However, the factors that regulate this capacity might also provide an Achilles' heel that could be exploited therapeutically. Recently, insight has come from a seemingly distant field: protein folding. It is now clear that protein homeostasis broadly supports malignancy and fuels the rapid evolution of drug resistance. Among protein homeostatic mechanisms that influence cancer biology, the essential ATP-driven molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is especially important. Hsp90 catalyzes folding of many proteins that regulate growth and development. These "client" kinases, transcription factors, and ubiquitin ligases often play critical roles in human disease, especially cancer. Studies in a wide range of systems-from single-celled organisms to human tumor samples-suggest that Hsp90 can broadly reshape the map between genotype and phenotype, acting as a "capacitor" and "potentiator" of genetic variation. Indeed, it has likely done so to such a degree that it has left an impress on diverse genome sequences. Hsp90 can constitute as much as 5% of total protein in transformed cells and increased levels of heat-shock activation correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer. These findings and others have motivated a flurry of interest in Hsp90 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics, which have met with rather limited success as single agents, but may eventually prove invaluable in limiting the emergence of resistance to other chemotherapeutics, both genotoxic and molecularly targeted. Here, we provide an overview of Hsp90 function, review its relationship to genetic variation and the evolution of new traits, and discuss the importance of these findings for cancer biology and future efforts to drug this pathway.

Isaacs JS
Hsp90 as a "Chaperone" of the Epigenome: Insights and Opportunities for Cancer Therapy.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:107-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cellular functions of Hsp90 have historically been attributed to its ability to chaperone client proteins involved in signal transduction. Although numerous stimuli and the signaling cascades they activate contribute to cancer progression, many of these pathways ultimately require transcriptional effectors to elicit tumor-promoting effects. Despite this obvious connection, the majority of studies evaluating Hsp90 function in malignancy have focused upon its regulation of cytosolic client proteins, and particularly members of receptor and/or kinase families. However, in recent years, Hsp90 has emerged as a pivotal orchestrator of nuclear events. Discovery of an expanding repertoire of Hsp90 clients has illuminated a vital role for Hsp90 in overseeing nuclear events and influencing gene transcription. Hence, this chapter will cast a spotlight upon several regulatory themes involving Hsp90-dependent nuclear functions. Highlighted topics include a summary of chaperone-dependent regulation of key transcription factors (TFs) and epigenetic effectors in malignancy, as well as a discussion of how the complex interplay among a subset of these TFs and epigenetic regulators may generate feed-forward loops that further support cancer progression. This chapter will also highlight less recognized indirect mechanisms whereby Hsp90-supported signaling may impinge upon epigenetic regulation. Finally, the relevance of these nuclear events is discussed within the framework of Hsp90's capacity to enable phenotypic variation and drug resistance. These newly acquired insights expanding our understanding of Hsp90 function support the collective notion that nuclear clients are major beneficiaries of Hsp90 action, and their impairment is likely responsible for many of the anticancer effects elicited by Hsp90-targeted approaches.

Calderwood SK, Neckers L
Hsp90 in Cancer: Transcriptional Roles in the Nucleus.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:89-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hsp90 plays a key role in fostering metabolic pathways essential in tumorigenesis through its functions as a molecular chaperone. Multiple oncogenic factors in the membrane and cytoplasm are thus protected from degradation and destruction. Here, we have considered Hsp90's role in transcription in the nucleus. Hsp90 functions both in regulating the activity of sequence-specific transcription factors such as nuclear receptors and HSF1, as well as impacting more globally acting factors that act on chromatin and RNA polymerase II. Hsp90 influences transcription by modulating histone modification mediated by its clients SMYD3 and trithorax/MLL, as well as by regulating the processivity of RNA polymerase II through negative elongation factor. It is not currently clear how the transcriptional role of Hsp90 may be influenced by the cancer milieu although recently discovered posttranslational modification of the chaperone may be involved. Dysregulation of Hsp90 may thus influence malignant processes both by modulating the function of specific transcription factors and effects on more globally acting general components of the transcriptional machinery.

Vartholomaiou E, Echeverría PC, Picard D
Unusual Suspects in the Twilight Zone Between the Hsp90 Interactome and Carcinogenesis.
Adv Cancer Res. 2016; 129:1-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 has attracted a lot of interest in cancer research ever since cancer cells were found to be more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than normal cells. Why that is has remained a matter of debate and is still unclear. In addition to increased Hsp90 dependence for some mutant cancer proteins and modifications of the Hsp90 machinery itself, a number of other characteristics of cancer cells probably contribute to this phenomenon; these include aneuploidy and overall increased numbers and levels of defective and mutant proteins, which all contribute to perturbed proteostasis. Work over the last two decades has demonstrated that many cancer-related proteins are Hsp90 clients, and yet only few of them have been extensively investigated, selected either on the basis of their obvious function as cancer drivers or because they proved to be convenient biomarkers for monitoring the effects of Hsp90 inhibitors. The purpose of our review is to go beyond these "usual suspects." We established a workflow to select poorly studied proteins that are related to cancer processes and qualify as Hsp90 clients. By discussing and taking a fresh look at these "unusual suspects," we hope to stimulate others to revisit them as novel therapeutic targets or diagnostic markers.

Yun HS, Baek JH, Yim JH, et al.
Radiotherapy diagnostic biomarkers in radioresistant human H460 lung cancer stem-like cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2016; 17(2):208-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/10/2017 Related Publications
Tumor cell radioresistance is a major contributor to radiotherapy failure, highlighting the importance of identifying predictive biomarkers for radioresistance. In this work, we established a radioresistant H460 (RR-H460) cell line from parental radiosensitive H460 lung cancer cells by exposure to fractionated radiation. The radiation-resistant, anti-apoptotic phenotype of RR-H460 cell lines was confirmed by their enhanced clonogenic survival and increased expression of the radioresistance genes Hsp90 and Her-3. RR-H460 cells displayed characteristics of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), including induction of the surface marker CD44 and stem cell markers Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2. RR-H460 cells also exhibited sphere formation and malignant behavior, further supporting a CSC phenotype. Using proteomic analyses, we identified 8 proteins that were up-regulated in RR-H460 CSC lines and therefore potentially involved in radioresistance and CSC-related biological processes. Notably, 4 of these-PAI-2, NOMO2, KLC4, and PLOD3-have not been previously linked to radioresistance. Depletion of these individual genes sensitized RR-H460 cells to radiotoxicity and additively enhancing radiation-induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest the possibility of integrating molecular targeted therapy with radiotherapy as a strategy for resolving the radioresistance of lung tumors.

Kumar S, Stokes J, Singh UP, et al.
Targeting Hsp70: A possible therapy for cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 374(1):156-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
In all organisms, heat-shock proteins (HSPs) provide an ancient defense system. These proteins act as molecular chaperones by assisting proper folding and refolding of misfolded proteins and aid in the elimination of old and damaged cells. HSPs include Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp40, and small HSPs. Through its substrate-binding domains, Hsp70 interacts with wide spectrum of molecules, ranging from unfolded to natively folded and aggregated proteins, and provides cytoprotective role against various cellular stresses. Under pathophysiological conditions, the high expression of Hsp70 allows cells to survive with lethal injuries. Increased Hsp70, by interacting at several points on apoptotic signaling pathways, leads to inhibition of apoptosis. Elevated expression of Hsp70 in cancer cells may be responsible for tumorigenesis and for tumor progression by providing resistance to chemotherapy. In contrast, inhibition or knockdown of Hsp70 reduces the size of tumors and can cause their complete regression. Moreover, extracellular Hsp70 acts as an immunogen that participates in cross presentation of MHC-I molecules. The goals of this review are to examine the roles of Hsp70 in cancer and to present strategies targeting Hsp70 in the development of cancer therapeutics.

Paul D, Chanukuppa V, Reddy PJ, et al.
Global proteomic profiling identifies etoposide chemoresistance markers in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2016; 138:95-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Chemoresistance is one of the leading health concerns in cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanism of chemoresistance is the best way to improve the survival of the patient. Etoposide and its analogues are widely used as antitumor drugs in lung cancer but many etoposide resistant lung cancer cases has been identified in recent years. The present study aims to explore the cellular response of lung cancer cell lines to etoposide and finding the potential chemoresistant marker proteins. Multiple proteomic platforms like 2-DE, DIGE and iTRAQ have been used to study the global proteome profile of NCI-H460 and etoposide resistant NCI-H460R cell lines. Our study revealed that etoposide treatment leads to alteration of 83 proteins in NCI-H460R cell lines. The functional analysis highlighted the role of the differential expressed proteins in cellular signaling, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton reorganization. Our study has identified several new proteins like RHOC, DLG5, UGDH, TMOD3 in addition to known chemoresistance associated proteins. In silico prediction of the important selected candidates are further validated at protein and mRNA level. Further, functional studies of newly identified candidate genes RHOC and DLG5 revealed that chemotherapeutic resistance is associated with their elevated level and may serve as novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Etoposide and its analogues have been used for lung cancer treatment for a while and it was reported that many non small cell lung carcinoma patients are resistant to etoposide. Although etoposide show drug resistance, the exact mechanism was not well understood. The present study focused on the global proteome analysis of NCI-H460 and NCI-H460R cell lines using multiple proteomic platforms to understand the potential chemoresistant markers for etoposide. Our multi-proteomic analysis has showed differential expression of 83 proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, metabolic, protein folding, cytoskeleton associated protein along with apoptotic pathway has been identified. In addition, quite a few interesting proteins such as RHOC, DLG5, HSP90, citrate synthase, UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase, Tropomodulin-3 are involved in chemoresistance has been observed. Overall, this is the first comprehensive proteomic study on etoposide resistant cell line NCI-H460 to explore the mechanism of chemoresistance in lung cancer.

He W, Ye X, Huang X, et al.
Hsp90 inhibitor, BIIB021, induces apoptosis and autophagy by regulating mTOR-Ulk1 pathway in imatinib-sensitive and -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1710-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of drug resistance due to BCR-ABL point mutations and the persistence of leukemia initiating cells has become a major obstacle for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The BCR-ABL protein is an important client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). BIIB021, an orally available Hsp90 inhibitor, has activity against various cancer cells. However, little is known about the inhibitory effect of BIIB021 on CML cells. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of BIIB021 on K562, K562/G (an imatinib-resistant cell lines), as well as 32D mouse leukemic cells expressing wild-type BCR-ABL (b3a2, 32Dp210) and T315I mutant BCR-ABL (32Dp210-T315I) cells. Our data showed that BIIB021 induced significant growth inhibition and apoptosis that was predominantly mediated by the mitochondrial pathway. BIIB021 also resulted in proteasomal degradation of BCR-ABL proteins. In addition to induction of apoptosis, we report for the first time that BIIB021 induced autophagic response as evidenced by the formation of autophagosome, increased conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-I to LC3-II, decreased p62 (SQSTM1) protein levels. Further study suggested that Akt-mTOR-Ulk1 signaling pathway was involved in BIIB021-triggered autophagy. Moreover, blocking autophagy using pharmacological inhibitor 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1 significantly enhanced cell death and apoptosis induced by BIIB021, indicating the cytoprotective role of autophagy in BIIB021-treated CML cells. Collectively, these data provide possible molecular mechanisms for the antileukemic effect of BIIB021 on imatinib-sensitive and -resistant CML cells and provide new insights into the future application of BIIB021 in the clinical treatment of CML.

Liu X, Ban LL, Luo G, et al.
Acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG and increased metastatic potential are associated with MUC1 expression in colon carcinoma cells.
Anticancer Drugs. 2016; 27(5):417-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone required for the stability and function of many proteins. The chaperoning of oncoproteins by HSP90 enhances the survival, growth, and invasive potential of cancer cells. HSP90 inhibitors are promising new anticancer agents, in which the benzoquinone ansamycin 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is currently in clinical evaluation. However, the implications of acquired resistance to this class of drug remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we have generated isogenic human colon cancer cell lines that are resistant to 17-AAG by continued culturing in the compound. Cross-resistance was found with another HSP90 inhibitor 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. The resistant cells showed obvious morphology changes with a metastatic phenotype and significant increases in migration and adhesion to collagens. Western blotting analysis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition molecular markers found that expression of E-cadherin downregulated, whereas expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin upregulated in the resistant cells. Mucin 1 (MUC1) has been reported to mediate metastasis as well as chemical resistance in many cancers. Here, we found that MUC1 expression was significantly elevated in the acquired drug resistance cells. 17-AAG treatment could decrease MUC1 more in parental cells than in acquired 17-AAG-resistant cells. Further study found that knockdown of MUC1 expression by small interfering RNA could obviously re-sensitize the resistant cells to 17-AAG treatment, and decrease the cell migration and adhesion. These were coupled with a downregulation in N-cadherin and β-catenin. The results indicate that HSP90 inhibitor therapies in colon carcinomas could generate resistance and increase metastatic potential that might mediated by upregulation of MUC1 expression. Findings from this study further our understanding of the potential clinical effects of HSP90-directed therapies in colon carcinomas.

Agyeman AS, Jun WJ, Proia DA, et al.
Hsp90 Inhibition Results in Glucocorticoid Receptor Degradation in Association with Increased Sensitivity to Paclitaxel in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.
Horm Cancer. 2016; 7(2):114-26 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Targetable molecular drivers for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have been difficult to identify; therefore, standard treatment remains limited to conventional chemotherapy. Recently, new-generation small-molecule Hsp90 inhibitors (e.g., ganetespib and NVP-AUY922) have demonstrated improved safety and activity profiles over the first-generation ansamycin class. In breast cancer, clinical responses have been observed in a subset of TNBC patients following ganetespib monotherapy; however, the underlying biology of Hsp90 inhibitor treatment and tumor response is not well understood. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity in TNBC is associated with chemotherapy resistance. Here, we find that treatment of TNBC cell lines with ganetespib resulted in GR degradation and decreased GR-mediated gene expression. Ganetespib-associated GR degradation also sensitized TNBC cells to paclitaxel-induced cell death both in vitro and in vivo. The beneficial effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor on paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity was reduced when GR was depleted in TNBC cells but could be recovered with GR overexpression. These findings suggest that GR-regulated anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative signaling networks in TNBC are disrupted by Hsp90 inhibitors, thereby sensitizing TNBC to paclitaxel-induced cell death. Thus, GR+ TNBC patients may be a subgroup of breast cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from adding an Hsp90 inhibitor to taxane therapy.

Wang C, Zhang Y, Guo K, et al.
Heat shock proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma: Molecular mechanism and therapeutic potential.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(8):1824-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved proteins, which are expressed at low levels under normal conditions, but significantly induced in response to cellular stresses. As molecular chaperones, HSPs play crucial roles in protein homeostasis, apoptosis, invasion and cellular signaling transduction. The induction of HSPs is an important part of heat shock response, which could help cancer cells to adapt to stress conditions. Because of the constant stress condition in tumor microenvironment, HSPs overexpression is widely reported in many human cancers. In light of the significance of HSPs for cancer cells to survive and obtain invasive phenotype under stress condition, HSPs are often associated with poor prognosis and treatment resistance in many types of human cancers. It has been described that upregulation of HSPs may serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Targeting HSPs with specific inhibitor alone or in combination with chemotherapy regimens holds promise for the improvement of outcomes for HCC patients. In this review, we summarize the expression profiles, functions and molecular mechanisms of HSPs (HSP27, HSP70 and HSP90) as well as a HSP-like protein (clusterin) in HCC. In addition, we address progression and challenges in targeting these HSPs as novel therapeutic strategies in HCC.

Dong H, Zou M, Bhatia A, et al.
Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells Use Secreted Heat Shock Protein-90alpha (Hsp90α) to Survive a Hostile Hypoxic Environment.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:20605 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Rapidly growing tumours in vivo often outgrow their surrounding available blood supply, subjecting themselves to a severely hypoxic microenvironment. Understanding how tumour cells adapt themselves to survive hypoxia may help to develop new treatments of the tumours. Given the limited blood perfusion to the enlarging tumour, whatever factor(s) that allows the tumour cells to survive likely comes from the tumour cells themselves or its associated stromal cells. In this report, we show that HIF-1α-overexpressing breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, secrete heat shock protein-90alpha (Hsp90α) and use it to survive under hypoxia. Depletion of Hsp90α secretion from the tumour cells was permissive to cytotoxicity by hypoxia, whereas supplementation of Hsp90α-knockout tumour cells with recombinant Hsp90α, but not Hsp90β, protein prevented hypoxia-induced cell death via an autocrine mechanism through the LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) receptor. Finally, direct inhibition of the secreted Hsp90α with monoclonal antibody, 1G6-D7, enhanced tumour cell death under hypoxia. Therefore, secreted Hsp90α is a novel survival factor for certain tumours under hypoxia.

van Ommeren R, Staudt MD, Xu H, Hebb MO
Advances in HSP27 and HSP90-targeting strategies for glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2016; 127(2):209-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. There is a critical need for novel strategies to abolish the molecular mechanisms that support GBM growth, invasion and treatment resistance. The heat shock proteins, HSP27 and HSP90, serve these pivotal roles in tumor cells and have been identified as effective targets for developing therapeutics. Natural and synthetic inhibitors have been evaluated in clinical trials for several forms of systemic cancer but none as yet for GBM. This topic review summarizes the current preclinical evidence and rationale to define the potential of HSP27 and HSP90 inhibitors in GBM management.

Wang CY, Guo ST, Wang JY, et al.
Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 Preferentially Kills Mutant KRAS Colon Cancer Cells by Activating Bim through ER Stress.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(3):448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic mutations of KRAS pose a great challenge in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here we report that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are nevertheless more susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 than those carrying wild-type KRAS. Although AUY922 inhibited HSP90 activity with comparable potency in colon cancer cells irrespective of their KRAS mutational statuses, those with mutant KRAS were markedly more sensitive to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was associated with upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim, Bik, and PUMA. However, only Bim appeared essential, in that knockdown of Bim abolished, whereas knockdown of Bik or PUMA only moderately attenuated apoptosis induced by AUY922. Mechanistic investigations revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was responsible for AUY922-induced upregulation of Bim, which was inhibited by a chemical chaperone or overexpression of GRP78. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of GRP78 or XBP-1 enhanced AUY922-induced apoptosis. Remarkably, AUY922 inhibited the growth of mutant KRAS colon cancer xenografts through activation of Bim that was similarly associated with ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AUY922 is a promising drug in the treatment of mutant KRAS colon cancers, and the agents that enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of Bim may be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

Choghaei E, Khamisipour G, Falahati M, et al.
Knockdown of microRNA-29a Changes the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Breast Carcinoma MCF-7 Cells.
Oncol Res. 2016; 23(1-2):69-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer among women. MicroRNAs as noncoding small RNA molecules play pivotal roles in cancer-related biological processes. Increased levels of microRNA-29a in the serum of breast cancer patients have been reported. Since heat shock proteins (HSPs) play important roles in cell events, the quantitative fluctuations in their cellular levels could be deemed as key indicators of how the exerted treatment alters cell behavior. In this regard, using an antisense small RNA, we attempted to investigate the effects of miR-29a knockdown on the expression of HSPs genes in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. MCF-7 cells were cultured in high-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% FBS. Studied cells were subdivided into five groups: treated with scramble, anti-miR-29a, anti-miR-29a + Taxol, Taxol, and control. Taxol was added 24 h post-anti-miR transfection and RNA extraction, and cDNA synthesis was done 48 h later. The changes in expression of HSP27, HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were evaluated by real-time PCR. Our results revealed that inhibitors of microRNA-29a promote apoptosis through upregulation of HSP60 level and downregulation of HSP27, HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90 levels and could be contemplated as a compelling alternative for Taxol employment with similar effects and/or to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy with fewer side effects.

Shao J, Wang L, Zhong C, et al.
AHSA1 regulates proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of osteosarcoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 77:45-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activator of 90kDa heat shock protein ATPase homolog 1 (AHSA1) is a chaperone of heat shock 90kDa (HSP90) and stimulates ATPase activity of HSP90. The function of AHSA1 in osteosarcoma (OS) has not been reported yet. A previous study showed AHSA1 was overexpressed in OS cells. In this study, we investigated the role of AHSA1 in OS cells by silencing AHSA1. We report that silencing AHSA1 inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion, and increased apoptosis of MG-63 and Saos2 cells. We also found that silencing AHSA1 decreased the ATPase activity of HSP90 in OS cells. In addition, silencing AHSA1 increased the levels of negative regulators of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, Axin-2 and GSK3β, and decreased the levels of two key members of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, namely, Wnt-5a and β-catenin. In conclusion, silencing AHSA1 regulates cell growth, apoptosis, migration, and invasion by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway and their negative regulators.

Chen JT, Younusi A, Cao L, et al.
Potential role of heat-shock proteins in giant cell tumors.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):19144-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the differential expression protein profile of giant cell tumors (GCTs), which can be used to monitor the tumor's recurrence and metastasis, to provide preliminary results for further study. We also explored heat-shock protein (HSP) inhibitor that prevents tumors from recurring and migrating. A stable isotope-labeling strategy using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify differentially expressed proteins. A total of 467 differentially expressed proteins were identified in GCT tissues. Up to 311 proteins were upregulated, whereas 156 proteins were downregulated in GCT tissues. Three of the differentially expressed HSPs, namely HP90A, HSPB1, and HSPB2, were upregulated. The differentially expressed proteins of GCT tissues will provide a scientific foundation for tumor prognosis, and for further studies exploring HSP inhibitor to prevent tumor recurrence and migration.

Tang NY, Chueh FS, Yu CC, et al.
Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2089-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are potential biomarkers for glioblastoma therapy.

Bayliss R, Choi J, Fennell DA, et al.
Molecular mechanisms that underpin EML4-ALK driven cancers and their response to targeted drugs.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73(6):1209-24 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
A fusion between the EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like) and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) genes was identified in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007 and there has been rapid progress in applying this knowledge to the benefit of patients. However, we have a poor understanding of EML4 and ALK biology and there are many challenges to devising the optimal strategy for treating EML4-ALK NSCLC patients. In this review, we describe the biology of EML4 and ALK, explain the main features of EML4-ALK fusion proteins and outline the therapies that target EML4-ALK. In particular, we highlight the recent advances in our understanding of the structures of EML proteins, describe the molecular mechanisms of resistance to ALK inhibitors and assess current thinking about combinations of ALK drugs with inhibitors that target other kinases or Hsp90.

Nourazarian SM, Nourazarian A, Majidinia M, Roshaniasl E
Effect of Root Extracts of Medicinal Herb Glycyrrhiza glabra on HSP90 Gene Expression and Apoptosis in the HT-29 Colon Cancer Cell Line.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(18):8563-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common lethal cancer types worldwide. In recent years, widespread and large-scale studies have been done on medicinal plants for anti-cancer effects, including Glycyrrhiza glabra. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanol extract Glycyrrhiza glabra on the expression of HSP90, growth and apoptosis in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line. HT-29 cells were treated with different concentrations of extract (50,100,150, and 200 μg/ml). For evaluation of cell proliferation and apoptosis, we used MTT assay and flow cytometry technique, respectively. RT-PCR was also carried out to evaluate the expression levels of HSP90 genes. Results showed that Glycyrrhiza glabra inhibited proliferation of the HT-29 cell line at a concentration of 200 μg/ml and this was confirmed by the highest rate of cell death as measured by trypan blue and MTT assays. RT-PCR results showed down-regulation of HSP90 gene expression which implied an ability of Glycyrrhiza glabra to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells and confirmed its anticancer property. Further studies are required to evaluate effects of the extract on other genes and also it is necessary to make an extensive in vivo biological evaluation and subsequently proceed with clinical evaluations.

Xu XL, Bao QC, Jia JM, et al.
CPUY201112, a novel synthetic small-molecule compound and inhibitor of heat shock protein Hsp90, induces p53-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19004 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is highly expressed in many tumor cells and is associated with the maintenance of malignant phenotypes. Targeting Hsp90 has had therapeutic success in both solid and hematological malignancies, which has inspired more studies to identify new Hsp90 inhibitors with improved clinical efficacy. Using a fragment-based approach and subsequent structural optimization guided by medicinal chemistry principles, we identified the novel compound CPUY201112 as a potent Hsp90 inhibitor. It binds to the ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90 with a kinetic dissociation (Kd) constant of 27 ± 2.3 nM. It also exhibits potent in vitro antiproliferative effects in a range of solid tumor cells. In MCF-7 cells with high Hsp90 expression, CPUY201112 induces the degradation of Hsp90 client proteins including HER-2, Akt, and c-RAF. We prove that treating MCF-7 cells with CPUY201112 results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the wild-type (wt) p53 pathway. CPUY201112 also synergizes with Nutlin-3a to induce cancer cell apoptosis. CPUY201112 significantly inhibited the growth of MCF-7 xenografts in nude mice without apparent body weight loss. These results demonstrate that CPUY201112 is a novel Hsp90 inhibitor with potential use in treating wild-type p53 related cancers.

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