Gene Summary

Gene:RAD51B; RAD51 paralog B
Aliases: REC2, R51H2, RAD51L1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family. RAD51 family members are evolutionarily conserved proteins essential for DNA repair by homologous recombination. This protein has been shown to form a stable heterodimer with the family member RAD51C, which further interacts with the other family members, such as RAD51, XRCC2, and XRCC3. Overexpression of this gene was found to cause cell cycle G1 delay and cell apoptosis, which suggested a role of this protein in sensing DNA damage. Rearrangements between this locus and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2, GeneID 8091) have been observed in uterine leiomyomata. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Quality Control
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • Alleles
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Exons
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Leiomyoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • RAD51B
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Base Sequence
  • Translocation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Mutation
  • Odds Ratio
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Brain Tumours
  • DNA Repair
  • Sequence Homology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Mediator Complex
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Sister Chromatid Exchange
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Uterine Cancer
  • BRCA2
  • Genotype
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • BRCA2 Protein
  • Rad51 Recombinase
  • Skin Cancer
  • Chromosome 14
  • Ovarian Cancer
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RAD51B (cancer-related)

Cheng Y, Yang B, Xi Y, Chen X
RAD51B as a potential biomarker for early detection and poor prognostic evaluation contributes to tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14969-14978 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is a common and deadly disease worldwide. Outcomes of patients are poor largely due to chemoresistance or recurrence. Thus, identifying novel biomarkers to predict response to therapy and/or prognosis are urgently needed. RAD51B, a key player in DNA repair/recombination, has the potential to be a candidate oncogene and biomarker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. However, its relationship with GC remains unclear. To evaluate clinicopathological and prognostic significance of RAD51B in GC, we examined messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 69 and tissue microarray from 144 GC patients, respectively. Our results showed that RAD51B mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in tumors compared to that of matched noncancerous tissues (P < 0.001). In parallel, RAD51B protein showed a mainly nucleus-staining pattern, and the positive rate in tumors and stomach atypical hyperplasia was significantly higher than that in matched noncancerous tissues (P = 0.015). Moreover, high level of RAD51B protein was correlated with advanced stage (P = 0.009), aggressive differentiation (P = 0.022), and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). Further, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high level of RAD51B expression exhibited worse overall survival compared to patients with low level (P = 0.040). A multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that RAD51B may be an independent prognostic factor for GC patients in Chinese population (P = 0.004). Additionally, functional studies indicated that over-expression of RAD51B promoted cell proliferation, aneuploidy, and drug resistance, while RAD51B knockdown led to G1 arrest and sensitized cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In conclusion, RAD51B may act as an oncogene during GC progression, and its hyper-expression may be a potential biomarker for early detection and poor prognosis of GC.

Saunders EJ, Dadaev T, Leongamornlert DA, et al.
Gene and pathway level analyses of germline DNA-repair gene variants and prostate cancer susceptibility using the iCOGS-genotyping array.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 114(8):945-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germline mutations within DNA-repair genes are implicated in susceptibility to multiple forms of cancer. For prostate cancer (PrCa), rare mutations in BRCA2 and BRCA1 give rise to moderately elevated risk, whereas two of B100 common, low-penetrance PrCa susceptibility variants identified so far by genome-wide association studies implicate RAD51B and RAD23B.
METHODS: Genotype data from the iCOGS array were imputed to the 1000 genomes phase 3 reference panel for 21 780 PrCa cases and 21 727 controls from the Prostate Cancer Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium. We subsequently performed single variant, gene and pathway-level analyses using 81 303 SNPs within 20 Kb of a panel of 179 DNA-repair genes.
RESULTS: Single SNP analyses identified only the previously reported association with RAD51B. Gene-level analyses using the SKAT-C test from the SNP-set (Sequence) Kernel Association Test (SKAT) identified a significant association with PrCa for MSH5. Pathway-level analyses suggested a possible role for the translesion synthesis pathway in PrCa risk and Homologous recombination/Fanconi Anaemia pathway for PrCa aggressiveness, even though after adjustment for multiple testing these did not remain significant.
CONCLUSIONS: MSH5 is a novel candidate gene warranting additional follow-up as a prospective PrCa-risk locus. MSH5 has previously been reported as a pleiotropic susceptibility locus for lung, colorectal and serous ovarian cancers.

Ordulu Z
Fibroids: Genotype and Phenotype.
Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 59(1):25-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroids represent a major public health care problem as the most prevalent pelvic tumors in women of reproductive age and as the leading cause of gynecologic surgeries in the United States. The recent advances in the genomic technologies including genome-wide association studies and high-throughput sequencing provide insight into their pathogenesis and molecular classification. Understanding the molecular basis of fibroids may facilitate development of effective targeted treatment options of this very common disease.

Scarbrough PM, Weber RP, Iversen ES, et al.
A Cross-Cancer Genetic Association Analysis of the DNA Repair and DNA Damage Signaling Pathways for Lung, Ovary, Prostate, Breast, and Colorectal Cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(1):193-200 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA damage is an established mediator of carcinogenesis, although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified few significant loci. This cross-cancer site, pooled analysis was performed to increase the power to detect common variants of DNA repair genes associated with cancer susceptibility.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-cancer analysis of 60,297 single nucleotide polymorphisms, at 229 DNA repair gene regions, using data from the NCI Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) Network. Our analysis included data from 32 GWAS and 48,734 controls and 51,537 cases across five cancer sites (breast, colon, lung, ovary, and prostate). Because of the unavailability of individual data, data were analyzed at the aggregate level. Meta-analysis was performed using the Association analysis for SubSETs (ASSET) software. To test for genetic associations that might escape individual variant testing due to small effect sizes, pathway analysis of eight DNA repair pathways was performed using hierarchical modeling.
RESULTS: We identified three susceptibility DNA repair genes, RAD51B (P < 5.09 × 10(-6)), MSH5 (P < 5.09 × 10(-6)), and BRCA2 (P = 5.70 × 10(-6)). Hierarchical modeling identified several pleiotropic associations with cancer risk in the base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and homologous recombination pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Only three susceptibility loci were identified, which had all been previously reported. In contrast, hierarchical modeling identified several pleiotropic cancer risk associations in key DNA repair pathways.
IMPACT: Results suggest that many common variants in DNA repair genes are likely associated with cancer susceptibility through small effect sizes that do not meet stringent significance testing criteria.

Brayer KJ, Frerich CA, Kang H, Ness SA
Recurrent Fusions in MYB and MYBL1 Define a Common, Transcription Factor-Driven Oncogenic Pathway in Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(2):176-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), the second most common malignancy of salivary glands, is a rare tumor with a bleak prognosis for which therapeutic targets are unavailable. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze low-quality RNA from archival, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. In addition to detecting the most common ACC translocation, t(6;9) fusing the MYB proto-oncogene to NFIB, we also detected previously unknown t(8;9) and t(8;14) translocations fusing the MYBL1 gene to the NFIB and RAD51B genes, respectively. RNA-seq provided information about gene fusions, alternative RNA splicing, and gene expression signatures. Interestingly, tumors with MYB and MYBL1 translocations displayed similar gene expression profiles, and the combined MYB and MYBL1 expression correlated with outcome, suggesting that the related MYB proteins are interchangeable oncogenic drivers in ACC. Our results provide important details about the biology of ACC and illustrate how archival tissue samples can be used for detailed molecular analyses of rare tumors.
SIGNIFICANCE: Using RNA-seq to perform whole-transcriptome analysis of archival ACC tumor samples, we identified novel, recurrent gene fusions, detected alternative RNA splicing, and established gene expression signatures that provide detailed information about the biology of ACC tumors.

Pradhan B, Sarvilinna N, Matilainen J, et al.
Detection and screening of chromosomal rearrangements in uterine leiomyomas by long-distance inverse PCR.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(3):215-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome instability is a hallmark of many tumors and recently, next-generation sequencing methods have enabled analyses of tumor genomes at an unprecedented level. Studying rearrangement-prone chromosomal regions (putative "breakpoint hotspots") in detail, however, necessitates molecular assays that can detect de novo DNA fusions arising from these hotspots. Here we demonstrate the utility of a long-distance inverse PCR-based method for the detection and screening of de novo DNA rearrangements in uterine leiomyomas, one of the most common types of human neoplasm. This assay allows in principle any genomic region suspected of instability to be queried for DNA rearrangements originating there. No prior knowledge of the identity of the fusion partner chromosome is needed. We used this method to screen uterine leiomyomas for rearrangements at genomic locations known to be rearrangement-prone in this tumor type: upstream HMGA2 and within RAD51B. We identified a novel DNA rearrangement upstream of HMGA2 that had gone undetected in an earlier whole-genome sequencing study. In more than 30 additional uterine leiomyoma samples, not analyzed by whole-genome sequencing previously, no rearrangements were observed within the 1,107 bp and 1,996 bp assayed in the RAD51B and HMGA2 rearrangement hotspots. Our findings show that long-distance inverse PCR is a robust, sensitive, and cost-effective method for the detection and screening of DNA rearrangements from solid tumors that should be useful for many diagnostic applications.

Nowacka-Zawisza M, Wiśnik E, Wasilewski A, et al.
Polymorphisms of homologous recombination RAD51, RAD51B, XRCC2, and XRCC3 genes and the risk of prostate cancer.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2015; 2015:828646 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may induce individual variations in DNA repair capacity, which may in turn contribute to the risk of cancer developing. Homologous recombination repair (HRR) plays a critical role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and protecting against carcinogenic factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prostate cancer risk and the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes involved in HRR, that is, RAD51 (rs1801320 and rs1801321), RAD51B (rs10483813 and rs3784099), XRCC2 (rs3218536), and XRCC3 (rs861539). Polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in 101 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and 216 age- and sex-matched controls. A significant relationship was detected between the RAD51 gene rs1801320 polymorphism and increased prostate cancer risk. Our results indicate that the RAD51 gene rs1801320 polymorphism may contribute to prostate cancer susceptibility in Poland.

Song H, Dicks E, Ramus SJ, et al.
Contribution of Germline Mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D Genes to Ovarian Cancer in the Population.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(26):2901-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of deleterious mutations in the RAD51B, RAD51C, and RAD51D genes to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) in the population and in a screening trial of individuals at high risk of ovarian cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The coding sequence and splice site boundaries of the three RAD51 genes were sequenced and analyzed in germline DNA from a case-control study of 3,429 patients with invasive EOC and 2,772 controls as well as in 2,000 unaffected women who were BRCA1/BRCA2 negative from the United Kingdom Familial Ovarian Cancer Screening Study (UK_FOCSS) after quality-control analysis.
RESULTS: In the case-control study, we identified predicted deleterious mutations in 28 EOC cases (0.82%) compared with three controls (0.11%; P < .001). Mutations in EOC cases were more frequent in RAD51C (14 occurrences, 0.41%) and RAD51D (12 occurrences, 0.35%) than in RAD51B (two occurrences, 0.06%). RAD51C mutations were associated with an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% CI, 1.1 to 24; P = .035), and RAD51D mutations conferred an odds ratio of 12 (95% CI, 1.5 to 90; P = .019). We identified 13 RAD51 mutations (0.65%) in unaffected UK_FOCSS participants (RAD51C, n = 7; RAD51D, n = 5; and RAD51B, n = 1), which was a significantly greater rate than in controls (P < .001); furthermore, RAD51 mutation carriers were more likely than noncarriers to have a family history of ovarian cancer (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: These results confirm that RAD51C and RAD51D are moderate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes and suggest that they confer levels of risk of EOC that may warrant their use alongside BRCA1 and BRCA2 in routine clinical genetic testing.

Aloraifi F, McDevitt T, Martiniano R, et al.
Detection of novel germline mutations for breast cancer in non-BRCA1/2 families.
FEBS J. 2015; 282(17):3424-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The identification of the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 enhanced clinicians' ability to select high-risk individuals for aggressive surveillance and prevention, and led to the development of targeted therapies. However, BRCA1/2 mutations account for only 25% of familial breast cancer cases. To systematically identify rare, probably pathogenic variants in familial cases of breast cancer without BRCA1/2 mutations, we developed a list of 312 genes, and performed targeted DNA enrichment coupled to multiplex next-generation sequencing on 104 'BRCAx' patients and 101 geographically matched controls in Ireland. As expected, this strategy allowed us to identify mutations in several well-known high-susceptibility and moderate-susceptibility genes, including ATM (~ 5%), RAD50 (~ 3%), CHEK2 (~ 2%), TP53 (~ 1%), PALB2 (~ 1%), and MRE11A (~ 1%). However, we also identified novel pathogenic variants in 30 other genes, which, when taken together, potentially explain the etiology of the missing heritability in up to 35% of BRCAx patients. These included novel potential pathogenic mutations in MAP3K1, CASP8, RAD51B, ZNF217, CDKN2B-AS1, and ERBB2, including a splice site mutation, which we predict would generate a constitutively active HER2 protein. Taken together, this work extends our understanding of the genetics of familial breast cancer, and supports the need to implement hereditary multigene panel testing to more appropriately orientate clinical management.

Patch AM, Christie EL, Etemadmoghadam D, et al.
Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer.
Nature. 2015; 521(7553):489-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with primary refractory, resistant, sensitive and matched acquired resistant disease. We show that gene breakage commonly inactivates the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN in HGSC, and contributes to acquired chemotherapy resistance. CCNE1 amplification was common in primary resistant and refractory disease. We observed several molecular events associated with acquired resistance, including multiple independent reversions of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in individual patients, loss of BRCA1 promoter methylation, an alteration in molecular subtype, and recurrent promoter fusion associated with overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.

Wadt KA, Aoude LG, Golmard L, et al.
Germline RAD51B truncating mutation in a family with cutaneous melanoma.
Fam Cancer. 2015; 14(2):337-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Known melanoma predisposition genes only account for around 40% of high-density melanoma families. Other rare mutations are likely to play a role in melanoma predisposition. RAD51B plays an important role in DNA repair through homologous recombination, and inactivation of RAD51B has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Thus RAD51B is a good candidate melanoma susceptibility gene, and previously, a germline splicing mutation in RAD51B has been identified in a family with early-onset breast cancer. In order to find genetic variants associated with melanoma predisposition, whole-exome sequencing was carried out on blood samples from a three-case cutaneous melanoma family. We identified a novel germline RAD51B nonsense mutation, and we demonstrate reduced expression of RAD51B in melanoma cells indicating inactivation of RAD51B. This is only the second report of a germline truncating RAD51B mutation. While this case report is consistent with melanoma being part of the RAD51B cancer spectrum further population-based screening of large case-control sample series will be needed to definitively establish if this is the case.

Joshi AD, Lindström S, Hüsing A, et al.
Additive interactions between susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies and breast cancer risk factors in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.
Am J Epidemiol. 2014; 180(10):1018-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Additive interactions can have public health and etiological implications but are infrequently reported. We assessed departures from additivity on the absolute risk scale between 9 established breast cancer risk factors and 23 susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified from genome-wide association studies among 10,146 non-Hispanic white breast cancer cases and 12,760 controls within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. We estimated the relative excess risk due to interaction and its 95% confidence interval for each pairwise combination of SNPs and nongenetic risk factors using age- and cohort-adjusted logistic regression models. After correction for multiple comparisons, we identified a statistically significant relative excess risk due to interaction (uncorrected P = 4.51 × 10(-5)) between a SNP in the DNA repair protein RAD51 homolog 2 gene (RAD51L1; rs10483813) and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). We also compared additive and multiplicative polygenic risk prediction models using per-allele odds ratio estimates from previous studies for breast-cancer susceptibility SNPs and observed that the multiplicative model had a substantially better goodness of fit than the additive model.

Dong H, Gao Z, Li C, et al.
Analyzing 395,793 samples shows significant association between rs999737 polymorphism and breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(6):6083-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted and reported the association between rs999737 polymorphism at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) and breast cancer risk. Following studies investigated rs999737 polymorphism in European and Asian populations. However, some of these studies reported weak and no significant association. Here, we reevaluated this association using large-scale samples from previous 11 studies (n=395,793; 162,261 cases and 233,532 controls) from the PubMed database. We evaluated the genetic heterogeneity among the selected studies. The pooled odds ratio (OR) is calculated by the fixed effect model. All statistical tests for heterogeneity and meta-analysis were computed using R package. We did not identify significant heterogeneity among the included studies using the allele model (P=0.1314 and I (2)=33.4 %). We observed significant association between rs999737 and breast cancer using the allele model (P=2.47E - 35, OR=0.92, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.93). Our analysis further supports previous findings that the rs999737 polymorphism contributes to breast cancer susceptibility. We believe that our finding will be very useful for future genetic studies in breast cancer.

Golmard L, Caux-Moncoutier V, Davy G, et al.
Germline mutation in the RAD51B gene confers predisposition to breast cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:484 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most currently known breast cancer predisposition genes play a role in DNA repair by homologous recombination. Recent studies conducted on RAD51 paralogs, involved in the same DNA repair pathway, have identified rare germline mutations conferring breast and/or ovarian cancer predisposition in the RAD51C, RAD51D and XRCC2 genes. The present study analysed the five RAD51 paralogs (RAD51B, RAD51C, RAD51D, XRCC2, XRCC3) to estimate their contribution to breast and ovarian cancer predisposition.
METHODS: The study was conducted on 142 unrelated patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer either with early onset or with a breast/ovarian cancer family history. Patients were referred to a French family cancer clinic and had been previously tested negative for a BRCA1/2 mutation. Coding sequences of the five genes were analysed by EMMA (Enhanced Mismatch Mutation Analysis). Detected variants were characterized by Sanger sequencing analysis.
RESULTS: Three splicing mutations and two likely deleterious missense variants were identified: RAD51B c.452 + 3A > G, RAD51C c.706-2A > G, RAD51C c.1026 + 5_1026 + 7del, RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys and XRCC3 c.448C > T/p.Arg150Cys. No RAD51D and XRCC2 gene mutations were detected. These mutations and variants were detected in families with both breast and ovarian cancers, except for the RAD51B c.475C > T/p.Arg159Cys variant that occurred in a family with 3 breast cancer cases.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the first RAD51B mutation in a breast and ovarian cancer family and is the first report of XRCC3 mutation analysis in breast and ovarian cancer. It confirms that RAD51 paralog mutations confer breast and ovarian cancer predisposition and are rare events. In view of the low frequency of RAD51 paralog mutations, international collaboration of family cancer clinics will be required to more accurately estimate their penetrance and establish clinical guidelines in carrier individuals.

Tang KW, Alaei-Mahabadi B, Samuelsson T, et al.
The landscape of viral expression and host gene fusion and adaptation in human cancer.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Viruses cause 10-15% of all human cancers. Massively parallel sequencing has recently proved effective for uncovering novel viruses and virus-tumour associations, but this approach has not yet been applied to comprehensive patient cohorts. Here we screen a diverse landscape of human cancer, encompassing 4,433 tumours and 19 cancer types, for known and novel expressed viruses based on >700 billion transcriptome sequencing reads from The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. The resulting map confirms and extends current knowledge. We observe recurrent fusion events, including human papillomavirus insertions in RAD51B and ERBB2. Patterns of coadaptation between host and viral gene expression give clues to papillomavirus oncogene function. Importantly, our analysis argues strongly against viral aetiology in several cancers where this has frequently been proposed. We provide a virus-tumour map of unprecedented scale that constitutes a reference for future studies of tumour-associated viruses using transcriptome sequencing data.

Deen M, Ebrahim S, Schloff D, Mohamed AN
A novel PLAG1-RAD51L1 gene fusion resulting from a t(8;14)(q12;q24) in a case of lipoblastoma.
Cancer Genet. 2013; 206(6):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoblastomas are rare benign tumors that arise from embryonic adipose tissue and occur predominantly in the pediatric population. Here, we report a case of lipoblastoma in an 8-month-old boy. Surgical excision and subsequent histopathologic examination were consistent with features of lipoblastoma. Chromosome analysis of the tumor revealed a clonal unbalanced t(8;14) translocation. Genomic microarray analysis of the tumor delineated the exact breakpoints at 8q12.1 and 14q24.1, which involved the PLAG1 and RADA51L1 genes, respectively. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated that the translocation fused the PLAG1-RAD51L1 genes. These results suggest that RAD51L1 is an alternative fusion partner gene for the PLAG1 gene in a lipoblastoma with an 8q12 rearrangement.

Misery L
[What's new in dermatological research?].
Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2012; 139 Suppl 5:S188-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatological research is more and more productive and its level higher and higher. Choosing the most significant articles is difficult. Mast cell plays a role in the initiation of inflammation and therefore in poorer healing. Keratinocytes derive from stem cells and progenitors, which are independent. They can be activated directly by heat through sensory proteins at their surface. The cutaneous nervous system has an organization similar to that of the most complex sensory organs. In psoriasis, denervation induces a significant plaque regression. The cerebral integration of skin appearance modulates the skin reactivity to histamine. Pruritus is linked to specific receptors in the skin, which give specific projections into the brain and are histamine-dependent or not. Atopic dermatitis may be linked to the nonspecific activation of Th2 immune system, particularly to abnormalities of the skin barrier. Skin bacteria, but not intestinal, modulate the formation of skin immunity. Raf kinases are well known in melanoma and play an important role in physiological conditions: they are not essential to the initial development of the melanocyte lineage but to maintain it. In culture, melanocytes can be dedifferentiated in melanoblasts. Sunburns are consecutive to the activation of TLR3 by UVB. ANRIL gene is involved in the polymorphism of neurofibromatosis 1 and gene RAD51B is linked to the risk of male breast cancer. MCV infection is linked to sites with sialic acid. Aging objectified by telomere shortening is accelerated by stress.

Orr N, Lemnrau A, Cooke R, et al.
Genome-wide association study identifies a common variant in RAD51B associated with male breast cancer risk.
Nat Genet. 2012; 44(11):1182-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We conducted a genome-wide association study of male breast cancer comprising 823 cases and 2,795 controls of European ancestry, with validation in independent sample sets totaling 438 cases and 474 controls. A SNP in RAD51B at 14q24.1 was significantly associated with male breast cancer risk (P = 3.02 × 10(-13); odds ratio (OR) = 1.57). We also refine association at 16q12.1 to a SNP within TOX3 (P = 3.87 × 10(-15); OR = 1.50).

Vachon CM, Scott CG, Fasching PA, et al.
Common breast cancer susceptibility variants in LSP1 and RAD51L1 are associated with mammographic density measures that predict breast cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(7):1156-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is a heritable marker of breast cancer susceptibility. Little is known about the biologic mechanisms underlying the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. We examined whether common low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility variants contribute to interindividual differences in mammographic density measures.
METHODS: We established an international consortium (DENSNP) of 19 studies from 10 countries, comprising 16,895 Caucasian women, to conduct a pooled cross-sectional analysis of common breast cancer susceptibility variants in 14 independent loci and mammographic density measures. Dense and nondense areas, and percent density, were measured using interactive-thresholding techniques. Mixed linear models were used to assess the association between genetic variants and the square roots of mammographic density measures adjusted for study, age, case status, BMI, and menopausal status.
RESULTS: Consistent with their breast cancer associations, the C-allele of rs3817198 in LSP1 was positively associated with both adjusted dense area (P = 0.00005) and adjusted percent density (P = 0.001), whereas the A-allele of rs10483813 in RAD51L1 was inversely associated with adjusted percent density (P = 0.003), but not with adjusted dense area (P = 0.07).
CONCLUSION: We identified two common breast cancer susceptibility variants associated with mammographic measures of radiodense tissue in the breast gland.
IMPACT: We examined the association of 14 established breast cancer susceptibility loci with mammographic density phenotypes within a large genetic consortium and identified two breast cancer susceptibility variants, LSP1-rs3817198 and RAD51L1-rs10483813, associated with mammographic measures and in the same direction as the breast cancer association.

Shu XO, Long J, Lu W, et al.
Novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival identified by a genome-wide association study.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(5):1182-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Only two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted to date to identify potential markers for total mortality after diagnosis of breast cancer. Here, we report the identification of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with total mortality from a two-stage GWAS conducted among 6,110 Shanghai-resident Chinese women with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I to IV breast cancer. The discovery stage included 1,950 patients and evaluated 613,031 common SNPs. The top 49 associations were evaluated in an independent replication stage of 4,160 Shanghai patients with breast cancer. A consistent and highly significant association with total mortality was documented for SNPs rs3784099 and rs9934948. SNP rs3784099, located in the RAD51L1 gene, was associated with total morality in both the discovery stage (P = 1.44 × 10(-8)) and replication stage (P = 0.06; P-combined = 1.17 × 10(-7)). Adjusted HRs for total mortality were 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.68] for the AG genotype and 2.64 (95% CI, 1.74-4.03) for the AA genotype, when compared with the GG genotype. The variant C allele of rs9934948, located on chromosome 16, was associated with a similarly elevated risk of total mortality (P-combined = 5.75 × 10(-6)). We also observed this association among 1,145 patients with breast cancer of European ancestry from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; P = 0.006); the association was highly significant in a combined analysis of NHS and Chinese data (P = 1.39 × 10(-7)). Similar associations were observed for these two SNPs with breast cancer-specific mortality. This study provides strong evidence suggesting that the RAD51L1 gene and a chromosome 16 locus influence breast cancer prognosis.

Wibom C, Sjöström S, Henriksson R, et al.
DNA-repair gene variants are associated with glioblastoma survival.
Acta Oncol. 2012; 51(3):325-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patient outcome from glioma may be influenced by germline variation. Considering the importance of DNA repair in cancer biology as well as in response to treatment, we studied the relationship between 1458 SNPs, which captured the majority of the common genetic variation in 136 DNA repair genes, in 138 glioblastoma samples from Sweden and Denmark. We confirmed our findings in an independent cohort of 121 glioblastoma patients from the UK. Our analysis revealed nine SNPs annotating MSH2, RAD51L1 and RECQL4 that were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with glioblastoma survival.

Figueroa JD, Garcia-Closas M, Humphreys M, et al.
Associations of common variants at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) with breast cancer risk and heterogeneity by tumor subtype: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Hum Mol Genet. 2011; 20(23):4693-706 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1) as breast cancer susceptibility loci. The initial GWAS suggested stronger effects for both loci for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), we sought to determine whether risks differ by ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), grade, node status, tumor size, and ductal or lobular morphology. We genotyped rs11249433 at 1p.11.2, and two highly correlated SNPs rs999737 and rs10483813 (r(2)= 0.98) at 14q24.1 (RAD51L1), for up to 46 036 invasive breast cancer cases and 46 930 controls from 39 studies. Analyses by tumor characteristics focused on subjects reporting to be white women of European ancestry and were based on 25 458 cases, of which 87% had ER data. The SNP at 1p11.2 showed significantly stronger associations with ER-positive tumors [per-allele odds ratio (OR) for ER-positive tumors was 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16 and, for ER-negative tumors, OR was 1.03, 95% CI = 0.98-1.07, case-only P-heterogeneity = 7.6 × 10(-5)]. The association with ER-positive tumors was stronger for tumors of lower grade (case-only P= 6.7 × 10(-3)) and lobular histology (case-only P= 0.01). SNPs at 14q24.1 were associated with risk for most tumor subtypes evaluated, including triple-negative breast cancers, which has not been described previously. Our results underscore the need for large pooling efforts with tumor pathology data to help refine risk estimates for SNP associations with susceptibility to different subtypes of breast cancer.

Johnson J, Healey S, Khanna KK, et al.
Mutation analysis of RAD51L1 (RAD51B/REC2) in multiple-case, non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011; 129(1):255-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although a significant proportion of familial aggregation of breast cancer remains unexplained, many of the currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53, play a role in maintaining genome integrity by engaging in DNA repair. RAD51L1 is one of the five RAD51 paralogs involved in homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); it also interacts directly with p53. Deleterious mutations have been found in one RAD51 paralog, RAD51C (RAD51L2), in non-BRCA1/2 breast and ovarian cancer families, which suggests that all five paralogs are strong candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) has already identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) deep within intron 10 of RAD51L1 as a risk locus for breast cancer. Based on its biological functions and association with RAD51C, there is reason to suggest that RAD51L1 (RAD51B/REC2) may also contain high risk mutations in the gene that give rise to multiple-case breast cancer families. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we have used high resolution melt (HRM) analysis to screen RAD51L1 for germline mutations in 188 non-BRCA1/2 multiple-case breast cancer families and 190 controls. We identified a total of seven variants: one synonymous, three intronic, and three previously identified SNPs, but no truncating or nonsense changes. Therefore, our results suggest that RAD51L1 is unlikely to represent a high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene.

Qin HD, Shugart YY, Bei JX, et al.
Comprehensive pathway-based association study of DNA repair gene variants and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(8):3000-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA repair plays a central role in protecting against environmental carcinogenesis, and genetic variants of DNA repair genes have been reported to be associated with several human malignancies. To assess whether DNA gene variants were associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk, a candidate gene association study was conducted among the Cantonese population within the Guangdong Province, China, the ethnic group with the highest risk for NPC. A 2-stage study design was utilized. In the discovery stage, 676 tagging SNPs covering 88 DNA repair genes were genotyped in a matched case-control study (cases/controls = 755/755). Eleven SNPs with P(trend) < 0.01 were identified. Seven of these SNPs were located within 3 genes, RAD51L1, BRCA2, and TP53BP1. In the validation stage, these 11 SNPs were genotyped in a separate Cantonese population (cases/controls = 1,568/1,297). Two of the SNPs (rs927220 and rs11158728), both in RAD51L1, remained strongly associated with NPC. The SNP rs927220 had a significant P(combined) of 5.55 × 10(-5), with OR = 1.20 (95% CI = 1.10-1.30), Bonferroni corrected P = 0.0381. The other SNP (rs11158728), which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs927220 (r(2) = 0.7), had a significant P(combined) of 2.0 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected P = 0.1372. Gene-environment interaction analysis suggested that the exposures of salted fish consumption and cigarette smoking had potential interactions with DNA repair gene variations, but need to be further investigated. Our findings support the notion that DNA repair genes, in particular RAD51L1, play a role in NPC etiology and development.

Liu Y, Shete S, Wang LE, et al.
Gamma-radiation sensitivity and polymorphisms in RAD51L1 modulate glioma risk.
Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31(10):1762-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA strand breaks pose the greatest threat to genomic stability. Genetically determined mutagen sensitivity predisposes individuals to a variety of cancers, including glioma. However, polymorphisms in DNA strand break repair genes that may determine mutagen sensitivity are not well studied in cancer risk, especially in gliomas.
METHODS: We correlated genotype data for tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) of DNA strand break repair genes with a gamma-radiation-induced mutagen sensitivity phenotype [expressed as mean breaks per cell (B/C)] in samples from 426 glioma patients. We also conducted analysis to assess joint and haplotype effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on mutagen sensitivity. We further validate our results in an independent external control group totaling 662 subjects.
RESULTS: Of the 392 tSNPs examined, we found that mutagen sensitivity was modified by one tSNP in the EME2 gene and six tSNPs in the RAD51L1 gene (P < 0.01). Among the six RAD51L1 SNPs tested in the validation set, one (RAD51L1 rs2180611) was significantly associated with mutagen sensitivity (P = 0.025). Moreover, we found a significant dose-response relationship between the mutagen sensitivity and the number of adverse tSNP genotypes. Furthermore, haplotype analysis revealed that RAD51L1 haplotypes F-A (zero adverse allele) and F-E (six adverse alleles) exhibited the lowest (0.42) and highest (0.93) mean B/C values, respectively. A similar dose-response relationship also existed between the mutagen sensitivity and the number of adverse haplotypes.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that polymorphisms in and haplotypes of the RAD51L1 gene, which is involved in the double-strand break repair pathway, modulate gamma-radiation-induced mutagen sensitivity.

Bhatti P, Doody MM, Rajaraman P, et al.
Novel breast cancer risk alleles and interaction with ionizing radiation among U.S. radiologic technologists.
Radiat Res. 2010; 173(2):214-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As genome-wide association studies of breast cancer are replicating findings and refinement studies are narrowing the signal location, additional efforts are necessary to elucidate the underlying functional relationships. One approach is to evaluate variation in risk by genotype based on known breast carcinogens, such as ionizing radiation. Given the public health concerns associated with recent increases in medical radiation exposure, this approach may also identify potentially susceptible subpopulations. We examined interaction between 27 newly identified breast cancer risk alleles (identified within the NCI Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium genome-wide association studies) and occupational and medical diagnostic radiation exposure among 859 cases and 1083 controls nested within the United States Radiologic Technologists cohort. We did not find significant variation in the radiation-related breast cancer risk for the variant in RAD51L1 (rs10483813) on 14q24.1 as we had hypothesized. In exploratory analyses, we found that the radiation-associated breast cancer risk varied significantly by linked markers in 5p12 (rs930395, rs10941679, rs2067980 and rs4415084) in the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30 (MRPS30) gene (P(interaction) = 0.04). Chance, however, may explain these findings, and as such, these results need to be confirmed in other populations with low to moderate levels of radiation exposure. Even though a complete understanding of the way(s) in which these variants may increase breast cancer risk remains elusive, this approach may yield clues for further investigation.

Thomas G, Jacobs KB, Kraft P, et al.
A multistage genome-wide association study in breast cancer identifies two new risk alleles at 1p11.2 and 14q24.1 (RAD51L1).
Nat Genet. 2009; 41(5):579-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We conducted a three-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of breast cancer in 9,770 cases and 10,799 controls in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. In stage 1, we genotyped 528,173 SNPs in 1,145 cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,142 controls. In stage 2, we analyzed 24,909 top SNPs in 4,547 cases and 4,434 controls. In stage 3, we investigated 21 loci in 4,078 cases and 5,223 controls. Two new loci achieved genome-wide significance. A pericentromeric SNP on chromosome 1p11.2 (rs11249433; P = 6.74 x 10(-10) adjusted genotype test, 2 degrees of freedom) resides in a large linkage disequilibrium block neighboring NOTCH2 and FCGR1B; this signal was stronger for estrogen-receptor-positive tumors. A second SNP on chromosome 14q24.1 (rs999737; P = 1.74 x 10(-7)) localizes to RAD51L1, a gene in the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway. We also confirmed associations with loci on chromosomes 2q35, 5p12, 5q11.2, 8q24, 10q26 and 16q12.1.

Stordal B, Davey R
ERCC1 expression and RAD51B activity correlate with cell cycle response to platinum drug treatment not DNA repair.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009; 63(4):661-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The H69CIS200 and H69OX400 cell lines are novel models of low-level platinum-drug resistance. Resistance was not associated with increased cellular glutathione or decreased accumulation of platinum, rather the resistant cell lines have a cell cycle alteration allowing them to rapidly proliferate post drug treatment.
RESULTS: A decrease in ERCC1 protein expression and an increase in RAD51B foci activity was observed in association with the platinum induced cell cycle arrest but these changes did not correlate with resistance or altered DNA repair capacity. The H69 cells and resistant cell lines have a p53 mutation and consequently decrease expression of p21 in response to platinum drug treatment, promoting progression of the cell cycle instead of increasing p21 to maintain the arrest.
CONCLUSION: Decreased ERCC1 protein and increased RAD51B foci may in part be mediating the maintenance of the cell cycle arrest in the sensitive cells. Resistance in the H69CIS200 and H69OX400 cells may therefore involve the regulation of ERCC1 and RAD51B independent of their roles in DNA repair. The novel mechanism of platinum resistance in the H69CIS200 and H69OX400 cells demonstrates the multifactorial nature of platinum resistance which can occur independently of alterations in DNA repair capacity and changes in ERCC1.

McAvoy S, Ganapathiraju S, Perez DS, et al.
DMD and IL1RAPL1: two large adjacent genes localized within a common fragile site (FRAXC) have reduced expression in cultured brain tumors.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2007; 119(3-4):196-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large regions of profound genomic instability found in all individuals. Spanning the center of the two most frequently expressed CFS regions, FRA3B (3p14.3) and FRA16D (16q23.2), are the 1.5 Mb FHIT gene and the 1.0 Mb WWOX gene. These genes are frequently deleted and/or altered in many different cancers. Both FHIT and WWOX have been demonstrated to function as tumor suppressors, both in vitro and in vivo. A number of other large CFS genes have been identified and are also frequently inactivated in multiple cancers. Based on these data, several additional very large genes were tested to determine if they were derived from within CFS regions, but DCC and RAD51L1 were not. However, the 2.0 Mb DMD gene and its immediately distal neighbor, the 1.8 Mb IL1RAPL1 gene are CFS genes contained within the FRAXC CFS region (Xp21.2-->p21.1). They are abundantly expressed in normal brain but were dramatically underexpressed in every brain tumor cell line and xenograft (derived from an intracranial model of glioblastoma multiforme) examined. We studied the expression of eleven other large CFS genes in the same panel of brain tumor cell lines and xenografts and found reduced expression of multiple large CFS genes in these samples. In this report we show that there is selective loss of specific large CFS genes in different cancers that does not appear to be mediated by the relative instability within different CFS regions. Further, the inactivation of multiple large CFS genes in xenografts and brain tumor cell lines may help to explain why this type of cancer is highly aggressive and associated with a poor clinical outcome.

Sellick G, Fielding S, Qureshi M, et al.
Germline mutations in RAD51, RAD51AP1, RAD51B, RAD51C,RAD51D, RAD52 and RAD54L do not contribute to familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2008; 49(1):130-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
While familial predisposition to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is well recognized no gene which when mutated in the germline has been unambiguously shown to confer susceptibility to the disease. An approach based on mutation screening methods targeted to coding regions of candidate genes offers an attractive strategy for the identification of rare disease-causing alleles. The RAD genes participate in the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks, detecting DNA damage, activating cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. Defects in members of these genes are linked to increased chromosomal instability and in lymphoma predisposition, thereby representing strong candidate susceptibility genes a priori. To examine this proposition we screened 75 familial CLL probands for germline mutations in this set of genes. No overt pathogenic mutations were identified. These findings indicate that germline mutations in RAD51, RAD51AP1, RAD51L1, RAD51L3, RAD52 and RAD54L are unlikely to be causal of an inherited predisposition to CLL.

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