Gene Summary

Gene:NODAL; nodal growth differentiation factor
Aliases: HTX5
Summary:This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protein, which regulates early embryonic development. This protein is required for maintenance of human embryonic stem cell pluripotency and may play a role in human placental development. Mutations in this gene are associated with heterotaxy, a condition characterized by random orientation of visceral organs with respect to the left-right axis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nodal homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: NODAL (cancer-related)

Shirai Y, Shiba H, Haruki K, et al.
Preoperative Platelet-to-Albumin Ratio Predicts Prognosis of Patients with Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma After Pancreatic Resection.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):787-793 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel prognostic value of preoperative platelet-to-albumin ratio (PAR) in patients resected for pancreatic cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 107 patients who underwent pancreatic resection for pancreatic cancer were studied. The patients were divided into two groups as PAR ≥46.4×10(3) or <46.4×10(3) Survival data were analyzed using the log-rank test for univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards for multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: The PAR was a significant prognostic index on univariate analysis for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The PAR retained its significance on multivariate analysis for OS (hazard ratio(HR)=2.344, 95% confidence interval(CI)=1.188-4.624, p=0.014) along with tumor differentiation and nodal involvement. PAR was a significant independent prognostic index for poor DFS on multivariate analysis (HR=1.971, 95% CI=1.128-3.444, p=0.017).
CONCLUSION: The preoperative PAR is a novel significant independent prognostic index for DFS and OS in patients after pancreatic resection with curative intent.

Chen JR, Chien HP, Chen KS, et al.
Amplification of HER2 and TOP2A and deletion of TOP2A genes in a series of Taiwanese breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(2):e5582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The prognostic relevance of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) copy number change remains not well established. This study is aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of TOP2A aberrations; to correlate TOP2A alterations with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and clinicopathological parameters, and further to explore prognostic value of TOP2A and HER2 status in breast cancer in Taiwan.
METHODS: We analyzed tissue samples from 311 invasive carcinomas in tissue microarrays for TOP2A and HER2 status by fluorescent in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: TOP2A copy number change is an infrequent genetic event (9.8% amplification and 2.7% deletion) and is present in both HER2-amplified and nonamplified tumors. TOP2A amplification is statistically associated with age >50 at diagnosis (P = 0.016) and HER2 amplification (P < 0.001). HER2 amplification, but not TOP2A amplification, is a predictor of unfavorable prognosis (P = 0.002). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that higher histologic grading, positive nodal involvement, and HER2 positivity were associated with poorer overall survival. Cytogenetically, double minutes-type amplification is the predominant pattern for both genes (HER2: 64% and TOP2A: 93.1%). Homogeneous staining region-type signals of both genes are resistant to RNase digestion, supporting that these were not nuclear accumulation of mRNA transcripts.
CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the prognostic value of tumor grading, nodal involvement, and HER2 status in Taiwanese breast cancer. TOP2A aberrations are an infrequent event independent of HER2 status, and TOP2A amplification carries no prognostic value. The predictive value of TOP2A aberrations in patients of breast cancer taking athracycline-containing treatment in Taiwan remains to be determined in prospectively well-designed clinical trials.

Hatem J, Schrank-Hacker AM, Watt CD, et al.
Marginal zone lymphoma-derived interfollicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma harboring 20q12 chromosomal deletion and missense mutation of BIRC3 gene: a case report.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) typically leads to effacement of the nodal architecture by an infiltrate of malignant cells. Rarely (<1%), DLBCL can present with an interfollicular pattern (DLBCL-IF) preserving the lymphoid follicles. It has been postulated that DLBCL-IF is derived from marginal zone B cells and may represent a large-cell transformation of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), however no direct evidence has been provided to date. Here we describe a rare case of a diagnostically challenging DLBCL-IF involving a lymph node in a patient with a prior history of lymphadenopathy for several years and MZL involving skin.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year old man presented to our Dermatology Clinic due to a 1-year history of generalized itching, fatigue of 2-3 month's duration, nausea and mid back rash that was biopsied. PET (positron emission tomography)/CT (computed tomography) was performed and revealed inguinal, pelvic, retroperitoneal, axillary, and cervical lymphadenopathy. The patient was referred to surgery for excisional biopsy of a right inguinal lymph node. Diagnostic H&E stained slides and ancillary studies were reviewed for the lymph node and skin specimens. B-cell clonality by PCR and sequencing studies were performed on both specimens. We demonstrate that this patient's MZL and DLBCL-IF are clonally related, strongly suggesting that transformation of MZL to DLBCL had occurred. Furthermore, we identified a novel deletion of the long arm of chromosome 20 (del(20q12)) and a missense mutation in BIRC3 (Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3) in this patient's DLBCL that are absent from his MZL, suggesting that these genetic alterations contributed to the large cell transformation.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report providing molecular evidence for a previously suspected link between MZL and DLBCL-IF. In addition, we describe for the first time del(20q12) and a missense mutation in BIRC3 in DLBCL. Our findings also raise awareness of DLBCL-IF and discuss the diagnostic pitfalls of this rare entity.

Shi D, Liang L, Zheng H, et al.
Silencing of long non-coding RNA SBDSP1 suppresses tumor growth and invasion in colorectal cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:355-361 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in tumor development and progression. This study was undertaken to examine the expression and biological functions of a novel lncRNA SBDSP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to measure the expression of SBDSP1 in CRC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of SBDSP1 via short hairpin RNA technology was performed to determine the roles of SBDSP1 in CRC cell growth, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. The effect of SBDSP1 knockdown on tumorigenesis of CRC cells was investigated in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model. Western blot analysis was done to examine the involvement of signaling pathways in the action of SBDSP1. Notably, SBDSP1 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cells relative to corresponding normal controls. Moreover, SBDSP1 expression was significantly greater in CRCs with nodal metastasis than in primary tumors (P=0.0259). Downregulation of SBDSP1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in SW480 and HCT116 cells, which was accompanied by suppression of Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 phosphorylation. SBDSP1-depleted cells showed a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and deregulation of p21 and cyclin D1. In vivo studies confirmed that SBDSP1 downregulation retarded the growth of HCT116 xenogaft tumors. Altogether, SBDSP1 plays an essential role in CRC cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis, largely through inactivation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, targeting SBDSP1 may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of CRC.

Miao ZF, Liu XY, Xu HM, et al.
Tbx3 overexpression in human gastric cancer is correlated with advanced tumor stage and nodal status and promotes cancer cell growth and invasion.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(5):505-513 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern of Tbx3 and its clinicopathological significance in patients with gastric cancer. The expression pattern of Tbx3 in gastric cancer tissues and adjacent noncancerous surface epithelia and mucosal glands was detected by immunohistochemistry. Tbx3 was found to be overexpressed in 46 of 98 human gastric cancer samples, and this correlated with advanced clinical stage, tumor stage, and nodal status. In addition, in the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cell line, Tbx3 overexpression by plasmid transfection promoted growth and invasion. Conversely, depleting Tbx3 expression by small-interfering RNA inhibited proliferation and invasion in BGC-823 cell line. Moreover, Tbx3 accelerated cell cycle progression at the G1/S boundary. Tbx3 also regulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote cell invasion by repressing E-cadherin expression and increasing expression levels N-cadherin, vimentin. These results indicate that in gastric cancer, Tbx3 plays an important role and might be a useful therapy target.

Singh A, Mishra PK, Saluja SS, et al.
Prognostic Significance of HER-2 and p53 Expression in Gallbladder Carcinoma in North Indian Patients.
Oncology. 2016; 91(6):354-360 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Proto-oncogenes (HER-2) and tumor suppressor genes (p53) are commonly deregulated in gallbladder cancer (GBC). Available literature discloses skewed data from endemic Asian countries, especially north India. This study evaluates the prognostic significance of HER-2 and p53 in GBC patients from two major hospitals.
METHODS: Sixty resectable tumor and control specimens were prospectively collected from December 2012 to January 2016. Immunohistochemical staining was done using monoclonal antibodies to semiquantitatively evaluate HER-2 and p53 protein expression. The criterion for HER-2 positivity was set at >30% tumor cells showing complete, membranous staining while p53 positivity was established at <50% tumor cells showing complete nuclear staining. Clinicopathological correlations were drawn with major clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: It was observed that 36.67% (22/60) tumor cases and 5% (3/60) control cases showed strong HER-2 overexpression significantly correlating with sex, T-stage, nodal spread and distant metastasis (p < 0.05), while 33.3% (20/60) positivity was observed for p53 in tumor cases and 1.7% (1/60) in control cases. Multivariate analysis showed HER-2 (p = 0.04; hazard ratio: 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-5.33) and p53 (p = 0.03; hazard ratio: 5.63; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-26.26) expression to be independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSION: Our study thus suggests the plausible role of HER-2 and p53 expression in worse prognosis of GBC in a north Indian population.

Lopez-Campistrous A, Adewuyi EE, Benesch MG, et al.
PDGFRα Regulates Follicular Cell Differentiation Driving Treatment Resistance and Disease Recurrence in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 12:86-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dedifferentiation of follicular cells is a central event in resistance to radioactive iodine and patient mortality in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We reveal that platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) specifically drives dedifferentiation in PTC by disrupting the transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1). PDGFRα activation dephosphorylates TTF1 consequently shifting the localization of this transcription factor from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. TTF1 is required for follicular cell development and disrupting its function abrogates thyroglobulin production and sodium iodide transport. PDGFRα also promotes a more invasive and migratory cell phenotype with a dramatic increase in xenograft tumor formation. In patient tumors we confirm that nuclear TTF1 expression is inversely proportional to PDGFRα levels. Patients exhibiting PDGFRα at time of diagnosis are three times more likely to exhibit nodal metastases and are 18 times more likely to recur within 5years than those patients lacking PDGFRα expression. Moreover, high levels of PDGFRα and low levels of nuclear TTF1 predict resistance to radioactive iodine therapy. We demonstrate in SCID xenografts that focused PDGFRα blockade restores iodide transport and decreases tumor burden by >50%. Focused PDGFRα inhibitors, combined with radioactive iodine, represent an additional avenue for treating patients with aggressive variants of PTC.

Suh DH, Kim M, Kim HJ, et al.
Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015.
J Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 27(6):e53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7-9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review.

Soran A, Bhargava R, Johnson R, et al.
The impact of Oncotype DX® recurrence score of paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissues in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.
Breast Dis. 2016; 36(2-3):65-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oncotype DX® test is beneficial in predicting recurrence free survival in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Ability of the assay to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is less well-studied.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize a positive association between the Oncotype DX® recurrence score (RS) and the percentage tumor response (%TR) after NCT.
METHODS: Pre-therapy RS was measured on core biopsies from 60 patients with ER+, HER2- invasive breast cancer (IBC) who then received NCT. Pre-therapy tumor size was measured using imaging. %TR, partial response (PR; >50%), pathologic complete response (pCR) and breast conserving surgery (BCS) rates were measured.
RESULTS: Median RS was 20 (2-69). Median %TR was 42 (0-97)%. PR was observed in 43% of patients. There was no association between %TR and pre-NCT tumor size, age, Nottingham score or nodal status (p > 0.05). No statistically significant association with %TR was seen with RS as a categorical or continuous variable (p = 0.21 and 0.7, respectively). Response to NCT improved as ER (p = 0.02) by RT-PCR decreased. Lower ER expression by IHC correlated with response (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ER+ IBC receiving NCT, RS did not predict response to NCT using %TR. The benefit of the assay prior to NCT requires further study.

Yunusova NV, Spirina LV, Frolova AE, et al.
Association of IGFBP-6 Expression with Metabolic Syndrome and Adiponectin and IGF-IR Receptor Levels in Colorectal Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):3963-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess IGFBP-6 expression in relation with the presence of the metabolic syndrome, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) and IGF-IR levels in colorectal adenocarcinoma cases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: IGFBP-6 mRNA and protein levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting in 46 patients. ELISA and ow cytometry were used for evaluation of AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and IGF-IR.
RESULTS: The results showed that IGFBP-6 mRNA expression and the IGFBP-6 content were higher in tumor tissue samples of colorectal cancer patients with and without the metabolic syndrome. In addition, IGFBP-6 mRNA expression was associated with tumor invasion (tumor size) and the IGFBP-6 protein level was associated with nodal status. Positive correlations and positive nonlinear relations were found between the IGFBP-6 level and the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 contents in colorectal cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The IGFBP-6 mRNA level and protein level were found to be associated with presence of the metabolic syndrome. Positive correlations indicated probable cross-talk between the IGF-IR-mediated and adiponectin-mediated signaling pathways in colorectal carcinomas. IGFBP-6 may be considered as a potential biomarker associated with lymphogenous metastasis and the metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer.

Jankowska-Konsur A, Kobierzycki C, Grzegrzolka J, et al.
Expression of CD31 in Mycosis Fungoides.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(9):4575-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) characterized by malignant proliferation of mature T lymphocytes and primary skin involvement. Recent reports suggest that angiogenesis may play a role in the growth and spread of this malignancy. Cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein classified into the Ig-superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, expressed on endothelial cells and majority of hematopoietic non-erythroid cells. The aim of our study was to explore the role of angiogenesis in MF.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the expression of CD31 in relation to clinicopathological data and potential impact on patients' outcome in MF utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot (WB) techniques in 73 and 19 MF and 21 and 4 control samples, respectively.
RESULTS: In the IHC study, statistical analysis revealed significantly higher CD31 expression in MF compared to the controls (p<0.0001) with highest expression in advanced stages vs. early ones and controls (p<0.0001 for both). In regard to skin involvement, expression was also elevated in more infiltrative (T3, tumors) and in more extensive (T4, erythroderma) cutaneous lesions compared to less infiltrative and limited skin lesions (T1, T2, patches and/or plaques) (p<0.01 for both). Regarding the extracutaneous spread, higher CD31 expression correlated with nodal involvement (N1-3 vs. N0; p<0.0001). In the WB study, statistical analysis revealed significantly higher CD31 expression only in advanced vs. early stage of MF (p<0.05). In regard to skin involvement, expression was also elevated in T3 and T4 as compared T1+T2 (p=0.08, p<0.05; respectively). Higher CD31 expression correlated with nodal involvement (N1-3 vs. N0; p<0.01). A strong significant correlation between CD31 expression at the protein level analyzed by IHC and WB was noticed (r=0.802, p<0.0001). Moreover, strong positive correlations between IHC expression of CD31 and podoplanin (PDPN; r=0.582, p<0.0001), vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC; r=0.332, p<0.01) and Ki-67 (r=0.330, p<0.01) were disclosed.
CONCLUSION: Expression of CD31 in MF skin biopsies provides new evidence for the role of angiogenesis in the progression of MF. Additionally, the new data revealed prompts for further research on potential use of CD31 as a new marker of the disease advancement, as well as the target of new therapeutic strategies.

Poortmans PM, Arenas M, Livi L
Breast. 2017; 31:295-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Decreasing the burden of radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer includes, next to complete omission, several ways to tailor the extent of RT. Possible options for this include lowering of the total dose, such as selective omission of the boost, hypofractionated RT to shorten the duration of treatment, the selective introduction of partial breast irradiation and anatomy based target volume contouring to decrease the size of the irradiated volumes. Elective regional nodal irradiation showed in several randomised trials and meta-analyses to significantly impact on local-regional control, disease-free survival, breast cancer mortality and overall survival. The generalisability of these results remains complex in the light of the decreasing use of axillary lymph node dissection, the use of more effective adjuvant systemic therapy, the increasing use of primary systemic therapy and continuously improving RT techniques. In general, the use of RT compensates for the decreasing extent of surgery to the breast and the axillary lymph nodes, eliminating residual tumour cells while maintaining better aesthetic and functional results. In some occasions, however, the indications for the extent of RT have to be based on limited pathological staging information. Research is ongoing to individualise RT more on the basis of biological factors including gene expression profiles. When considering age, treatment decisions should rather be based on biological instead of formal age. The aim of this review article is to put current evidence into the right perspective, and to search for an appropriate appreciation of the balance between efficacy and side effects of local-regional RT.

Ohnishi N, Takata K, Miyata-Takata T, et al.
CD10 down expression in follicular lymphoma correlates with gastrointestinal lesion involving the stomach and large intestine.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(11):1687-1695 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Follicular lymphoma (FL) shows co-expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and CD10, whereas downexpression of CD10 is occasionally experienced in gastrointestinal (GI) FL with unknown significance. Gastrointestinal FL is a rare variant of FL, and its similarity with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma was reported. We investigated the clinicopathological and genetic features of CD10 downexpressed (CD10(down) ) GI-FL. The diagnosis of CD10(down) FL was carried out with a combination of pathological and molecular analyses. The incidence of CD10(down) GI-FL was shown in 35/172 (20.3%) cases, which was more frequent than nodal FL (3.5%, P < 0.001). The difference was additionally significant between GI-FL and nodal FL when the analysis was confined to primary GI-FL (55.2% vs 3.5%, P < 0.001). Compared to CD10(+) GI-FL, CD10(down) GI-FL significantly involved the stomach or large intestine (P = 0.015), and additionally showed the downexpression of BCL6 (P < 0.001). The follicular dendritic cell meshwork often showed a duodenal pattern in the CD10(down) group (P = 0.12). Furthermore, a lymphoepithelial lesion was observed in 5/12 (40%) gastric FL cases, which indicated caution in the differentiation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Molecular analyses were undertaken in seven cases of CD10(down) GI-FL, and an identical clone was found between CD10(down) follicles and CD10(+) BCL2(+) neoplastic follicles. In the diagnosis of cases with CD10(down) BCL2(+) follicles, careful examination with molecular studies should be carried out.

Li H, Miao Q, Xu CW, et al.
OTX1 Contributes to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression by Regulation of ERK/MAPK Pathway.
J Korean Med Sci. 2016; 31(8):1215-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Orthodenticlehomeobox 1 (OTX1) overexpression had previously been associated with the progression of several tumors. The present study aimed to determine the expression and role of OTX1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression level of OTX1 was examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in 10 samples of HCC and paired adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 128 HCC samples and matched controls. The relationship between OTX1 expression and the clinicopathological features werealso analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of OTX1 knockdown on cell proliferation and migration were determined in HCC cell lines. Axenograft mouse model was also established to investigate the role of OTX1 in HCC tumor growth. TheqRT-PCR and IHC analyses revealed that OTX1 was significantly elevated in HCC tissues compared with the paired non-cancerous controls. Expression of OTX1 was positively correlated with nodal metastasis status (P = 0.009) and TNM staging (P = 0.001) in HCC tissues. In addition, knockdown of OTX1 by shRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration, and induced cell cycle arrest in S phase in vitro. Tumor growth was markedly inhibited by OTX1 silencing in the xenograft. Moreover, OTX1 silencing was causable for the decreased phosphorylation level of ERK/MAPK signaling. In conclusion, OTX1 contributes to HCC progression possibly by regulation of ERK/MAPK pathway. OTX1 may be a novel target for molecular therapy towards HCC.

Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, et al.
Gene/protein expression of CAPN1/2-CAST system members is associated with ERK1/2 kinases activity as well as progression and clinical outcome in human laryngeal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13185-13203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence indicates the involvement of calpains (CAPNs), a family of cysteine proteases, in cancer development and progression, as well as the insufficient response to cancer therapies. The contribution of CAPNs and regulatory calpastatin (CAST) and ERK1/2 kinases to aggressiveness, disease course, and outcome in laryngeal cancer remains elusive. This study was aimed to evaluate the CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 enzyme system mRNA/protein level and to investigate whether they can promote the dynamic of tumor growth and prognosis. The mRNA expression of marker genes was determined in 106 laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of corresponding proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. SLUG expression, as indicator of pathological advancement was determined using IHC staining. Significant increases of CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 levels of mRNA/protein were noted in SCLC compared to NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, a higher level of CAPN1 and ERK1 genes was related to larger tumor size, more aggressive and deeper growth according to TFG scale and SLUG level (p < 0.05). There were also relationships of CAPN1/2 and ERK1 with incidences of local/nodal recurrences (p < 0.05). An inverse association for CAPN1/2, CAST, and ERK1/2 transcripts was determined with regard to overall survival (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher CAPN1 and phospho-ERK1 protein level was related to higher grade and stage (p < 0.05) and was found to promote worse prognosis. This is the first study to show that activity of CAPN1/2- CAST-ERK1/2 axis may be an indicator of tumor phenotype and unfavorable outcome in SCLC.

Criscitiello C, Bagnardi V, Viale G, et al.
HER2 Equivocal Status in Early Breast Cancer Is Not Associated with Higher Risk of Recurrence.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(7):3537-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The primary aim of the study was to assess the association between risk of recurrence and HER2 equivocal gene status through immunohistochemistry in patients with early breast cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical and pathological data of 455 consecutive patients with early breast cancer (BC) who were HER2(+) and had a HER2/CEP17 ratio <2.0, who underwent surgery at the European Institute of Oncology after 2007. The role of HER2/CEP17 ratio on recurrence-free survival was assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox regression models.
RESULTS: We found no significant association between risk of recurrence and HER2 equivocal testing in patients with early breast cancer. In subgroup analysis, a significant interaction between HER2/CEP17 ratio and nodal involvement was observed (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION: Patients with HER2 equivocal status have no significantly higher risk of recurrence.

Ribnikar D, Cardoso F
Tailoring Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Based on Tumor Biology or Tumor Burden?
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016; 35:e31-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The question of whether to offer adjuvant chemotherapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer has always been challenging to answer. It is well known that a substantial proportion of patients with early-stage breast cancer are over treated, especially when staging and hormonal and HER2 receptors are solely taken into consideration. The advances in our knowledge of breast cancer biology and its clinical implications were the basis for the discovery of additional reliable prognostic markers to aid decision making for adjuvant treatment. Gene expression profiling is a molecular tool that more precisely defines the intrinsic characteristics of each individual tumor. The application of this technology has led to the development of gene signatures/profiles with relevant prognostic-and some predictive-value that have become important tools in defining which patients with early-stage breast cancer can be safely spared from chemotherapy. However, the exact clinical utility of these tools will only be determined after the results of two large prospective randomized trials, MINDACT and TailorX, evaluating their role become available. Notwithstanding the existence of these genomic tools, tumor burden (defined as tumor size and nodal status) still has independent prognostic value and must be incorporated in decision making. In addition, these gene signatures have limited predictive value, and new biomarkers and new targets are needed. Therefore close collaboration between clinicians and scientists is crucial. Lastly, issues of cost-effectiveness, reimbursement, and availability are crucial and widely variable around the globe.

Singh R, Bhatt ML, Singh SP, et al.
Evaluation of KiSS1 as a Prognostic Biomarker in North Indian Breast Cancer Cases.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):1789-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer worldwide and its propensity to metastasize negatively impacts on therapeutic outcome. Several clinicopathological parameters with prognostic/predictive significance have been associated with metastatic suppressor expression levels. The role of metastatic suppressor gene (MSG) KiSS1 in breast cancer remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance of KiSS1 breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 87 histologically proven cases of breast cancer and background normal tiisue. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate KiSS1 at gene and protein levels, respectively, for correlation with several patient characteristics including age, family history, hormonal receptor status, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement and metastatic manifestation and finally with median overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Our study revealed (i) KiSS1 levels were generally elevated in breast cancer vs normal tissue (< 0.05). (ii) however, a statistically significant lower expression of KiSS1 was observed in metastatic vs non metastatic cases (P = 0.04). (iii) KiSS1 levels strongly correlated with T,N,M category, histological grade and advanced stage (<0.001) but not other studied parameters. (iv) Lastly, a significant correlation between expression of KiSS1 and median OS was found (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Conclusively, less elevated KiSS1 expression is a negative prognostic factor for OS, advancing tumor stage, axillary lymph node status, metastatic propensity and advancing grade of the breast cancer patient. Patients with negative KiSS1 expression may require a more intensive therapeutic strategy.

Azizian A, Epping I, Kramer F, et al.
Prognostic Value of MicroRNAs in Preoperative Treated Rectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(4):568 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer are treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection. Despite similar clinical parameters (uT2-3, uN+) and standard therapy, patients' prognoses differ widely. A possible prediction of prognosis through microRNAs as biomarkers out of treatment-naïve biopsies would allow individualized therapy options.
METHODS: Microarray analysis of 45 microdissected preoperative biopsies from patients with rectal cancer was performed to identify potential microRNAs to predict overall survival, disease-free survival, cancer-specific survival, distant-metastasis-free survival, tumor regression grade, or nodal stage. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed on an independent set of 147 rectal cancer patients to validate relevant miRNAs.
RESULTS: In the microarray screen, 14 microRNAs were significantly correlated to overall survival. Five microRNAs were included from previous work. Finally, 19 miRNAs were evaluated by qPCR. miR-515-5p, miR-573, miR-579 and miR-802 demonstrated significant correlation with overall survival and cancer-specific survival (p < 0.05). miR-573 was also significantly correlated with the tumor regression grade after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. miR-133b showed a significant correlation with distant-metastasis-free survival. miR-146b expression levels showed a significant correlation with nodal stage.
CONCLUSION: Specific microRNAs can be used as biomarkers to predict prognosis of patients with rectal cancer and possibly stratify patients' therapy if validated in a prospective study.

Pohl H, Kotze MJ, Grant KA, et al.
Impact of MammaPrint on Clinical Decision-Making in South African Patients with Early-Stage Breast Cancer.
Breast J. 2016; 22(4):442-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of MammaPrint on treatment decision-making in patients with breast cancer. Clinicopathologic information of all breast cancer patients referred for MammaPrint testing in South Africa was collected from 2007 until 2014. A total of 107 patients (109 tumors) with estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative tumors were selected with tumors ≥10 mm, or when 1-3 nodes were involved without extra-nodal extension. None of the clinical indicators correlated significantly with the MammaPrint risk classification, which changed the decision for adjuvant chemotherapy in 52% of patients. Of 60 patients who were clinically high risk, 62% had a low-risk MammaPrint result and of the 47 clinically low -risk patients 40% had a high-risk MammaPrint result. This study indicates that MammaPrint could reduce the need for adjuvant chemotherapy by 17% using the selection criteria stipulated. The significant impact on treatment decisions confirmed the clinical utility of MammaPrint independent of standard clinicopathologic risk factors as supported by long-term clinical outcome studies.

Cheng SH, Horng CF, Huang TT, et al.
An Eighteen-Gene Classifier Predicts Locoregional Recurrence in Post-Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 5:74-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously identified 34 genes of interest (GOI) in 2006 to aid the oncologists to determine whether post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) is indicated for certain patients with breast cancer. At this time, an independent cohort of 135 patients having DNA microarray study available from the primary tumor tissue samples was chosen. Inclusion criteria were 1) mastectomy as the first treatment, 2) pathology stages I-III, 3) any locoregional recurrence (LRR) and 4) no PMRT. After inter-platform data integration of Affymetrix U95 and U133 Plus 2.0 arrays and quantile normalization, in this paper we used 18 of 34 GOI to divide the mastectomy patients into high and low risk groups. The 5-year rate of freedom from LRR in the high-risk group was 30%. In contrast, in the low-risk group it was 99% (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the 18-gene classifier independently predicts rates of LRR regardless of nodal status or cancer subtype.

Cinkaya A, Akin M, Sengul A
Evaluation of treatment outcomes of triple-negative breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016 Jan-Mar; 12(1):150-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Treatment responses are variable depending on tumor morphological characteristics, clinical characteristics, and hormonal receptor levels. In current medical practice, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PGR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels have been identified as important prognostic factors; they can change prognosis and treatment modalities. In this study, the prognostic factors of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) were examined retrospectively.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Some 110 cases with negative prognostic and predictive proteins (ER, PGR, and HER2) were included in this study. Median follow-up was 56 months. Recurrences, overall survival, and prognostic factors were evaluated.
RESULTS: We revealed in our triple-negative series that nodal status, tumor size, whole breast radiation doses, and type of surgery are the most useful prognostic markers.
CONCLUSION: Triple-negative breast cancers, especially basal-like subtypes, have bad prognoses. They have high histopathological grades and high risk of invasion. This group can make early metastases and expected survival is usually short. We need to focus on new treatment strategy modalities on this group, and pretreatment values of different prognostic markers are well-identified, such as androgen receptors, basal cytokeratin expression, and BRCA gene status.

Bilgrau AE, Falgreen S, Petersen A, et al.
Unaccounted uncertainty from qPCR efficiency estimates entails uncontrolled false positive rates.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2016; 17:159 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accurate adjustment for the amplification efficiency (AE) is an important part of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments. The most commonly used correction strategy is to estimate the AE by dilution experiments and use this as a plug-in when efficiency correcting the Δ Δ C q . Currently, it is recommended to determine the AE with high precision as this plug-in approach does not account for the AE uncertainty, implicitly assuming an infinitely precise AE estimate. Determining the AE with such precision, however, requires tedious laboratory work and vast amounts of biological material. Violation of the assumption leads to overly optimistic standard errors of the Δ Δ C q , confidence intervals, and p-values which ultimately increase the type I error rate beyond the expected significance level. As qPCR is often used for validation it should be a high priority to account for the uncertainty of the AE estimate and thereby properly bounding the type I error rate and achieve the desired significance level.
RESULTS: We suggest and benchmark different methods to obtain the standard error of the efficiency adjusted Δ Δ C q using the statistical delta method, Monte Carlo integration, or bootstrapping. Our suggested methods are founded in a linear mixed effects model (LMM) framework, but the problem and ideas apply in all qPCR experiments. The methods and impact of the AE uncertainty are illustrated in three qPCR applications and a simulation study. In addition, we validate findings suggesting that MGST1 is differentially expressed between high and low abundance culture initiating cells in multiple myeloma and that microRNA-127 is differentially expressed between testicular and nodal lymphomas.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude, that the commonly used efficiency corrected quantities disregard the uncertainty of the AE, which can drastically impact the standard error and lead to increased false positive rates. Our suggestions show that it is possible to easily perform statistical inference of Δ Δ C q , whilst properly accounting for the AE uncertainty and better controlling the false positive rate.

Manikandan M, Deva Magendhra Rao AK, Arunkumar G, et al.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma: microRNA expression profiling and integrative analyses for elucidation of tumourigenesis mechanism.
Mol Cancer. 2016; 15:28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The advantages and utility of microRNAs (miRNAs) as diagnostic and prognostic cancer markers is at the vanguard in recent years. In this study, we attempted to identify and validate the differential expression of miRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), to correlate their expression with the clinico-pathological profile of tumours and to identify the signaling pathways through which the aberrantly expressed miRNAs effect tumourigenesis.
METHODS: miRCURY LNA™ array with probes specific to 1168 miRNAs and TaqMan assays specific for 10 miRNAs was employed to evaluate and validate miRNA expression in a discovery cohort (n = 29) and validation cohort (n = 61) of primary OSCC tissue specimens, respectively. A computational pipeline with sequential integration of data from miRTarBase, CytoScape, UniProtKB and DIANA-miRPath was utilized to map the target genes of deregulated miRNAs and associated molecular pathways.
RESULTS: Microarray profiling identified 46 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in OSCC. Unsupervised clustering demonstrated a high degree of molecular heterogeneity across the tumour samples as the clusters did not represent any of their clinico-pathological characteristics. The differential expression of 10 miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR (let-7a, let-7d, let-7f and miR-16 were downregulated while miR-29b, miR-142-3p, miR-144, miR-203, and miR-223 were upregulated in OSCC; the expression of miR-1275 was variable in tumours, with high levels associated to regional lymph node invasion; additionally, miR-223 exhibited an association with advanced tumour stage/size). In silico analyses of the experimentally confirmed target genes of miRNAs revamp the relationship of upregulated miRNAs with tumour suppressor genes and of downregulated miRNAs with oncogenes. Further, the differentially expressed miRNAs may play a role by simultaneously activating genes of PI3K/Akt signaling on one hand and by repressing genes of p53 signaling pathway on the other.
CONCLUSIONS: The identified differentially expressed miRNAs and signaling pathways deregulated in OSCC have implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the association of miR-1275 with nodal invasion and the upregulation of miR-144 in OSCC.

Sabri A, Batool M, Xu Z, et al.
Predicting EGFR mutation status in lung cancer:Proposal for a scoring model using imaging and demographic characteristics.
Eur Radiol. 2016; 26(11):4141-4147 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a combination of CT and demographic features can predict EGFR mutation status in bronchogenic carcinoma.
METHODS: We reviewed demographic and CT features for patients with molecular profiling for resected non-small cell lung carcinoma. Using multivariate logistic regression, we identified features predictive of EGFR mutation. Prognostic factors identified from the logistic regression model were then used to build a more practical scoring system.
RESULTS: A scoring system awarding 5 points for no or minimal smoking history, 3 points for tumours with ground glass component, 3 points for airbronchograms, 2 points for absence of preoperative evidence of nodal enlargement or metastases and 1 point for doubling time of more than a year, resulted in an AUROC of 0.861. A total score of at least 8 yielded a specificity of 95 %. On multivariate analysis sex was not found to be predictor of EGFR status.
CONCLUSIONS: A weighted scoring system combining imaging and demographic data holds promise as a predictor of EGFR status. Further studies are necessary to determine reproducibility in other patient groups. A predictive score may help determine which patients would benefit from molecular profiling and may help inform treatment decisions when molecular profiling is not possible.
KEY POINTS: • EGFR mutation-targeted chemotherapy for bronchogenic carcinoma has a high success rate. • Mutation testing is not possible in all patients. • EGFR associations include subsolid density, slow tumour growth and minimal/no smoking history. • Demographic or imaging features alone are weak predictors of EGFR status. • A scoring system, using imaging and demographic features, is more predictive.

Zhao R, Jiang W, Li X, et al.
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene alteration in gastric signet ring cell carcinoma.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 16(4):569-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to investigating the frequency of Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) alterations in patients with gastric signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) and the correlations between ALK alterations and the clinical-pathological features.
METHODS: The expression of ALK protein was first determined in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens (FFPE) from 177 pathologically confirmed SRC patients by Ventana Immunohistochemistry (IHC). Then patients with ALK positive detected by IHC were assayed in ALK rearrangement by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH).
RESULTS: We assessed 4 of 177 cases (2.3%) as positive by IHC. 3 of the 4 patients had T4 tumors and positive nodal status, and 1 of them had metastasis. All of them were HER2 negative. All of the 4 patients were positive for ALK rearrangement using the standard criteria of FISH.
COUCLUSION: Our analysis showed that about 2.3% of Chineses SRC patients treated in our hospital were ALK positive. Ventana IHC and FISH were both of the reliable approaches in SRC patients. Patients with ALK positive seemed to have deep infiltrated and positive lymph nodes and HER2 negative.

Roisman A, Huamán Garaicoa F, Metrebian F, et al.
SOXC and MiR17-92 gene expression profiling defines two subgroups with different clinical outcome in mantle cell lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(6):531-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogeneous B-cell lymphoid malignancy where most patients follow an aggressive clinical course whereas others are associated with an indolent performance. SOX4, SOX11, and SOX12 belong to SOXC family of transcription factors involved in embryonic neurogenesis and tissue remodeling. Among them, SOX11 has been found aberrantly expressed in most aggressive MCL patients, being considered a reliable biomarker in the pathology. Several studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs) from the miR-17-92 cluster are among the most deregulated miRNAs in human cancers, still little is known about this cluster in MCL. In this study we screened the transcriptional profiles of 70 MCL patients for SOXC cluster and miR17, miR18a, miR19b and miR92a, from the miR-17-92 cluster. Gene expression analysis showed higher SOX11 and SOX12 levels compared to SOX4 (P ≤ 0.0026). Moreover we found a negative correlation between the expression of SOX11 and SOX4 (P < 0.0001). miR17-92 cluster analysis showed that miR19b and miR92a exhibited higher levels than miR17 and miR18a (P < 0.0001). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed two subgroups with significant differences in relation to aggressive MCL features, such as blastoid morphological variant (P = 0.0412), nodal presentation (P = 0.0492), CD5(+) (P = 0.0004) and shorter overall survival (P < 0.0001). Together, our findings show for the first time an association between the differential expression profiles of SOXC and miR17-92 clusters in MCL and also relate them to different clinical subtypes of the disease adding new biological information that may contribute to a better understanding of this pathology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Akkaya B, Salim O, Akkaya H, et al.
C-MYC and BCL2 translocation frequency in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: A study of 97 patients.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2016 Jan-Mar; 59(1):41-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements have been reported in a proportion of DLBCLs, where they may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of MYC and BCL2 translocations in DLBCL and assess the prognostic impact in DLBCL patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated the expression patterns of CD 10, BCL6, and MUM 1 by immunohistochemistry in 121 cases with DLBCL in tissue microarray (TMA): 62 cases in germinal center B-cells (GCBs); and 59 cases in activated B-cells (ABCs) of which 60 were females and 61 were males. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on TMAs in 97 DLBCLs.
RESULT: MYC rearrangements were observed in 11 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features, including age, sex, and nodal/extranodal disease. MYC rearrangement was associated with significantly worse overall survival (P < 0.01). BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 14 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features including age and sex. BCL2 rearrangement had a worse outcome (P < 0.01). MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were observed in 3 of 97 cases with the age of  53 (female), 53, 63 years old, respectively, died in 24, 18, and 35 months after the diagnosis. Two cases had primary nodal and one case primary extranodal presentations. All these patients had stage IV disease.
CONCLUSION: We concluded that C-MYC and BCL2 may contribute to aggressive transformation, and more mechanism-based therapy should be explored. Targeted therapies involving these rearrangements and its associated pathways may change the fate of DLBCLs. Analysis of MYC gene rearrangement along with BCL2 is critical in the identification of high-risk patients with poor prognosis.

Bodenstine TM, Chandler GS, Seftor RE, et al.
Plasticity underlies tumor progression: role of Nodal signaling.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2016; 35(1):21-39 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily member Nodal is an established regulator of early embryonic development, with primary roles in endoderm induction, left-right asymmetry, and primitive streak formation. Nodal signals through TGFβ family receptors at the plasma membrane and induces signaling cascades leading to diverse transcriptional regulation. While conceptually simple, the regulation of Nodal and its molecular effects are profoundly complex and context dependent. Pioneering work by developmental biologists has characterized the signaling pathways, regulatory components, and provided detailed insight into the mechanisms by which Nodal mediates changes at the cellular and organismal levels. Nodal is also an important factor in maintaining pluripotency of embryonic stem cells through regulation of core transcriptional programs. Collectively, this work has led to an appreciation for Nodal as a powerful morphogen capable of orchestrating multiple cellular phenotypes. Although Nodal is not active in most adult tissues, its reexpression and signaling have been linked to multiple types of human cancer, and Nodal has emerged as a driver of tumor growth and cellular plasticity. In vitro and in vivo experimental evidence has demonstrated that inhibition of Nodal signaling reduces cancer cell aggressive characteristics, while clinical data have established associations with Nodal expression and patient outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in the potential targeting of Nodal activity in a therapeutic setting for cancer patients that may provide new avenues for suppressing tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we evaluate our current understanding of the complexities of Nodal function in cancer and highlight recent experimental evidence that sheds light on the therapeutic potential of its inhibition.

Ondrejka SL, Hsi ED
T-cell Lymphomas: Updates in Biology and Diagnosis.
Surg Pathol Clin. 2016; 9(1):131-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nodal-based peripheral T-cell lymphomas are heterogeneous malignancies with overlapping morphology and clinical features. However, the current World Health Organization classification scheme separates these tumors into prognostically relevant categories. Since its publication, efforts to uncover the gene expression profiles and molecular alterations have subdivided these categories further, and distinct subgroups are emerging with specific profiles that reflect the cell of origin for these tumors and their microenvironment. Identification of the perturbed biologic pathways may prove useful in selecting patients for specific therapies and associating biomarkers with survival and relapse.

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