Gene Summary

Gene:LIPA; lipase A, lysosomal acid type
Aliases: LAL, CESD
Summary:This gene encodes lipase A, the lysosomal acid lipase (also known as cholesterol ester hydrolase). This enzyme functions in the lysosome to catalyze the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Mutations in this gene can result in Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl ester hydrolase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LIPA (cancer-related)

Besbes S, Hamadou WS, Boulland ML, et al.
Combined IKZF1 and IG markers as new tools for diagnosis and minimal residual disease assessment in Tunisian B-ALL.
Bull Cancer. 2016; 103(10):822-828 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) approach in patients diagnosed with B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) allows an early detection of residual clones inducing relapses and therefore appropriate therapy strategy. The molecular markers may identify and quantify the residual blasts in B-ALL with normal cytology. In this study, we aimed to use combined IKZF1, IGH and IGK immunoglobulin genes for diagnosis and MRD monitoring in B-ALL sample using MLPA, multiplex PCR and real-time quantitative PCR.
MATERIAL: We showed that multiplex PCR and MLPA are necessary and complementary to detect IKZF1 deletions.
RESULTS: We have identified at the diagnosis clonal IGH rearrangement (VH3-JH5) and IKZF1 deletion (Δ4-7), which we have used it for MRD evaluation after induction chemotherapy. Despite the absence of chromosome abnormality, the patient may be classified in high-risk group with a relapse rate of residual blasts>10(-4) and sensitivity up to 10(-5). This molecular approach enabled the patient's stratification, which was overlooked by classical methods.
CONCLUSION: The combined IKZF1 and immunoglobulin genes will be used as appropriate molecular tools for diagnosis and MRD assessment of B-lineage leukemias and introduced as a routine tests in Tunisian clinical laboratories. They will be useful to stratify patients into risk groups leading to better treatment strategy.

Reck M, Rodríguez-Abreu D, Robinson AG, et al.
Pembrolizumab versus Chemotherapy for PD-L1-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
N Engl J Med. 2016; 375(19):1823-1833 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Methods In this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy. Crossover from the chemotherapy group to the pembrolizumab group was permitted in the event of disease progression. The primary end point, progression-free survival, was assessed by means of blinded, independent, central radiologic review. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Results Median progression-free survival was 10.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7 to not reached) in the pembrolizumab group versus 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 6.2) in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.68; P<0.001). The estimated rate of overall survival at 6 months was 80.2% in the pembrolizumab group versus 72.4% in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.89; P=0.005). The response rate was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (44.8% vs. 27.8%), the median duration of response was longer (not reached [range, 1.9+ to 14.5+ months] vs. 6.3 months [range, 2.1+ to 12.6+]), and treatment-related adverse events of any grade were less frequent (occurring in 73.4% vs. 90.0% of patients), as were grade 3, 4, or 5 treatment-related adverse events (26.6% vs. 53.3%). Conclusions In patients with advanced NSCLC and PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells, pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free and overall survival and with fewer adverse events than was platinum-based chemotherapy. (Funded by Merck; KEYNOTE-024 number, NCT02142738 .).

Freitas VG, Focchi GR, Pereira ER, et al.
HPV genotyping and p16 expression in Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
The association between high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and p16 expression in indigenous women from the Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil, was unknown. This study evaluated p16 expression in women with a histological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or higher and correlated this expression with HPV genotypes to determine possible discrepancies in the expression of this marker. We evaluated 37 previously collected samples with different HPV genotypes and high-grade lesions diagnosed based on cytology, histology, and colposcopy. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed using paraffin-embedded tissue sections and the CINtec® Histology Kit. p16 protein expression was investigated by immunostaining with an anti-p16 antibody. HPV genotyping was performed by reverse hybridization. The age of the study population ranged from 22-75 years (43.81 ± 15.89 years) and parity ranged from 1-11 (5.92 ± 2.58). Thirteen different HPV genotypes were found using the INNO-LiPA kit. Single and multiple infections by HPV were found with prevalence of single infections (P = 0.029). Comparison between HPV genotype and simple or multiple infections was highly significant; it was observed more HPV 52 followed by HPV 16 in single infections (P < 0.001). p16 expression was predominantly diffuse, which was observed in 91.7% of lesions, whereas 8.3% were focal (P < 0.001). HPV 52, HPV 16 and 31 were the most prevalent HPV types in high-grade CIN in these indigenous women. Diffuse p16 expression in high-grade CIN was not influenced by the viral genotype; however, more studies are necessary to further our understanding of this restricted group.

Tilghman J, Schiapparelli P, Lal B, et al.
Regulation of Glioblastoma Tumor-Propagating Cells by the Integrin Partner Tetraspanin CD151.
Neoplasia. 2016; 18(3):185-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) stem cells (GSCs) represent tumor-propagating cells with stem-like characteristics (stemness) that contribute disproportionately to GBM drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Understanding the mechanisms supporting GSC stemness is important for developing therapeutic strategies for targeting GSC-dependent oncogenic mechanisms. Using GBM-derived neurospheres, we identified the cell surface tetraspanin family member CD151 as a novel regulator of glioma cell stemness, GSC self-renewal capacity, migration, and tumor growth. CD151 was found to be overexpressed in GBM tumors and GBM neurospheres enriched in GSCs. Silencing CD151 inhibited neurosphere forming capacity, neurosphere cell proliferation, and migration and attenuated the expression of markers and transcriptional drivers of the GSC phenotype. Conversely, forced CD151 expression promoted neurosphere self-renewal, cell migration, and expression of stemness-associated transcription factors. CD151 was found to complex with integrins α3, α6, and β1 in neurosphere cells, and blocking CD151 interactions with integrins α3 and α6 inhibited AKT phosphorylation, a downstream effector of integrin signaling, and impaired sphere formation and neurosphere cell migration. Additionally, targeting CD151 in vivo inhibited the growth of GBM neurosphere-derived xenografts. These findings identify CD151 and its interactions with integrins α3 and α6 as potential therapeutic targets for inhibiting stemness-driving mechanisms and stem cell populations in GBM.

La-Touche S, Lemetre C, Lambros M, et al.
DNA Copy Number Aberrations, and Human Papillomavirus Status in Penile Carcinoma. Clinico-Pathological Correlations and Potential Driver Genes.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0146740 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease, in which somatic genetic aberrations have yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that gene copy aberrations might correlate with human papillomavirus status and clinico-pathological features. We sought to determine the spectrum of gene copy number aberrations in a large series of PSCCs and to define their correlations with human papillomavirus, histopathological subtype, and tumor grade, stage and lymph node status. Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded penile squamous cell carcinomas were centrally reviewed by expert uropathologists. DNA was extracted from micro-dissected samples, subjected to PCR-based human papillomavirus assessment and genotyping (INNO-LiPA human papillomavirus Genotyping Extra Assay) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization using a 32K Bacterial Artificial Chromosome array platform. Sixty-four samples yielded interpretable results. Recurrent gains were observed in chromosomes 1p13.3-q44 (88%), 3p12.3-q29 (86%), 5p15.33-p11 (67%) and 8p12-q24.3 (84%). Amplifications of 5p15.33-p11 and 11p14.1-p12 were found in seven (11%) and four (6%) cases, respectively. Losses were observed in chromosomes 2q33-q37.3 (86%), 3p26.3-q11.1 (83%) and 11q12.2-q25 (81%). Although many losses and gains were similar throughout the cohort, there were small significant differences observed at specific loci, between human papillomavirus positive and negative tumors, between tumor types, and tumor grade and nodal status. These results demonstrate that despite the diversity of genetic aberrations in penile squamous cell carcinomas, there are significant correlations between the clinico-pathological data and the genetic changes that may play a role in disease natural history and progression and highlight potential driver genes, which may feature in molecular pathways for existing therapeutic agents.

Srihari S, Kalimutho M, Lal S, et al.
Understanding the functional impact of copy number alterations in breast cancer using a network modeling approach.
Mol Biosyst. 2016; 12(3):963-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Copy number alterations (CNAs) are thought to account for 85% of the variation in gene expression observed among breast tumours. The expression of cis-associated genes is impacted by CNAs occurring at proximal loci of these genes, whereas the expression of trans-associated genes is impacted by CNAs occurring at distal loci. While a majority of these CNA-driven genes responsible for breast tumourigenesis are cis-associated, trans-associated genes are thought to further abet the development of cancer and influence disease outcomes in patients. Here we present a network-based approach that integrates copy-number and expression profiles to identify putative cis- and trans-associated genes in breast cancer pathogenesis. We validate these cis- and trans-associated genes by employing them to subtype a large cohort of breast tumours obtained from the METABRIC consortium, and demonstrate that these genes accurately reconstruct the ten subtypes of breast cancer. We observe that individual breast cancer subtypes are driven by distinct sets of cis- and trans-associated genes. Among the cis-associated genes, we recover several known drivers of breast cancer (e.g. CCND1, ERRB2, MDM2 and ZNF703) and some novel putative drivers (e.g. BRF2 and SF3B3). siRNA-mediated knockdown of BRF2 across a panel of breast cancer cell lines showed significant reduction in cell viability for ER-/HER2+ (MDA-MB-453) cells, but not in normal (MCF10A) cells thereby indicating that BRF2 could be a viable therapeutic target for estrogen receptor-negative/HER2-enriched (ER-/HER2+) cancers. Among the trans-associated genes, we identify modules of immune response (CD2, CD19, CD38 and CD79B), mitotic/cell-cycle kinases (e.g. AURKB, MELK, PLK1 and TTK), and DNA-damage response genes (e.g. RFC4 and FEN1). siRNA-mediated knockdown of RFC4 significantly reduced cell proliferation in ER-negative normal breast and cancer lines, thereby indicating that RFC4 is essential for both normal and cancer cell survival but could be a useful biomarker for aggressive (ER-negative) breast tumours.
AVAILABILITY: under NetStrat.

Ellis MB, Gridley D, Lal S, et al.
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of the brain without tumor-induced osteomalacia in an 8-year-old girl: case report.
J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016; 17(5):573-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (mixed connective tissue variant) (PMT-MCT) are tumors that may cause tumor-induced osteomalacia and rarely appear intracranially. The authors describe the case of an 8-year-old girl who was found to have PMT-MCT with involvement of the cerebellar hemisphere and a small tumor pedicle breaching the dura mater and involving the skull. This was removed surgically in gross-total fashion without further complication. Histologically the tumor was confirmed to be a PMT-MCT. There was no evidence of tumor-induced osteomalacia. At the 42-month follow-up, the patient is doing well, has no abnormalities, and is free of recurrence. PMT-MCTs are rare tumors that may involve the brain parenchyma. A gross-total resection may be effective to cure these lesions.

D'Agostino VG, Lal P, Mantelli B, et al.
Dihydrotanshinone-I interferes with the RNA-binding activity of HuR affecting its post-transcriptional function.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:16478 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Post-transcriptional regulation is an essential determinant of gene expression programs in physiological and pathological conditions. HuR is a RNA-binding protein that orchestrates the stabilization and translation of mRNAs, critical in inflammation and tumor progression, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). We identified the low molecular weight compound 15,16-dihydrotanshinone-I (DHTS), well known in traditional Chinese medicine practice, through a validated high throughput screening on a set of anti-inflammatory agents for its ability to prevent HuR:RNA complex formation. We found that DHTS interferes with the association step between HuR and the RNA with an equilibrium dissociation constant in the nanomolar range in vitro (Ki = 3.74 ± 1.63 nM). In breast cancer cell lines, short term exposure to DHTS influences mRNA stability and translational efficiency of TNF in a HuR-dependent manner and also other functional readouts of its post-transcriptional control, such as the stability of selected pre-mRNAs. Importantly, we show that migration and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to DHTS are modulated by HuR expression, indicating that HuR is among the preferential intracellular targets of DHTS. Here, we disclose a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism exerted by DHTS, opening new perspectives to therapeutically target the HuR mediated, post-transcriptional control in inflammation and cancer cells.

Agarwal G, Tulsyan S, Lal P, Mittal B
Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) Analysis of Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme-Encoding Gene Polymorphisms may Predict Treatment Outcomes in Indian Breast Cancer Patients.
World J Surg. 2016; 40(7):1600-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prediction of response and toxicity of chemotherapy can help personalize the treatment and choose effective yet non-toxic treatment regimen for a breast cancer patient. Interplay of variations in various drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME)-encoding genes results in variable response and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Generalized multi-analytical (GMDR) approach was used to determine the influence of the combination of variants of genes encoding phase 0 (SLC22A16); phase I (CYP450, NQO1); phase II (GSTs, MTHFR, UGT2B15); and phase III (ABCB1) DMEs along with confounding factors on the response and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer patients.
METHODS: In an Indian breast cancer patient cohort (n = 234), response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 111) and grade 2-4 toxicity to chemotherapy were recorded. Patients were genotyped for 19 polymorphisms selected in four phases of DMEs by PCR or PCR-RFLP or Taqman allelic discrimination assay. Binary logistic regression and GMDR analysis was performed. Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons was applied, and p value was considered to be significant at <0.025.
RESULTS: For ABCB1 1236C>T polymorphism, CT genotype was found to be significantly associated with response to NACT in uni-variate and multi-variate analysis (p = 0.018; p = 0.013). The TT genotype of NQO1 609C>T had a significant association with (absence of) grade 2-4 toxicity in uni-variate analysis (p = 0.021), but a non-significant correlation in multi-variate analysis. In GMDR analysis, interaction of CYP3A5*3, NQO1 609C>T, and ABCB1 1236C>T polymorphisms yielded the highest testing accuracy for response to NACT (CVT = 0.62). However, for grade 2-4 toxicity, CYP2C19*2 and ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphisms yielded the best interaction model (CVT = 0.57).
CONCLUSION: This pharmacogenetic study suggests a role of higher order gene-gene interaction of DME-encoding genes, along with confounding factors, in determination of treatment outcomes and toxicity in breast cancer patients. This can be used as a potential objective tool for individualizing breast cancer chemotherapy with high efficacy and low toxicity.

Liu C, Srihari S, Lal S, et al.
Personalised pathway analysis reveals association between DNA repair pathway dysregulation and chromosomal instability in sporadic breast cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(1):179-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Homologous Recombination (HR) pathway is crucial for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during DNA replication. Defects in HR repair have been linked to the initiation and development of a wide variety of human malignancies, and exploited in chemical, radiological and targeted therapies. In this study, we performed a personalised pathway analysis independently for four large sporadic breast cancer cohorts to investigate the status of HR pathway dysregulation in individual sporadic breast tumours, its association with HR repair deficiency and its impact on tumour characteristics. Specifically, we first manually curated a list of HR genes according to our recent review on this pathway (Liu et al., 2014), and then applied a personalised pathway analysis method named Pathifier (Drier et al., 2013) on the expression levels of the curated genes to obtain an HR score quantifying HR pathway dysregulation in individual tumours. Based on the score, we observed a great diversity in HR dysregulation between and within gene expression-based breast cancer subtypes, and by using two published HR-defect signatures, we found HR pathway dysregulation reflects HR repair deficiency. Furthermore, we identified a novel association between HR pathway dysregulation and chromosomal instability (CIN) in sporadic breast cancer. Although CIN has long been considered as a hallmark of most solid tumours, with recent extensive studies highlighting its importance in tumour evolution and drug resistance, the molecular basis of CIN in sporadic cancers remains poorly understood. Our results imply that HR pathway dysregulation might contribute to CIN in sporadic breast cancer.

Giaccone G, Bazhenova LA, Nemunaitis J, et al.
A phase III study of belagenpumatucel-L, an allogeneic tumour cell vaccine, as maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(16):2321-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Treatment options after first-line chemotherapy are limited in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Belagenpumatucel-L is a therapeutic vaccine comprised of 4 transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-antisense gene-modified, irradiated, allogeneic NSCLC cell lines that may be useful for maintenance after initial treatment.
METHODS: Stage III/IV NSCLC patients who did not progress after platinum-based chemotherapy were randomised 1:1 to receive maintenance belagenpumatucel-L or placebo. Patients were eligible for randomisation between one and four months from the end of induction chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival.
RESULTS: This phase III trial enrolled 270 patients in the belagenpumatucel-L arm and 262 in the control arm. Belagenpumatucel-L was well tolerated with no serious safety concerns. There was no difference in survival between the arms (median survival 20.3 versus 17.8months with belagenpumatucel-L versus placebo, respectively; hazard ratio (HR) 0.94, p=0.594). There were also no differences in progression-free survival (4.3months versus 4.0 for belagenpumatucel-L vs placebo, respectively; HR 0.99, p=0.947). A prespecified Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the time elapsed between randomisation and the end of induction chemotherapy had a significant impact on survival (p=0.002) and that prior radiation was a positive prognostic factor (median survival 28.4months with belagenpumatucel-L versus 16.0months with placebo; HR 0.61, p=0.032).
CONCLUSIONS: Although the overall trial did not meet its survival endpoint, improved survival for belagenpumatucel-L is suggested in patients who were randomised within 12weeks of completion of chemotherapy and in those who had received prior radiation. Further studies of belagenpumatucel-L in NSCLC are warranted.

Khirade MF, Lal G, Bapat SA
Derivation of a fifteen gene prognostic panel for six cancers.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13248 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The hallmarks of cancer deem biological pathways and molecules to be conserved. This approach may be useful for deriving a prognostic gene signature. Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis of gene expression datasets in eleven cancer types identified modules of highly correlated genes and interactive networks conserved across glioblastoma, breast, ovary, colon, rectal and lung cancers, from which a universal classifier for tumor stratification was extracted. Specific conserved gene modules were validated across different microarray platforms and datasets. Strikingly, preserved genes within these modules defined regulatory networks associated with immune regulation, cell differentiation, metastases, cell migration, metastases, oncogenic transformation, and resistance to apoptosis and senescence, with AIF1 and PRRX1 being suggested to be master regulators governing these biological processes. A universal classifier from these conserved networks enabled execution of common set of principles across different cancers that revealed distinct, differential correlation of biological functions with patient survival in a cancer-specific manner. Correlation analysis further identified a panel of 15 risk genes with potential prognostic value, termed as the GBOCRL-IIPr panel [(GBM-Breast-Ovary-Colon-Rectal-Lung)-Immune-Invasion-Prognosis], that surprisingly, were not amongst the master regulators or important network hubs. This panel may now be integrated in predicting patient outcomes in the six cancers.

Donà MG, Spriano G, Pichi B, et al.
Human papillomavirus infection and p16 overexpression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a case series from 2010 to 2014.
Future Microbiol. 2015; 10(8):1283-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Human papillomavirus (HPV) associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) show better prognosis and response to therapy. We evaluated HPV-DNA prevalence, p16 overexpression and HPV-attributable fraction in recent consecutive OPSCCs.
MATERIALS & METHODS: 140 OPSCCs were analyzed for HPV-DNA using the INNO-LiPA assay and p16 overexpression using CINtec® Histology kit.
RESULTS: HPV-DNA prevalence was 40.7%, and was significantly higher in basaloid and nonkeratinizing SCCs, but similar in tonsillar and base of tongue SCCs. Moreover, 98.0% of the HPV-positive OPSCCs overexpressed p16, compared with 12.3% of the HPV-negative cases (p < 0.0001). Based on HPV-DNA and p16 double positivity, 39.8% of the cases were HPV related.
CONCLUSION: The high estimate of the HPV-attributable fraction suggests that a substantial proportion of OPSCC patients may be managed less intensively.

Lal S, Kersch C, Beeson KA, et al.
Interactions between αv-Integrin and HER2 and Their Role in the Invasive Phenotype of Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and in Rat Brain.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0131842 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that αv-integrin and the human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) interact with each other in brain trophic metastatic breast cancer cells and influence their invasive phenotype.
METHODS: Clones of MDA-MB231BR human breast cancer cells with stable knock down of αv-integrin in combination with high or low levels of HER2 were created. The interactions of these two proteins and their combined effect on cell migration and invasion were investigated in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Knockdown of αv-integrin in MDA-MB231BR clones altered the actin cytoskeleton and cell morphology. HER2 co-precipitated with αv-integrin in three breast cancer cell lines in vitro, suggesting they complex in cells. Knockdown of αv-integrin altered HER2 localization from its normal membrane position to a predominantly lysosomal localization. When αv-integrin expression was decreased by 69-93% in HER2-expressing cells, cellular motility was significantly reduced. Deficiency of both αv-integrin and HER2 decreased cellular migration and invasion by almost 90% compared to cells expressing both proteins (P<0.01). After intracerebral inoculation, cells expressing high levels of both αv-integrin and HER2 showed a diffusely infiltrative tumor phenotype, while cells deficient in αv-integrin and/or HER2 showed a compact tumor growth phenotype. In the αv-integrin positive/HER2 positive tumors, infiltrative growth was 57.2 ± 19% of tumor volume, compared to only 5.8 ± 6.1% infiltration in the double deficient tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: αv-integrin interacts with HER2 in breast cancer cells and may regulate HER2 localization. The combined impacts of αv-integrin and HER2 influence the invasive phenotype of breast cancer cells. Targeting αv-integrin in HER2-positive breast cancer may slow growth and decrease infiltration in the normal brain.

Yamoah K, Johnson MH, Choeurng V, et al.
Novel Biomarker Signature That May Predict Aggressive Disease in African American Men With Prostate Cancer.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(25):2789-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: We studied the ethnicity-specific expression of prostate cancer (PC) -associated biomarkers to evaluate whether genetic/biologic factors affect ethnic disparities in PC pathogenesis and disease progression.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 154 African American (AA) and 243 European American (EA) patients from four medical centers were matched according to the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment postsurgical score within each institution. The distribution of mRNA expression levels of 20 validated biomarkers reported to be associated with PC initiation and progression was compared with ethnicity using false discovery rate, adjusted Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression models. A conditional logistic regression model was used to evaluate the interaction between ethnicity and biomarkers for predicting clinicopathologic outcomes.
RESULTS: Of the 20 biomarkers examined, six showed statistically significant differential expression in AA compared with EA men in one or more statistical models. These include ERG (P < .001), AMACR (P < .001), SPINK1 (P = .001), NKX3-1 (P = .03), GOLM1 (P = .03), and androgen receptor (P = .04). Dysregulation of AMACR (P = .036), ERG (P = .036), FOXP1 (P = .041), and GSTP1 (P = .049) as well as loss-of-function mutations for tumor suppressors NKX3-1 (P = .025) and RB1 (P = .037) predicted risk of pathologic T3 disease in an ethnicity-dependent manner. Dysregulation of GOLM1 (P = .037), SRD5A2 (P = .023), and MKi67 (P = .023) predicted clinical outcomes, including 3-year biochemical recurrence and metastasis at 5 years. A greater proportion of AA men than EA men had triple-negative (ERG-negative/ETS-negative/SPINK1-negative) disease (51% v 35%; P = .002).
CONCLUSION: We have identified a subset of PC biomarkers that predict the risk of clinicopathologic outcomes in an ethnicity-dependent manner. These biomarkers may explain in part the biologic contribution to ethnic disparity in PC outcomes between EA and AA men.

Chaturvedi P, Tulsyan S, Agarwal G, et al.
Relationship of MTHFR and NQO1 Pharmacogenetics and Chemotherapy Clinical Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients.
Biochem Genet. 2015; 53(7-8):211-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study aimed at evaluating the influence of MTHFR 677C>T and NQO1 609C>T polymorphisms in toxicity and response to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. These two genes are involved in the folate homeostasis and bioactivation of chemotherapeutic drugs, respectively. In this study, 243 patients treated with FEC/FAC/methotrexate chemotherapy regimen were recruited and followed up for toxicity (NCI-CTCAE ver. 3). While out of 243 patients, 115 patients who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) were followed for treatment response. Genetic analysis of MTHFR 677C>T and NQO1 609C>T was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found significant association of variant genotype (TT) of NQO1 609C>T with grade 2-4 toxicity [OR 0.33 (0.13-0.88), P = 0.027] and with grade 2-4 anemia [OR 0.34 (0.12-0.95), P = 0.041]. However, no association of MTHFR 677C>T was seen with either response to NACT or drug-induced toxicity. The study provides useful information for prediction of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients in terms of NQO1 609C>T by evaluating its association with chemotherapy-induced toxicity.

Mathew LK, Huangyang P, Mucaj V, et al.
Feedback circuitry between miR-218 repression and RTK activation in glioblastoma.
Sci Signal. 2015; 8(375):ra42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling promotes the growth and progression of glioblastoma (GBM), a highly aggressive type of brain tumor. We previously reported that decreased miR-218 expression in GBM directly promotes RTK activity by increasing the expression of key RTKs and their signaling mediators, including the RTK epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1), and the kinases PIK3CA and ARAF. However, increased RTK signaling usually activates negative feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. We found that decreased miR-218 expression in GBM cells also increased the expression of genes encoding additional upstream and downstream components of RTK signaling pathways, including the RTK platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and the kinases ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) and S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), that collectively overrode the negative feedback mechanism. Furthermore, increased RTK signaling itself suppressed miR-218 expression. Mass spectrometry and DNA pull-down identified binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) along with the transcriptional repressor BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 (BCLAF1) directly to the miR-218 locus. These data identify previously unknown feedback loops by which miR-218 repression promotes increased RTK signaling in high-grade gliomas.

Jones MF, Hara T, Francis P, et al.
The CDX1-microRNA-215 axis regulates colorectal cancer stem cell differentiation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(13):E1550-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcription factor caudal-type homeobox 1 (CDX1) is a key regulator of differentiation in the normal colon and in colorectal cancer (CRC). CDX1 activates the expression of enterocyte genes, but it is not clear how the concomitant silencing of stem cell genes is achieved. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important mediators of gene repression and have been implicated in tumor suppression and carcinogenesis, but the roles of miRNAs in differentiation, particularly in CRC, remain poorly understood. Here, we identified microRNA-215 (miR-215) as a direct transcriptional target of CDX1 by using high-throughput small RNA sequencing to profile miRNA expression in two pairs of CRC cell lines: CDX1-low HCT116 and HCT116 with stable CDX1 overexpression, and CDX1-high LS174T and LS174T with stable CDX1 knockdown. Validation of candidate miRNAs identified by RNA-seq in a larger cell-line panel revealed miR-215 to be most significantly correlated with CDX1 expression. Quantitative ChIP-PCR and promoter luciferase assays confirmed that CDX1 directly activates miR-215 transcription. miR-215 expression is depleted in FACS-enriched cancer stem cells compared with unsorted samples. Overexpression of miR-215 in poorly differentiated cell lines causes a decrease in clonogenicity, whereas miR-215 knockdown increases clonogenicity and impairs differentiation in CDX1-high cell lines. We identified the genome-wide targets of miR-215 and found that miR-215 mediates the repression of cell cycle and stemness genes downstream of CDX1. In particular, the miR-215 target gene BMI1 has been shown to promote stemness and self-renewal and to vary inversely with CDX1. Our work situates miR-215 as a link between CDX1 expression and BMI1 repression that governs differentiation in CRC.

Park JM, Wu T, Cyr AR, et al.
The role of Tcfap2c in tumorigenesis and cancer growth in an activated Neu model of mammary carcinogenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(50):6105-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TFAP2C/AP-2γ influences development of the mammary gland and regulates patterns of gene expression in luminal and HER2-amplified breast cancer. The roles of TFAP2C in mammary gland tumorigenesis and in pathways critical to cancer progression remain poorly understood. To gain greater insight into oncogenic mechanisms regulated by TFAP2C, we examined mammary tumorigenesis in MMTV-Neu transgenic female mice with or without conditional knockout (KO) of Tcfap2c, the mouse homolog of TFAP2C. Loss of Tcfap2c increased the latency of tumorigenesis and tumors that formed demonstrated reduced proliferative index and increased apoptosis. In addition, tumors formed in Tcfap2c KO animals had a significant reduction in Egfr levels without a change in the expression of the Neu oncogene. The MMneu-flAP2C cell line was established from tumor tissue derived from MMTV-Neu/Tcfap2c(L/L) control animals and parallel cell lines with and without expression of Tcfap2c were created by transduction with adenovirus-empty and adenovirus-Cre, respectively. KO of Tcfap2c in vitro reduced activated phosphorylated-Erk, decreased cell viability, repressed tumor growth and was associated with attenuation of Egfr expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and direct sequencing and expression analysis confirmed that Egfr was a Tcfap2c target gene in murine, as well as human, mammary carcinoma cells. Furthermore, decreased viability of mammary cancer cells was directly related to Egfr functional blockade. We conclude that TFAP2C regulates tumorigenesis, cell growth and survival in HER2-amplified breast cancer through transcriptional regulation of EGFR. The findings have important implications for targeting the EGFR pathway in breast cancer.

Zucal C, D'Agostino V, Loffredo R, et al.
Targeting the multifaceted HuR protein, benefits and caveats.
Curr Drug Targets. 2015; 16(5):499-515 [PubMed] Related Publications
The RNA-binding protein (RBP) HuR is one of the most widely studied regulators of the eukaryotic posttranscriptional gene expression and it plays a physiological role in mediating the cellular response to apoptotic, proliferating and survival stimuli. Following physiological or stress stimuli, HuR protein binds to Adenylate-Urydinilate rich elements (AREs) generally contained in the 3'UTR of transcripts, then it shuttles from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and regulates the half-life and/or translation of cargo mRNAs. Derangements in sub-cellular localization and expression of HuR have been associated with the pathophysiology of many diseases and this protein has been proposed as a potential drug target. Recent findings also re-evaluated HuR as a splicing and polyadenylation factor, expanding its spectrum of functional activity up to the maturation of pre-mRNAs. In this review, we generate a comprehensive picture of HuR functionality to discuss the implications of considering HuR as pharmacological target and the detrimental or positive impact that can be expected upon its modulation. Firstly, we focus on the recent findings about the mechanistic role of HuR in the nucleus and in the regulation of long non coding RNAs; then we describe the animal models and the clinical association and significance in cancer; finally, we have reviewed the pharmacological tools that influence HuR's post-transcriptional control and the efforts made to identify specific HuR inhibitors.

Weng H, Lal K, Yang FF, Chen J
The pathological role and prognostic impact of miR-181 in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(5):225-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In addition to genetic abnormalities, such as chromosomal translocations and somatic mutations that have been widely acknowledged in the leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), epigenetic modifications also play a vital role in this process. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation is emerging as a new layer of epigenetic regulation besides DNA methylation and histone modifications. Among the miRNAs first identified to be specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells, the miR-181 family has been implicated in regulating the differentiation of B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells during normal hematopoiesis, and has been linked tightly to the pathogenesis and prognosis of AML. Accumulating evidence indicates that miR-181 acts as a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of AML and exhibits a significant impact on the survival of patients with AML. Herein, we review the role of miR-181 as a diagnostic marker and prognostic predictor in AML, and discuss the potential use of miR-181 as a therapeutic target for AML.

Hoste E, Arwert EN, Lal R, et al.
Innate sensing of microbial products promotes wound-induced skin cancer.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:5932 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The association between tissue damage, chronic inflammation and cancer is well known. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we characterize a mouse model in which constitutive epidermal extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-MAP-kinase signalling results in epidermal inflammation, and skin wounding induces tumours. We show that tumour incidence correlates with wound size and inflammatory infiltrate. Ablation of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1/-2, Myeloid Differentiation primary response gene 88 or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-5, the bacterial flagellin receptor, but not other innate immune sensors, in radiosensitive leukocytes protects against tumour formation. Antibiotic treatment inhibits, whereas injection of flagellin induces, tumours in a TLR-5-dependent manner. TLR-5 is also involved in chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in wild-type mice. Leukocytic TLR-5 signalling mediates upregulation of the alarmin HMGB1 (High Mobility Group Box 1) in wound-induced papillomas. HMGB1 is elevated in tumours of patients with Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa, a disease characterized by chronic skin damage. We conclude that in our experimental model the combination of bacteria, chronic inflammation and wounding cooperate to trigger skin cancer.

Li XL, Lu X, Parvathaneni S, et al.
Identification of RECQ1-regulated transcriptome uncovers a role of RECQ1 in regulation of cancer cell migration and invasion.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(15):2431-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The RECQ protein family of helicases has critical roles in protecting and stabilizing the genome. Three of the 5 known members of the human RecQ family are genetically linked with cancer susceptibility syndromes, but the association of the most abundant human RecQ homolog, RECQ1, with cellular transformation is yet unclear. RECQ1 is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, indicating oncogenic functions. Here, we assessed genome-wide changes in gene expression upon knockdown of RECQ1 in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells. Pathway analysis suggested that RECQ1 enhances the expression of multiple genes that play key roles in cell migration, invasion, and metastasis, including EZR, ITGA2, ITGA3, ITGB4, SMAD3, and TGFBR2. Consistent with these results, silencing RECQ1 significantly reduced cell migration and invasion. In comparison to genome-wide annotated promoter regions, the promoters of genes downregulated upon RECQ1 silencing were significantly enriched for a potential G4 DNA forming sequence motif. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated binding of RECQ1 to the G4 motifs in the promoters of select genes downregulated upon RECQ1 silencing. In breast cancer patients, the expression of a subset of RECQ1-activated genes positively correlated with RECQ1 expression. Moreover, high RECQ1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. Collectively, our findings identify a novel function of RECQ1 in gene regulation and indicate that RECQ1 contributes to tumor development and progression, in part, by regulating the expression of key genes that promote cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

Thomsen LT, Frederiksen K, Munk C, et al.
Long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse according to high-risk human papillomavirus genotype and semi-quantitative viral load among 33,288 women with normal cervical cytology.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(1):193-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype and semi-quantitative viral load at baseline among 33,288 women aged 14-90 years with normal baseline cytology. During 2002-2005, residual liquid-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were HPV-tested with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and genotyped with INNO-LiPA. Semi-quantitative viral load was measured by HC2 relative light units in women with single hrHPV infections. The cohort was followed in a nationwide pathology register for up to 11.5 years. In women aged ≥30 years at baseline, the 8-year absolute risk for CIN3+ following baseline detection of HPV16 was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.0-25.6%). The corresponding risks for HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, and other hrHPV types, respectively, were 12.8% (95% CI: 7.6-18.0%), 11.3% (95% CI: 7.7-14.9%), 12.9% (95% CI: 7.0-18.8%) and 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-5.2%). Similar absolute risk estimates were observed in women aged <30 years. Higher HPV16-viral load was associated with increased risk of CIN3+ (hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.10-1.64, per 10-fold increase in viral load). A similar trend, although statistically nonsignificant, was found for viral load of HPV18. The 8-year absolute risk of CIN3+ in women with HPV16-viral load ≥100.0 pg/ml was 30.2% (95% CI: 21.9-38.6%). Our results support that hrHPV genotyping during cervical cancer screening may help identify women at highest risk of CIN3+.

Tholey RM, Lal S, Jimbo M, et al.
MUC1 Promoter-Driven DTA as a Targeted Therapeutic Strategy against Pancreatic Cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(3):439-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Mucin1 (MUC1) is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and is associated with tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that MUC1 is a promising therapeutic target for promoter-driven diphtheria toxin A (DTA). Endogenous MUC1 transcript levels were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in multiple PDA cells (Capan1, HPAFII, Su.86.86, Capan2, Hs766T, MiaPaCa2, and Panc1). Expression levels were correlated with luciferase activity and cell death after transfection with MUC1 promoter-driven luciferase and DTA constructs. MUC1-positive (+) cells had significantly elevated MUC1 mRNA expression compared with MUC1-negative (-) cells. Luciferase activity was significantly higher in MUC1(+) cells when transfected with MUC1 promoter-driven luciferase and MUC1(+) cells underwent enhanced cell death after transfection with a single dose of MUC1 promoter-driven DTA. IFNγ pretreatment enhanced MUC1 expression in MUC1(-) cells and induced sensitivity to MUC1-DTA therapy. Matched primary and metastatic tumor lesions from clinical specimens revealed similar MUC1 IHC labeling patterns, and a tissue microarray of human PDA biopsies revealed increased immunolabeling with a combination of MUC1 and mesothelin (MSLN) antibodies, compared with either antibody alone. Combining MUC1 with MSLN-targeted DTA enhanced drug efficacy in an in vitro model of heterogeneous PDA. These data demonstrate that MUC1 promoter-driven DTA preferentially kills MUC1-expressing PDA cells and drugs that enhance MUC1 expression sensitize PDA cells with low MUC1 expression.
IMPLICATIONS: MUC1 expression in primary and metastatic lesions provides a rationale for the development of a systemic MUC1 promoter-driven DTA therapy that may be further enhanced by combination with other promoter-driven DTA constructs.

Picco R, Tomasella A, Fogolari F, Brancolini C
Transcriptomic analysis unveils correlations between regulative apoptotic caspases and genes of cholesterol homeostasis in human brain.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e110610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Regulative circuits controlling expression of genes involved in the same biological processes are frequently interconnected. These circuits operate to coordinate the expression of multiple genes and also to compensate dysfunctions in specific elements of the network. Caspases are cysteine-proteases with key roles in the execution phase of apoptosis. Silencing of caspase-2 expression in cultured glioblastoma cells allows the up-regulation of a limited number of genes, among which some are related to cholesterol homeostasis. Lysosomal Acid Lipase A (LIPA) was up-regulated in two different cell lines in response to caspase-2 down-regulation and cells silenced for caspase-2 exhibit reduced cholesterol staining in the lipid droplets. We expanded this observation by large-scale analysis of mRNA expression. All caspases were analyzed in terms of co-expression in comparison with 166 genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. In the brain, hierarchical clustering has revealed that the expression of regulative apoptotic caspases (CASP2, CASP8 CASP9, CASP10) and of the inflammatory CASP1 is linked to several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. These correlations resulted in altered GBM (Glioblastoma Multiforme), in particular for CASP1. We have also demonstrated that these correlations are tissue specific being reduced (CASP9 and CASP10) or different (CASP2) in the liver. For some caspases (CASP1, CASP6 and CASP7) these correlations could be related to brain aging.

Lopez-Bertoni H, Lal B, Li A, et al.
DNMT-dependent suppression of microRNA regulates the induction of GBM tumor-propagating phenotype by Oct4 and Sox2.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(30):3994-4004 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem-like cells represent poorly differentiated multipotent tumor-propagating cells that contribute disproportionately to therapeutic resistance and tumor recurrence. Transcriptional mechanisms that control the phenotypic conversion of tumor cells lacking tumor-propagating potential to tumor-propagating stem-like cells remain obscure. Here we show that the reprogramming transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 induce glioblastoma cells to become stem-like and tumor-propagating via a mechanism involving direct DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) promoter transactivation, resulting in global DNA methylation- and DNMT-dependent downregulation of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs). We show that one such downregulated miRNA, miRNA-148a, inhibits glioblastoma cell stem-like properties and tumor-propagating potential. This study identifies a novel and targetable molecular circuit by which glioma cell stemness and tumor-propagating capacity are regulated.

Hara T, Jones MF, Subramanian M, et al.
Selective targeting of KRAS-mutant cells by miR-126 through repression of multiple genes essential for the survival of KRAS-mutant cells.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(17):7635-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of hundreds of genes. However, identifying the critical targets within a miRNA-regulated gene network is challenging. One approach is to identify miRNAs that exert a context-dependent effect, followed by expression profiling to determine how specific targets contribute to this selective effect. In this study, we performed miRNA mimic screens in isogenic KRAS-Wild-type (WT) and KRAS-Mutant colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to identify miRNAs selectively targeting KRAS-Mutant cells. One of the miRNAs we identified as a selective inhibitor of the survival of multiple KRAS-Mutant CRC lines was miR-126. In KRAS-Mutant cells, miR-126 over-expression increased the G1 compartment, inhibited clonogenicity and tumorigenicity, while exerting no effect on KRAS-WT cells. Unexpectedly, the miR-126-regulated transcriptome of KRAS-WT and KRAS-Mutant cells showed no significant differences. However, by analyzing the overlap between miR-126 targets with the synthetic lethal genes identified by RNAi in KRAS-Mutant cells, we identified and validated a subset of miR-126-regulated genes selectively required for the survival and clonogenicity of KRAS-Mutant cells. Our strategy therefore identified critical target genes within the miR-126-regulated gene network. We propose that the selective effect of miR-126 on KRAS-Mutant cells could be utilized for the development of targeted therapy for KRAS mutant tumors.

Tulsyan S, Agarwal G, Lal P, Mittal B
Significant association of combination of OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 gene polymorphisms in susceptibility and response to treatment in North Indian breast cancer patients.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014; 74(5):1065-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dysregulations of regulatory genes in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) gene polymorphisms may lead to breast cancer cell growth, differentiation, and tumor metastasis.
METHODS: Polymorphisms in OCT4 (rs3130932), NANOG (rs11055786), LIN28 (rs4274112), and SOX2 (rs11915160) genes were evaluated for susceptibility in 297 breast cancer females and 273 healthy controls from north Indian population. Response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy was followed in 128 locally advanced breast cancer patients along with clinicopathological features. Genotyping was done using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR).
RESULTS: For OCT4 gene polymorphism, protective effect of genotypes AC [P corr = 0.031, OR = 0.63 (0.44-0.91)] and AC+CC [P corr = 0.031, OR = 0.68 (0.48-0.95)] was seen in patients. However, no association of NANOG, LIN28, and SOX2 gene polymorphisms was found with overall breast cancer susceptibility. Further, significant association of AG+GG genotype [P corr = 0.021, OR = 6.08 (1.83-20.15)] and G allele [P corr = 0.021, OR = 3.07 (1.21-7.77)] of rs4274112 polymorphism was seen with positive lymph node. For OCT4, significant association of allele C was seen with patients having negative hormone receptor [P corr = 0.021, OR = 0.51 (0.29-0.90)], but no association of any of the studied polymorphisms individually was found with response to NACT. On MDR analysis, we found combination of SNPs SOX2 rs11915160, OCT4 rs3130932, and NANOG rs11055786 to be the best interaction model for predicting breast cancer risk [p for permutation test <10(-3), OR = 2.04 (1.43-2.910] and response to NACT [p for permutation test = 0.005, OR = 2.09 (1.24-3.52)].
CONCLUSION: Combination of genetic variants of ESCs gene may have a profound effect in breast cancer risk and response to NACT.

Jangir S, Bala V, Lal N, et al.
Novel alkylphospholipid-DTC hybrids as promising agents against endocrine related cancers acting via modulation of Akt-pathway.
Eur J Med Chem. 2014; 85:638-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new series of 2-(alkoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryloxy)ethyl dialkylcarbodithioate derivatives was synthesized and evaluated against endocrine related cancers, acting via modulation of Akt-pathway. Eighteen compounds were active at 7.24-100 μM against MDA-MB-231 or MCF-7 cell lines of breast cancer. Three compounds (14, 18 and 22) were active against MCF-7 cells at IC50 significantly better than miltefosine and most of the compounds were less toxic towards non-cancer cell lines, HEK-293. On the other hand, twelve compounds exhibited cell growth inhibiting activity against prostate cancer cell lines, either PC-3 or DU-145 at 14.69-95.20 μM. While nine of these were active against both cell lines. The most promising compounds 14 and 18 were about two and five fold more active than miltefosine against DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines respectively and significantly down regulated phospho-Akt. Possibly anti-cancer and pro-apoptotic activity was mostly due to blockade of Akt-pathway.

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