Gene Summary

Gene:RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit
Aliases: p65, CMCU, NFKB3
Summary:NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor p65
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • siRNA
  • NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha
  • Apoptosis
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • YY1 Transcription Factor
  • Drug Resistance
  • Prostate Cancer
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Lung Cancer
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Viral Proteins
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • RNA Interference
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • Chromosome 11
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • Transcription
  • ras Proteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Protein Binding
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • TNF
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cell Survival
  • Phosphorylation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Liver Cancer
  • NF-kappa B
  • MicroRNAs
  • Promoter Regions
  • Messenger RNA
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RELA (cancer-related)

Saejia P, Lirdprapamongkol K, Svasti J, Paricharttanakul NM
Perfluorooctanoic Acid Enhances Invasion of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through NF-κB and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2429-2435 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most common perfluorinated compounds widely used in several applications. Due to its persistence in the environment, PFOA has been associated with various diseases, including cancer. This study explored the effects of PFOA on follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (FTC133).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell invasion, migration, adhesion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were investigated using Transwell assays, adhesion assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. The underlying mechanism involved in the effects observed was evaluated by immunoblot analyses.
RESULTS: Treatment with PFOA did not affect cell migration, but enhanced cell invasion, adhesion and activity of MMP-2 in FTC133 cells. PFOA selectively enhanced the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, as well as induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Treatment with a NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 11-7085) was able to reverse PFOA-induced cell invasiveness.
CONCLUSION: PFOA promotes invasiveness of FTC133 cells mediated through the activation of NF-κB signaling.

Wang Z, Li F, Quan Y, Shen J
Avicularin ameliorates human hepatocellular carcinoma via the regulation of NF‑κB/COX‑2/PPAR‑γ activities.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(6):5417-5423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become a global public health problem. Therefore, the development of novel and effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of HCC is considered an emergency. Avicularin, a bio‑active flavonoid from plants, has been reported to exhibit diverse pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of avicularin in HCC and the underlying mechanism of action. Huh7 cells were treated with avicularin in a concentration‑dependent manner, and the cell proliferation was examined using a 3‑(4, 5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2, 5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay kit. The cell migration and invasion abilities were detected using wounding‑healing assays and Transwell assays. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to investigate the cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis. The activity of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB (p65), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPAR‑γ) were measured by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, respectively. The results indicated that avicularin treatment markedly decreased cell proliferation concentration‑dependently in HCC, and inhibited cell migration and invasion in Huh7 cells. It was also found that the treatment of avicularin markedly inhibited the G0/G1‑phase cells and decreased the accumulation of S‑phase cells in the cell cycle and induced cell apoptosis. In addition, it was confirmed that the anticancer efficacy of avicularin in HCC was dependent on the regulation of NF‑κB (p65), COX‑2 and PPAR‑γ activities. In conclusion, the findings suggested that avicularin serves an antineoplastic role in HCC and may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC.

Hung CY, Lee CH, Chiou HL, et al.
Praeruptorin-B Inhibits 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Cell Invasion by Targeting AKT/NF-κB via Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 Expression in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(6):1255-1266 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Praeruptorins, a seselin-type coumarin, possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor promoting properties. However, molecular mechanisms through which Praeruptorin-B (Pra-B) exerts an antimetastatic effect on cervical cancer cells remain unclear.
METHODS: Cell viability was examined using the MTT assay, whereas cell migration and invasion were examined using the Boyden chamber assay. Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Pra-B on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9) expression in HeLa cells. The findings of the luciferase assay confirmed the inhibitory effect of Pra-B on TPA-induced transcriptional activity of MMP2/-9 in HeLa cells.
RESULTS: Pra-B inhibited TPA-induced metastatic ability of human cervical cancer cells without any significant toxicity. Pra-B suppressed TPA-induced mRNA and protein expression and transcriptional activity of MMP-2/-9 in HeLa cells. Furthermore, Pra-B inhibited AKT phosphorylation but did not affect the MAPK pathway. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with TPA plus Pra-B or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/-9 expression and transcriptional activity. In addition, Pra-B attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65/-p50, which reduced Ikk-α phosphorylation in HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with TPA plus Pra-B or LY294002 reduced NF-κB nuclear translocation.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that Pra-B-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced cell metastasis involved the suppression of p-AKT/NF-κB via MMP-2/-9 expression in HeLa cells. Pra-B can be a potential antimetastatic agent against cervical cancer.

Chen WC, Li QL, Pan Q, et al.
Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1) promotes progression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) via activation of NF-κB signaling.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Xenotropic and polytropic retrovirus receptor 1 (XPR1), a previously identified cellular receptor for several murine leukemia viruses, plays a role in many pathophysiological processes. However, the role of XPR1 in human cancers has not yet been characterized.
METHODS: Real-time PCR and western blotting assay were used to measure the expression of XPR1 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) tissues. Expression of XPR1 and p65 in clinical specimens was analyzed using immunohistochemical assay. The function of XPR1 on progression of TSCC was explored using in vitro and in vivo experiments. The molecular mechanism by which XPR1 helps to cancer progression was investigated by luciferase reporter activity, ELISA, PKA activity assay, immunofluorescence, western blotting and qPCR assay.
RESULTS: Herein, we find that XPR1 is markedly upregulated in TSCC tissues compared to normal tongue tissues. High expression of XPR1 significantly correlates with the malignant features and poor patient survival in TSCC. Ectopic expression of XPR1 increases, while silencing of XPR1 reduces the proliferation, invasion and anti-apoptosis capacities of TSCC cells. Importantly, silencing of XPR1 effectively inhibits the tumorigenecity of TSCC cells. Moreover, we identified that XPR1 increased the concentration of intracellular cAMP and activated PKA. Thus, XPR1 promoted phosphorylation and activation of NF-κB signaling, which is required for XPR1-mediated oncogenic roles and significantly correlates with XPR1 expression in clinical specimens.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings uncover a critical role of XPR1 in TSCC progression via activation of NF-κB, and suggest that XPR1 might be a potential prognostic marker or therapeutic target.

Yao SS, Han L, Tian ZB, et al.
Celastrol inhibits growth and metastasis of human gastric cancer cell MKN45 by down-regulating microRNA-21.
Phytother Res. 2019; 33(6):1706-1716 [PubMed] Related Publications
Celastrol could inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. However, effect(s) of celastrol on gastric cancer is not well studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of celastrol on human gastric cancer cell line MKN45 and the underlying mechanisms. We found that celastrol inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest (p < .05, p < .01, or p < .001). Under celastrol treatment, overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) increased cell viability, migration, and invasion and inhibited cell apoptosis compared with negative control (p < .05, p < .01, or p < .001). In addition, the phosphorylation of PTEN was significantly up-regulated, whereas PI3K, AKT, p65, and IκBα phosphorylation was statistically decreased by celastrol (p < .05 or p < .01) and then further reversed by miR-21 overexpression (p < .05 or p < .01). On the other side, miR-21 silence showed contrary results (p < .05) as relative to miR-21 overexpression. In conclusion, celastrol inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion and inactivates PTEN/PI3K/AKT and nuclear factor κB signaling pathways in MKN45 cells by down-regulating miR-21.

Wu X, Tian H, Xue L, Wang L
SIRT6 abrogation promotes adrenocortical carcinoma through activation of NF-κB signaling.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 458(1-2):1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
As an uncommon malignancy in the adrenal gland, adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is characterized by thorny diagnosis and poor clinical outcome, necessitating innovative treatment strategies. Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6), a tumor suppressor, modulates aerobic glycolysis of malignant cells and has an impact on tumorigenesis. This study focused on investigating SIRT6 expression in ACC and how it generates cancer phenotypes. SIRT6 expression was inhibited in ACC tissues according to western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. MTT assay, TUNEL assay, and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the contribution of SIRT6 to cell invasion, proliferation, death, and migration. It was shown that SIRT6 knockdown promoted cell invasion, proliferation, and migration, and inhibited cell death. Moreover, it was found that SIRT6 knockdown upregulated TLR4 and reinforced phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65 as well as inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase. Additionally, SIRT6 knockdown significantly enhanced expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide as well as transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1. It also reinforced reactive oxygen species generation. Overall, our research findings demonstrate that SIRT6 serves as a tumor suppressor via regulation of the NF-κB pathway, which could offer an innovative strategy to treat ACC.

Gamboa-Cedeño AM, Castillo M, Xiao W, et al.
Alternative and canonical NF-kB pathways DNA-binding hierarchies networks define Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin diffuse large B Cell lymphoma respectively.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(6):1437-1448 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite considerable evidence that supports the NF-kB role in the immune system and lymphomagenesis, it is unclear whether specific NF-kB dimers control a particular set of genes that account for their biological functions. Our previous work showed that Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is unique, among germinal center (GC)-derived lymphomas, with respect to its dependency on Rel-B to survive. In contrast, diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including both Activated B-Cell-Like and Germinal Center B-Cell-Like, requires cREL and Rel-A to survive and it is not affected by Rel-B depletion. These findings highlighted the activity of specific NF-kB subunits in different GC-derived lymphomas.
METHODS: Sequenced chromatin immunoprecipitated DNA fragments (ChIP-Seq) analysis revealed an extensive NF-kB DNA-binding network in DLBCL and HL. The ChIP-Seq data was merged with microarray analysis following the Rel-A, Rel-B or cRel knockdown to determine effectively regulated genes.
RESULTS: Downstream target analysis showed enrichment for cell cycle control, among other signatures. Rel-B and cRel controlled different genes within the same signature in HL and DLBCL, respectively. BCL2 was exclusively controlled by Rel-B in HL. Both mRNA and protein levels decreased following Rel-B depletion meanwhile there was no change upon cRel knock-down. BCL2 exogenous expression partially rescued the death induced by decreased Rel-B in HL cells.
CONCLUSION: The Rel-B hierarchical network defined HL and the cRel hierarchical network characterized DLBCL. Each Rel member performs specific functions in distinct GC-derived lymphomas. This result should be considered for the development of targeted therapies that are aimed to selectively inhibit individual NF-kB dimers.

Sasaki A, Hirato J, Hirose T, et al.
Review of ependymomas: assessment of consensus in pathological diagnosis and correlations with genetic profiles and outcome.
Brain Tumor Pathol. 2019; 36(2):92-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
We focused on histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of ependymoma (EPN) with molecular profiles to develop more reproducible criteria of the diagnosis. Three expert neuropathologists reviewed the pathology of 130 samples from the Japan Pediatric Molecular Neuro-Oncology Group study. Confirmed cases were assessed for histology, surrogate markers, molecular subgrouping, and survival data. We reached a consensus regarding the diagnosis of EPNs in 100% of spinal cord tumors and 93% of posterior fossa (PF) tumors that had been diagnosed as EPNs by local pathologists, whereas we reached a consensus regarding only 77% of the local diagnosis of supratentorial (ST) EPNs. Among the PF-EPNs, most of anaplastic ependymomas (AEPNs) were defined as EPN-A by methylation profiling, which was significantly correlated with the subgroup assignment. Regarding prognosis, the overall survival of patients with PF-EPN was significantly better than that of patients with PF AEPN (p = 0.01). Histologically, all ependymoma, RELA fusion-positive (EPN-RELA) qualified as Grade III. Both L1 cell adhesion molecule and nuclear factor kappaB p65 antibodies showed good sensitivity for detecting EPN-RELA. This study indicated that the expert consensus pathological diagnosis could correlate well with the molecular classifications in EPNs. ST EPNs should be diagnosed more carefully by histological and molecular analyses.

Jang SH, Jiang Y, Shin S, et al.
Potential Oncogenic Role of the Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers.
Yonsei Med J. 2019; 60(4):326-335 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Papillary renal cell carcinoma (
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry analysis with a tissue array containing 161 primary NSCLCs. Small interfering RNA targeting PRCC (siPRCC) was transfected into two lung cancer cell lines (NCI-H358 and A549), after which tumor growth, migration, and invasion were observed. Expressions of cell proliferation-, cell cycle-, and metastasis-related molecules were examined by Western blot analysis. We also explored the
RESULTS: PRCC overexpression was recurrently observed in NSCLCs (95/161, 59%). After siPRCC treatment, tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, and anchorage independent growth were significantly reduced (
CONCLUSION: The present data provide evidence that PRCC overexpression is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of lung cancer.

Xiao L, Luo Y, Tai R, Zhang N
Estrogen receptor β suppresses inflammation and the progression of prostate cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3555-3563 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor β (ERβ) signaling alleviates systemic inflammation in animal models, and suggested that ERβ‑selective agonists may deactivate microglia and suppress T cell activity via downregulation of nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB). In the present study, the role of ERβ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced inflammation and association with NF‑κB activity were investigated in PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with LPS to induce inflammation, and ELISA was performed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP‑1), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6. MTT and Transwell assays, and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining were conducted to measure cell viability, apoptosis and migration, respectively. Protein expression was determined via western blot analysis. LPS‑induced inflammation resulted in elevated expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6 compared with controls. ERβ overexpression significantly inhibited the LPS‑induced production of TNF‑α, IL‑1β, MCP‑1 and IL‑6. In addition, the results indicated that ERβ suppressed viability and migration, and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which was further demonstrated by altered expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein, caspase‑3, E‑cadherin and matrix metalloproteinase‑2. These effects were reversed by treatment with the ERβ antagonist PHTPP or ERβ‑specific short interfering RNA. ERβ overexpression reduced the expression levels of p65 and phosphorylated NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα), but not total IκBα expression in LPS‑treated cells. In conclusion, ERβ suppressed the viability and migration of the PC‑3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, it reduced inflammation and suppressed the activation of the NF‑κB pathway, suggesting that ERβ may serve roles as an anti‑inflammatory and anticancer agent in prostate cancer.

Xu W, Qian J, Zeng F, et al.
Protein kinase Ds promote tumor angiogenesis through mast cell recruitment and expression of angiogenic factors in prostate cancer microenvironment.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are being increasingly recognized as critical components in the tumor microenvironment. Protein Kinase D (PKD) is essential for the progression of prostate cancer, but its role in prostate cancer microenvironment remains poorly understood.
METHODS: The expression of PKD, mast cells and microvessel density were examined by IHC. The clinical significance was determined by statistical analyses. The biological function of PKD and the underlying mechanisms were investigated using in vitro and in vivo models.
RESULTS: PKD2/3 contributed to MCs recruitment and tumor angiogenesis in the prostate cancer microenvironment. Clinical data showed that increased activation of PKD at Ser744/748 in prostate cancer was correlated with mast cell infiltration and microvascular density. PKD2/3 silencing of prostate cancer cells markedly decreased MCs migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells. Moreover, PKD2/3 depletion not only reduced SCF, CCL5 and CCL11 expression in prostate cancer cells but also inhibited angiogenic factors in MCs. Conversely, exogenous SCF, CCL5 and CCL11 reversed the effect on MCs migration inhibited by PKD2/3 silencing. Mechanistically, PKD2/3 interacted with Erk1/2 and activated Erk1/2 or NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to AP-1 or NF-κB binding to the promoter of scf, ccl5 and ccl11. Finally, PKD-specific inhibitor significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor growth in mice bearing RM-1 prostate cancer cells, which was attributed to attenuation of mast cell recruitment and tumor angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a novel PKDs function that contributes to tumor angiogenesis and progression through mast cells recruitment in prostate cancer microenvironment.

El-Ashmawy NE, El-Zamarany EA, Khedr EG, Abo-Saif MA
Effect of modification of MTDH gene expression on colorectal cancer aggressiveness.
Gene. 2019; 698:92-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metadherin (MTDH) is an oncogene that has been overexpressed in numerous types of malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, few investigations associated with the biological behavior of MTDH in CRC have been performed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of modification of MTDH gene expression (knockdown and overexpression) on the biological behavior of CRC in vitro.
METHODS: MTDH gene expression was analyzed in two CRC cell lines (Caco-2 and HCT116) by qPCR. MTDH was down-regulated via siRNA-mediated knockdown of human MTDH in HCT116 cells, which express high endogenous levels of MTDH gene. Also, MTDH gene was up-regulated via transfection of Caco-2 cells, which express low endogenous levels of MTDH gene, with a plasmid carrying human MTDH gene.
RESULTS: Knockdown of MTDH gene expression significantly decreased the gene expression of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), Snail and NF-κB p65, but increased the gene expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, MTDH-knockdown significantly decreased anaerobic glycolysis (glucose consumption and lactate production), cell proliferation ability and transformation into cancer stem cell. Moreover, up-regulation of MTDH gene significantly increased the gene expression of MDR1, Snail and NF-κB p65, deceased the gene expression of E-cadherin, enhanced cell proliferation, and anaerobic glycolysis and activated transformation into cancer stem cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MTDH has an important role in promoting CRC aggravation. Also, inhibition of MTDH expression may attenuate the carcinogenic behavior of CRC cells. Furthermore, MTDH-associated NF-κB p65 signaling pathways may be involved in mediating the biological behavior of CRC.

El-Ashmawy NE, El-Zamarany EA, Khedr EG, Abo-Saif MA
Activation of EMT in colorectal cancer by MTDH/NF-κB p65 pathway.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2019; 457(1-2):83-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leads to tumor dissemination and metastasis. Metadherin (MTDH) is an oncogene that plays an important role in metastasis regulation. This study tries to investigate the effect of MTDH gene up-regulation on the activation of EMT in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and identify the role of NF-κB p65. The CaCO2 cells were divided into three groups: one control group of cultured CaCO2 cells (C1), and two groups of CaCO2 cells co-transfected using human MTDH expression plasmid with either siRNA targeting human NF-κB p65 or its negative control (C2 and C3 respectively). The gene modification was confirmed by qPCR and the effect of gene modification on CRC aggravation was studied. MTDH up-regulation significantly promoted CRC cell proliferation, activated anaerobic respiration (glucose consumption and lactate production), and increased gene expression of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), Snail transcription factor and NF-κB p65, but decreased the gene expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, MTDH up-regulation led to a significant increase in the acquisition of surface markers of CRC stem cells. Interference with NF-κB p65 gene expression reversed the action of MTDH gene up-regulation on MDR1 and E-cadherin gene expression and anaerobic respiration. Moreover, NF-κB p65 interference significantly decreased MTDH-induced cell proliferation and acquisition of surface markers of CRC stem cells but didn't affect the Snail transcription factor. MTDH-dependent EMT in CRC is activated via NF-κB p65 and is mediated by up-regulation of Snail. These results identify a pathway by which MTDH regulates NF-κB p65 induced EMT during CRC cell metastasis.

Sun L, Sun C, Sun J, Yang W
Downregulation of ENDOCAN in myeloid leukemia cells inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis by suppressing nuclear factor‑κB activity.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):3247-3254 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies have demonstrated that ENDOCAN is elevated in leukemia, and it has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis. However, the functional role of ENDOCAN in the development of leukemia remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression levels of ENDOCAN were detected in THP‑1, U937, HL‑60 and K562 cells, and it was found that ENDOCAN was increased in U937 and K562 cells, compared with the other two cell lines. Subsequently, ENDOCAN was knocked down in U937 and K562 cells via lentiviral infection. It was found that cell proliferation and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen were inhibited in myeloid leukemia cells following the silencing of ENDOCAN. ENDOCAN knockdown induced G0/G1‑phase cell cycle arrest in myeloid leukemia cells with a decreased expression of cyclin D1. Furthermore, cell apoptosis was increased in response to ENDOCAN silencing, which was accompanied by the downregulation of B‑cell lymphoma (BCL2) and the upregulation of BCL2‑associated X protein, cleaved caspases 3 and 9, and cleaved poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the knockdown of ENDOCAN inhibited nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) activity, as evidenced by the increased expression of NF‑κB inhibitor α (IκBα), decreased expression of phosphorylated (p‑)IκBα, p‑P65 and nuclear P65, and reduced NF‑κB DNA‑binding activity. In combination, the present findings suggested that ENDOCAN may serve as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of leukemia.

Kiliccioglu I, Konac E, Dikmen AU, et al.
Hsp-27 and NF-κB pathway is associated with AR/AR-V7 expression in prostate cancer cells.
Gene. 2019; 697:138-143 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 and/or Hsp-27 inhibitor KRIBB-3 agents were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms mediating androgen receptor expression on prostate cancer cell lines. The decrease observed in androgen receptor and p65 expressions, particularly at 48 h, in parallel with the decrease in the phosphorylation of the p-IKK α/β and p-Hsp-27 proteins in the LNCaP cells, indicated that androgen receptor inactivation occurred after the inhibition of the NF-κB and Hsp-27. In 22Rv1 cells, androgen receptor variant-7 was also observed to be decreased in the combined dose of 48 h. The association of this decrease with the decrease in androgen receptor and p65 expressions is a supportive result for the role of NF-κB signaling in the formation of androgen receptor variant. In androgen receptor variant-7 siRNA treatment in 22Rv1 cell lines, decrease of expression of androgen receptor variant-7 as well as decrease of expression of androgen receptor and p65 were observed. The decrease statistically significant in androgen receptor and p65 expressions was even greater when siRNA treatment was followed with low dose and time (6 h) combined treatment after transfection. We also showed that increased Noxa and decreased Bcl-2 protein level, indicated that apoptotic induction after this combination. In conclusion, inhibition of NF-κB and Hsp-27 is also important, along with therapies for androgen receptor variant-7 inhibition.

Luan X, Rahme K, Cong Z, et al.
Anisamide-targeted PEGylated gold nanoparticles designed to target prostate cancer mediate: Enhanced systemic exposure of siRNA, tumour growth suppression and a synergistic therapeutic response in combination with paclitaxel in mice.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2019; 137:56-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has recently illustrated therapeutic potential for malignant disorders. However, the clinical application of siRNA-based therapeutics is significantly retarded by the paucity of successful delivery systems. Recently, multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as non-viral delivery carriers have shown promise for transporting chemotherapeutics, proteins/peptides, and genes. In this study, AuNPs capped with polyethylenimine (PEI) and PEGylated anisamide (a ligand known to target the sigma receptor) have been developed to produce a range of positively charged anisamide-targeted PEGylated AuNPs (namely Au-PEI-PEG-AA). The anisamide-targeted AuNPs effectively complexed siRNA via electrostatic interaction, and the resultant complex (Au

Ye T, Yang M, Huang D, et al.
MicroRNA-7 as a potential therapeutic target for aberrant NF-κB-driven distant metastasis of gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated miR-7 and aberrant NF-κB activation were reported in various human cancers. However, the expression profile, clinical relevance and dysregulated mechanism of miR-7 and NF-κB RelA/p65 in human gastric cancers (GC) metastasis remain largely unknown. This study is to investigate the expression profile, clinical relevance and dysregulated mechanism of miR-7 and NF-κB RelA/p65 in GC and to explore the potential therapeutic effect of miR-7 to GC distant metastasis.
METHODS: TCGA STAD and NCBI GEO database were used to investigate the expression profile of miR-7 and NF-κB RelA/p65 and clinical relevance. Lentivirus-mediated gene delivery was applied to explore the therapeutic effect of miR-7 in GC. Real-time PCR, FACS, IHC, IF, reporter gene assay, IP, pre-miRNA-7 processing and binding assays were performed.
RESULTS: Low miR-7 correlated with high RelA/p65 in GC with a clinical relevance that low miR-7 and high RelA/p65 as prognostic indicators of poor survival outcome of GC patients. Moreover, an impaired pre-miR-7 processing caused by dysregulated Dicer1 expression is associated with downregulated miR-7 in GC cells. Functionally, delivery of miR-7 displays therapeutic effects to GC lung and liver metastasis by alleviating hemangiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis as well as inflammation cells infiltration. Mechanistically, miR-7 suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity and its downstream metastasis-related molecules Vimentin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF by reducing p65 and p-p65-ser536 expression. Pharmacologic prevention of NF-κB activator LPS obviously restored miR-7-suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activation and significantly reverted miR-7-inhibited cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest loss of miR-7 in GC promotes p65-mediated aberrant NF-κB activation, facilitating GC metastasis and ultimately resulting in the worse clinical outcome. Thus, miR-7 may act as novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for aberrant NF-κB-driven GC distant metastasis.

Yamaguchi M, Hankinson O
2,3,7,8‑tetrachlorodibenzo‑p‑dioxin suppresses the growth of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro: Implication of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(4):1422-1432 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer disease with a 5‑year survival rate of 55% in USA in 2016. The investigation to identify novel biomarker factors with molecular classification may provide notable clinical information to prolong the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) binds the AHR nuclear translocator in the cytoplasm of various types of cells, including liver cells, and then binds to the xenobiotic responsive element on various genes. AHR was initially discovered via its ligand, the polychlorinated hydrocarbon, 2,3,7,8‑tetrachlorodibenzo‑p‑dioxin (TCDD). The present study was undertaken to determine whether TCDD, an agonist of AHR signaling, impacts the growth of RKO human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. Treatment with TCDD (0.1‑100 nM) revealed suppressive effects on colony formation and proliferation of RKO cells, and stimulated death of these cells with subconfluence. These effects of TCDD were abolished by pretreatment with CH223191, an inhibitor of AHR signaling. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TCDD treatment decreased AHR levels and elevated cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 1 (CYP1A1) levels, indicating a stimulation of AHR signaling. TCDD treatment caused an increase in nuclear factor‑κB p65 and β‑catenin levels, although it did not have an effect on Ras levels. Notably, TCDD treatment increased the levels of p53, retinoblastoma, p21 and regucalcin, which are depressors of carcinogenesis. Additionally, action of TCDD on cell proliferation and death were not revealed in regucalcin‑overexpressing RKO cells, and regucalcin overexpression depressed AHR signaling associated with CYP1A1 expression. Thus, AHR signaling suppresses the growth of colorectal cancer cells, indicating a role as a significant targeting molecule for colorectal cancer.

Yang PW, Lu ZY, Pan Q, et al.
MicroRNA-6809-5p mediates luteolin-induced anticancer effects against hepatoma by targeting flotillin 1.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 57:18-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Luteolin (3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxy flavone) is a natural flavonoid abundant in fruits and vegetables. Although luteolin has shown pro-apoptotic activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, the underlying molecular mechanism has not yet been clarified.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to identify novel miRNAs involved in the action of luteolin in HCC cells and to explore the biological roles of these miRNAs.
METHODS: The effect of luteolin on HCC cell growth was assessed using CCK-8 colony formation assay, flow cytometric analysis in vitro, and a xenograft model in vivo. miRNA expression profiles were assessed using next-generation sequencing. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by quantitative PCR. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay were utilized to confirm the binding of miR-6809-5p to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of flotillin 1 (FLOT1). Furthermore, the effects of ectopic FLOT1 and miR-6809-5 expression on cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell apoptosis were also assessed. Western blotting analysis was used to detect activation of multiple signaling molecules including Erk1/2, p38, JNK, and NF-κB/p65 in the MAPK pathway.
RESULTS: It was found that luteolin significantly inhibited HCC growth and caused apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in Huh7 cells, at the G2/M phase in HepG2 cells in vitro. Tumorigenic studies revealed that luteolin treatment significantly suppressed HCC growth in vivo. miR-6809-5p was upregulated by luteolin. Overexpression of miR-6809-5p suppressed HCC cell growth, while knockdown of miR-6809-5p reversed the anticancer effect of luteolin. With regards to its signaling mechanism, miR-6809-5p directly targets FLOT1in HCC cells. Enforced expression of FLOT1 prevented miR-6809-5p-mediated growth suppression. Downregulation of FLOT1 exerted growth-suppressive effects on HCC cells. Multiple signaling pathways including Erk1/2, p38, JNK, and NF-κB/p65 were inactivated by miR-6809-5p overexpression or FLOT1 downregulation.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that miR-6809-5p mediates the growth-suppressive activity of luteolin in HCC, which is causally linked to FLOT1 downregulation. Induction of miR-6809-5p may provide therapeutic benefits in the treatment of HCC.

Chen XJ, Zhang WN, Chen B, et al.
Homoharringtonine deregulates
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(6):2220-2225 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Homoharringtonine (HHT), a known protein synthesis inhibitor, has an anti-myeloid leukemia effect and potentiates the therapeutic efficacy of anthracycline/cytarabine induction regimens for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with favorable and intermediate prognoses, especially in the t(8;21) subtype. Here we provide evidence showing that HHT inhibits the activity of leukemia-initiating cells (Lin

Xin H, Wang C, Liu Z
miR-196a-5p promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer via targeting IκBα.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNA-196a-5p (miR-196a-5p) has been reported to be involved in the metastatic process of several cancers. In present work, we aimed to investigate the effects of miR-196a-5p and its potential target IκBα on migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells.
METHODS: CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and cell invasion assay were performed to evaluate the cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In vivo metastasis models were used to investigate the tumor metastasis ability. Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining or western blot were utilized to detect the expression of miR-196a-5p, IκBα, p-IκBα, nuclear p65 and EMT markers including E-cadherin, N-cadherin and fibronectin. Dual luciferase reporter assay was carried out to determine whether there is a direct interaction between miR-196a-5p and IκBα mRNA.
RESULTS: Using SW480 cell with miR-196-5p over-expressed plus SW620 and HCT116 cells with miR-196a-5p knockdown, we found that miR-196a-5p promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and facilitated liver metastasis in vivo. We also observed that miR-196a-5p knockdown or NF-κB pathway inhibition up-regulated E-cadherin while down-regulated N-cadherin and fibronectin. By contrast, miR-196a-5p over-expression promoted EMT process of CRC. Data of dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-196a-5p targeted the IκBα. Moreover, miR-196a-5p down-regulated IκBα expression while up-regulated nuclear p65 expression. Additionally, over-expression of IκBα in CRC cells attenuated the effects of miR-196a-5p on cell migration, invasion and EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-196a-5p may play a key role in EMT, invasion and metastasis of CRC cells via targeting the IκBα.

Nakada S, Kuboki S, Nojima H, et al.
Roles of Pin1 as a Key Molecule for EMT Induction by Activation of STAT3 and NF-κB in Human Gallbladder Cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2019; 26(3):907-917 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite developments in multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis for advanced gallbladder cancer (GBC) still is poor because of its rapid progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in promoting tumor invasion and metastasis in malignancies thorough signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Whereas Pin1 mediates STAT3 and NF-κB activation, the involvement of Pin1 in GBC progression is unclear.
METHODS: Factors regulating Pin1-related STAT3 and NF-κB activation were evaluated using surgical specimens collected from 76 GBC patients, GBC cells, and orthotopic GBC xenograft mice.
RESULTS: In the patients with GBC, high Pin1 expression in GBC was associated with aggressive tumor invasion and increased tumor metastasis, and was an independent factor for a poor prognosis. Pin1 expression was correlated with phosphorylation of STAT3(Ser727) and NF-κB-p65(Ser276), thereby activating STAT3 and NF-κB in GBC. Pin1-mediated STAT3 and NF-κB activation induced EMT in GBC. When Pin1 knockdown was performed in GBC cells, the phosphorylation of STAT3(Ser727) and NF-κB-p65(Ser276) was inhibited, and STAT3 and NF-κB activation was suppressed. Inactivation of STAT3 and NF-κB in Pin1-depleted cells decreased snail and zeb-2 expression, thereby reducing the rate of mesenchymal-like cells, suggesting that EMT was inhibited in GBC cells. PiB, a Pin1-specific inhibitor, inhibited EMT and reduced tumor cell invasion by inactivating STAT3 and NF-κB in vitro. Moreover, PiB treatment inhibited lymph node metastasis and intrahepatic metastasis in orthotopic GBC xenograft tumor in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Pin1 accelerates GBC invasion and metastasis by activating STAT3 and NF-κB. Therefore, Pin1 inhibition by PiB is an excellent therapy for GBC by safely inhibiting its metastasis.

Chen Y, Wang D, Peng H, et al.
Epigenetically upregulated oncoprotein PLCE1 drives esophageal carcinoma angiogenesis and proliferation via activating the PI-PLCε-NF-κB signaling pathway and VEGF-C/ Bcl-2 expression.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):1 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Neovascularization during tumorigenesis supplies oxygen and nutrients to proliferative tumor cells, and serves as a conduit for migration. Targeting oncogenes involved in angiogenesis is needed to treat organ-confined and locally advanced ESCC. Although the phospholipase C epsilon-1 (PLCE1) gene was originally identified as a susceptibility gene for ESCC, how PLCE1 is involved in ESCC is unclear.
METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to measure the methylation status of the PLCE1 promoter region. To validate the underlying mechanism for PLCE1 in constitutive activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, we performed studies using in vitro and in vivo assays and samples from 368 formalin-fixed esophageal cancer tissues and 215 normal tissues with IHC using tissue microarrays and the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset.
RESULTS: We report that hypomethylation-associated up-regulation of PLCE1 expression was correlated with tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis in ESCC cohorts. PLCE1 can activate NF-κB through phosphoinositide-phospholipase C-ε (PI-PLCε) signaling pathway. Furthermore, PLCE1 can bind p65 and IκBα proteins, promoting IκBα-S32 and p65-S536 phosphorylation. Consequently, phosphorylated IκBα promotes nuclear translocation of p50/p65 and p65, as a transcription factor, can bind vascular endothelial growth factor-C and bcl-2 promoters, enhancing angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, xenograft tumors in nude mice proved that PLCE1 can induce angiogenesis, inhibit apoptosis, and increase tumor aggressiveness via the NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings not only provide evidence that hypomethylation-induced PLCE1 confers angiogenesis and proliferation in ESCC by activating PI-PLCε-NF-κB signaling pathway and VEGF-C/Bcl-2 expression, but also suggest that modulation of PLCE1 by epigenetic modification or a selective inhibitor may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of ESCC.

Tanigaki R, Takahashi R, Nguyen MTT, et al.
4-Hydroxypanduratin A and Isopanduratin A Inhibit Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Stimulated Gene Expression and the Nuclear Factor κB-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2019; 42(1):26-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, regulates inflammatory and immune responses by up-regulating gene expression in a manner that is dependent on the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). In the present study, we found that 4-hydroxypanduratin A and isopanduratin A, constituents of the rhizomes of Boesenbergia pandurata, inhibited the TNF-α-stimulated up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 4-Hydroxypanduratin A and isopanduratin A also reduced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-κB-responsive luciferase activity in TNF-α-stimulated A549 cells. Moreover, 4-hydroxypanduratin A and isopanduratin A prevented the TNF-α-stimulated translocation of the NF-κB subunit p65 to the nucleus and the phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of the inhibitor of the NF-κB α protein. The present results revealed that 4-hydroxypanduratin A and isopanduratin A inhibit TNF-α-stimulated gene expression and the NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway in A549 cells.

Hai L, Liu P, Yu S, et al.
Jagged1 is Clinically Prognostic and Promotes Invasion of Glioma-Initiating Cells by Activating NF-κB(p65) Signaling.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(6):2925-2937 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Jagged1 is the ligands of the Notch signaling and has been shown to promote glioma-initiating cells (GICs) in glioblastoma. The role of Jagged1 in GICs invasion and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear.
METHODS: Survival data from R2 genomics analysis, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) and visualization platform database were used to evaluate the effects of Jagged1 on overall patient survival. we investigated Jagged1 induced the GICs cells' invasion by matrix degradation assays and Transwell cell invasion assays in vitro, then we further explored the underlying molecular mechanisms using Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) analysis.
RESULTS: High expression of Jagged1 in human glioma was associated with poor survival. Clinical data analysis showed that the Jagged1 was positively correlated with NF-κB(p65). Jagged1-induced invasion of GICs cells through activation of NF-κB(p65) pathway. In vivo, knockdown of Jagged1 could suppress the tumorigenicity of GICs cells through NF-κB(p65) signaling.
CONCLUSION: Insights gained from these findings suggest that Jagged1 plays an important oncogenic role in GICs malignancy by activation of NF-κB(p65) signaling, and Jagged1 could be employed as an effective therapeutic target for GICs.

Shao YY, Chang ZP, Cheng Y, et al.
Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction alleviated hyperandrogenism in a letrozole-induced rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by inhibition of NF-κB activation.
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction (SGD) has been widely used for the treatment of gynopathy. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism of SGD on hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats. In the present work, SGD was orally administrated to the PCOS rats at the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50 g/kg/d for 14 consecutive days. UPLC-MS/MS was performed to identify the main chemical components of SGD. Body weight, ovarian weight, cystic dilating follicles, and serum levels of steroid hormones were tested to evaluate the therapeutic effect of SGD. In order to further clarify the underlying mechanism, we also measured mRNA and the protein levels of NF-κB, NF-κB p65, P-NF-κB p65, and IκB by RT-qPCR and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that SGD treatment significantly alleviated hyperandrogenism in PCOS rats as evidenced by reduced serum levels of T and increased E

Kitanaka N, Nakano R, Kitanaka T, et al.
NF-κB p65 and p105 implicate in interleukin 1β-mediated COX-2 expression in melanoma cells.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208955 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory and microenvironmental factors produced by cancer cells are thought to directly or indirectly promote cancer cell growth. Prostaglandins, including prostaglandin E2, have key roles as a microenvironment factor in influencing the development of tumors, and are produced by the rate limiting enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). In this study, we used canine melanoma cells treated with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and investigated the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in IL-1β-induced COX-2 expression. IL-1β induced prostaglandin E2 release and COX-2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In the cells treated with the NF-κB inhibitors BAY11-7082 and TPC-1, IL-1β-mediated prostaglandin E2 release and COX-2 mRNA expression were inhibited. IL-1β also provoked phosphorylation of p65/RelA and p105/NF-κB1, which are members of the NF-κB families. The IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of p65 and p105 was attenuated in the presence of both NF-κB inhibitors. In melanoma cells transfected with siRNA of p65 or p105, IL-1β-mediated COX-2 mRNA expression was inhibited. These findings suggest that canonical activation of NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role for inflammatory states in melanoma cells.

Yang JW, Murray B, Barbier-Torres L, et al.
The mitochondrial chaperone Prohibitin 1 negatively regulates interleukin-8 in human liver cancers.
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(6):1984-1996 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is a mitochondrial chaperone whose expression is dysregulated in cancer. In liver cancer, PHB1 acts as a tumor suppressor, but the mechanisms of tumor suppression are incompletely understood. Here we aimed to determine PHB1 target genes to better understand how PHB1 influences liver tumorigenesis. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found interleukin-8 (IL-8) to be one of the most highly up-regulated genes following PHB1 silencing in HepG2 cells. Induction of IL-8 expression also occurred in multiple liver and nonliver cancer cell lines. We examined samples from 178 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and found that

Fan Y, Ou L, Fan J, et al.
HepaCAM Regulates Warburg Effect of Renal Cell Carcinoma via HIF-1α/NF-κB Signaling Pathway.
Urology. 2019; 127:61-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate how hepatocyte cell adhesion molecule (hepaCAM) regulates cancer energy metabolism through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of hepaCAM and HIF-1α in RCC tissue samples was examined by immunohistochemistry. Glucose consumption and lactate production assays were used to detect metabolic activity in RCC cell lines. P65 and IκB kinase (IKKβ) mRNA and protein expression were detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Nuclear translocation of P65 was observed by immunofluorescence staining after re-expressing hepaCAM. The luciferase reporter assay was applied to validate the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α.
RESULTS: HIF-1α expression was elevated and hepaCAM suppressed in RCC compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, hepaCAM re-expression significantly decreased glycolytic metabolism in RCC cell lines, and reduced HIF-1α, IKKβ, and P65 expression. The expression of HIF-1α, GLUT1, LDHA, and PKM2 were further reduced with combined hepaCAM overexpression and treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082, compared to hepaCAM overexpression alone. Additionally, hepaCAM decreased the transcriptional activity of HIF-1α and blocked P65 nuclear translocation by the NF-κB pathway.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that hepaCAM suppresses the Warburg effect via the HIF-1α/NF-κB pathway in RCC, which is a facilitating factor in hepaCAM-reduced tumorigenesis.

Jin X, Ding D, Yan Y, et al.
Phosphorylated RB Promotes Cancer Immunity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation and PD-L1 Expression.
Mol Cell. 2019; 73(1):22-35.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in tumor cells promotes cancer progression by suppressing cancer immunity. The retinoblastoma protein RB is a tumor suppressor known to regulate the cell cycle, DNA damage response, and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that RB interacts with nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) protein p65 and that their interaction is primarily dependent on CDK4/6-mediated serine-249/threonine-252 (S249/T252) phosphorylation of RB. RNA-seq analysis shows a subset of NF-κB pathway genes including PD-L1 are selectively upregulated by RB knockdown or CDK4/6 inhibitor. S249/T252-phosphorylated RB inversely correlates with PD-L1 expression in patient samples. Expression of a RB-derived S249/T252 phosphorylation-mimetic peptide suppresses radiotherapy-induced upregulation of PD-L1 and augments therapeutic efficacy of radiation in vivo. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized tumor suppressor function of hyperphosphorylated RB in suppressing NF-κB activity and PD-L1 expression and suggest that the RB-NF-κB axis can be exploited to overcome cancer immune evasion triggered by conventional or targeted therapies.

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