PGK1

Gene Summary

Gene:PGK1; phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Aliases: PGKA, MIG10, HEL-S-68p
Location:Xq21.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The encoded protein may also act as a cofactor for polymerase alpha. Additionally, this protein is secreted by tumor cells where it participates in angiogenesis by functioning to reduce disulfide bonds in the serine protease, plasmin, which consequently leads to the release of the tumor blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Deficiency of the enzyme is associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes hemolytic anemia and neurological impairment. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 19, 21 and the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:phosphoglycerate kinase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PGK1 (cancer-related)

Ayakannu T, Taylor AH, Willets JM, et al.
Validation of endogenous control reference genes for normalizing gene expression studies in endometrial carcinoma.
Mol Hum Reprod. 2015; 21(9):723-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique used for the relative quantification of target genes, using reference (housekeeping) genes for normalization to ensure the generation of accurate and robust data. A systematic examination of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in endometrial cancer tissues is absent. The aims of this study were therefore to identify and evaluate from the thirty-two possible reference genes from a TaqMan(®) array panel their suitability as an internal control gene. The mathematical software packages geNorm qBasePLUS identified Pumilio homolog 1 (Drosophila) (PUM1), ubiquitin C (UBC), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19) and peptidylpropyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) (PPIA) as the best reference gene combination, whilst NormFinder identified MRPL19 as the best single reference gene, with importin 8 (IPO8) and PPIA being the best combination of two reference genes. BestKeeper ranked MRPL19 as the most stably expressed gene. In addition, the study was validated by examining the relative expression of a test gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). A significant difference in CB1 mRNA expression between malignant and normal endometrium using MRPL19, PPIA, and IP08 in combination was observed. The use of MRPL19, IPO8 and PPIA was identified as the best reference gene combination for the normalization of gene expression levels in endometrial carcinoma. This study demonstrates that the arbitrary selection of endogenous control reference genes for normalization in qRT-PCR studies of endometrial carcinoma, without validation, risks the production of inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

Mariz FC, Coimbra EC, Jesus AL, et al.
Development of an IP-Free Biotechnology Platform for Constitutive Production of HPV16 L1 Capsid Protein Using the Pichia pastoris PGK1 Promoter.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:594120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein, which forms the basis of the currently available vaccines against cervical cancer, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed heterologously. We report the development of a biotechnology platform for HPV16 L1 protein expression based on the constitutive PGK1 promoter (PPGK1) from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The L1 gene was cloned under regulation of PPGK1 into pPGKΔ3 expression vector to achieve intracellular expression. In parallel, secretion of the L1 protein was obtained through the use of an alternative vector called pPGKΔ3α, in which a codon optimized α-factor signal sequence was inserted. We devised a work-flow based on the detection of the L1 protein by dot blot, colony blot, and western blot to classify the positive clones. Finally, intracellular HPV VLPs assembly was demonstrated for the first time in yeast cells. This study opens up perspectives for the establishment of an innovative platform for the production of HPV VLPs or other viral antigens for vaccination purposes, based on constitutive expression in P. pastoris.

Sun S, Liang X, Zhang X, et al.
Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 is a predictor of poor survival and a novel prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in breast cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(8):1332-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) has been recently documented in various malignancies; however, the molecular mechanisms of the variable PGK1 expression and its clinical significance in terms of survival status remain unclear.
METHODS: Real-time quantitative PCR (real-time qPCR) and western blotting were used to verify PGK1 expression in 46 fresh breast cancer tissues and matched normal tissues. A tissue microarray (TMA) comprising 401 breast cancer tissues and 123 matched normal tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry for PGK1 expression. Then, the correlation between PGK1 expression and the clinicopathologic features was analysed.
RESULTS: PGK1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in breast cancer tissues compared with that in normal breast tissues. High PGK1 expression was significantly associated with higher histologic grade (P=0.009) and positive status of ER (P=0.004), Her-2 (P=0.026) and P53 (P=0.012). High levels of PGK1 expression were associated with worse overall survival (OS, P=0.02). Furthermore, patients who underwent paclitaxel chemotherapy with high levels PGK1 expression had shorter OS than did those with low levels of PGK1 expression (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that PGK1 (P=0.001) was an independent predictor in the patients treated with paclitaxel.
CONCLUSIONS: PGK1 is a prognostic biomarker of chemoresistance to paclitaxel treatment in breast cancer.

Irshad K, Mohapatra SK, Srivastava C, et al.
A combined gene signature of hypoxia and notch pathway in human glioblastoma and its prognostic relevance.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0118201 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors including glioblastoma (GBM). Its synergism with Notch signaling promotes progression in different cancers. However, Notch signaling exhibits pleiotropic roles and the existing literature lacks a comprehensive understanding of its perturbations under hypoxia in GBM with respect to all components of the pathway. We identified the key molecular cluster(s) characteristic of the Notch pathway response in hypoxic GBM tumors and gliomaspheres. Expression of Notch and hypoxia genes was evaluated in primary human GBM tissues by q-PCR. Clustering and statistical analyses were applied to identify the combination of hypoxia markers correlated with upregulated Notch pathway components. We found well-segregated tumor-clusters representing high and low HIF-1α/PGK1-expressors which accounted for differential expression of Notch signaling genes. In combination, a five-hypoxia marker set (HIF-1α/PGK1/VEGF/CA9/OPN) was determined as the best predictor for induction of Notch1/Dll1/Hes1/Hes6/Hey1/Hey2. Similar Notch-axis genes were activated in gliomaspheres, but not monolayer cultures, under moderate/severe hypoxia (2%/0.2% O2). Preliminary evidence suggested inverse correlation between patient survival and increased expression of constituents of the hypoxia-Notch gene signature. Together, our findings delineated the Notch-axis maximally associated with hypoxia in resected GBM, which might be prognostically relevant. Its upregulation in hypoxia-exposed gliomaspheres signify them as a better in-vitro model for studying hypoxia-Notch interactions than monolayer cultures.

Ali H, Du Z, Li X, et al.
Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in lung cancer in vitro.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3767-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The present study aimed to examine 10 housekeeping genes (HKGs), including 18s ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein large P0 (RPLP0), β‑actin (ACTB), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), phosphoglycerate kinase‑1 (PGK1), β‑2‑microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal protein LI3a (RPL13A), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase‑1 (HPRT1) and TATA box binding protein (TBP) in order to identify the most stable and suitable reference genes for use in expression studies in non‑small cell lung cancer. The mRNA expression encoding the panel of the 10 HKGs was determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR) in human lung cancer cell lines. Three software programs, BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, were used to ascertain the most suitable reference genes to normalize the RNA input. The present study examined three lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI‑H446 and NCI‑H460). The analysis of the experimental data using BestKeeper software revealed that all 10 HKGs were stable, with GADPH, followed by 18S being the most stable genes and PPIA and HPRT1 being the least stable genes. The NormFinder software results demonstrated that PPIA followed by ACTB were the most stable and B2M and RPLP0 were the least stable. The geNorm software results revealed that ACTB and PGK1, followed by PPIA were the most stable genes and B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the least stable genes. Due to discrepancies in the ranking orders of the reference genes obtained by different analyzing software programs, it was not possible to determine a single universal reference gene. The suitability of selected reference genes requires unconditional validation prior to each study. Based on the three analyzing programs, ACTB, PPIA and PGK1 were the most stable reference genes in lung cancer cell lines.

Cheng YJ, Ding H, Du HQ, et al.
Downregulation of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 by shRNA sensitizes U251 xenografts to radiotherapy.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1513-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) has been demonstrated to be involved in radioresistance. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of PGK1 on the radioresistance in vivo. U251 glioma cells were transfected with the short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-PGK1 and pcDNA3.1-PGK1 using Lipofectamine 2000. The radiosensitivity of U251 xenografts was observed by tumor growth curve following radiotherapy. Quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate PGK1 expression in the xenografts from the different tumor models. The expression of PGK1 was maximally inhibited in response to shRNA4 at 24 h after the transfection in vitro. Tumor growth of the U251 xenografts was significantly inhibited following treatment with shRNA-PGK1 and radiotherapy. The expression of PGK1 in vivo at the mRNA and protein levels was downregulated by the treatment of shRNA1 when compared to levels following treatment with shNC and PBS after radiotherapy. The results showed that suppression of PGK1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of U251 xenografts and suggest that PGK1 may serve as a useful target in the treatment of radioresistant glioma.

Krzystek-Korpacka M, Diakowska D, Bania J, Gamian A
Expression stability of common housekeeping genes is differently affected by bowel inflammation and cancer: implications for finding suitable normalizers for inflammatory bowel disease studies.
Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014; 20(7):1147-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Instability of housekeeping genes (HKG), supposedly unregulated and hence used as normalizers, may dramatically change conclusions of quantitative PCR experiments. The effect of bowel inflammation on HKG remains unknown. Expression stability of 15 HKG (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HPRT1, IPO8, MRPL19, PGK1, PPIA, RPLP0, RPS23, SDHA, TBP, UBC, and YWHAZ) in 166 bowel specimens (91 normal, 35 cancerous, and 40 inflamed) was ranked by coefficients of variation (CV%) or using dedicated software: geNorm and NormFinder. The RPS23, PPIA, and RPLP0 were top-ranked, whereas IPO8, UBC and TBP were the lowest-ranked HKG across inflamed/cancerous/normal colonic tissues. The pairs RPS23/RPLP0, PGK1/MRPL19, or PPIA/RPLP0 were optimal reference by CV%, NormFinder, and geNorm, respectively. Colon inflammation affected HKG more pronouncedly than cancer with ACTB significantly down- and B2M upregulated. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), different genes were top-ranked in a large and small bowel, whereas TBP, UBC, and IPO8 were lowest-ranked in both. For patients with IBD at large, RPS23/PPIA, PGK1/MRPL19, and PPIA/RPLP0 were found optimal by CV%, NormFinder, and geNorm, respectively. ACTB and B2M expression was related to CRC stage and positively correlated with clinical activity of IBD. Although GAPDH was upregulated neither in CRC nor IBD, it tended to positively correlate with tumor depth and Crohn's disease activity index. Normalizing against GAPDH affected experimental conclusions in a small but not large bowel. Bowel inflammation significantly affects several classic HKG. The pair PPIA/RPLP0 is a common optimal reference for studies encompassing tissues sampled from colorectal cancer and IBD patients. Using ACTB or B2M is not recommended.

Zhao W, Chang C, Cui Y, et al.
Steroid receptor coactivator-3 regulates glucose metabolism in bladder cancer cells through coactivation of hypoxia inducible factor 1α.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(16):11219-29 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cell proliferation is a metabolically demanding process, requiring high glycolysis, which is known as "Warburg effect," to support anabolic growth. Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a steroid receptor coactivator, is overexpressed and/or amplified in multiple cancer types, including non-steroid targeted cancers, such as urinary bladder cancer (UBC). However, whether SRC-3 regulates the metabolic reprogramming for cancer cell growth is unknown. Here, we reported that overexpression of SRC-3 accelerated UBC cell growth, accompanied by the increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis. Knockdown of SRC-3 reduced the UBC cell glycolytic rate under hypoxia, decreased tumor growth in nude mice, with reduction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and lactate dehydrogenase expression levels. We further revealed that SRC-3 could interact with hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), which is a key transcription factor required for glycolysis, and coactivate its transcriptional activity. SRC-3 was recruited to the promoters of HIF1α-target genes, such as glut1 and pgk1. The positive correlation of expression levels between SRC-3 and Glut1 proteins was demonstrated in human UBC patient samples. Inhibition of glycolysis through targeting HK2 or LDHA decelerated SRC-3 overexpression-induced cell growth. In summary, overexpression of SRC-3 promoted glycolysis in bladder cancer cells through HIF1α to facilitate tumorigenesis, which may be an intriguing drug target for bladder cancer therapy.

Shashni B, Sharma K, Singh R, et al.
Coffee component hydroxyl hydroquinone (HHQ) as a putative ligand for PPAR gamma and implications in breast cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2013; 14 Suppl 5:S6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Coffee contains several compounds that have the potential to influence breast cancer risk and survival. However, epidemiologic data on the relation between coffee compounds and breast cancer survival are sparse and inconsistent.
RESULTS: We show that coffee component HHQ has significant apoptotic effect on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in vitro, and that ROS generation, change in mitochondrial membrane permeability, upregulation of Bax and Caspase-8 as well as down regulation of PGK1 and PKM2 expression may be important apoptosis-inducing mechanisms. The results suggest that PPARγ ligands may serve as potential therapeutic agents for breast cancer therapy. HHQ was also validated as a ligand for PPARγ by docking procedure.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the anti-breast cancer (in vitro) activity of HHQ.

Zhan C, Zhang Y, Ma J, et al.
Identification of reference genes for qRT-PCR in human lung squamous-cell carcinoma by RNA-Seq.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2014; 46(4):330-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on the reliable reference genes, many commonly used reference genes are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. The aim of this study was to identify novel reliable reference genes in lung squamous-cell carcinoma. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to survey the whole genome expression in 5 lung normal samples and 44 lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples. We evaluated the expression profiles of 15 commonly used reference genes and identified five additional candidate reference genes. To validate the RNA-Seq dataset, we used qRT-PCR to verify the expression levels of these 20 genes in a separate set of 100 pairs of normal lung tissue and lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples, and then analyzed these results using geNorm and NormFinder. With respect to 14 of the 15 common reference genes (B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT1, IPO8, PGK1, POLR2A, PPIA, RPLP0, TBP, TFRC, UBC, and YWHAZ), the expression levels were either too low to be easily detected, or exhibited a high degree of variability either between lung normal and squamous-cell carcinoma samples, or even among samples of the same tissue type. In contrast, 1 of the 15 common reference genes (ACTB) and the 5 additional candidate reference genes (EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14) were stably and constitutively expressed at high levels in all the samples tested. ACTB, EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14 are ideal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of lung squamous-cell carcinoma, while 14 commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes are less appropriate in this context.

Misuno K, Liu X, Feng S, Hu S
Quantitative proteomic analysis of sphere-forming stem-like oral cancer cells.
Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013; 4(6):156 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to identify target proteins that may play important functional roles in oral cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) using mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics.
METHODS: Sphere-formation assays were performed on highly invasive UM1 and lowly invasive UM2 oral cancer cell lines, which were derived from the same tongue squamous cell carcinoma, to enrich CSCs. Quantitative proteomic analysis of CSC-like and non-CSC UM1 cells was carried out using tandem mass tagging and two-dimensional liquid chromatography with Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: CSC-like cancer cells were found to be present in the highly invasive UM1 cell line but absent in the lowly invasive UM2 cell line. Stem cell markers SOX2, OCT4, SOX9 and CD44 were up-regulated, whereas HIF-1 alpha and PGK-1 were down-regulated in CSC-like UM1 cells versus non-CSC UM1 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that many proteins in cell cycle, metabolism, G protein signal transduction, translational elongation, development, and RNA splicing pathways were differentially expressed between the two cell phenotypes. Both CREB-1-binding protein (CBP) and phosphorylated CREB-1 were found to be significantly over-expressed in CSC-like UM1 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: CSC-like cells can be enriched from the highly invasive UM1 oral cancer cell line but not from the lowly invasive UM2 oral cancer cell line. There are significant proteomic alterations between CSC-like and non-CSC UM1 cells. In particular, CBP and phosphorylated CREB-1 were significantly up-regulated in CSC-like UM1 cells versus non-CSC UM1 cells, suggesting that the CREB pathway is activated in the CSC-like cells.

Ameis HM, Drenckhan A, von Loga K, et al.
PGK1 as predictor of CXCR4 expression, bone marrow metastases and survival in neuroblastoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83701 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A close relationship between phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and the CXCR4/SDF1 axis (chemokine receptor 4/stromal cell derived factor 1) has been shown for several cancers. However, the role of PGK1 has not been investigated for neuroblastoma, and PGK1 might be a therapeutic target for this tumor entity. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of PGK1 expression in neuroblastoma patients, to determine the impact of PGK1 expression levels on survival, and to correlate PGK1 expression with CXCR4 expression and bone marrow dissemination.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 22 patients with neuroblastoma that were surgically treated at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf were evaluated for expression of PGK1 and CXCR4 using immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated with clinical parameters, metastases and outcome of patients. Immunocytochemistry, proliferation and expression analysis of CXCR4 and PGK1 were performed in neuroblastoma cell lines.
RESULTS: PGK1 is expressed in neuroblastoma cells. PGK1 expression is significantly positively correlated with CXCR4 expression and tumor dissemination to the bone marrow. Moreover the expression of PGK1 is significantly associated with a negative impact on survival in patients with neuroblastoma. PGK1 is downregulated by inhibition of CXCR4 in neuroblastoma cells.
CONCLUSION: PGK1 appears to play an important role for neuroblastoma, predicting survival and tumor dissemination. Further in vivo studies outstanding, it is a candidate target for novel therapeutic strategies.

Ding H, Cheng YJ, Yan H, et al.
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 promotes radioresistance in U251 human glioma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(2):894-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) has been found to be increased in radioresistant astrocytomas. The present study was designed to investigate the potential role of PGK1 in the radioresistance in U251 human cells. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were performed to evaluate PGK1 expression for mRNA levels and protein levels, respectively. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-PGK1 and the high expression plasmids were transfected to radioresistant U251 cells (RR-U251 cells) or normal U251 cells using lipofectamine™ 2000. The cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The wound-healing assay (WHA) was used to evaluate cell migration ability. Cell invasion abilities were examined using a Transwell culture chamber system. Our results showed that the expression of PGK1 was significantly increased in RR-U251 cells compared to normal U251 cells. Following irradiation, the cell viability as well as the migration and invasion ability were significantly higher in RR-U251 cells compared with normal U251 cells. Downregulating PGK1 using shRNA induced a significantly downregulated cell viability and decreased migration and invasion ability, and overexpression of PGK1 contributed to upregulated cell viability and increased migration and invasion ability, both in RR-U251 cells and normal U251 cells. These findings suggest that PGK1 could promote radioresistance in U251 human cells.

He Y, Meng XM, Huang C, et al.
Long noncoding RNAs: Novel insights into hepatocelluar carcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 344(1):20-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent advances in non-protein coding part of human genome analysis have discovered extensive transcription of large RNA transcripts that lack of coding protein function, termed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). It is becoming evident that lncRNAs may be an important class of pervasive genes involved in carcinogenesis and metastasis. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs in diverse diseases are not yet fully understood. Thus, it is anticipated that more efforts should be made to clarify the lncRNAs world. Moreover, accumulating studies have demonstrated that a class of lncRNAs are dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and closely related with tumorigenesis, metastasis, prognosis or diagnosis. In this review, we will briefly discuss the regulation and functional role of lncRNAs in HCC, therefore evaluating the potential of lncRNAs as prospective novel therapeutic targets in HCC.

Befani C, Mylonis I, Gkotinakou IM, et al.
Cobalt stimulates HIF-1-dependent but inhibits HIF-2-dependent gene expression in liver cancer cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(11):2359-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcriptional regulators that mediate the cellular response to low oxygen. Although HIF-1 is usually considered as the principal mediator of hypoxic adaptation, several tissues and different cell types express both HIF-1 and HIF-2 isoforms under hypoxia or when treated with hypoxia mimetic chemicals such as cobalt. However, the similarities or differences between HIF-1 and HIF-2, in terms of their tissue- and inducer-specific activation and function, are not adequately characterized. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of true hypoxia and hypoxia mimetics on HIF-1 and HIF-2 induction and specific gene transcriptional activity in two hepatic cancer cell lines, Huh7 and HepG2. Both hypoxia and cobalt caused rapid induction of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins. Hypoxia induced erythropoietin (EPO) expression and secretion in a HIF-2-dependent way. Surprisingly, however, EPO expression was not induced when cells were treated with cobalt. In agreement, both HIF-1- and HIF-2-dependent promoters (of PGK and SOD2 genes, respectively) were activated by hypoxia while cobalt only activated the HIF-1-dependent PGK promoter. Unlike cobalt, other hypoxia mimetics such as DFO and DMOG activated both types of promoters. Furthermore, cobalt impaired the hypoxic stimulation of HIF-2, but not HIF-1, activity and cobalt-induced HIF-2α interacted poorly with USF-2, a HIF-2-specific co-activator. These data show that, despite similar induction of HIF-1α and HIF-2α protein expression, HIF-1 and HIF-2 specific gene activating functions respond differently to different stimuli and suggest the operation of oxygen-independent and gene- or tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms involving additional transcription factors or co-activators.

Ahmad SS, Glatzle J, Bajaeifer K, et al.
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 as a promoter of metastasis in colon cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(2):586-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress due to intratumoral hypoxia in solid cancer has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, which is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and has been described for its role in tumor progression and metastasis in several malignancies. We investigated whether the expression of PGK1 varies between metastatic and non-metastatic colon cancer. We compared PGK1 expression in colon cancer patients either with or without metastasis via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis was performed to test altered gene expression after PGK1 silencing, using isolates from HCT116 cell lines. PCR results showed an increased expression of PGK1 in colon cancer tissue from metastatic patients in comparison to patients with no metastasis (fold change 2.6, p<0.001). Immunohistochemical staining of PGK1 showed stronger staining in metastatic tissue in comparison to non-metastatic cancer tissue according to a semi-quantitative evaluation. Microarray and subsequent pathway analysis provided 4 genes of interest (CYR61, FOS, JUN and EGR1) used for pathway proposal. The results indicate that increased expression of PGK1 in colon cancer tissue is associated with metastasis. Furthermore, we propose several genes induced by PGK1 that could account for cell migration, mainly EGR1 and CYR61 together with the transcription factors FOS and JUN.

Lin ZY, Chuang WL
Hepatocellular carcinoma cells cause different responses in expressions of cancer-promoting genes in different cancer-associated fibroblasts.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2013; 29(6):312-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) is one of the most crucial components of the tumor microenvironment to promote the invasiveness of cancer cells. The interactions between cancer cells and CAFs are bidirectional. Our recent study showed that up-regulations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 (CCL26), interleukin 6 (IL6), and lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) genes in cancer cells were parts of the common effects of CAFs on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, the subject of how HCC cells to influence the gene expressions of CAFs still needs to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate this issue. Two human HCC (HCC24/KMUH, HCC38/KMUH) and two human CAF cell lines (F26/KMUH, F28/KMUH) were studied. Influence of HCC38/KMUH cancer cells on differential expressions of genes in F28/KMUH CAFs was detected by microarray to select target genes for further analysis. Both HCC cell lines increased proliferation (all p < 0.005) and migration (all p < 0.0001) of two CAF cell lines. HCC24/KMUH cancer cells had stronger ability to promote migration of F26/KMUH CAFs than HCC38/KMUH cancer cells did (p < 0.0001). Eleven up-regulated cancer-promoting genes, including apelin (APLN), CCL2, CCL26, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), IL6, mucin 1 (MUC1), LOXL2, platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide (PDGFA), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) detected by microarray showed good correlation with results of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction study. Among these genes, HCC24/KMUH cancer cells had same tendency of effects on differential expressions of genes in F28/KMUH CAFs as HCC38/KMUH cancer cells did. However, the responses of F26/KMUH CAFs to different HCC cell lines were variable. Only PGK1 gene was consistently up-regulated and PDGFA gene was consistently down-regulated caused by both HCC cell lines in F26/KMUH CAFs. Besides PGK1 gene, HCC38/KMUH cancer cells only up-regulated APLN, LOXL2, and VEGFA genes and HCC24/KMUH cancer cells only up-regulated FGF2 gene in F26/KMUH CAFs. In conclusion, HCC cells can promote proliferation and migration of CAFs. However, the impact of HCC cells on differential expressions of cancer-promoting genes in CAFs is influenced by the characteristics of CAFs. This implies that blocking single or several particular cancer-promoting genes in CAFs is unable to become a common stratagem for the treatment of HCC.

Larson SR, Zhang X, Dumpit R, et al.
Characterization of osteoblastic and osteolytic proteins in prostate cancer bone metastases.
Prostate. 2013; 73(9):932-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately 90% of patients who die of Prostate Cancer (PCa) have bone metastases, which promote a spectrum of osteoblastic, osteolytic or mixed bone responses. Numerous secreted proteins have been reported to promote osteoblastic or osteolytic bone responses. We determined whether previously identified and/or novel proteins were associated with the osteoblastic or osteolytic response in clinical specimens of PCa bone metastases.
METHODS: Gene expression was analyzed on 14 PCa metastases from 11 patients by microarray profiling and qRT-PCR, and protein expression was analyzed on 33 PCa metastases from 30 patients by immunohistochemistry on highly osteoblastic and highly osteolytic bone specimens.
RESULTS: Transcript and protein levels of BMP-2, BMP-7, DKK-1, ET-1, and Sclerostin were not significantly different between osteoblastic and osteolytic metastases. However, levels of OPG, PGK1, and Substance P proteins were increased in osteoblastic samples. In addition, Emu1, MMP-12, and sFRP-1 were proteins identified with a novel role of being associated with either the osteoblastic or osteolytic bone response.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first detailed analysis of bone remodeling proteins in human specimens of PCa bone metastases. Three proteins not previously shown to be involved may have a role in the PCa bone response. Furthermore, our data suggests that the relative expression of numerous, rather than a single, bone remodeling proteins determine the bone response in PCa bone metastases.

Kikani CK, Verona EV, Ryu J, et al.
Proliferative and antiapoptotic signaling stimulated by nuclear-localized PDK1 results in oncogenesis.
Sci Signal. 2012; 5(249):ra80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Enhanced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a hallmark of many human tumors because it promotes cell proliferation and survival through several mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is the phosphorylation of the serine and threonine kinase Akt at the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane by phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which is recruited and activated by binding to the phosphoinositides produced by PI3K. We previously demonstrated increased nuclear accumulation of PDK1 in cells with enhanced PI3K activity. We report that nuclear PDK1 promoted cell proliferation by suppressing FOXO3A-dependent transcription of the gene encoding p27Kip1 (an inhibitor of cell cycle progression), whereas it enhanced cell survival by inhibiting the activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase. Cells with nuclear-localized PDK1 showed anchorage-independent growth, and when injected into mice, these cells induced the formation of solid tumors. In human prostate tumors, cytoplasmic localization of PDK1 correlated only with early-stage, low-risk tumors, whereas nuclear PDK1 localization correlated with high-risk tumors. Together, our findings suggest a role for nuclear-translocated PDK1 in oncogenic cellular transformation and tumor progression in mice and humans.

Shashni B, Sakharkar KR, Nagasaki Y, Sakharkar MK
Glycolytic enzymes PGK1 and PKM2 as novel transcriptional targets of PPARγ in breast cancer pathophysiology.
J Drug Target. 2013; 21(2):161-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor and plays important roles in breast cancer cell proliferation. The complexity of the underlying biochemical and molecular mechanisms of breast cancer and the involvement of PPARγ in breast cancer pathophysiology are unclear. In this study, we carried out prediction of the peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) motifs in 2332 genes reported to be involved in breast cancer in literature. A total of 178 genes were found to have PPRE (DR1/DR2) and/or PPAR-associated conserved motif (PACM) motifs. We further constructed protein-protein interaction network, disease gene network and gene ontology (GO) analyses to identify novel key genes for experimental validation. We identified two genes in the glycolytic pathway (phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2)) at the ATP production steps and experimentally validated their repression by PPARγ in two breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. Further analysis suggested that this repression leads to decrease in ATP levels and apoptosis. These investigations will help us in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which PPARγ regulates the cellular energy pathway and the use of its ligands in human breast cancer therapeutics.

Lepleux C, Abeilard-Lemoisson E, Duval M, et al.
siPGK1 sensitizes chemoresistant human ovarian cancer cell lines to cisplatin.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(10):4277-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Enhanced glycolysis provides essential intermediates for cancer cell proliferation. Its inhibition could be a promising approach for destroying tumors, especially those developing in hypoxic conditions, which are presumably the most chemoresistant. In hypoxic cells, glycolysis provides the main part of ATP. Phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (PGK1) catalyzes a crucial reaction of glycolysis that reconstitutes the two molecules of ATP previously consumed. PGK1 inhibition could arrest growth or kill hypoxic and/or chemoresistant cells. We tested siPGK1 transfection in two human ovarian cancer cells lines of increasing chemoresistance, and showed that: Expression of PGK1 was significantly reduced and associated with blockade of cell growth in the G(1) phase; siPGK1 associated with cisplatin was more effective than cisplatin-alone at inhibiting proliferation of chemoresistant cells; siPGK1 -alone and -associated with cisplatin strongly increased expression of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein BCL-2 Interacting Mediator of cell death (BIM). PGK1 might be a key target for sensitizing chemoresistant cells to cisplatin.

Vajda A, Marignol L, Barrett C, et al.
Gene expression analysis in prostate cancer: the importance of the endogenous control.
Prostate. 2013; 73(4):382-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant gene expression is a hallmark of cancer. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is the gold-standard for quantifying gene expression, and commonly employs a house-keeping gene (HKG) as an endogenous control to normalize results; the choice of which is critical for accurate data interpretation. Many factors, including sample type, pathological state, and oxygen levels influence gene expression including putative HKGs. The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of commonly used HKGs for qRT-PCR in prostate cancer.
METHODS: Prostate cancer (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC3, and DU145) and normal (PWR1E and RWPE1) cell lines were cultured in air and hypoxia. The performance of 16 HKGs was assessed using Normfinder and coefficient of variation. In silico promoter analysis was performed to identify putative hypoxia response elements (HREs). The impact of the endogenous control on expression levels of HIF1A and GSTP1 was investigated by qRT-PCR in cell lines and tissue specimens respectively.
RESULTS: Hypoxia altered expression of several HKGs: IPO8, B2M, and PGK1. The most stably expressed HKGs were ACTB, PPIA, and UBC. Both UBC and ACTB showed constitutive expression of HIF1A in air and hypoxia, while PGK1 falsely implied a sixfold hypoxia-induced down-regulation. In prostate tumors, UBC and PGK1 both revealed down-regulation of GSTP1 relative to matched benign, whereas ACTB showed variability.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that no universal endogenous control exists for gene expression studies, even within one disease type. It highlights the importance of validating expression of intended HKGs between different sample types and environmental exposures.

Lin ZY, Chuang YH, Chuang WL
Cancer-associated fibroblasts up-regulate CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes related to promotion of cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2012; 66(7):525-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Impact of different cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) cell lines on proliferation, migration, invasion and differential expressions of genes in different hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was investigated. Two human CAF cell lines (F26/KMUH, F28/KMUH) and two human HCC cell lines (HCC24/KMUH, HCC38/KMUH) were studied. Influence of F28/KMUH cells on expressions of genes in HCC38/KMUH cells was detected by microarray to select genes for further analysis. Both CAF cell lines promoted proliferation (all P<0.05), migration (all P<0.05) and Matrigel invasion (all P<0.0001) of both HCC cell lines. F26/KMUH cells showed stronger promoted effects on, firstly, proliferation of HCC24/KMUH cells (P=0.0064) and, secondly, migration of both HCC cell lines than F28/KMUH cells did (all P<0.002). Ten up-regulated genes (APLN, CCL2, CCL26, CXCR4, IL6, MUC1, LOXL2, PDGFA, PGK1, VEGFA) related to proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of HCC detected by microarray were selected for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Both CAF cell lines had same tendency of effects on differential expressions of genes in same HCC cell line, but expressions of genes between different HCC cell lines were not consistent. Only CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes were consistently up-regulated in both HCC cell lines. In conclusion, the effects of CAFs to promote proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells are influenced by the characteristics of both CAFs and HCC cells. Up-regulations of CCL2, CCL26, IL6 and LOXL2 genes in cancer cells are part of the common effects of CAFs on HCC cells.

Yuan SX, Yang F, Yang Y, et al.
Long noncoding RNA associated with microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes angiogenesis and serves as a predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma patients' poor recurrence-free survival after hepatectomy.
Hepatology. 2012; 56(6):2231-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor, which is largely attributed to active angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying angiogenesis in HCC remain to be discovered. In this study, we found that long noncoding RNA associated with microvascular invasion in HCC (lncRNA MVIH) (lncRNA associated with microvascular invasion in HCC) was generally overexpressed in HCC. In a cohort of 215 HCC patients, the overexpression of MVIH was associated with frequent microvascular invasion (P = 0.016) and a higher tumor node metastasis stage (P = 0.009) as well as decreased recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.007). Moreover, the up-regulation of MVIH served as an independent risk factor to predict poor RFS. We also found that MVIH could promote tumor growth and intrahepatic metastasis by activating angiogenesis in mouse models. Subsequent investigations indicated that MVIH could activate tumor-inducing angiogenesis by inhibiting the secretion of phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). Additionally, in 65 HCC samples, MVIH expression was inversely correlated with the serum level of PGK1 and positively correlated with the microvessel density.
CONCLUSION: Deregulation of lncRNA MVIH is a predictor for poor RFS of HCC patients after hepatectomy and could be utilized as a potential target for new adjuvant therapies against active angiogenesis.

Kounelakis MG, Zervakis ME, Giakos GC, et al.
On the relevance of glycolysis process on brain gliomas.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform. 2013; 17(1):128-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proposed analysis considers aspects of both statistical and biological validation of the glycolysis effect on brain gliomas, at both genomic and metabolic level. In particular, two independent datasets are analyzed in parallel, one engaging genomic (Microarray Expression) data and the other metabolomic (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging) data. The aim of this study is twofold. First to show that, apart from the already studied genes (markers), other genes such as those involved in the human cell glycolysis significantly contribute in gliomas discrimination. Second, to demonstrate how the glycolysis process can open new ways towards the design of patient-specific therapeutic protocols. The results of our analysis demonstrate that the combination of genes participating in the glycolytic process (ALDOA, ALDOC, ENO2, GAPDH, HK2, LDHA, LDHB, MDH1, PDHB, PFKM, PGI, PGK1, PGM1 and PKLR) with the already known tumor suppressors (PTEN, Rb, TP53), oncogenes (CDK4, EGFR, PDGF) and HIF-1, enhance the discrimination of low versus high-grade gliomas providing high prediction ability in a cross-validated framework. Following these results and supported by the biological effect of glycolytic genes on cancer cells, we address the study of glycolysis for the development of new treatment protocols.

Morvan D, Steyaert JM, Schwartz L, et al.
Normal human melanocytes exposed to chronic insulin and glucose supplementation undergo oncogenic changes and methyl group metabolism cellular redistribution.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 302(11):E1407-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a link between cancer and pathophysiological conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia. In this report, we address the possible role of insulin exposure in melanocyte transformation. To this aim, normal melanocytes were exposed to chronic insulin and glucose supplementation (twice the standard medium concentration) for at least 3 wk. After 3-wk treatment, melanocytes increased proliferation (doubling time: 2.7 vs. 5.6 days, P < 0.01). After 3-wk treatment or after 3-wk treatment followed by 4-wk reculture in standard medium, melanocytes were able to grow in soft agar colonies. Treated melanocytes had increased DNA content (+8%, P < 0.05), chromosomal aberrations, and modified oncoprotein profile: p-Akt expression increased (+32%, P < 0.01), Akt decreased, and c-Myc increased (+40%, P < 0.05). PP2A protein expression increased (+42, P < 0.05), while PP2A methylation decreased (-42%, P < 0.05), and PP2A activity was reduced (-27%, P < 0.05). PP2A transcription level was increased (ppp2r1a, PP2A subunit A, +44%, P < 0.05). Also, transcriptomic data revealed modifications in insr (insulin receptors, +10%, P < 0.05) and Il8 (inflammation protein, +99%, P < 0.01). Glycolysis was modified with increased transcription of Pgk1 and Hif1a (P < 0.05), decreased transcription of Pfkfb3 (P < 0.05), decreased activity of pyruvate kinase (P < 0.01), and decreased pyruvate cell content as assessed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, methyl group metabolism was altered with decreased global DNA methylation (-51%, P < 0.01), increased cytosolic protein methylation (+18%, P < 0.05), and consistent changes in methylated species on (1)H-NMR spectra. In conclusion, exposure to chronic insulin and glucose supplementation induces oncogenic changes and methyl group metabolism redistribution, which may be a biomarker of transformation.

Venkatachalam G, Kumar AP, Sakharkar KR, et al.
PPARγ disease gene network and identification of therapeutic targets for prostate cancer.
J Drug Target. 2011; 19(9):781-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Recently published reports demonstrate the importance of a direct repeat 2 (DR2) as a PPARγ-responsive element in addition to the canonical direct repeat 1 (DR1) Peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs). However, a comprehensive and systematic approach to constructing de novo disease-specific gene networks for PPARγ is lacking, especially one that includes PPARγ target genes containing either DR1 or DR2 site within their promoter region. Here, we computationally identified 1154 PPARγ direct target genes and constructed the PPARγ disease gene network, which revealed 138 PPARγ target genes that are associated with 65 unique diseases. The network shows that PPARγ target genes are highly associated with cancer and neurological diseases. Thirty-eight PPARγ direct target genes were found to be involved in prostate cancer and two key (hub) PPARγ direct target genes, PRKCZ and PGK1, were experimentally validated to be repressed upon PPARγ activation by its natural ligand, 15d-PGJ(2) in three prostrate cancer cell lines. We proposed that PRKCZ and PGK1 could be novel therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. These investigations would not only aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which PPARγ regulates disease targets but would also lead to the identification of novel PPARγ gene targets.

Qing G, Skuli N, Mayes PA, et al.
Combinatorial regulation of neuroblastoma tumor progression by N-Myc and hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1alpha.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(24):10351-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In human neuroblastoma, amplification of the MYCN gene predicts poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Because hypoxia contributes to aggressive tumor phenotypes, predominantly via two structurally related hypoxia inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, we examined hypoxia responses in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. We demonstrate here that HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α, is preferentially expressed in both MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells and primary tumors in comparison to samples without MYCN amplification. Our results showed that interplay between N-Myc and HIF-1α plays critical roles in neuroblastoma. For example, high levels of N-Myc override HIF-1α inhibition of cell cycle progression, enabling continued proliferation under hypoxia. Furthermore, both HIF-1α and N-Myc are essential for the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis) in neuroblastomas by activating the transcription of multiple glycolytic genes. Of note, expressions of Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1), Hexokinase 2 (HK2), and Lactate Dehydrogenase A (LDHA) were each significantly higher in MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas than in tumors without MYCN amplification. Interestingly, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells are "addicted" to LDHA enzymatic activity, as its depletion completely inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus, our results provide mechanistic insights explaining how MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells contend with hypoxic stress and paradoxically how hypoxia contributes to neuroblastoma aggressiveness through combinatorial effects of N-Myc and HIF-1α. These results also suggest that LDHA represents a novel, pharmacologically tractable target for neuroblastoma therapeutics.

Causey MW, Huston LJ, Harold DM, et al.
Transcriptional analysis of novel hormone receptors PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 as potential biomarkers of breast adenocarcinoma staging.
J Surg Res. 2011; 171(2):615-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) in breast cancer has generated interest in this recently discovered protein because of its role in tumorigenesis. However, correlations between patient age, PGRMC1 gene expression, breast cancer morphology, and breast cancer stage have not been adequately studied. Furthermore, very little is known about possible roles for other PGRMC isoforms in breast cancer, like PGRMC2. Thus, we examined the expression of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA by relative quantitative PCR (RelqPCR) and determined whether transcript levels correlate with age, breast cancer staging, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) status, and other morphometric features routinely used during the pathological examination of breast ductal adenocarcinomas.
METHODS: Twenty-eight frozen or paraffin embedded breast cancer samples (ductal carcinoma in situ and stages I thru IV invasive ductal adenocarcinoma) and 10 control benign breast tissue samples were randomly selected and interrogated by RelqPCR to determine PGRMC1, 2, and ERα mRNA transcript levels. To control for slight variations in sample preparation, receptor transcript was normalized to the housekeeping gene phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). Descriptive statistics and ANOVA of multiparametric datasets were used to correlate transcript levels with pathological staging parameters.
RESULTS: PGRMC1 mRNA levels decreased significantly with patient age (Pearson's correlation -0.369; P=0.035), whereas PGRMC2 levels did not. Although the mean relative expression of PGRMC1 significantly decreased in stage II breast cancer compared with controls (P=0.050), it was no longer significant when age was considered a covariance (P=0.371). On the other hand, PGRMC2 mRNA transcript was significantly decreased in stage II breast cancer when compared to stage III cancer (P=0.028) in a manner independent of age (corrected model Bonferroni pair wise comparison, P=0.036). Furthermore, PGRMC2 levels positively correlated with ERα mRNA transcripts in patients with ER positive tumors (Pearson's correlation 0.503, P=0.096).
CONCLUSIONS: Decreases in PGRMC1 mRNA are partially explained by increasing patient age. On the other hand, compared to stage III, PCRMC2 mRNA was significantly decreased in stage II adenocarcinoma of the breast in an age-independent manner. Additionally, PGRMC2 mRNA levels displayed a positive correlation with ERα transcripts. Thus, in addition to morphometric pathologic staging criteria, measurements of PGRMC2 mRNA may be useful for distinguishing low stage tumors from higher stages that require more aggressive clinical management, and may be a useful test when tumor ER IHC results are equivocal.

Zhang F, Wang ZM, Liu HY, et al.
Application of RT-PCR in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2010; 31(1):111-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To analyze gene expression in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues using modified method.
METHODS: Total RNA from frozen tissues was extracted using TRIZOL reagent. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues by digestion with proteinase K before the acid-phenol:chloroform extraction and carrier precipitation. We modified this method by using a higher concentration of proteinase K and a longer digestion time, optimized to 16 hours. RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR were used to check reproducibility and the concordance between frozen and paraffin-embedded samples.
RESULTS: The results showed that the RNA extracted from the paraffin-embedded lung tissues had high quality with the most fragment length between 28S and 18S bands (about 1000 to 2000 bases). The housekeeping gene GUSB exhibited low variation of expression in frozen and paraffin-embedded lung tissues, whereas PGK1 had the lowest variation in lymphoma tissues. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis of the expression of known prognostic genes in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) demonstrated an extremely high correlation (r>0.880) between the paired frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens.
CONCLUSION: This improved method of RNA extraction is suitable for real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and may be used for global gene expression profiling of paraffin-embedded tissues.

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