Gene Summary

Gene:PEG10; paternally expressed 10
Aliases: EDR, HB-1, Mar2, RTL2, MEF3L, Mart2, RGAG3, SIRH1
Summary:This is a paternally expressed imprinted gene that is thought to have been derived from the Ty3/Gypsy family of retrotransposons. It contains two overlapping open reading frames, RF1 and RF2, and expresses two proteins: a shorter, gag-like protein (with a CCHC-type zinc finger domain) from RF1; and a longer, gag/pol-like fusion protein (with an additional aspartic protease motif) from RF1/RF2 by -1 translational frameshifting (-1 FS). While -1 FS has been observed in RNA viruses and transposons in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, this gene represents the first example of -1 FS in a eukaryotic cellular gene. This gene is highly conserved across mammalian species and retains the heptanucleotide (GGGAAAC) and pseudoknot elements required for -1 FS. It is expressed in adult and embryonic tissues (most notably in placenta) and reported to have a role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Overexpression of this gene has been associated with several malignancies, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphocytic leukemia. Knockout mice lacking this gene showed early embryonic lethality with placental defects, indicating the importance of this gene in embryonic development. Additional isoforms resulting from alternatively spliced transcript variants, and use of upstream non-AUG (CUG) start codon have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:retrotransposon-derived protein PEG10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PEG10 (cancer-related)

Yahiro Y, Maeda S, Shinohara N, et al.
PEG10 counteracts signaling pathways of TGF-β and BMP to regulate growth, motility and invasion of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells.
J Bone Miner Metab. 2019; 37(3):441-454 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we reported highly active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in human chondrosarcoma samples and concurrent downregulation of paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10). PEG10 expression was suppressed by TGF-β signaling, and PEG10 interfered with the TGF-β and BMP-SMAD pathways in chondrosarcoma cells. However, the roles of PEG10 in bone tumors, including chondrosarcoma, remain unknown. Here, we report that PEG10 promotes SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell growth by preventing TGF-β1-mediated suppression. In contrast, PEG10 knockdown augments the TGF-β1-induced motility of SW1353 cells. Individually, TGF-β1 and PEG10 siRNA increase AKT phosphorylation, whereas an AKT inhibitor, MK2206, mitigates the effect of PEG10 silencing on cell migration. SW1353 cell invasion was enhanced by BMP-6, which was further increased by PEG10 silencing. The effect of siPEG10 was suppressed by inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). BMP-6 induced expression of MMP-1, -3, and -13, and PEG10 lentivirus or PEG10 siRNA downregulated or further upregulated these MMPs, respectively. PEG10 siRNA increased BMP-6-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and AKT, whereas the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and MK2206 diminished SW1353 cell invasion by PEG10 siRNA. SB203580 and MK2206 impeded the enhancing effect of PEG10 siRNA on the BMP-6-induced expression of MMP-1, -3, and -13. Our findings suggest dual functions for PEG10: accelerating cell growth by suppressing TGF-β signaling and inhibiting cell motility and invasion by interfering with TGF-β and BMP signaling via the AKT and p38 pathways, respectively. Thus, PEG10 might be a molecular target for suppressing the aggressive phenotypes of chondrosarcoma cells.

Wang J, Chu XQ, Zhang D, Kong DF
Knockdown of long non-coding RNA PEG10 inhibits growth, migration and invasion of gastric carcinoma cells via up-regulating miR-3200.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(5):769-778 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is the main leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The aberrant expression of paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) is involved in development of a range of cancers. However, the potential biological function and the underling mechanism of PEG10 in human gastric carcinoma are still unknown. Knocking down LncRNA PEG10 might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of gastric cancer. The expression of PEG10, miR-3200, and AEG1 in human gastric carcinoma NCI-N87 cells were altered by cell transfection assay. Cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue exclusion, Transwell assay, and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. RNA and protein expression level of gene was analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blot. Luciferase reporter assay was conducted to determine the target gene of miR-3200. JNK and Wnt signal pathway protein expressions were tested by Western blot. The up-regulation of PEG10 was found in clinical samples. PEG10 knockdown effectively inhibited gastric carcinoma cell viability, migration, and invasion, but promoted cell apoptosis. This tumor-suppressing effect of PEG10 knockdown might be realized by up-regulating miR-3200 in vitro and in vivo. AEG1 was a direct target gene of miR-3200. Moreover, miR-3200 might suppress NCI-N87 cells by negative regulating AEG1. Up-regulating miR-3200 effectively blocked JNK and Wnt pathways likely via down-regulating AEG1. PEG10 knockdown played a carcinostatic role via up-regulating miR-3200 and further regulating AEG1 in gastric carcinoma cells, during which process, JNK pathway and Wnt pathway were blocked.

Ge H, Yan Y, Wu D, et al.
Prognostic value of PEG10 in Asian solid tumors: A meta-analysis.
Clin Chim Acta. 2018; 483:197-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The involvement of paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) in the development of solid tumors has been demonstrated. However, the available data have not yet been fully analyzed. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the correlations between PEG10 and the clinicopathological characteristics in patients with solid tumors.
METHODS: An electronic search for relevant articles was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese CNKI, and Wan Fang. The relationships between PEG10 and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with cancer were determined using pooled odds ratios and hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS: Ten studies comprising 1014 patients were included. The pooled analyses indicated the significant association of PEG10 overexpression with the risk of cancer, differentiation, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage, but not with gender in cancer patients. Moreover, a high level of PEG10 expression correlated with poor prognosis and could be used as an independent prognostic biomarker for patients with solid tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: PEG10 expression is associated with advanced clinicopathological characteristics and can be used as a prognostic biomarker in patients with solid tumors.

Gomih A, Smith JS, North KE, et al.
DNA methylation of imprinted gene control regions in the regression of low-grade cervical lesions.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(3):552-560 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of host epigenetic mechanisms in the natural history of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) is not well characterized. We explored differential methylation of imprinted gene regulatory regions as predictors of the risk of CIN1 regression. A total of 164 patients with CIN1 were recruited from 10 Duke University clinics for the CIN Cohort Study. Participants had colposcopies at enrollment and up to five follow-up visits over 3 years. DNA was extracted from exfoliated cervical cells for methylation quantitation at CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression to quantify the effect of methylation on CIN1 regression over two consecutive visits, compared to non-regression (persistent CIN1; progression to CIN2+; or CIN1 regression at a single time-point), adjusting for age, race, high-risk HPV (hrHPV), parity, oral contraceptive and smoking status. Median participant age was 26.6 years (range: 21.0-64.4 years), 39% were African-American, and 11% were current smokers. Most participants were hrHPV-positive at enrollment (80.5%). Over one-third of cases regressed (n = 53, 35.1%). Median time-to-regression was 12.6 months (range: 4.5-24.0 months). Probability of CIN1 regression was negatively correlated with methylation at IGF2AS CpG 5 (HR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.23-0.77) and PEG10 DMR (HR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.65-0.98). Altered methylation of imprinted IGF2AS and PEG10 DMRs may play a role in the natural history of CIN1. If confirmed in larger studies, further research on imprinted gene DMR methylation is warranted to determine its efficacy as a biomarker for cervical cancer screening.

Akamatsu S, Inoue T, Ogawa O, Gleave ME
Clinical and molecular features of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer.
Int J Urol. 2018; 25(4):345-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is a lethal form of prostate cancer that emerges in the later stages of castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment. Treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer transdifferentiates from adenocarcinoma as an adaptive response to androgen receptor pathway inhibition. The incidence of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer has been rising due to the increasing use of potent androgen receptor pathway inhibitors. Typically, treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer is characterized by either low or absent androgen receptor expression, small cell carcinoma morphology and expression of neuroendocrine markers. Clinically, it manifests with predominantly visceral or lytic bone metastases, bulky tumor masses, low prostate-specific antigen levels or a short response duration to androgen deprivation therapy. Furthermore, although the tumor initially responds to platinum-based chemotherapy, the duration of the response is short. Based on the poor prognosis, it is imperative to identify novel molecular targets for treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Recent advances in genomic and molecular research, supported by novel in vivo models, have identified some of the key molecular characteristics of treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer. The gain of MYCN and AURKA oncogenes, along with the loss of tumor suppressor genes TP53 and RB1 are key genomic alterations associated with treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Androgen receptor repressed genes, such as BRN2 and PEG10, are also necessary for treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer. These genetic changes converge on pathways upregulating genes, such as SOX2 and EZH2, that facilitate lineage plasticity and neuroendocrine differentiation. As a result, on potent androgen receptor pathway inhibition, castration-resistant prostate cancer transdifferentiates to treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer in a clonally divergent manner. Further understanding of the disease biology is required to develop novel drugs and biomarkers that would help treat this aggressive prostate cancer variant.

Soon PS, Provan PJ, Kim E, et al.
Profiling differential microRNA expression between in situ, infiltrative and lympho-vascular space invasive breast cancer: a pilot study.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2018; 35(1-2):3-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive breast cancer (IBC) and lympho-vascular invasion (LVI) represent distinct stages in breast cancer progression with different clinical implications. Altered microRNA (miRNA) expression may play a role in mediating the progression of DCIS to IBC and LVI. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether differential miRNA expression could play a role in breast cancer progression. Cancer cells from DCIS, IBC and LVI were microdissected from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue of five breast cancer samples. MiRNA profiling of extracted RNA was performed using the TaqMan

Kempinska K, Malik B, Borkin D, et al.
Pharmacologic Inhibition of the Menin-MLL Interaction Leads to Transcriptional Repression of
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(1):26-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 85% of malignant liver tumors and results in 600,000 deaths each year, emphasizing the need for new therapies. Upregulation of menin was reported in HCC patients and high levels of menin correlate with poor patient prognosis. The protein-protein interaction between menin and histone methyltransferase mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) plays an important role in the development of HCC, implying that pharmacologic inhibition of this interaction could lead to new therapeutic strategy for the HCC patients. Here, we demonstrate that the menin-MLL inhibitor MI-503 shows antitumor activity in

Li B, Shi C, Li B, et al.
The effects of Curcumin on HCT-116 cells proliferation and apoptosis via the miR-491/PEG10 pathway.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(4):3091-3098 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paternally expressed gene-10 (PEG10) could participate in several carcinomas and might be regulated by miR-491. To now, miR-491 was found to play an important role in the sensitivity and mechanism of drug usage in the treatment of colorectal cancer, and drug resistance is a key factor to affect the disease healing. In this study, miR-491, PEG10, Wnt1, and β-catenin expression levels and their correlation with colorectal cancer were assessed in cancer tissues and adjacent parts. And the target relationship between PEG10 and miR-491 was verified. Meanwhile, the impaction of Curcumin on miR-491, PEG10, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were analyzed in HCT-116 cells. The effects of PEG10 and Curcumin on human HCT-116 cells proliferation and apoptosis were investigated by MTT and flow cytometry assay. Results showed that the expression of miR-491 in colon cancer tissues was decreased, but PEG10, Wnt1, and β-catenin were higher than that in adjacent tissues. The PEG10 gene 3' UTR could combine with miR-491 seed sequence and miR-491 overexpression could cause a decrease in PEG10, Wnt1, and β-catenin levels in human HCT-116 cells. Furthermore, PEG10 overexpression increased the expression levels of Wnt1 and β-catenin, thereby promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, Curcumin could up-regulate miR-491, inhibit PEG10, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Consequently, Curcumin reduced HCT-116 cells proliferation and promoted cells apoptosis via the miR-491/PEG10 pathway. In conclusion, PEG10 was a target gene of miR-491, miR-491/PEG10 strengthen the sensitivity of Curcumin in HCT-116 cells proliferation and apoptosis, which might act as an ideal diagnostic biomarker treatment methods.

Shinohara N, Maeda S, Yahiro Y, et al.
TGF-β signalling and PEG10 are mutually exclusive and inhibitory in chondrosarcoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13494 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histological distinction between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is difficult because of a lack of definitive biomarkers. Here, we found highly active transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in human chondrosarcomas compared with enchondromas by immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5. In contrast, the chondrogenic master regulator SOX9 was dramatically down-regulated in grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) was identified by microarray analysis as a gene overexpressed in chondrosarcoma SW1353 and Hs 819.T cells compared with C28/I2 normal chondrocytes, while TGF-β1 treatment, mimicking higher grade tumour conditions, suppressed PEG10 expression. Enchondroma samples exhibited stronger expression of PEG10 compared with chondrosarcomas, suggesting a negative association of PEG10 with malignant cartilage tumours. In chondrosarcoma cell lines, application of the TGF-β signalling inhibitor, SB431542, increased the protein level of PEG10. Reporter assays revealed that PEG10 repressed TGF-β and BMP signalling, which are both SMAD pathways, whereas PEG10 knockdown increased the level of phosphorylated SMAD3 and SMAD1/5/9. Our results indicate that mutually exclusive expression of PEG10 and phosphorylated SMADs in combination with differentially expressed SOX9 is an index to distinguish between enchondroma and chondrosarcoma, while PEG10 and TGF-β signalling are mutually inhibitory in chondrosarcoma cells.

Hara R, Onizuka M, Matsusita E, et al.
NKG2D gene polymorphisms are associated with disease control of chronic myeloid leukemia by dasatinib.
Int J Hematol. 2017; 106(5):666-674 [PubMed] Related Publications
A recent study reported that treatment-free remission (TFR) of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after dasatinib (Das) treatment was significantly associated with natural killer (NK) cell proliferation in the peripheral blood. However, biomarkers to predict lymphocytosis or successful TFR are not well characterized. In order to clarify individual differences in NK cell responses among patients treated with Das, we retrospectively analyzed the association between polymorphisms in the natural killer group 2D receptor [NKG2D; also known as killer cell lectin like receptor K1 (KLRK1)] gene and clinical outcomes in 31 patients treated with Das as first-line treatment for CML. Patients with the NKG2D HNK1/HNK1 (high-cytotoxic activity-related allele on NKG2D hb-1) haplotype achieved MR4.5 more quickly than those with other haplotypes [hazard ratio (HR) 4.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.75-118.6; P = 0.004]. In addition, NK cells with the NKG2D HNK1 allele exhibited enhanced phosphorylation of vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (VAV1) at Tyr174. These data suggest that NKG2D gene polymorphisms may represent candidate biomarkers for the prediction of TFR following Das treatment.

De Marco C, Laudanna C, Rinaldo N, et al.
Specific gene expression signatures induced by the multiple oncogenic alterations that occur within the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0178865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hyperactivation of the phosphatydil-inositol-3' phosphate kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway is observed in most NSCLCs, promoting proliferation, migration, invasion and resistance to therapy. AKT can be activated through several mechanisms that include loss of the negative regulator PTEN, activating mutations of the catalytic subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) and/or mutations of AKT1 itself. However, number and identity of downstream targets of activated PI3K/AKT pathway are poorly defined. To identify the genes that are targets of constitutive PI3K/AKT signalling in lung cancer cells, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) expressing active mutant AKT1 (AKT1-E17K), active mutant PIK3CA (PIK3CA-E545K) or that are silenced for PTEN. We found that, altogether, aberrant PI3K/AKT signalling in lung epithelial cells regulated the expression of 1,960/20,436 genes (9%), though only 30 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (15 up-regulated, 12 down-regulated and 3 discordant) out of 20,436 that were common among BEAS-AKT1-E17K, BEAS-PIK3CA-E545K and BEAS-shPTEN cells (0.1%). Conversely, DEGs specific for mutant AKT1 were 133 (85 up-regulated; 48 down-regulated), DEGs specific for mutant PIK3CA were 502 (280 up-regulated; 222 down-regulated) and DEGs specific for PTEN loss were 1549 (799 up-regulated, 750 down-regulated). The results obtained from array analysis were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR on selected up- and down-regulated genes (n = 10). Treatment of BEAS-C cells and the corresponding derivatives with pharmacological inhibitors of AKT (MK2206) or PI3K (LY294002) further validated the significance of our findings. Moreover, mRNA expression of selected DEGs (SGK1, IGFBP3, PEG10, GDF15, PTGES, S100P, respectively) correlated with the activation status of the PI3K/AKT pathway assessed by S473 phosphorylation in NSCLC cell lines (n = 6). Finally, we made use of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to investigate the relevant BioFunctions enriched by the costitutive activation of AKT1-, PI3K- or PTEN-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells. Expectedly, the analysis of the DEGs common to all three alterations highlighted a group of BioFunctions that included Cell Proliferation of tumor cell lines (14 DEGs), Invasion of cells (10 DEGs) and Migration of tumour cell lines (10 DEGs), with a common core of 5 genes (ATF3, CDKN1A, GDF15, HBEGF and LCN2) that likely represent downstream effectors of the pro-oncogenic activities of PI3K/AKT signalling. Conversely, IPA analysis of exclusive DEGs led to the identification of different downstream effectors that are modulated by mutant AKT1 (TGFBR2, CTSZ, EMP1), mutant PIK3CA (CCND2, CDK2, IGFBP2, TRIB1) and PTEN loss (ASNS, FHL2). These findings not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms that are activated by aberrant signalling through the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung epithelial cells, but also contribute to the identification of previously unrecognised molecules whose regulation takes part in the development of lung cancer.

Lee Y, Park S, Lee SH, Lee H
Characterization of genetic aberrations in a single case of metastatic thymic adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):330 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare subtype of thymic epithelial tumors. Due to its rarity, there is currently no sequencing approach for thymic adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: We performed whole exome and transcriptome sequencing on a case of thymic adenocarcinoma and performed subsequent validation using Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: The case of thymic adenocarcinoma showed aggressive behaviors with systemic bone metastases. We identified a high incidence of genetic aberrations, which included somatic mutations in RNASEL, PEG10, TNFSF15, TP53, TGFB2, and FAT1. Copy number analysis revealed a complex chromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 8, which resulted in gene fusion between MCM4 and SNTB1 and dramatic amplification of MYC and NDRG1. Focal deletion was detected at human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, which was previously observed in thymic epithelial tumors. We further investigated fusion transcripts using RNA-seq data and found an intergenic splicing event between the CTBS and GNG5 transcript. Finally, enrichment analysis using all the variants represented the immune system dysfunction in thymic adenocarcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Thymic adenocarcinoma shows highly malignant characteristics with alterations in several cancer-related genes.

Peng YP, Zhu Y, Yin LD, et al.
PEG10 overexpression induced by E2F-1 promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in pancreatic cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of paternally expressed gene-10 (PEG10) is known to promote the progression of several carcinomas, however, its role in pancreatic cancer (PC) is unknown. We investigated the expression and function of PEG10 in PC.
METHODS: PEG10 expression and correlation with PC progression was assessed in cancerous tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues. Further, the role of PEG10 in PC cell progression and the underlying mechanisms were studied by using small interfering RNA (Si-RNA).
RESULTS: PEG10 expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues and correlated with PC invasion of vessels and Ki-67 expression. Si-RNA mediated PEG10 knockdown resulted in inhibition of proliferation and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, which was mediated by p21 and p27 upregulation. A decrease in PC cell invasion and migration, mediated by ERK/MMP7 pathway, was observed in PEG10 knockdown group. Further, findings of ChIP assay suggested that E2F-1 could directly enhance the expression of PEG10 through binding to PEG10 promoter.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, PEG10 was identified as a prognostic biomarker for PC and E2F-1 induced PEG10 could promote PC cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

Agosto-Arroyo E, Isayeva T, Wei S, et al.
Differential Gene Expression in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast Based on ERBB2 Status.
Cancer Control. 2017; 24(1):102-110 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The molecular signature of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the breast is not well understood. Erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (ERBB2 [formerly known as HER2/neu]) positivity in DCIS is predictive of coexistent early invasive breast carcinoma. The aim of this study is to identify the gene-expression signature profiles of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes of DCIS.
METHODS: Based on ER, PR, and ERBB2 status, a total of 18 high nuclear grade DCIS cases with no evidence of invasive breast carcinoma were selected along with 6 non-neoplastic controls. The 3 study groups were defined as ER/PR-positive, ERBB2, and triple-negative subtypes.
RESULTS: A total of 49 genes were differentially expressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with the ER/PR-positive and triple-negative groups. PROM1 was overexpressed in the ERBB2 subtype compared with ER/PR-positive and triple-negative subtypes. Other genes differentially expressed included TAOK1, AREG, AGR3, PEG10, and MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified unique gene signatures in ERBB2-positive DCIS, which may be associated with the development of invasive breast carcinoma. The results may enhance our understanding of the progression of breast cancer and become the basis for developing new predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for DCIS.

Hua Y, Ma X, Liu X, et al.
Identification of the potential biomarkers for the metastasis of rectal adenocarcinoma.
APMIS. 2017; 125(2):93-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rectal cancer is a common malignant tumor of the digestive tract, with a high incidence and high mortality. This study aimed to identify the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for rectal adenocarcinoma (RAC) metastasis. The expression profiling of RAC patients with metastasis and RAC patients without metastasis was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The datasets were used to identify the genes associated with RAC metastasis. Fifty up-regulated genes and seventeen down-regulated genes were identified in the primary tumor loci of RAC metastasis compared with non-metastasis. Sixty-seven dysregulated gens were conducted to construct the protein-protein network, and CCND3 was the hub protein. The dysregulated genes were significantly enriched in pancreatic secretion, cell adhesion molecules pathways, response to vitamin D of biological process, and retinoid binding of molecular function. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that CCND3, AQP3, PEG10, and RAB27B had the up-regulated tendency in RAC metastasis; ADCY1 had the down-regulated tendency in RAC metastasis. CCND3, AQP3, PEG10, RAB27B, and ADCY1 might play essential roles in the metastasis process of RAC through pancreatic secretion and cell adhesion molecules pathways. The five genes could be potential diagnosis biomarkers or therapeutic targets for RAC metastasis.

Zhang M, Sui C, Dai B, et al.
PEG10 is imperative for TGF-β1-induced epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(1):510-518 [PubMed] Related Publications
Substantial evidence indicates that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) plays a vital role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). PEG10 has been shown involved in invasion and metastasis of tumors. The present study investigated the role of PEG10 in TGF-β1-triggered EMT in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to measure the expression level of PEG10 in clinical HCC tissues with or without lymph node metastasis, and normal tissues. The results showed that PEG10 expression is higher in HCC tissues and associated with overall survival (OS) and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, PEG10 expression level was remarkably higher in hepatic cancer cells than the normal hepatic cell line L02. In the present study, we constructed an adenovirus vector containing the coding area of PEG10 (Ad-PEG10) and infected HepG2 cells and found that overexpression of PEG10 promoted the cell migration, invasion ability and EMT of HepG2 cells. TGF-β1 acted on HepG2 cells by enhancing cell migration, invasion, EMT and upregulating PEG10 expression level. However, cells pretreated with adenovirus vector of PEG10 shRNAs (Ad-shRNA1 and Ad-shRNA2) did not occur EMT prior to TGF-β1 stimulation. Moreover, TGF-β1 did not increase the migration and invasion of cells with PEG10 knockdown and overexpression of PEG10 confers chemoresistance to HepG2 cells. Accordingly, sufficient PEG10 expression level is essential for TGF-β1 induced EMT and associated with the chemoresistance in HepG2 cells.

Shyu YC, Lee TL, Lu MJ, et al.
miR-122-mediated translational repression of PEG10 and its suppression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Transl Med. 2016; 14(1):200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary liver malignancy, is the most common cancer in males and fourth common cancer in females in Taiwan. HCC patients usually have a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis. It has been classified as a complex disease because of the heterogeneous phenotypic and genetic traits of the patients and a wide range of risk factors. Micro (mi)RNAs regulate oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that are known to be dysregulated in HCC. Several studies have found an association between downregulation of miR-122, a liver-specific miRNA, and upregulation of paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) in HCC; however, the correlation between low miR-122 and high PEG10 levels still remains to be defined and require more investigations to evaluate their performance as an effective prognostic biomarker for HCC.
METHODS: An in silico approach was used to isolate PEG10, a potential miR-122 target implicated in HCC development. miR-122S binding sites in the PEG10 promoter were evaluated with a reporter assay. The regulation of PEG10 by miR-122S overexpression was examined by quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry in miR-122 knockout mice and liver tissue from HCC patients. The relationship between PEG10 expression and clinicopathologic features of HCC patients was also evaluated.
RESULTS: miR-122 downregulated the expression of PEG10 protein through binding to 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the PEG10 transcript. In miR-122 knockout mice and HCC patients, the deficiency of miR-122 was associated with HCC progression. The expression of PEG10 was increased in 57.3 % of HCC as compared to paired non-cancerous tissue samples. However, significant upregulation was detected in 56.5 % of patients and was correlated with Okuda stage (P = 0.05) and histological grade (P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: miR-122 suppresses PEG10 expression via direct binding to the 3'-UTR of the PEG10 transcript. Therefore, while PEG10 could not be an ideal diagnostic biomarker for HCC but its upregulation in HCC tissue still has predictive value for HCC prognosis.

Boot A, Oosting J, de Miranda NF, et al.
Imprinted survival genes preclude loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 7 in cancer cells.
J Pathol. 2016; 240(1):72-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genomes of a wide range of cancers, including colon, breast, and thyroid cancers, frequently show copy number gains of chromosome 7 and rarely show loss of heterozygosity. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Strikingly, oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinomas can display an extreme genomic profile, with homozygosity of all chromosomes except for chromosome 7. The observation that homozygosity of chromosome 7 is never observed suggests that retention of heterozygosity is essential for cells. We hypothesized that cell survival genes are genetically imprinted on either of two copies of chromosome 7, which thwarts loss of heterozygosity at this chromosome in cancer cells. By employing a DNA methylation screen and gene expression analysis, we identified six imprinted genes that force retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7. Subsequent knockdown of gene expression showed that CALCR, COPG2, GRB10, KLF14, MEST, and PEG10 were essential for cancer cell survival, resulting in reduced cell proliferation, G1 -phase arrest, and increased apoptosis. We propose that imprinted cell survival genes provide a genetic basis for retention of chromosome 7 heterozygosity in cancer cells. The monoallelically expressed cell survival genes identified in this study, and the cellular pathways that they are involved in, offer new therapeutic targets for the treatment of tumours showing retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Vassilev A, Lee CY, Vassilev B, et al.
Identification of genes that are essential to restrict genome duplication to once per cell division.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(23):34956-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear genome duplication is normally restricted to once per cell division, but aberrant events that allow excess DNA replication (EDR) promote genomic instability and aneuploidy, both of which are characteristics of cancer development. Here we provide the first comprehensive identification of genes that are essential to restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. An siRNA library of 21,584 human genes was screened for those that prevent EDR in cancer cells with undetectable chromosomal instability. Candidates were validated by testing multiple siRNAs and chemical inhibitors on both TP53+ and TP53- cells to reveal the relevance of this ubiquitous tumor suppressor to preventing EDR, and in the presence of an apoptosis inhibitor to reveal the full extent of EDR. The results revealed 42 genes that prevented either DNA re-replication or unscheduled endoreplication. All of them participate in one or more of eight cell cycle events. Seventeen of them have not been identified previously in this capacity. Remarkably, 14 of the 42 genes have been shown to prevent aneuploidy in mice. Moreover, suppressing a gene that prevents EDR increased the ability of the chemotherapeutic drug Paclitaxel to induce EDR, suggesting new opportunities for synthetic lethalities in the treatment of human cancers.

Li X, Xiao R, Tembo K, et al.
PEG10 promotes human breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(5):1933-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paternally expressed imprinted gene 10 (PEG10), derived from the Ty3/Gypsy family of retrotransposons, has been implicated as a genetic imprinted gene. Accumulating evidence suggests that PEG10 plays an important role in tumor growth in various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer and prostate cancer. However, the correlation between PEG10 and breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated and characterized the role of PEG10 in human breast cancer proliferation, cell cycle, clone formation, migration and invasion. The expression level of PEG10 was significantly elevated in breast cancer tissues and associated with distant metastasis and poor clinical outcome. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that high expression of PEG10 could enrich cell cycle-related processes in breast cancer tissues. Ectopic overexpression of PEG10 in breast cancer cells enhanced cell proliferation, cell cycle, clone formation along with migration and invasion. Cell-to-cell junction molecule E-cadherin was downregulated and matrix degradation proteases MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9 were up-regulated after PEG10 overexpression. Our results demonstrated that PEG10 is a crucial oncogene and has prognostic value for breast cancer, which could be applied in breast cancer diagnosis and targeting therapy in future.

Ito Y, Maehara K, Kaneki E, et al.
Novel Nonsense Mutation in the NLRP7 Gene Associated with Recurrent Hydatidiform Mole.
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2016; 81(4):353-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: This study aimed to clarify the genetic and epigenetic features of recurrent hydatidiform mole (RHM) in Japanese patients.
METHODS: Four Japanese isolated RHM cases were analyzed using whole-exome sequencing. Villi from RHMs were collected by laser microdissection for genotyping and DNA methylation assay of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PEG3 and H19 DMRs were used to confirm the parental origin of the variants.
RESULTS: A novel homozygous nonsense mutation in NLRP7 (c.584G>A; p.W195X) was identified in 1 patient. Genotyping of one of her molar tissue revealed that it was biparental but not androgenetic in origin. Despite the fact that the RHM is biparental, maternally methylated DMRs of PEG3, SNRPN and PEG10 showed complete loss of DNA methylation. A paternally methylated DMR of H19 retained normal methylation.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first Japanese case of RHM with a novel homozygous nonsense NLRP7 mutation and a specific loss of maternal DNA methylation of DMRs. Notably, the mutation was identified in an isolated case of an ethnic background that has not previously been studied in this context. Our data underscore the involvement of NLRP7 in RHM pathophysiology and confirm that DNA methylation of specific regions is critical.

Nalluri S, Ghoshal-Gupta S, Kutiyanawalla A, et al.
TIMP-1 Inhibits Apoptosis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells via Interaction with Bcl-2.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0137673 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are multifaceted molecules that exhibit properties beyond their classical proteinase inhibitory function. Although TIMP-1 is a known inhibitor of apoptosis in mammalian cells, the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are not well-established. Our earlier studies using H2009 lung adenocarcinoma cells, implanted in the CNS, showed that TIMP-1 overexpressing H2009 cells (HB-1), resulted in more aggressive tumor kinetics and increased vasculature. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the role of TIMP-1 in the context of apoptosis, using the same lung cancer cell lines. Overexpressing TIMP-1 in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line H2009 resulted in an approximately 3-fold increased expression of Bcl-2, with a marked reduction in apoptosis upon staurosporine treatment. This was an MMP-independent function as a clone expressing TIMP-1 mutant T2G, lacking MMP inhibition activity, inhibited apoptosis as strongly as TIMP1 overexpressing clones, as determined by inhibition of PARP cleavage. Immunoprecipitation of Bcl-2 from cell lysates also co-immunoprecipitated TIMP-1, indicative of an interaction between these two proteins. This interaction was specific for TIMP-1 as TIMP-2 was not present in the Bcl-2 pull-down. Additionally, we show a co-dependency of TIMP-1 and Bcl-2 RNA and protein levels, such that abrogating Bcl-2 causes a downregulation of TIMP-1 but not TIMP-2. Finally, we demonstrate that TIMP-1 dependent inhibition of apoptosis occurs through p90RSK, with phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD at serine 112, ultimately reducing Bax levels and increasing mitochondrial permeability. Together, these studies define TIMP-1 as an important cancer biomarker and demonstrate the potential TIMP-1 as a crucial therapeutic target.

Akamatsu S, Wyatt AW, Lin D, et al.
The Placental Gene PEG10 Promotes Progression of Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer.
Cell Rep. 2015; 12(6):922-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
More potent targeting of the androgen receptor (AR) in advanced prostate cancer is driving an increased incidence of neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC), an aggressive and treatment-resistant AR-negative variant. Its molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood but appears to require TP53 and RB1 aberration. We modeled the development of NEPC from conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma using a patient-derived xenograft and found that the placental gene PEG10 is de-repressed during the adaptive response to AR interference and subsequently highly upregulated in clinical NEPC. We found that the AR and the E2F/RB pathway dynamically regulate distinct post-transcriptional and post-translational isoforms of PEG10 at distinct stages of NEPC development. In vitro, PEG10 promoted cell-cycle progression from G0/G1 in the context of TP53 loss and regulated Snail expression via TGF-β signaling to promote invasion. Taken together, these findings show the mechanistic relevance of RB1 and TP53 loss in NEPC and suggest PEG10 as a NEPC-specific target.

Peng W, Fan H, Wu G, et al.
Upregulation of long noncoding RNA PEG10 associates with poor prognosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma with facilitating tumorigenicity.
Clin Exp Med. 2016; 16(2):177-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. To date, there has been little progress in improving the overall survival of DLBCL patients. Emerging evidences have implicated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important regulatory roles in fundamental biological processes, and some of them are involved in cancer initiation, development and progression. This study was to investigate the expression of lncRNA PEG10 in a cohort of DLBCL patients to assess its clinical value and biological function in DLBCL. We first found that the expression of PEG10 was upregulated in DLBCL tumorous tissues and that cell lines compared with the normal. Moreover, we illustrated that PEG10 was significantly correlated with B symptoms, IPI score, CHOP-like treatment and rituximab. In addition, ROC(AUC) of PEG10 was up to 0.8228, implicating that PEG10 could be a diagnostic marker for distinguishing DLBCL from normal. Importantly, we verified that PEG10 was a key independent predictive factor for DLBCL prognosis from sizable samples through the longtime follow-ups. Furthermore, we revealed that knockdown of PEG10 expression by siRNA could lead to growth arrest and cell apoptosis in vitro. Our results suggested that PEG10 could represent a novel indicator of poor prognosis and might be served as a potential target for the diagnosis and gene therapy of DLBCL.

Rojiani MV, Ghoshal-Gupta S, Kutiyanawalla A, et al.
TIMP-1 overexpression in lung carcinoma enhances tumor kinetics and angiogenesis in brain metastasis.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(4):293-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) orchestrate many biologic activities, including inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity, activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinases, and regulation of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis induction. Tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase can play a protective role during tumor invasion and metastasis, but elevated TIMP messenger RNA levels have also been associated with aggressive cancers and poor clinical outcome. We examined the potential roles of TIMP-1 in H2009 lung adenocarcinoma cells and in cells transfected with a human TIMP-1-overexpressing vector (HB-6 and HB-1). Tumors resulting from the implantation of parental cell lines and transfected HB-1 cells into the brains of nude mice had a typical carcinoma profile, but human TIMP-1-overexpressing tumors showed enhanced tumor kinetics and focally more infiltrative features; vessel density assessed with anti-CD31 immunohistochemistry was also greater within HB-1 tumor implants. Similar effects on HB-6 and HB-1 cells versus parental cell lines and empty vector clones were observed in endothelial cell assays. Anchorage-independent growth and invasion through Matrigel were also increased in TIMP-1-overexpressing cells. Together, these results indicate tumor-promoting functions of TIMP-1 through alterations in angiogenesis, increased tumorigenicity, and invasive behavior. Although matrix metalloproteinase inhibition has been the traditionally identified function of TIMP-1, matrix metalloproteinase-independent interactions may contribute to the growth of metastatic carcinomas in the brain.

Bang H, Ha SY, Hwang SH, Park CK
Expression of PEG10 Is Associated with Poor Survival and Tumor Recurrence in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 47(4):844-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10), first identified as an imprinted gene, is paternally expressed and maternally silenced. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), PEG10 has been identified as a potential target gene located within the amplified 7q21 locus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of PEG10 protein in HCC and evaluate its prognostic significance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PEG10 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in tumor tissues from 218 HCC patients undergoing curative resection. Furthermore, the relationships between PEG10 expression and clinicopathologic features or postoperative survival of HCC patients were evaluated. The median follow-up period was 119.8 months for survivors.
RESULTS: PEG10 expression was observed in 148 of the 218 HCCs (67.9%) and was significantly correlated with younger age, female, higher Edmondson grade, microvascular invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, higher American Joint Committee on Cancer T-stage, and higher α-fetoprotein level. PEG10 expression was an independent predictor of early recurrence (p=0.013), and it showed an unfavorable influence on recurrence-free survival (p < 0.001). A subgroup analysis showed that among patients with α-fetoprotein ≤ 20 ng/mL (80 patients), the PEG10-positive group also showed an unfavorable influence on recurrence-free survival (p=0.002). Moreover, a multivariate survival analysis identified PEG10 as an independent predictor of shorter recurrence-free survival (p=0.005). PEG10 expression showed an unfavorable influence on overall survival (p=0.007) but was not an independent predictor of shorter overall survival (p=0.128).
CONCLUSION: PEG10 protein could be a potential biomarker predicting early recurrence and recurrence-free survival in HCC patients after curative resection, even in those with normal serum α-fetoprotein levels.

Zang W, Wang T, Huang J, et al.
Long noncoding RNA PEG10 regulates proliferation and invasion of esophageal cancer cells.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2015; 22(3):138-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long chain noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs), a class of noncoding RNA nucleotides longer than 200 bp, have important roles in a variety of biological processes. Accumulating evidence has confirmed the involvement of LncRNAs in cancer initiation, development and progression. We investigated the expression of LncRNA PEG10 in a cohort of esophageal carcinomas to assess its impact on esophageal cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. Quantitaive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were used to quantify LncRNA PEG10 expression levels in 43 paired EC samples and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Cell growth, apoptosis and Transwell invasion assays were used to evaluate the effects of LncRNA PEG10 on esophageal cancer cells. LncRNA PEG10 was expressed at higher levels in esophageal cancer tissues than in adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (P<0.05). This relatively high expression was significantly associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases (P<0.05). Apoptosis and migration rates were significantly decreased in two esophageal cancer cell lines (EC9706 and KYSE150) transfected with si-LncRNA PEG10 (P<0.05). Downregulation of LncRNA PEG10 decreased the expression of PEG10 (P<0.05). Our results indicated that LncRNA PEG10 is upregulated in esophageal cancer tissues, and its downregulation inhibits proliferation and invasion, and promotes apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. LncRNA PEG10 may serve as a therapeutic agent in esophageal cancer.

Deng X, Hu Y, Ding Q, et al.
PEG10 plays a crucial role in human lung cancer proliferation, progression, prognosis and metastasis.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(5):2159-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10) has been identified as a genetic imprinted gene, which is important for apoptosis resistance in cancer cells. Mounting evidence suggests that PEG10 is expressed in the majority of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells with growth-promoting activity. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between PEG10 expression and the clinicopathological features of lung, breast and HCC tumors, and predicted the relationship between survival and expression levels of PEG10 in lung cancer patients. Furthermore, we chose non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549 as a model to analyze the function of PEG10 in proliferation and metastasis in vitro. Our results revealed that expression of PEG10 was closely correlated with clinical TNM grade and patient prognosis in lung cancer. PEG10 enhanced cell proliferation and promoted tumor cell migration and invasion by upregulating the expression of β-catenin, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin in the A549 cells. Our findings provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms of lung cancer and offer novel ideas for designing new therapeutic targets for lung carcinoma.

Qin J, Liu M, Ding Q, et al.
The direct effect of estrogen on cell viability and apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 395(1-2):99-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiology researches indicated that gastric cancer is a male-predominant disease; both expression level of estrogen and expression pattern of estrogen receptors (ERs) influence its carcinogenesis. But the direct effect of estrogen on gastric cancer cells is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the direct effect of β-estradiol (E2) on gastric cancer cells. SGC7901 and BGC823 were treated with a serial of concentrations of E2. The survival rates of both the cell lines were significantly reduced, and the reduction of viability was due to apoptosis triggered by E2 treatment. Caspase 3 was activated in response to the increasing E2 concentration in both SGC7901 and BGC823. Cleaved Caspase 3 fragments were detected, and the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were reduced. Apoptosis was further confirmed by flow cytometry. The expression level of PEG10, an androgen receptor target gene, was reduced during E2 treatment. Both ERα and ERβ were expressed in these cell lines, and the result of bioinformatics analysis of gastric cancer from GEO datasets indicated that the expression levels of both ERα and ERβ were significantly higher in noncancerous gastric tissues than in gastric cancer tissues. Our research indicated that estrogen can reduce cell viability and promote apoptosis in gastric cancer cells directly; ERs expression level is associated with gastric cancer. Our research will help to understand the mechanism of gender disparity in gastric cancer.

Saad Y, El-Serafy M, Eldin MS, et al.
New genetic markers for diagnosis of hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2013; 22(4):419-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) enhances effective and curative management. New genetic markers with distinct diagnostic ability are required.
AIM: determine the expression of GPC3, PEG10, SERPINI1, MK and QP-C in the peripheral blood of HCC patients.
METHODS: 74 HCV patients were recruited and divided into three groups; chronic hepatitis (I), liver cirrhosis (II) and HCC (III). Demographics, laboratory and imaging data were collected. Child score and metastatic work up were completed. The expression of the five candidate genes in the peripheral blood was performed by qRT-PCR assay.
RESULTS: Groups were gender matched, age in group I was significantly lower than in groups II and III (37.7 vs 50.4 and 55.6, p value <0.005). CHILD score; group II and III A/B/C = (7/5/6) and (20/6/3). AFP was significantly higher in group III than I and II (204 vs 3.9 and 6.9, p < 0.01). In HCC group 69% of the lesions were < 5 cm, and had 1-2 nodules; 14% had metastases. GPC3, PEG10, SERPINI1 and MK mRNA were significantly higher in the HCC group compared to the other groups while QP-C mRNA was higher in chronic hepatitis C group compared to other groups. The gene expression values in HCC patients were independent of the tumor size, AFP levels or extrahepatic metastasis. Combined measurement of the five gene markers showed 100% sensitivity and 33% specificity, 48% PPV and 100% NPV.
CONCLUSION: GPC3, PEG10, SERPINI1 and MK are genetic markers that can represent a useful tool for detection of HCC.

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