Gene Summary

Gene:ITGAM; integrin subunit alpha M
Aliases: CR3A, MO1A, CD11B, MAC-1, MAC1A, SLEB6
Summary:This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:integrin alpha-M
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
  • Brain Tumours
  • CD11b Antigen
  • Microglia
  • CD Antigens
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Xanthones
  • Melanoma
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic
  • Cell Movement
  • Trans-Activators
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Macrophages
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Disease Progression
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Skin Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Myeloid Cells
  • Retinoic Acid
  • HL-60 Cells
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Western Blotting
  • Brain Tumours
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Chromosome 16
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Vimentin
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Apoptosis
  • Monocytes
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Drug Resistance
  • Leukaemia
  • Cell Proliferation
  • TGFB1
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ITGAM (cancer-related)

Barilla RM, Diskin B, Caso RC, et al.
Specialized dendritic cells induce tumor-promoting IL-10
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1424 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The drivers and the specification of CD4

Wang JQ, Tang Y, Li QS, et al.
PARG regulates the proliferation and differentiation of DCs and T cells via PARP/NF‑κB in tumour metastases of colon carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2657-2666 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present study investigated the effect of poly(ADP‑ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) on the immune response in tumour metastases of colon carcinoma. CT26 cells were transfected with lentivirus PARG‑short hairpin RNA (shRNA). A liver metastasis model of colon carcinoma was successfully established by splenic subcapsular inoculation of the various groups of CT26 cells into BALB/c mice. Next, changes in the liver metastases of colon carcinoma nodules and alterations in the survival times were observed in tumour‑bearing mice. The numbers of B220+DEC205+ dendritic cells (B220+DEC205+DC) and CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells (CD11c+CD11b+DC) in the spleen and liver were measured by the double‑label immunofluorescence assay. The distribution pattern of CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells in the spleen and liver was investigated by immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of PARG, PARP and nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) proteins in spleen transplant tumours and liver metastases of colon carcinoma were detected by western blotting. An ELISA was used to detect the levels of IL‑10 and TGF‑β in the serum of tumour‑bearing mice and from the supernatant of tumour cells. The numbers and grading of metastatic liver nodules in the PARG‑silenced group were clearly lower than those in the control group. The survival time of the PARG‑silenced group mice was longer than that in the control group. In the PARG‑silenced group, the levels of B220+DEC205+DC in the spleen and liver were lower and the numbers of CD11c+CD11b+DC in the spleen and liver were more than those in the control group. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in the spleen and liver in the PARG‑silenced group was increased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The levels of PARG, PARP and NF‑κB in spleen transplant tumours and liver metastases of colon carcinoma were lower in the PARG‑silenced group than in the control group. In addition, the levels of IL‑10 and TGF‑β in the serum of tumour‑bearing mice and supernatants of tumour cells were both reduced in the PARG‑silenced group compared with those in the control group. The present research suggests that the liver metastases of colon carcinoma could be restrained by silencing PARG. Likely, the silencing of PARG could suppress the expression of PARP and NF‑κB and subsequently suppress the secretion of IL‑10 and TGF‑α, finally affecting the proliferation and differentiation of DC and T cells.

Hsu YL, Yen MC, Chang WA, et al.
CXCL17-derived CD11b
Breast Cancer Res. 2019; 21(1):23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the major cause of death from breast cancer. Colonization and adaption of metastatic cells in distant organs is a rate-limiting step of the cancer spreading. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the colonization of breast cancer to lung metastatic niches are not fully understood.
METHODS: Specific gene contributions to lung metastasis were identified by comparing gene profiles of 4T1 tumors metastasizing to various organs via microarray. The oncogenic properties CXCL17 were examined by in vivo spontaneous metastasis mouse model. The chemotactic activity of CXCL17 on CD11b
RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate that breast cancer cells secrete CXCL17, which increases the accumulation of CD11b
CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that MDSCs derived by CXCL17 contribute to the establishment of a lung metastatic niche by PDGF-BB secretion and provide a rationale for development of CXCL17 or PDGF-BB antagonists to inhibit or prevent lung metastasis in cases of breast cancer.

Sakai Y, Miyazawa M, Komura T, et al.
Distinct chemotherapy-associated anti-cancer immunity by myeloid cells inhibition in murine pancreatic cancer models.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(3):903-912 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal malignancy associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine (GEM), is the only treatment for PDAC patients who are not suitable for radical surgical treatment; however, its anti-tumor efficacy is limited. In this study, we investigated the host immune system response in murine PDAC models undergoing GEM treatment. We found that PDAC tumor tissues were infiltrated with a substantial number of Gr-1+ myeloid cells and had relatively small numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In addition, there were increased numbers of myeloid cells expressing CD11b+ and Gr-1+ in peripheral blood. When mice with PDAC tumors in the intraperitoneal cavity or liver were treated with GEM, numbers of myeloid cells in tumor tissues and in peripheral blood decreased. In contrast, numbers of CD4+ or CD8+ cells increased. In peripheral blood, the numbers of CD8+ cells expressing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were higher in GEM-treated mice than in untreated mice. In addition, GEM treatment in combination with myeloid cell depletion further prolonged the survival of PDAC mice. The gene expression profile of peripheral blood in myeloid cell-depleted PDAC mice treated with GEM showed biological processes related to anti-cancer immunity, such as natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, type I IFN signaling, and co-stimulatory signaling for T cell activation. Thus, in PDAC murine models, GEM treatment was associated with an immune response consistent with an anti-cancer effect, and depletion of myeloid-lineage cells played an important role in enhancing anti-cancer immunity associated with GEM treatment.

Ibrahim A, Zahran AM, Aly SS, et al.
CD56 and CD11b Positivity with Low Smac/DIABLO Expression as Predictors of Chemoresistance in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia: Flow Cytometric Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(11):3187-3192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle to curing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and several antigens are claimed to play primary roles in this resistance. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of CD56, CD11b and Smac/DIABLO gene expression levels as prognostic markers of the clinical outcome, response to chemotherapy and survival of AML patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 60 naïve-AML patients who received induction therapy with mitoxantrone and cytarabine combined with a high dose of cytarabine. The CD56,CD11b and Smac/DIABLO expression levels were assessed using flow cytometry at diagnosis and were analysed for correlation with the possible associated risk factors, response to chemotherapy, and median duration of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The overall results revealed that AML patients who exhibited positive expression for CD56 and CD11b had short median durations of DFS and OS.(P = 0.019, 0.006, 0.029 and 0.024, respectively). Additionally, low Smac/DIABLO expression had a negative impact on treatment outcome in terms of CR rate (p=0.012) and reduced DFS (p=0.000) and OS(p=0.000) values. Conclusions: CD56 and CD11b positivity and low Smac/DIABLO expression are important predictive factors for the occurrence of chemoresistance, in addition to other risk factors, among AML patients.

Li G, Wang K, Li Y, et al.
Role of eIF3a in 4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate-induced cell differentiation in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells.
Gene. 2019; 683:195-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
4-amino-2-trifluoromethyl-phenyl retinate (ATPR), a novel all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) derivative designed and synthesized by our team, has been demonstrated its anti-tumor effect through inducing differentiation and inhibiting proliferation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) plays a critical role in affecting tumor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, whether eIF3a is implicated in chronic myeloid leukemia cells differentiation remains unclear. Our results demonstrated that eIF3a could be suppressed by ATPR in K562 cells. The results also confirmed that ATPR could arrest cell cycle in G0/G1 phase and induced differentiation. Moreover, over-expression of eIF3a promoted not only protein expression of c-myc and cyclin D1, but also prevented the expression of p-Raf-1, p-ERK and the myeloid differentiation markers CD11b and CD14 and had an influence on inducing the morphologic mature. However, silencing eIF3a expression by small interfering RNA could have an adverse effect on K562 cells. In addition, PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor) could block cell differentiation of CML cells and contributed to the expression of c-myc and cyclin D1. In conclusion, these results indicated that eIF3a played an important role in ATPR-induced cell differentiation in K562 cells, its mechanism might be related to its ability in regulating the activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vitro.

Hattori H, Ishikawa Y, Kawashima N, et al.
Identification of the novel deletion-type PML-RARA mutation associated with the retinoic acid resistance in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0204850 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) are essential for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treatment. It has been reported that mutations in PML-RARA confer resistance to ATRA and ATO, and are associated with poor prognosis. Although most PML-RARA mutations were point mutations, we identified a novel seven amino acid deletion mutation (p.K227_T233del) in the RARA region of PML-RARA in a refractory APL patient. Here, we analyzed the evolution of the mutated clone and demonstrated the resistance of the mutated clone to retinoic acid (RA). Mutation analysis of PML-RARA was performed using samples from a chemotherapy- and ATRA-resistant APL patient, and the frequencies of mutated PML-RARA transcript were analyzed by targeted deep sequencing. To clarify the biological significance of the identified PML-RARA mutations, we analyzed the ATRA-induced differentiation and PML nuclear body formation in mutant PML-RARA-transduced HL-60 cells. At molecular relapse, the p.K227_T233del deletion and the p.R217S point-mutation in the RARA region of PML-RARA were identified, and their frequencies increased after re-induction therapy with another type of retinoiec acid (RA), tamibarotene. In deletion PML-RARA-transduced cells, the CD11b expression levels and NBT reducing ability were significantly decreased compared with control cells and the formation of PML nuclear bodies was rarely observed after RA treatment. These results indicate that this deletion mutation was closely associated with the disease progression during RA treatment.

Wu JS, Li L, Wang SS, et al.
Autophagy is positively associated with the accumulation of myeloid‑derived suppressor cells in 4‑nitroquinoline‑1‑oxide‑induced oral cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3381-3391 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has previously been demonstrated that autophagy and inflammation act synergistically to promote carcinogenesis. However, the precise roles of autophagy in multistep oral carcinogenesis are still unclear, particularly regarding its association with tumor inflammation. The present study established a 4NQO‑induced oral cancer mouse model and investigated autophagy status in the multistep process of oral carcinogenesis using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, the number of Gr‑1+CD11b+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) during oral carcinogenesis and the association with autophagy status was also examined. The results revealed that the expression of autophagy biomarkers, including dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate phosphatase LCB3 (LC3B), p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and Beclin 1 increased during 4NQO‑induced carcinogenesis and in human oral cancer. The number of MDSCs and Tregs also increased during oral carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the expression of LC3B and p62 significantly correlated with the accumulation of MDSCs and the expression of Beclin 1 correlated with the increase of Tregs. These data indicated that autophagy may be activated by the tumor inflammation microenvironment during oral carcinogenesis.

Mirzoeva S, Tong X, Bridgeman BB, et al.
Apigenin Inhibits UVB-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis: The Role of Thrombospondin-1 as an Anti-Inflammatory Factor.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(9):930-942 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that apigenin promotes the expression of antiangiogenic protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) via a mechanism driven by mRNA-binding protein HuR. Here, we generated a novel mouse model with whole-body THBS-1 gene knockout on SKH-1 genetic background, which allows studies of UVB-induced acute skin damage and carcinogenesis and tests TSP1 involvement in apigenin's anticancer effects. Apigenin significantly inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the wild-type (WT) animals but not in TSP1 KO (TKO) mice, suggesting that TSP1 is a critical component of apigenin's chemopreventive function in UVB-induced skin cancer. Importantly, TKO mice presented with the elevated cutaneous inflammation at baseline, which was manifested by increased inflammatory infiltrates (neutrophils and macrophages) and elevated levels of the two key inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-12. In agreement, maintaining normal TSP1 expression in the UVB-irradiated skin of WT mice using topical apigenin application caused a marked decrease of circulating inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TKO mice showed an altered population dynamics of the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells (CD11b

Ishii H, Vodnala SK, Achyut BR, et al.
miR-130a and miR-145 reprogram Gr-1
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2611 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-derived soluble factors promote the production of Gr-1

Kim YE, Lee M, Gu H, et al.
HIF-1α activation in myeloid cells accelerates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis progression in mice.
Dis Model Mech. 2018; 11(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in which the intestinal epithelium loses its barrier function. Given the existence of the oxygen gradient in the intestinal epithelium and that inflammation further contributes to the tissue hypoxia, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor activated under hypoxic conditions in myeloid cells, in the progression of IBD. To do this, we utilized myeloid-specific knockout (KO) mice targeting HIF pathways, created by a Cre-loxP system with human MRP8 (hMRP8), an intracellular calcium-binding protein, as the myeloid promoter. By feeding 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to hMRP8 von Hippel Lindau (

Lin GL, Nagaraja S, Filbin MG, et al.
Non-inflammatory tumor microenvironment of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2018; 6(1):51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a universally fatal malignancy of the childhood central nervous system, with a median overall survival of 9-11 months. We have previously shown that primary DIPG tissue contains numerous tumor-associated macrophages, and substantial work has demonstrated a significant pathological role for adult glioma-associated macrophages. However, work over the past decade has highlighted many molecular and genomic differences between pediatric and adult high-grade gliomas. Thus, we directly compared inflammatory characteristics of DIPG and adult glioblastoma (GBM). We found that the leukocyte (CD45+) compartment in primary DIPG tissue samples is predominantly composed of CD11b + macrophages, with very few CD3+ T-lymphocytes. In contrast, T-lymphocytes are more abundant in adult GBM tissue samples. RNA sequencing of macrophages isolated from primary tumor samples revealed that DIPG- and adult GBM-associated macrophages both express gene programs related to ECM remodeling and angiogenesis, but DIPG-associated macrophages express substantially fewer inflammatory factors than their adult GBM counterparts. Examining the secretome of glioma cells, we found that patient-derived DIPG cell cultures secrete markedly fewer cytokines and chemokines than patient-derived adult GBM cultures. Concordantly, bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing data indicates low to absent expression of chemokines and cytokines in DIPG. Together, these observations suggest that the inflammatory milieu of the DIPG tumor microenvironment is fundamentally different than adult GBM. The low intrinsic inflammatory signature of DIPG cells may contribute to the lack of lymphocytes and non-inflammatory phenotype of DIPG-associated microglia/macrophages. Understanding the glioma subtype-specific inflammatory milieu may inform the design and application of immunotherapy-based treatments.

Galdiero MR, Varricchi G, Loffredo S, et al.
Potential involvement of neutrophils in human thyroid cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0199740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil functions have long been regarded as limited to acute inflammation and the defense against microbes. The role(s) of neutrophils in cancer remain poorly understood. Neutrophils infiltrate tumors and are key effector cells in the orchestration of inflammatory responses. Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most recurrent endocrine malignant tumor and is responsible for 70% of deaths due to endocrine cancers. No studies are so far available on the role of neutrophils in TC.
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to study the involvement of tumor-associated neutrophils in TC.
METHODS: Highly purified human neutrophils (>99%) from healthy donors were stimulated in vitro with conditioned media derived from TC cell lines TPC1 and 8505c (TC-CMs). Neutrophil functions (e.g., chemotaxis, activation, plasticity, survival, gene expression, and protein release) were evaluated.
RESULTS: TC-derived soluble factors promoted neutrophil chemotaxis and survival. Neutrophil chemotaxis toward a TC-CM was mediated, at least in part, by CXCL8/IL-8, and survival was mediated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In addition, each TC-CM induced morphological changes and activation of neutrophils (e.g., CD11b and CD66b upregulation and CD62L shedding) and modified neutrophils' kinetic properties. Furthermore, each TC-CM induced production of reactive oxygen species, expression of proinflammatory and angiogenic mediators (CXCL8/IL-8, VEGF-A, and TNF-α), and a release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Moreover, in TC patients, tumor-associated neutrophils correlated with larger tumor size.
CONCLUSIONS: TC cell lines produce soluble factors able to "educate" neutrophils toward an activated functional state. These data will advance the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of innate immunity in TC.

He B, Wang X, Wei L, et al.
β-Cypermethrin and its metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid induce cytotoxicity and block granulocytic cell differentiation in HL-60 cells.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(8):740-747 [PubMed] Related Publications
The most widely used type II pyrethroid is β-cypermethrin (β-CYP), and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) is one of its primary metabolites. Although CYP has been shown to pose toxic effects in some immune cells, as of now the immunotoxicity of CYP on immune progenitor cells has not been well studied. In this study, we evaluated the immunotoxicity of β-CYP and 3-PBA on the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. Both β-CYP and 3-PBA reduced cell viability. In addition, both β-CYP and 3-PBA stimulated the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while only β-CYP induced cell cycle arrest in G1 stage. Moreover, exposure to β-CYP and 3-PBA at 100 μM inhibited all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced mRNA expressions of the granulocytic differentiation-related genes, CD11b and CSF-3R. Furthermore, exposure to β-CYP and 3-PBA resulted in a downregulation of the granulocytic differentiation promoting transcriptional factors, PU.1 and C/EBPε. Furthermore, we found that β-CYP and 3-PBA exposure led to elevated levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) blocked the toxic effects caused by β-CYP and 3-PBA. The results obtained in the present study provide evidence showing the immunotoxic effects of β-CYP and 3-PBA on promyelocytic cells as well as its possible underlying mechanism.

Chen H, Chen Y, Liu H, et al.
Integrated Expression Profiles Analysis Reveals Correlations Between the IL-33/ST2 Axis and CD8
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1179 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is a rare solid malignant cancer, and there are few effective treatment options for advanced disease. Cancer immunotherapy is a promising new strategy for STS treatment. IL-33 is a candidate cytokine for immunotherapy that can activate T lymphocytes and modulate antitumor immunity in some cancers. However, the expression and biological role of IL-33 in STS are poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 was decreased in STS using real-time PCR assays. By analyzing sarcoma data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found that higher transcriptional levels of IL-33 and ST2 were associated with a favorable outcome. There were positive correlations between the expression levels of ST2 and CD3E, CD4, CD8A, CD45RO, FOXP3, CD11B, CD33, and IFN-γ. Strong positive correlations between the expression of IFN-γ and CD3E and CD8A were also observed. Moreover, the expression levels of both IL-33 and ST2 were positively correlated with those of CD3E, CD8A, and chemokines that recruit CD8

Zheng J, Jia L, Mori S, Kodama T
Evaluation of metastatic niches in distant organs after surgical removal of tumor-bearing lymph nodes.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):608 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Surgical removal of primary tumors can promote the incidence of tumor metastasis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear.
METHODS: We inoculated tumor cells expressing luciferase gene  into subiliac lymph node (SiLN) of the MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice. The tumor-bearing SiLNs were surgically removed at a certain period of time after inoculation.
RESULTS: In vivo bioluminescence imaging system and histological staining revealed metastasis in lung, proper axillary lymph node (PALN) and liver. The lung metastasis rate in SiLN removal groups was significantly higher than in the control group using Fisher exact test. Mann-Whitney U-test indicated that the luciferase-positive tumor cells in the lung and liver were significantly higher than in the control groups. The lung samples in SiLN removal groups had strong expression of lysine oxidase (LOX). Moreover, the number of CD11b
CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, surgical removal of the tumor-bearing lymph node promoted tumor metastasis through changing the niche in lung and liver. Treatment targeting the metastatic niche might be an effective strategy to prevent tumor metastasis, thereby possibly increasing the survival and reducing the incidence of metastasis in cancer patients.

Lam CF, Yeung HT, Lam YM, Ng RK
Reactive oxygen species activate differentiation gene transcription of acute myeloid leukemia cells via the JNK/c-JUN signaling pathway.
Leuk Res. 2018; 68:112-119 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered cellular redox status are associated with many malignancies. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are maintained at immature state by differentiation blockade, which involves deregulation of transcription factors in myeloid differentiation. AML cells can be induced to differentiate by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), which possesses pro-oxidative activity. However, the signaling events mediated by ROS in the activation of transcriptional program during AML differentiation has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated AML cell differentiation by treatment with PMA and ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). We observed elevation of intracellular ROS level in the PMA-treated AML cells, which correlated with differentiated cell morphology and increased CD11b

Bae J, Hideshima T, Tai YT, et al.
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor ACY241 enhances anti-tumor activities of antigen-specific central memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes against multiple myeloma and solid tumors.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(9):1932-1947 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are therapeutic targets in multiple cancers. ACY241, an HDAC6 selective inhibitor, has shown anti-multiple myeloma (MM) activity in combination with immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors. Here we show ACY241 significantly reduces the frequency of CD138

Hao J, Yan F, Zhang Y, et al.
Expression of Adipocyte/Macrophage Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in Tumor-Associated Macrophages Promotes Breast Cancer Progression.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(9):2343-2355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a critical role in cancer development and progression. However, the heterogeneity of TAM presents a major challenge to identify clinically relevant markers for protumor TAM. Here, we report that expression of adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) in TAM promotes breast cancer progression. Although upregulation of A-FABP was inversely associated with breast cancer survival, deficiency of A-FABP significantly reduced mammary tumor growth and metastasis. Furthermore, the protumor effect of A-FABP was mediated by TAM, in particular, in a subset of TAM with a CD11b

Gieryng A, Pszczolkowska D, Bocian K, et al.
Immune microenvironment of experimental rat C6 gliomas resembles human glioblastomas.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):17556 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, with ineffective anti-tumor responses and a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatments. GBM immune microenvironment is heterogenous  and activation of specific immune populations in GBM is not fully characterized. Reliable animal models are critical for defining mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. First we analyzed the immune subpopulations present in rat C6 gliomas. Using flow cytometry we determined kinetics of infiltration of myeloid cells and T lymphocytes into glioma-bearing brains. We found significant increases of the amoeboid, pro-tumorigenic microglia/macrophages, T helper (Th) and T regulatory (Treg) cells in tumor-bearing brains, and rare infiltrating T cytotoxic (Tc) cells. Transcriptomic analyses of glioma-bearing hemispheres revealed overexpression of invasion and immunosuppression-related genes, reflecting the immunosuppressive microenvironment. Microglia, sorted as CD11b

Chen W, Pilling D, Gomer RH
C-reactive protein (CRP) but not the related pentraxins serum amyloid P and PTX3 inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of the leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6.
BMC Immunol. 2017; 18(1):47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pentraxins are a family of highly conserved secreted proteins that regulate the innate immune system, including monocytes and macrophages. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma protein whose levels can rise to 1000 μg/ml from the normal <3 μg/ ml during inflammation.
RESULTS: We find that CRP inhibits proliferation of the human myeloid leukemia cell line Mono Mac 6 with an IC50 of 75 μg/ ml by inducing apoptosis of these cells. The related proteins serum amyloid P (SAP) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) do not inhibit Mono Mac 6 proliferation. CRP has no significant effect on the proliferation of other leukemia cell lines such as HL-60, Mono Mac 1, K562, U937, or THP-1, or the survival of normal peripheral blood cells. The effect of CRP appears to be dependent on the CRP receptor FcγRI, and is negatively regulated by a phosphatidylinositol -3-kinase pathway.
CONCLUSION: These data reveal differential signaling by pentraxins on immune cells, and suggest that CRP can regulate the proliferation of some myeloid leukemia cells.

Qing X, Panosyan E, Yue C, et al.
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm in an 18-year-old boy with B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 103(3):263-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy. Acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome during the course of ALL is a rare entity. Some of these cases are therapy-related while the others occur due to lineage switch. The correct diagnosis relies on comparing the immunophenotypes and cytogenetic/molecular alterations of the myeloid neoplasm and the ALL. We present the clinical, pathologic and cytogenetic features of a case of an 18-year-old male with prior treatment for B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) who developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) 4-5years after his initial diagnosis of B-ALL.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy with no significant past medical history presented to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (HUMC) in November 2012 with night sweats, fevers and chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, and weight loss. Peripheral blood flow cytometric analysis disclosed B-ALL. The blasts expressed CD10, CD19, CD22 (dim), CD34, CD38, HLA-DR, and TdT, and were negative for CD20, CD13, CD33, CD117, and cytoplasmic MPO. Chromosomal analysis and a supplemental fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study performed on the bone marrow aspirate showed an abnormal karyotype (47,XY,+X,del(9)(p21p21)[4]/46,XY[16]). He achieved remission after induction chemotherapy and remained in remission until March 2016 when bilateral testicular masses were noted. Biopsy of the left testicular mass showed relapsed B-ALL. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained rare TdT-positive blasts, suggestive of minimal/early involvement by B-ALL. However, there was no evidence of acute leukemia in his bone marrow at this time. He was then treated with COG protocol AALL1331 randomized to blinatumomab arm and achieved second remission. In June 2017, the patient's peripheral blood smear showed 11% circulating monoblasts. By flow cytometry, the blasts expressed CD4, CD11b, CD13, CD15, CD33, CD38, CD56, and CD64. In addition, a few TdT-positive blasts were seen in his CSF cytospin smear. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed which was consistent with evolving acute myeloid leukemia. A diagnosis of myeloid neoplasm, consistent with t-MN was made. Chromosomal analysis and FISH studies performed on his bone marrow aspirate showed normal karyotype (46,XY[20]), negative FISH result for deletion 9p21 locus, and positive KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement, respectively. Despite of chemotherapy, the patient died within one month after diagnosis.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of t-MN should be suspected in patients with a history of receiving cytotoxic agents and/or irradiation. In this case study, we diagnosed t-MN with KMT2A rearrangement in a patient with history of B-ALL with 9p deletion and gain of X chromosome. Unusual features associated with this case are discussed.

Szulzewsky F, Schwendinger N, Güneykaya D, et al.
Loss of host-derived osteopontin creates a glioblastoma-promoting microenvironment.
Neuro Oncol. 2018; 20(3):355-366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Microglia and periphery-derived monocytes infiltrate human and mouse glioblastoma and their density is positively correlated with malignancy. Using microarray and RNA sequencing, we have previously shown that glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (GAMs) express osteopontin/SPP1.
Methods: We used quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, immunofluorescence stainings, western blot, and flow cytometry to identify the various sources of osteopontin (OPN) expression in human and mouse glioblastoma. We implanted wild type GL261 glioblastoma cells, which do not express significant levels of OPN, into wild type and OPN-/- mice to investigate the role of microenvironment-derived OPN on glioblastoma progression.
Results: Our data indicate that GAMs are the predominant source of OPN in both human and mouse glioblastoma and express only the secreted form of OPN. Loss of microenvironment-derived OPN enhanced tumor progression. Staining by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling showed no difference in overall cell proliferation but a decreased apoptosis rate in tumors in OPN-/- mice. CD31 staining showed a significantly decreased number of microvessels in tumors in OPN-/- mice, accompanied by reduced coverage of vessels with platelet derived growth factor receptor β+ pericytes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase of CD11b+/CD45low microglia but not of CD11b+/CD45high macrophages/monocytes in tumors in OPN-/- mice. Sorted CD11b+ cells from wild type and OPN-/- naïve brains and tumors did not show a significant difference in the expression pattern of activation marker genes.
Conclusion: Our results show that in tested human and mouse glioblastoma samples, OPN is predominantly expressed and secreted by GAMs and that, in contrast to OPN expression in the tumor cells per se, loss of stroma-derived OPN creates a glioblastoma-promoting microenvironment.

Rodríguez-Ubreva J, Català-Moll F, Obermajer N, et al.
Prostaglandin E2 Leads to the Acquisition of DNMT3A-Dependent Tolerogenic Functions in Human Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.
Cell Rep. 2017; 21(1):154-167 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and dendritic cells (DCs) arise from common progenitors. Tumor-derived factors redirect differentiation from immune-promoting DCs to tolerogenic MDSCs, an immunological hallmark of cancer. Indeed, in vitro differentiation of DCs from human primary monocytes results in the generation of MDSCs under tumor-associated conditions (PGE2 or tumor cell-conditioned media). Comparison of MDSC and DC DNA methylomes now reveals extensive demethylation with specific gains of DNA methylation and repression of immunogenic-associated genes occurring in MDSCs specifically, concomitant with increased DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) levels. DNMT3A downregulation erases MDSC-specific hypermethylation, and it abolishes their immunosuppressive capacity. Primary MDSCs isolated from ovarian cancer patients display a similar hypermethylation signature in connection with PGE2-dependent DNMT3A overexpression. Our study links PGE2- and DNMT3A-dependent hypermethylation with immunosuppressive MDSC functions, providing a promising target for therapeutic intervention.

Zhou J, Liu M, Sun H, et al.
Hepatoma-intrinsic CCRK inhibition diminishes myeloid-derived suppressor cell immunosuppression and enhances immune-checkpoint blockade efficacy.
Gut. 2018; 67(5):931-944 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) contribute to tumour immunosuppressive microenvironment and immune-checkpoint blockade resistance. Emerging evidence highlights the pivotal functions of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in tumour immunity. Here we elucidated the role of tumour-intrinsic CDK20, or cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK) on immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
DESIGN: Immunosuppression of MDSCs derived from patients with HCC and relationship with CCRK were determined by flow cytometry, expression analyses and co-culture systems. Mechanistic studies were also conducted in liver-specific
RESULTS: Tumour-infiltrating CD11b
CONCLUSION: Our results delineate an immunosuppressive mechanism of the hepatoma-intrinsic CCRK signalling and highlight an overexpressed kinase target whose inhibition might empower HCC immunotherapy.

Gao C, Ganesh BP, Shi Z, et al.
Gut Microbe-Mediated Suppression of Inflammation-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis by Luminal Histamine Production.
Am J Pathol. 2017; 187(10):2323-2336 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microbiome-mediated suppression of carcinogenesis may open new avenues for identification of therapeutic targets and prevention strategies in oncology. Histidine decarboxylase (HDC) deficiency has been shown to promote inflammation-associated colorectal cancer by accumulation of CD11b

Bianco TM, Abdalla DR, Desidério CS, et al.
The influence of physical activity in the anti-tumor immune response in experimental breast tumor.
Immunol Lett. 2017; 190:148-158 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the influence of physical activity in innate immunity to conduce to an effective antitumoral immune response analyzing the phenotype and activation status of infiltrating cells. We analysed the intracellular cytokines and the transcription factors of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILS) and spleen leukocytes. The Nos2 gene expression was evaluated in spleen cells and futhermore the ROS production was measured and spleen cells; another cell evaluated was dendritic cells (TIDCs), their cytokines expression and membrane molecules; finally to understood the results obtained, we analysed the dendritic cells obtained from bone marrow. Were used female Balb/c mice divided into 4 groups: two controls without tumor, sedentary (GI) and trained (GII) and two groups with tumor, sedentary (GIII) or trained (GIV). The physical activity (PA) was realized acoording swimming protocol. Tumor was induced by injection of 4T1 cells. All experiments were performed in biological triplicate. After the experimental period, the tumor was removed and the cells were identified by flow cytometry with labeling to CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD11b, CD80, CD86 and Ia, and intracelular staining IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, Tbet, GATA3, RORγt and FoxP3. The bone marrow of the animals was obtained to analyse the derivated DCs by flow cytometry and culture cells to obtain the supernatant to measure the cytokines. Our results demonstrated that the PA inhibit the tumoral growth although not to change the number of TILS, but reduced expression of GATA-3, ROR-γT, related with poor prognosis, and TNF-α intracellular; however occur one significantly reduction in TIDCS, but these cells expressed more co-stimulatory and presentation molecules. Furthermore, we observed that the induced PA stimulated the gene expression of Tbet and the production of inflammatory cytokines suggesting an increase of Th1 systemic response. The results evaluating the systemic influence in DCs showed that the PA improve significantly the number of those cells in bone marrow as well the number of co-stimulatory molecules. Therefore, we could conclude that PA influence the innate immunity by interfering to promote in process of maturation of DCs both in tumor and systemically, that by its turn promote a modification in acquired immune cells, representing by T helper to induce an important alteration transcription factors that are responsible to maintain a suppressive microenviroment, and thereby, allowing the latter cells can thus activate antitumor immune response. The PA was able improve the Th1 systemic response by enhance to Tbet gene expression, promote a slightly increased of Th1-type cytokines and decrease Gata3 and Foxp3 gene expression in which can inhibit the Th1 immune response.

Wang C, He H, Dou G, et al.
Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 Induces Apoptosis and Differentiation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells: Role of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77.
J Agric Food Chem. 2017; 65(35):7687-7697 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rh2 has been shown to induce apoptosis and differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In our study, 20(S)-Rh2 induced the expression of orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 and death receptor proteins Fas, FasL, DR5, and TRAIL, as well as the cleavage of caspase 8 and caspase 3 in HL-60 cells. Importantly, shNur77 attenuated 20(S)-Rh2-induced apoptosis and Fas and DR5 expression. Meanwhile, 20(S)-Rh2 promoted Nur77 translocation from the nucleus to mitochondria and enhanced the interaction between Nur77 and Bcl-2, resulting in the exposure of the BH3 domain of Bcl-2 and activation of Bax. Furthermore, 20(S)-Rh2 promoted the differentiation of HL-60 cells as evidenced by Wright-Giemsa staining, NBT reduction assay, and detection of the myeloid differentiation marker CD11b by flow cytometry. Notably, shNur77 reversed 20(S)-Rh2-mediated HL-60 differentiation. Additionally, 20(S)-Rh2 also exhibited an antileukemic effect and induced Nur77 expression in NOD/SCID mice with the injection of HL-60 cells into the tail vein. Together, our studies suggest that the Nur77-mediated signaling pathway is highly involved in 20(S)-Rh2-induced apoptosis and differentiation of AML cells.

Pickup MW, Owens P, Gorska AE, et al.
Development of Aggressive Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Depends on Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Secretion in Carcinoma Cells.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2017; 5(9):718-729 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The survival rate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains low. More therapeutic options to treat this disease are needed, for the current standard of care is ineffective. Using an animal model of aggressive PDAC (Kras/p48

Yao S, Zhong L, Chen M, et al.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes all-trans retinoic acid-induced maturation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells via PTEN.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):899-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinctive subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in which the hybrid protein promyelocytic leukemia protein/retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) acts as a transcriptional repressor impairing the expression of genes that are critical to myeloid cell mutation. We aimed at explaining the molecular mechanism of green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) enhancement of ATRA-induced APL cell line differentiation. Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was found downregulated in NB4 cells and rescued by proteases inhibitor MG132. A significant increase of PTEN levels was found in NB4, HL-60 and THP-1 cells upon ATRA combined with EGCG treatment, paralleled by increased myeloid differentiation marker CD11b. EGCG in synergy with ATRA promote degradation of PML/RARα and restores PML expression, and increase the level of nuclear PTEN. Pretreatment of PTEN inhibitor SF1670 enhances the PI3K signaling pathway and represses NB4 cell differentiation. Moreover, the induction of PTEN attenuated the Akt phosphorylation levels, pretreatment of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 in NB4 cells, significantly augmented the cell differentiation and increased the expression of PTEN. These results therefore indicate that EGCG targets PML/RARα oncoprotein for degradation and potentiates differentiation of promyelocytic leukemia cells in combination with ATRA via PTEN.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ITGAM, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 31 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999