Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: IL27 (cancer-related)
Liang Y, Chen Q, Du W, et al.Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3 (EBI3) Blocking Leads to Induce Antitumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Suppress Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer by Bidirectional Reciprocal-Regulation STAT3 Signaling Pathway.
Mediators Inflamm. 2016; 2016:3214105 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) is a member of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) family structural subunit and can form a heterodimer with IL-27p28 and IL-12p35 subunit to build IL-27 and IL-35, respectively. However, IL-27 stimulates whereas IL-35 inhibits antitumor T cell responses. To date, little is known about the role of EBI3 in tumor microenvironment. In this study, firstly we assessed EBI3, IL-27p28, IL-12p35, gp130, and p-STAT3 expression with clinicopathological parameters of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues; then we evaluated the antitumor T cell responses and tumor growth with a EBI3 blocking peptide. We found that elevated EBI3 may be associated with IL-12p35, gp130, and p-STAT3 to promote CRC progression. EBI3 blocking peptide promoted antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response by inducing Granzyme B, IFN-γ production, and p-STAT3 expression and inhibited CRC cell proliferation and tumor growth to associate with suppressing gp130 and p-STAT3 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that EBI3 may mediate a bidirectional reciprocal-regulation STAT3 signaling pathway to assist the tumor escape immune surveillance in CRC.
Wang GQ, Zhao WH, Zhao XX, et al.Association between IL-27 2905T/G genotypes and the risk and survival of cervical cancer: a case-control study.
Biomarkers. 2016; 21(3):272-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has been recognized as a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to investigate the possible associations of IL-27 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to cervical cancer and clinical outcome.
RESULTS: Our results suggested that the IL-27 2905T/G was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical cancer. Further analysis showed IL-27 2905T/G genotypes were associated with advanced tumor stages of cervical cancer patients. More interestingly, the IL-27 2905T/G genotypes were statistically significantly associated with the survival in cervical cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the IL-27 2905T/G genotypes were associated with decreased the susceptibility and development of cervical cancer in Chinese Han population.
Shi J, Yuan M, Liu S, et al.Correlation of IL-27 genetic polymorphisms with the risk and survival of cervical cancer in a Chinese Han population.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6875-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has been recognized as a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. However, there are no data about the role of IL-27 polymorphism in the development of cervical cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in 380 patients with cervical cancer and 380 healthy controls to investigate the possible associations of IL-27 gene polymorphisms (-964A/G, 2905T/G, and 4730T/C), with susceptibility to cervical cancer and clinical outcome. Our results suggested that the IL-27 2905T/G was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cervical cancer (TG vs. TT, odds ratio (OR) = 0.77; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.60-0.86; GG vs. TT, OR = 0.95; 95 % CI = 0.72-0.96; TG+GG vs. TT, OR = 0.87; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.94). However, the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-27 (-964A/G and 4730T/C) polymorphisms in cervical cancer patients were not significantly different from controls. Further analysis showed IL-27 2905T/G genotypes were associated with advanced tumor stages of cervical cancer patients. More interestingly, the IL-27 2905T/G genotypes were statistically significantly associated with the survival in cervical cancer patients. Our results showed that the IL-27 2905T/G genotypes were associated with decreased susceptibility and development of cervical cancer in Chinese Han population.
IL-27 is a member of the IL-12 family that is produced by macrophages and dendritic cells. IL-27 inhibits the growth and invasiveness of different cancers and therefore represents a potential anti-tumor agent. By contrast, it may exert immune-regulatory properties in different biological systems. We reported that IL-27 induces the expression of the IL-18 inhibitor IL-18BP, in human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) cells, thus potentially limiting the immune response. Here, we tested whether IL-27 may modulate other immune-regulatory molecules involved in EOC progression, including Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and Programmed Death-Ligand (PD-L)1. IDO and PD-L1 were not constitutively expressed by EOC cells in vitro, but IL-27 increased their expression through STAT1 and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation. Differently, cells isolated from EOC ascites showed constitutive activation of STAT1 and STAT3 and IDO expression. These findings, together with the expression of IL-27 in scattered leukocytes in EOC ascites and tissues, suggest a potential role of IL-27 in immune-regulatory networks of EOC. In addition, IL-27 induced IDO or PD-L1 expression in monocytes and in human PC3 prostate and A549 lung cancer cells. A current paradigm in tumor immunology is that tumor cells may escape from immune control due to "adaptive resistance" mediated by T cell-secreted IFN-γ, which induces PD-L1 and IDO expression in tumor cells. Our present data indicate that also IL-27 has similar activities and suggest that the therapeutic use of IL-27 as anti-cancer agent may have dual effects, in some tumors.
Wang J, Tao Q, Wang H, et al.Elevated IL-35 in bone marrow of the patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Hum Immunol. 2015; 76(9):681-6 [PubMed
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common hematological malignancy in adults, but the etiology of it remains poorly understood. IL-35 is a recently described cytokine composed of an IL-12 subunit p35 and an IL-27 subunit Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 3 (EBI3), and has an immunosuppressive effect on inflammation through induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppression of Th1 and Th17. Recently, we have illustrated that concentrations of IL-35 in peripheral blood are up-regulated in newly diagnosed (ND) AML patients. However, whether IL-35 in bone marrow is increased in AML patients is not clear. In this study, we examined IL-35 in bone marrow by various methods including RT-PCR, ELISA, FCM and IHC, and found that IL-35 levels are also increased significantly in bone marrow of adult AML patients. Furthermore, we investigated that concentrations of bone marrow IL-35 in ND group were higher than that in complete remission (CR) group and control group, but there was no significant difference compared to that in relapse group. In conclusion, IL-35 was elevated in bone marrow of adult AML patients and this increase was correlated with the clinical stages of malignancy, suggesting that IL-35 is involved in pathogenesis of AML.
Zhang M, Tan X, Huang J, et al.Association of 3 Common Polymorphisms of IL-27 Gene with Susceptibility to Cancer in Chinese: Evidence From an Updated Meta-Analysis of 27 Studies.
Med Sci Monit. 2015; 21:2505-13 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many epidemiology studies have indicated that several functional polymorphisms of the IL-27 gene may contribute to individual susceptibility to cancer. Nevertheless, the data arising from these studies were inconclusive. Therefore, we conducted the current meta-analysis aiming to elucidate the effects of IL-27 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) on cancer susceptibility.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the CNKI (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure), Wanfang database, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar for all eligible publications. We used odds ratios (ORs) corresponding with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by using the random/fixed-effects model to evaluate the association. Finally, a total of 12 publications, including 27 case-control studies comprising of 7570 patients and 9839 controls, were enrolled in our meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Our work demonstrates that IL-27 rs17855750 polymorphism is significantly associated with cancer susceptibility, particularly for bladder cancer. However, no association between IL-27 rs153109 and rs181206 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility was identified. When a stratification analysis was performed by cancer type, we identified an increased susceptibility of bladder cancer in rs153109 polymorphism. Moreover, in the stratification analysis by genotyping method, we identified an increased susceptibility for PCR-RFLP group in rs17855750 polymorphism, whereas a decreased susceptibility was identified in rs153109 polymorphism.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that IL-27 rs17855750 polymorphism is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to cancer in Chinese.
Pu Y, Chen P, Zhou B, et al.Association between polymorphisms in IL27 gene and renal cell carcinoma.
Biomarkers. 2015; 20(3):202-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Interleukin-27 is a new member of the IL-12 family which plays an important role in human carcinogenesis.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether polymorphisms in IL27 contribute to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: These two polymorphisms were genotyped in 329 RCC patients and 386 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
RESULTS: Significantly increased RCC risk was associated the G allele of both rs153109 and rs17855750 (rs153109: p = 0.006, OR = 1.364, 95%CI = 1.095-1.700; rs17855750: p = 0.001, OR = 1.768, 95%CI = 1.245-2.511).
CONCLUSION: The present study provided evidence that rs153109 and rs17855750 were associated with increased risk for RCC, suggesting an important role IL-27 may play in nephrocarcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has been recognized as a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have investigated polymorphisms and serum/plasma levels of IL-27 in diseases including cancers. This study has analyzed the associations of IL-27 gene polymorphisms, as well as plasma levels of IL-27, with susceptibility to bladder cancer and clinical outcome.
METHODS: Three hundred and thirty-two patients (nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC)/muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC): 176/156) included in a 60-month follow-up program and 499 controls were enrolled. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs153109 and rs17855750, were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Plasma concentration of IL-27 was determined by ELISA in 124 patients (NMIBC/MIBC: 50/74) and 151 controls.
RESULTS: Significantly increased risk for bladder cancer was associated with AG/GG genotypes of rs153109 (P = 0.029). No GG genotype of rs17855750 was observed in controls, while 4 patients were found to be GG homozygotes, suggesting GG genotype may be associated with bladder cancer risk (P = 0.006). For bladder cancer patients, SNP rs17855750 was also associated with increased risk for MIBC. For MIBC patients, but not NMIBC, TG/GG genotypes of rs17855750 turned out to be a protective factor for overall survival (P = 0.035). Significantly reduced plasma levels of IL-27 were observed in both NMIBC and MIBC patients compared with controls (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that polymorphisms and reduced plasma levels of IL-27 may predict the susceptibility to bladder cancer, and rs17855750 may be a useful marker to distinguish patients with high risk of death.
Zhang S, Gao X, Wang Y, et al.Interleukin 27 -964A > G genetic polymorphism and serum IL-27p28 levels in Chinese patients with papillary thyroid cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):8207-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a potentially functional polymorphism (rs153109, -964A > G) in the promoter region of interleukin-27 (IL-27) gene and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in a Chinese population. Genotype of IL-27 -964A > G polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Serum IL-27p28 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant difference was noticed in IL-27 -964A > G polymorphism between PTC patients and healthy controls in the overall analysis. However, analysis of clinical features showed that PTC patients carrying the GG genotype or G allele had significantly decreased risks for developing lymph node metastasis compared with those carrying the AA genotype or A allele (GG vs. AA: OR = 0.38, 95 % CI, 0.20-0.72; G vs. A: OR = 0.63, 95 % CI, 0.44-0.86). Furthermore, ELISA results demonstrated that serum IL-27p28 levels were significantly decreased in PTC patients compared with those in controls (P < 0.05). Serum IL-27p28 levels in healthy controls with the GG genotype were significantly high compared with those carrying AA genotype or the AG genotype (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that IL-27 -964A > G polymorphism may be associated with the decreased risk for lymph node metastasis of PTC.
Current therapies for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) still fail to significantly increase its survival rate. Here we asked whether Interleukin(IL)-27, which has revealed powerful antitumor activity and is toxicity-free in humans, is a promising therapeutic choice for NSCLC patients. IL-27's effects were tested on Adenocarcinoma (AC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) cell lines and xenograft models. IL-27Receptor(R) expression was assessed in lung tissues from 78 NSCLC patients. In vitro, IL-27 was ineffective on cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis, but fostered CXCL3/GROγ/MIP2β expression. In vitro and in vivo, IL-27 down-regulated stemness-related genes, namely SONIC HEDGEHOG in AC cells, and OCT4A, SOX2, NOTCH1, KLF4 along with Nestin, SNAI1/SNAIL, SNAI2/SLUG and ZEB1, in SCC cells. In vivo, IL-27 hampered both AC and SCC tumor growth in association with a prominent granulocyte- and macrophage-driven colliquative necrosis, CXCL3 production, and a reduced pluripotency- and EMT-related gene expression. Myeloablation of tumor-bearing hosts mostly abolished IL-27's antitumor effects. In clinical samples, IL-27R expression was found in AC, SCC, pre-cancerous lesions and tumor infiltrating myeloid cells, and correlated with advanced stages of disease. Our data suggest that even immunocompromised or advancer NSCLC patients may benefit from IL-27's antitumor properties based on its ability to drive myeloid cells towards antitumor activities, and down-regulate stemness- and EMT-related genes in cancer cells.
Fabbi M, Carbotti G, Ferrini SContext-dependent role of IL-18 in cancer biology and counter-regulation by IL-18BP.
J Leukoc Biol. 2015; 97(4):665-75 [PubMed
] Related Publications
IL-18 is a proinflammatory and immune regulatory cytokine, member of the IL-1 family. IL-18 was initially identified as an IFN-γ-inducing factor in T and NK cells, involved in Th1 responses. IL-18 is produced as an inactive precursor (pro-IL-18) that is enzymatically processed into a mature form by Casp1. Different cells, such as macrophages, DCs, microglial cells, synovial fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, express pro-IL-18, and the production of bioactive IL-18 is mainly regulated at the processing level. PAMP or DAMP molecules activate inflammasomes, which trigger Casp1 activation and IL-18 conversion. The natural inhibitor IL-18BP , whose production is enhanced by IFN-γ and IL-27, further regulates IL-18 activity in the extracellular environment. Inflammasomes and IL-18 represent double-edged swords in cancer, as their activation may promote tumor development and progression or oppositely, enhance anti-tumor immunity and limit tumor growth. IL-18 has shown anti-tumor activity in different preclinical models of cancer immunotherapy through the activation of NK and/or T cell responses and has been tested in clinical studies in cancer patients. However, the dual role of IL-18 in different experimental tumor models and human cancers raises critical issues on its therapeutic use in cancer. This review will summarize the biology of the IL-18/IL-18R/IL-18BP system and will address the role of IL-18 and its inhibitor, IL-18BP, in cancer biology and immunotherapy.
Ren YB, Luo T, Li J, et al.p28(GANK) associates with p300 to attenuate the acetylation of RelA.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(12):1626-35 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Oncoprotein p28(GANK), overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), binds to RelA and retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm to suppress NF-κB transactivation. However, the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we clarified the mechanism of NF-κB regulated by p28(GANK). p28(GANK) reduced TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation of RelA/NF-κB independent of HDAC3. p28(GANK) interacted with p300 to attenuate assembly of RelA with p300, which lessened acetylation of RelA on the lysine 310 sites. Moreover, overexpression of p28(GANK) attenuated the capability of NF-κB binding to the target gene IκBα promoter, but also weakened adriamycin-induced NF-κB pro-apoptotic gene Fas and FasL expression, which subsequently made p53-deficient tumor cells resistance to adriamycin. These results present mechanistic insight into the key role of p28(GANK) in post-translational regulation of RelA/NF-κB.
Cerliani JP, Dalotto-Moreno T, Compagno D, et al.Study of galectins in tumor immunity: strategies and methods.
Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1207:249-68 [PubMed
] Related Publications
During the past decade, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tumor immunity has provided the appropriate framework for the development of therapeutic strategies for cancer immunotherapy. Under this complex scenario, galectins have emerged as promising molecular targets for cancer therapy responsible of creating immunosuppressive microenvironments at sites of tumor growth and metastasis. Galectins, expressed in tumor, stromal, and endothelial cells, contribute to thwart the development of immune responses by favoring the expansion of T regulatory cells and contributing to their immunosuppressive activity, driving the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells, limiting T cell viability, and maintaining T cell anergy. The emerging data promise a future scenario in which the selective blockade of individual members of the galectin family, either alone or in combination with other therapeutic regimens, will contribute to halt tumor progression by counteracting tumor-immune escape. Here we describe a selection of methods used to investigate the role of galectin-1 in tumor-immune escape.
Interleukin (IL)-27 is a novel cytokine secreted by stimulation of antigen-presenting cells. No previous studies currently reported the role of IL-27 in the carcinogenesis of osteosarcoma. We aimed to investigate the association of IL-27 polymorphisms and serum IL-27p28 with osteosarcoma risk in a Chinese population.One hundred and sixty osteosarcoma patients and 250 health controls were selected. IL-27 gene -964 A/G, 2905 T/G, and 4730 T/C polymorphisms were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect serum IL-27p28 levels.The serum IL-27p28 levels were significantly lower in osteosarcoma patients compared with those in controls (P < 0.01). Serum IL-27p28 levels in stages III-IV were lower than those in stages I-II of osteosarcoma (P < 0.05); similar results were also found in patients with metastasis, that is, patients with metastasis have higher IL-27p28 levels than those without metastasis (P < 0.05). There were no associations between genotype and allele frequencies of IL-27 -964 A/G, 2905 T/G, 4730 T/C, and the risk of osteosarcoma (P > 0.05). Stratification analysis also failed to show the associations between -964 A/G, 2905 T/G, and 4730 T/C polymorphisms and the clinical stage and metastasis of osteosarcoma (P > 0.05). Three possible haplotypes (ATT, GTT, and GGC) were identified, but no associations were found between them and the osteosarcoma risk (P > 0.05).This study indicates that the lower serum IL-27p28 levels may be associated with development and progression of osteosarcoma, but IL-27 gene -964 A/G, 2905 T/G, and 4730 T/C polymorphisms and their haplotypes are not associated with osteosarcoma risk.
Zhang S, Wang Y, Wang M, Ji ZIL-27 -964A>G polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12099-102 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a new member of the IL-12 family which plays a key role in antitumor immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between a potentially functional polymorphism (rs153109, -964A>G) at the promoter of IL-27 and the risk of breast cancer in a Chinese population. We determined the genotypes of 326 breast cancer cases and 460 healthy controls by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between -964A>G polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility. There was no significant association between IL-27 -964A>G polymorphism and the risk of breast cancer. However, in the stratified analysis by menopausal history, IL-27 -964A>G polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (GG vs. AA: OR = 0.48, 95 % CI = 0.26-0.89; G vs. A: OR = 0.75, 95 % CI = 0.59-0.97). Taken together, our study suggested that IL-27 -964A>G polymorphism may be a protective factor for breast cancer in premenopausal women.
Li Y, Li D, Yan Z, et al.Potential relationship and clinical significance of miRNAs and Th17 cytokines in patients with multiple myeloma.
Leuk Res. 2014; 38(9):1130-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
We evaluated the potential relationship between miRNAs and Th17 cytokines in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Twenty-seven newly diagnosed myeloma patients and eight normal donors were studied. We determined that the relative expression levels of miR-15a/16, miR-34a, miR-194 in MM patients were significantly lower than those in the healthy controls with exception for miR-181a/b, which showed significantly higher in MM patients (P<0.05). In contrast, the levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IL-27 were up-regulated in MM patients compared to healthy controls while IL-22 was down-regulated (P<0.05). The expression patterns of them were differentially present in various groups according to the International Staging System (ISS) criteria. Up-regulated IL-17, IL-21 and IL-27 may potentially down-regulate the expression of several miRNAs in MM patients. Establishment of the relationship may be useful for understanding the pathogenesis of MM and for clinical diagnosis of the disease.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is of increasing significance worldwide as a consequence of the population ageing. Fragile elderly patients may particularly benefit from noninvasive and well tolerable immunotherapeutic approaches. Preclinical studies have revealed that the immune-regulatory cytokine IL-27 may exert anti-tumor activities in a variety of tumor types without discernable toxicity. We, thus, investigated whether IL-27 may function as anti-tumor agent in human (h) PCa and analyzed the rationale for its clinical application. In vitro, IL-27 treatment significantly inhibited proliferation and reduced the angiogenic potential of hPCa cells by down-regulating the pro-angiogenesis-related genes fms-related tyrosine kinase (FLT)1, prostaglandin G/H synthase 1/cyclooxygenase-1 (PTGS1/COX-1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)3. In addition, IL-27 up-regulated the anti-angiogenesis-related genes such as CXCL10 and TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 (TIMP3). In vivo, IL-27 reduced proliferation and vascularization in association with ischemic necrosis of tumors developed after PC3 or DU145 cell injection in athymic nude mice. In patients' prostate tissues, IL-27R was expressed by normal epithelia and low grade PCa and lost by high tumor grade and stages. Nevertheless, IL-27R was expressed by CD11c(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) leukocytes infiltrating the tumor and draining lymph nodes. These data lead to the conclusion that i) IL-27's anti-PCa potential may be fully exploited in patients with well-differentiated, localized IL-27R positive PCa, since in this case it may act on both cancerous epithelia and the tumor microenvironment; ii) PCa patients bearing high grade and stage tumor that lack IL-27R may benefit, however, from IL-27's immune-stimulatory properties.
Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising strategy for reducing tumor burden through selective virus replication in rapidly proliferating cells. However, the lysis of slowly replicating cancer stem cells (CSCs), which maintain neoplastic clonality, is relatively modest and the potential contribution of programmed cell death pathways to oncolytic activity is still poorly understood. We show that the oncolytic virus ΔPK lyses CSC-enriched breast cancer and melanoma 3D spheroid cultures at low titers (0.1 pfu/cell) without resistance development and it inhibits the 3D growth potential (spheroids and agarose colonies) of melanoma and breast cancer cells. ΔPK induces calpain activation in both melanoma and breast cancer 3D cultures as determined by the loss of the p28 regulatory subunit, and 3D growth is restored by treatment with the calpain inhibitor PD150606. In melanoma, ΔPK infection also induces light chain 3 (LC3)-II accumulation and p62/SQSTM1 clearance, both markers of autophagy, and 3D growth is restored by treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ). However, expression of the autophagy-required protein Atg5 is not altered and CQ does not restore p62/SQSTM1 expression, suggesting that the CQ effect may be autophagy-independent. PD150606 restores expression of p62/SQSTM1 in ΔPK-infected melanoma cultures, suggesting that calpain activation induces anti-tumor activity through p62/SQSTM1 clearance.
Zhang Z, Zhou B, Wu Y, et al.Prognostic value of IL-27 polymorphisms and the susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer in a Chinese population.
Immunogenetics. 2014; 66(2):85-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study investigated the association between IL-27 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer in a Chinese population and discusses the risk factors associated with survival time. We collected data on 229 patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer, from 15 to 77 years of age with a long clinical follow-up period. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to determine the genotype of IL-27 gene polymorphisms. Ovarian cancer-specific survival (OCSS) according to genotype of IL-27 gene polymorphisms was explored by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Significant differences for genotype frequencies of both SNP sites were found between cases and controls. Both allele G frequencies were significantly greater among the cases (rs153109: 0.404 vs. 0.303, P = 0.001, odds ratio [OR] = 1.333, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.133-1.567; rs17855750: 0.146 vs. 0.083, P = 0.001, OR = 1.766, 95% CI = 1.258-2.481). Haplotype analysis showed haplotypes AG, GT and GG were associated with increased ovarian cancer susceptibility while AT was a protective haplotype. Advanced FIGO stage (stages III + IV) and non-optimal cytoreductive surgery (residual tumor ≥1 cm) were poor prognostic factors in the univariate analysis (P = 0.003, P = 0.049). However, FIGO stage was found to be the only independent significant prognostic factor by Cox proportional hazards analysis (P = 0.042). IL-27p28 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in ovarian cancer patients (P < 0.0001), while no significant relationship was found between IL-27p28 mRNA expression and polymorphism of rs153109 and rs17855750 (P = 0.193 and P = 0.146, respectively). Our study suggests that IL-27 gene polymorphisms may be involved in the susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer, but not in survival in a clinic-based Chinese population. Haplotype analysis of these two SNPs seems to be an important mark to predict the disease susceptibility. Advanced FIGO stage, as the only significant, independent risk factor, predicts poor clinical outcomes for patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. The decreased expression of IL-27p28 mRNA in ovarian cancer might indicate the antitumor activities of this novel cytokine.
Di Meo S, Airoldi I, Sorrentino C, et al.Interleukin-30 expression in prostate cancer and its draining lymph nodes correlates with advanced grade and stage.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(3):585-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The interleukin (IL)-27 cytokine subunit p28, also called IL-30, has been recognized as a novel immunoregulatory mediator endowed with its own functions. These are currently the subject of discussion in immunology, but completely unexplored in cancer biology. We set out to investigate the role of IL-30 in prostate carcinogenesis and its effects on human prostate cancer (hPCa) cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: IL-30 expression, as visualized by immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on prostate and draining lymph nodes from 125 patients with prostate cancer, was correlated with clinicopathologic data. IL-30 regulation of hPCa cell viability and expression of selected gene clusters was tested by flow cytometry and PCR array.
RESULTS: IL-30, absent in normal prostatic epithelia, was expressed by cancerous epithelia with Gleason ≥ 7% of 21.3% of prostate cancer stage I to III and 40.9% of prostate cancer stage IV. IL-30 expression by tumor infiltrating leukocytes (T-ILK) was higher in stage IV that in stage I to III prostate cancer (P = 0.0006) or in control tissue (P = 0.0011). IL-30 expression in prostate draining lymph nodes (LN)-ILK was higher in stage IV than in stage I to III prostate cancer (P = 0.0031) or in control nodes (P = 0.0023). The main IL-30 sources were identified as CD68(+) macrophages, CD33(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells, and CD14(+) monocytes. In vitro, IL-30 stimulated proliferation of hPCa cells and also downregulated CCL16/LEC, TNFSF14/LIGHT, chemokine-like factor (CKLF), and particularly CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 3 (CMTM3) and greatly upregulated ChemR23/CMKLR.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first evidence that IL-30 is implicated in prostate cancer progression because (i) its expression by prostate cancer or T- and LN-ILK correlates with advanced disease grade and stage; and (ii) IL-30 exerts protumor activity in hPCa cells.
Chiba Y, Mizoguchi I, Mitobe K, et al.IL-27 enhances the expression of TRAIL and TLR3 in human melanomas and inhibits their tumor growth in cooperation with a TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) partly in a TRAIL-dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76159 [PubMed
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Interleukin (IL)-27 is a member of the IL-6/IL-12 cytokine family and possesses potent antitumor activity, which is mediated by multiple mechanisms. Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 is the critical sensor of the innate immune system that serves to identify viral double-stranded RNA. TLR3 is frequently expressed by various types of malignant cells, and recent studies reported that a synthetic TLR3 agonist, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], induces antitumor effects on malignant cells. In the present study, we have explored the effect of IL-27 on human melanomas and uncovered a previously unknown mechanism. We found that IL-27 inhibits in vitro tumor growth of human melanomas and greatly enhances the expression of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a dose-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibody against TRAIL partly but significantly blocked the IL-27-mediated inhibition of tumor growth. In addition, IL-27 and poly(I:C) cooperatively augmented TRAIL expression and inhibited tumor growth. The cooperative effect could be ascribed to the augmented expression of TLR3, but not retinoic acid-inducible gene-I or anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, by IL-27. The inhibition of tumor growth by the combination was also significantly abrogated by anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. Moreover, IL-27 and poly(I:C) cooperatively suppressed in vivo tumor growth of human melanoma in immunodeficient mice. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-27 enhances the expression of TRAIL and TLR3 in human melanomas and inhibits their tumor growth in cooperation with poly(I:C), partly in a TRAIL-dependent manner. Thus, IL-27 and the combination of IL-27 and poly(I:C) may be attractive candidates for cancer immunotherapy.
We have examined the role of a novel cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), in mediating interactions between prostate cancer and bone. IL-27 is the most recently characterized member of the family of heterodimeric IL-12-related cytokines and has shown promise in halting tumor growth and mediating tumor regression in several cancer models, including prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is frequently associated with metastases to the bone, where the tumor induces a vicious cycle of communication with osteoblasts and osteoclasts to induce bone lesions, which are a significant cause of pain and skeletal-related events for patients, including a high fracture risk. We describe our findings in the effects of IL-27 gene delivery on prostate cancer cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts at different stages of differentiation. We applied the IL-27 gene delivery protocol in vivo utilizing sonoporation (sonodelivery) with the goal of treating and reducing the growth of prostate cancer at a bone metastatic site in vivo. We used a new model of immune-competent prostate adenocarcinoma and characterized the tumor growth reduction, gene expression, and effector cellular profiles. Our results suggest that IL-27 can be effective in reducing tumor growth, can help normalize bone structure, and can promote enhanced accumulation of effector cells in prostate tumors. These results are promising, because they are relevant to developing a novel IL-27-based strategy that can treat both the tumor and the bone, by using this simple and effective sonodelivery method for treating prostate tumor bone metastases.
Carbotti G, Barisione G, Orengo AM, et al.The IL-18 antagonist IL-18-binding protein is produced in the human ovarian cancer microenvironment.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(17):4611-20 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Interleukin (IL)-18 is an immune-enhancing cytokine, which induces IFN-γ production, T-helper 1 responses, and antitumor effects. In turn, IFN-γ stimulates IL-18-binding protein production, which blocks IL-18 activity. In view of the potential use of IL-18 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) immunotherapy, here, we studied IL-18BP expression and its regulation by cytokines in EOC cells in vitro and in vivo.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Expression and production of IL-18BP in EOC cell lines, primary ovarian carcinomas, and the corresponding normal tissues, patients' serum, and ascites were investigated by immunochemistry, ELISA, screening of gene expression profiles, and reverse-transcription PCR.
RESULTS: Analysis of gene expression profiles revealed that IL18BP mRNA is increased in EOC tumors compared with normal ovary cells. Release of IL-18BP was detectable in EOC sera and to a greater extent in the ascites, indicating production at the tumor site. Indeed, immunochemical analyses on cells isolated from the ascites and on tumor sections indicated that IL-18BP is expressed in both tumor cells and tumor-associated leukocytes, which displayed a CD3-CD20-NKp46-CD13+CD14low phenotype. EOC cell lines do not constitutively express IL-18BP. However, its release is inducible both by IFN-γ stimulation in vitro and by xenotransplantation of EOC cells in immune-deficient mice, suggesting a role for the microenvironment. In vitro experiments and immunochemistry indicated that IL-27 is also involved in IL-18BP upregulation in EOC cell lines and primary cells through STAT1 activation. Together, these data indicate that IL-18BP, which is produced in EOC in response to microenvironmental factors, may inhibit endogenous or exogenous IL-18 activity.
Peng Q, Qin X, He Y, et al.Association of IL27 gene polymorphisms and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma risk in a Chinese population.
Infect Genet Evol. 2013; 16:1-4 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is multifactorial, and the genetic background may be a crucial etiologic factor. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a novel IL-12 family member which plays an important role in antitumor immunity. Mutations in the IL27 gene may lead to altered cytokine production and/or activity and thus modulate individual's susceptibility to HCC. In this study, we investigated the association between IL27 gene polymorphisms and HBV-related diseases risk in a Chinese population.
METHODS: Studied subjects were divided into four groups: 112 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 65 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver cirrhosis (LC), 107 patients with HBV-related HCC, and 105 healthy controls. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy and polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) strategy were used to detect IL27 gene -964A/G and 2905T/G polymorphisms, respectively. DNA sequencing was used to validate genotype results.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of IL27 gene polymorphisms between the groups of patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, no association was found between the distributions of the haplotypes and HCC risk.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the genetic variants in IL27 gene may not contribute to HCC development. Further studies with large sample size should be conducted to validate this association.
The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8) is crucial for myeloid cell development and immune response and also acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Here, we analyzed the role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma cells and tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. B16-F10 melanoma cells transplanted into IRF-8-deficient (IRF-8(-/-)) mice grow more rapidly, leading to higher numbers of lung metastasis, with respect to control animals. These events correlated with reduced dendritic cell and T cell infiltration, accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and a chemokine/chemokine receptor expression profile within the tumor microenvironment supporting tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Noticeably, primary tumors developing in IRF-8(-/-) mice displayed a clear-cut inhibition of IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells. Injection of the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine into melanoma-bearing IRF-8(-/-) animals induced intratumoral IRF-8 expression and resulted in the re-establishment of a chemokine/ chemokine receptor pattern favoring leukocyte infiltration and melanoma growth arrest. Importantly, intrinsic IRF-8 expression was progressively down-modulated during melanoma growth in mice and in human metastatic melanoma cells with respect to primary tumors. Lastly, IRF-8 expression in melanoma cells was directly modulated by soluble factors, among which interleukin-27 (IL-27), released by immune cells from tumor-bearing mice. Collectively, these results underscore a key role of IRF-8 in the cross talk between melanoma and immune cells, thus revealing its critical function within the tumor microenvironment in regulating melanoma progression and invasiveness.
Zolochevska O, Diaz-Quiñones AO, Ellis J, Figueiredo MLInterleukin-27 expression modifies prostate cancer cell crosstalk with bone and immune cells in vitro.
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(5):1127-36 [PubMed
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Prostate cancer is frequently associated with bone metastases, where the crosstalk between tumor cells and key cells of the bone microenvironment (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, immune cells) amplifies tumor growth. We have explored the potential of a novel cytokine, interleukin-27 (IL-27), for inhibiting this malignant crosstalk, and have examined the effect of autocrine IL-27 on prostate cancer cell gene expression, as well as the effect of paracrine IL-27 on gene expression in bone and T cells. In prostate tumor cells, IL-27 upregulated genes related to its signaling pathway while downregulating malignancy-related receptors and cytokine genes involved in gp130 signaling, as well as several protease genes. In both undifferentiated and differentiated osteoblasts, IL-27 modulated upregulation of genes related to its own signaling pathway as well as pro-osteogenic genes. In osteoclasts, IL-27 downregulated several genes typically involved in malignancy and also downregulated osteoclastogenesis-related genes. Furthermore, an osteogenesis-focused real-time PCR array revealed a more extensive profile of pro-osteogenic gene changes in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In T-lymphocyte cells, IL-27 upregulated several activation-related genes and also genes related to the IL-27 signaling pathway and downregulated several genes that could modulate osteoclastogenesis. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 may be able to modify interactions between prostate tumor and bone microenvironment cells and thus could be used as a multifunctional therapeutic for restoring bone homeostasis while treating metastatic prostate tumors.
BACKGROUND: Gankyrin was originally purified and characterized as the p28 component of the 26S proteasome, and later identified as an oncogenic protein in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). It has recently been found to be highly expressed in several other malignancies, and compelling evidence show gankyrin plays important roles in tumorigenesis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear.
METHODS: In order to further clarify the functions of gankyrin and better understand its molecular mechanisms, we generated a gankyrin null cell line, HCT116 gankyrin-/- , by targeted homologous recombination in human colon cancer cells, and then employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) based proteomic approaches followed by MS identification to investigate alterations in the proteome due to the gankyrin knockout. Western blot and qRT-PCR assays were also used to examine the protein and mRNA levels of some identified proteins.
RESULTS: Compared with wild-type control cells, gankyrin null cells were impaired in terms of their proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth. A total of 21 altered proteins were identified, which included 18 proteins that had not previously been reported to be related to gankyrin. Notably, eight metastasis-related proteins were identified. Western blot analyses confirmed that the changes in three examined proteins were consistent with 2-DE gel analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we have generated a useful cell tool to clarify the functions of gankyrin. Our proteomic data provide novel information to better understand the roles and underlying mechanisms by which gankyrin is involved in tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis.
Henke A, Grace OC, Ashley GR, et al.Stromal expression of decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Sprouty1 and Tsukushi in developing prostate and decreased levels of decorin in prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42516 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: During prostate development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions regulate organ growth and differentiation. In adult prostate, stromal-epithelial interactions are important for tissue homeostasis and also play a significant role in prostate cancer. In this study we have identified molecules that show a mesenchymal expression pattern in the developing prostate, and one of these showed reduced expression in prostate cancer stroma.
METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five candidate molecules identified by transcript profiling of developmental prostate mesenchyme were selected using a wholemount in situ hybridisation screen and studied Decorin (Dcn), Semaphorin6D (Sema6D), SPARC/Osteonectin (SPARC), Sprouty1 (Spry-1) and Tsukushi (Tsku). Expression in rat tissues was evaluated using wholemount in situ hybridisation (postnatal day (P) 0.5) and immunohistochemistry (embryonic day (E) E17.5, E19.5; P0.5; P6; 28 & adult). Four candidates (Decorin, SPARC, Spry-1, Tsukushi) were immunolocalised in human foetal prostate (weeks 14, 16, 19) and expression of Decorin was evaluated on a human prostate cancer tissue microarray. In embryonic and perinatal rats Decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi were expressed with varying distribution patterns throughout the mesenchyme at E17.5, E19.5, P0.5 and P6.5. In P28 and adult prostates there was either a decrease in the expression (Semaphorin6D) or a switch to epithelial expression of SPARC, and Spry-1, whereas Decorin and Tsukushi were specific to mesenchyme/stroma at all ages. Expression of Decorin, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi in human foetal prostates paralleled that in rat. Decorin showed mesenchymal and stromal-specific expression at all ages and was further examined in prostate cancer, where stromal expression was significantly reduced compared with non-malignant prostate.
CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: We describe the spatio-temporal expression of Decorin, Semaphorin6D, SPARC, Spry-1 and Tsukushi in developing prostate and observed similar mesenchymal expression patterns in rat and human. Additionally, Decorin showed reduced expression in prostate cancer stroma compared to non-malignant prostate stroma.
BACKGROUND: Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are closely related human retroviruses, but have unique disease associations. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of an aggressive T-cell leukemia known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and other inflammatory diseases. HTLV-2 infection has not been clearly associated with any disease condition. Although both viruses can transform T cells in vitro, the HTLV-1 provirus is mainly detected in CD4+ T cells whereas HTLV-2 is mainly detected in CD8+ T cells of infected individuals. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 encode accessory proteins p30 and p28, respectively, which share partial amino acid homology and are required for viral persistence in vivo. The goal of this study was to identify host proteins interacting with p30 and p28 in order to understand their role in pathogenesis.
RESULTS: Affinity-tag purification coupled with mass spectrometric (MS) analyses revealed 42 and 22 potential interacting cellular partners of p30 and p28, respectively. Of these, only three cellular proteins, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), hnRNP K and 60 S ribosomal protein L8 were detected in both p30 and p28 fractions. To validate the proteomic results, four interacting proteins were selected for further analyses using immunoblot assays. In full agreement with the MS analysis two cellular proteins REGγ and NEAF-interacting protein 30 (NIP30) selectively interacted with p30 and not with p28; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (hnRNP H1) bound to p28 and not to p30; and PRMT5 interacted with both p30 and p28. Further studies demonstrated that reduced levels of PRMT5 resulted in decreased HTLV-2 viral gene expression whereas the viral gene expression of HTLV-1 was unchanged.
CONCLUSION: The comparisons of p30 and p28 host protein interaction proteome showed striking differences with some degree of overlap. PRMT5, one of the host proteins that interacted with both p30 and p28 differentially affected HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 viral gene expression suggesting that PRMT5 is involved at different stages of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 biology. These findings suggest that distinct host protein interaction profiles of p30 and p28 could, in part, be responsible for differences in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 pathobiology. This study provides new avenues of investigation into mechanisms of viral infection, tropism and persistence.
Tao YP, Wang WL, Li SY, et al.Associations between polymorphisms in IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, IL-27 gene and serum levels of IL-12p40, IL-27p28 with esophageal cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(11):1891-900 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-12Rβ1, and IL-27 gene polymorphisms and serum levels of IL-12, IL-27 are associated with esophageal cancer.
METHODS: We genotyped IL-12A gene rs568408, IL-12B gene rs3212227, IL-12Rβ1 gene 378 C/G, IL-27 gene rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206 polymorphisms in a case-control study of 426 esophageal cancer patients and 432 health controls, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and serum IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS: Both serum IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 levels were significantly higher in controls than those in patients (P < 0.01). Rs568408 AG/AA, rs3212227 CC/AC, and IL-12Rβ1 378 GG/GC genotypes were associated with significantly increased risk of esophageal cancer (rs568408: χ(2) = 5.704, P = 0.017; rs3212227: χ(2) = 7.689, P = 0.006; IL-12Rβ1 378C/G: χ(2) = 5.206, P = 0.023). Moreover, rs3212227 CC/AC and 378 GG/GC genotypes were observed significantly associated with decreased serum IL-12p40 level in patients compare to other genotypes (rs3212227: t = 2.129, P = 0.034; IL-12Rβ1 378 C/G: t = 2.178, P = 0.030). Furthermore, frequency of rs3212227 CC/AC genotypes was significantly higher in patients with poor differentiation than those with AA genotype (χ(2) = 4.314, P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the impaired production of IL-12p40 and IL-27p28 behaves as risk factors for esophageal cancer occurrence. IL-12B gene rs3212227 CC/AC and IL-12Rβ1 gene 378 GG/GC genotypes, which associated with decreased IL-12p40 level, may contribute to esophageal cancer susceptibility.