Gene Summary

Gene:RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit
Aliases: p65, NFKB3
Summary:NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor p65
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Xenograft Models
  • Promoter Regions
  • MicroRNAs
  • Lung Cancer
  • Phosphorylation
  • Cell Survival
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
  • Cell Nucleus
  • I-kappa B Kinase
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Western Blotting
  • Messenger RNA
  • Translocation
  • NF-kappa B
  • Chromosome 11
  • Cell Movement
  • Transcription
  • siRNA
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Up-Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Protein Binding
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Signal Transduction
  • NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • YY1 Transcription Factor
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • U937 Cells
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Drug Resistance
  • Down-Regulation
  • I-kappa B Proteins
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases
  • RNA Interference
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RELA (cancer-related)

Nandakumar N, Muthuraman S, Gopinath P, et al.
Synthesis of coumaperine derivatives: Their NF-κB inhibitory effect, inhibition of cell migration and their cytotoxic activity.
Eur J Med Chem. 2017; 125:1076-1087 [PubMed] Related Publications
Coumaperine (an amide alkaloid, present in white piper) and its derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their cytotoxicity against L428 and A549 cells and their NF-κB inhibitory activity. It was found that the coumaperine derivatives CP-9 and CP-38 suppress NF-κB subunits p50 and p65 in nuclear fractions by western blot and by NF-κB luciferase reporter gene assay in a dose dependent manner. Confirmation of these results was obtained by confocal microscopy. CP-9, CP-32 and CP-38 also exhibited dose dependent cell cytotoxicity in a L428 cells expressing constitutively active NF-κB and in A549 cells, with an IC50 value of 43.25 μg/ml, 0.39 μg/ml and 16.85 μg/ml respectively against L428 cells and 57.15 μg/ml, 69.1 μg/ml and 63.2 μg/ml respectively against A549 cells. In addition, the coumaperine derivatives show remarkable inhibitory activity on the cancer cell migration assay against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells at the concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, and 5 μg/ml of CP-9, CP-32 and CP-38 respectively. Aromatic substituents and number of olefinic double bond in coumaperine derivatives found to influence the inhibitory activity. In luciferase reporter gene assay, di-olefin conjugated coumaperine derivatives, CP-38, CP-32 and PIP exhibited higher inhibitory activity than their corresponding tri-olefin conjugated coumaperine derivatives, CP-102, CP-146 and PIP-155 respectively. CP-32 with a stronger electron donating group (-N(CH3)2) showed better inhibitory activity in luciferase reporter gene assay and in cell proliferation of L428 cells. Simple coumaperine derivative (CP-9, with no substituent) effectively inhibited A549 cells proliferation and migration than the other coumaperine derivatives. CP-9 and CP-38 diminish significantly the NF-κB subunits (p50 and p65) of L428 cells in nuclear fractions at the dosage of 10 μg/ml and 30 μg/ml respectively. Which clearly shows that CP-9 and CP-38 inactivate the NF-κB pathway in vitro.

Hsia TC, Yu CC, Hsiao YT, et al.
Cantharidin Impairs Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Lung Cancer NCI-H460 Cells via UPA and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):5989-5997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cantharidin (CTD), a component of natural mylabris (Mylabris phalerata Pallas), has been shown to have biological activities and induce cell death in many human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CTD on cell migration and invasion of NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells. Cell viability was examined and results indicated that CTD decreased the percentage of viable cells in dose-dependent manners. CTD inhibited cell migration and invasion in dose-dependent manners. Gelatin zymography analysis was used to measure the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/-9) and the results indicated that CTD inhibited the enzymatic activities of MMP-2/-9 of NCI-H460 cells. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of NCI-H460 cells after incubation with CTD and the results showed that CTD decreased the expression of MMP-2/-9, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras homolog gene family, member A (Rho A), phospho-protein kinase B (AKT) (Thr308)(p-AKT(308)), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2), phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (p-p38), phospho c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (p-JNK1/2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA). Furthermore, confocal laser microscopy was used to confirm that CTD suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65, but did not significantly affect protein kinase C (PKC) translocation in NCI-H460 cells. Based on those observations, we suggest that CTD may be used as a novel anticancer metastasis agent for lung cancer in the future.

Wu L, Feng H, Hu J, et al.
Valproic acid (VPA) promotes the epithelial mesenchymal transition of hepatocarcinoma cells via transcriptional and post-transcriptional up regulation of Snail.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1029-1035 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to the low cost and favorable safety profile, valproic acid (VPA) has been considered as a potential candidate drug for therapy of various cancers. Our present study revealed that VPA, at the concentration (1mM) which has no effect on cell proliferation, can significantly increase the in vitro migration and invasion of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and Huh7 cells via induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). VPA treatment can significantly increase the mRNA and protein expression of Snail, the key transcription factor of EMT. While knockdown of Snail can abolish VPA induced EMT of HCC cells. It suggested that Snail is essential for VPA induced EMT of HCC cells. VPA treatment also increased the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. BAY 11-7082, the inhibitor of NF-κB, can significantly abolish VPA induced up regulation of Snail mRNA. Furthermore, VPA can increase the protein expression of Snail since 1h treatment via up regulation of half-lives of Snail protein. The increased protein stabilization of Snail can be attributed to VPA induced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. Collectively, our present study revealed that VPA can promote the EMT of HCC cells via up regulation of Snail through activation of NF-κB and Akt/GSK-3β signals.

Feng ZM, Guo SM
Tim-3 facilitates osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis through the NF-κB pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain molecule-3 (Tim-3) in osteosarcoma tissues, and analyze its effect on cell proliferation and metastasis in an osteosarcoma cell line. Tim-3 mRNA and protein expression in osteosarcoma tissue was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Additionally, the cell viability, apoptosis rate, and invasive ability of the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 were tested using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, Annexin V-propidium iodide flow cytometry, and a Transwell assay, respectively, following Tim-3 interference using small interfering RNA (siRNA). We also analyzed the expression of Snail, E-cadherin, vimentin, and nuclear factor (NF)-kB in the cells by western blot. We observed that Tim-3 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues, compared to the adjacent normal tissue (P < 0.01). Moreover, MG-63 cells transfected with the Tim-3 siRNA presented lower cell viability, a greater number of apoptotic cells, and decreased invasive ability (P < 0.01), compared to control cells. Additionally, we observed a decrease in Snail and vimentin expression, an increase in the E-cadherin level, and an increase in NF-kB p65 phosphorylation (P < 0.01) in Tim-3 siRNA-transfected MG-63 cells. Based on these results, we concluded that Tim-3 is highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissue. Moreover, we speculated that interfering in Tim-3 expression could significantly suppress osteosarcoma cell (MG-63) proliferation and metastasis via the NF-kB/Snail signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Kong X, Qian X, Duan L, et al.
microRNA-372 Suppresses Migration and Invasion by Targeting p65 in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(12):828-835 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors. microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, and their roles in PCa are becoming more apparent. In this study, we found that microRNA-372 (miR-372) is downregulated in human PCa and inhibits the proliferation activity, migration, and invasion of DU145 cells. Subsequently, p65 is confirmed as a target of miR-372, and knockdown of p65 expression similarly resulted in decreased proliferation activity, migration, and invasion. CDK8, MMP-9, and prostate-specific antigen were involved in both these processes. Taken together, our results show evidence that miR-372 may function as a tumor suppressor gene by regulating p65 in PCa and may provide a strategy for blocking PCa metastasis.

Li L, Mei DT, Zeng Y
HDAC2 promotes the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells via upregulation of fibronectin.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:284-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies indicated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can modulate the tumorigenesis and development of cancer cells. We evaluated the expression of class I HDACs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and found that HDAC2 was significantly increased in NSCLC cells as compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Silencing of HDAC2 by its specific siRNAs can significantly inhibit the in vitro migration and invasion of A549 and H1395 cells. While over expression of HDAC2 by transfection of pcDNA/HDAC2 plasmid can trigger the motility of NSCLC cells. Over expression of HDAC2 increased the protein and mRNA expression of firbronectin (FN), which can accelerate the metastasis of cancer cells. Similarly, knock down of HDAC2 suppressed the expression of FN. The inhibitor of NF-κB, while not ERK1/2 or PI3K/Akt, attenuated HDAC2 induced up regulation of FN and invasion of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, HDAC2 can markedly increase both mRNA and protein levels of p65 in NSCLC cells. Collectively, our data revealed that HDAC2 can trigger migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via up regulation FN through activation of NF-κB. It suggested HDAC2 might be a potential therapeutic target for the drug development of NSCLC patients.

Park M, Yoon HJ, Kang MC, et al.
PTK7 regulates radioresistance through nuclear factor-kappa B in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):14217-14224 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor radioresistance is a major reason for decreased efficiency of cancer radiation therapy. Although a number of factors involved in radioresistance have been identified, the molecular mechanisms underlying radioresistance of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of oncogenic protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) in the resistance of ESCC to radiation therapy. ESCC cell lines with high PTK7 expression were more refractive to radiation than those with low PTK7 levels. In radioresistant ESCC cells, PTK7 knockdown by specific siRNAs decreased the survival of irradiated cells and increased radiation-induced apoptosis, while in radiosensitive ESCC cells, PTK7 overexpression promoted cell survival and inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis. We hypothesized that PTK7 could regulate the activation of transcription factor NF-kB known for its role in cancer radioresistance. Our results indicated that the inhibition of PTK7 suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-kB subunit p65 induced by radiation, suggesting relevance of PTK7 expression with NF-kB activation in radioresistant ESCC. Furthermore, the levels of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), XIAP, and survivin, encoded by NF-kB-regulated genes, were induced in irradiated radioresistant cells but not in radiosensitive cells, while PTK7 knockdown downregulated IAP expression. Our findings revealed a novel mechanism underlying radioresistance in ESCC, which is associated with PTK7 and NF-kB-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that the manipulation of PTK7 expression can be instrumental in enhancing ESCC response to radiotherapy. This study demonstrates that PTK7 plays a significant role in ESCC radioresistance via the NF-kB pathway.

Qaiser F, Trembley JH, Sadiq S, et al.
Examination of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissues.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 420(1-2):43-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinase CK2 plays a critical role in cell growth, proliferation, and suppression of cell death. CK2 is overexpressed, especially in the nuclear compartment, in the majority of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). CK2-mediated activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 is a key step in cellular proliferation, resulting in translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. As CK2 expression and activity are also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we sought to increase the knowledge of CK2 function in benign and malignant prostate by examination of the relationships between nuclear CK2 and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression. The expression level and localization of CK2α and NF-κB p65 proteins in PCa and BPH tissue specimens was determined. Nuclear CK2α and NF-κB p65 protein levels are significantly higher in PCa compared with BPH, and these proteins are positively correlated with each other in both diseases. Nuclear NF-κB p65 levels correlated with Ki-67 or with cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 expression in BPH, but not in PCa. The findings provide information that combined analysis of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in prostate specimens relates to the disease status. Increased nuclear NF-κB p65 expression levels in PCa specifically related to nuclear CK2α levels, indicating a possible CK2-dependent relationship in malignancy. In contrast, nuclear NF-κB p65 protein levels related to both Ki-67 and cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels exclusively in BPH, suggesting a potential separate impact for NF-κB p65 function in proliferation for benign disease as opposed to malignant disease.

Liang L, Huang J
Oxymatrine inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition through regulation of NF-κB signaling in colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1333-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxymatrine, a traditional Chinese herb extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait., displays strong anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, but how oxymatrine exhibits anticarcinogenic effects in human colorectal cancer (CRC) remains uncertain. The present study aimed to elucidate the exact mechanism by which oxymatrine exhibits anticarcinogenic effects in CRC using the human colon cancer RKO cell line as the experimental model. CRC cells were treated with oxymatrine, and cell proliferation, migration and invasion were examined by colorimetric MTT, Transwell chamber and wound healing assays, respectively. In addition, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and p65 were assessed by western blot analysis. Our study demonstrated that oxymatrine hindered the proliferation, migration and invasion of the CRC cells. Mechanistically, we found that oxymatrine modulated the expression of EMT markers including E-cadherin, Snail and N-cadherin, and reduced expression of p65 which is crucial to NF-κB activation. In conclusion, our results indicate that oxymatrine reduces the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibits CRC invasion by modulating EMT.

Ma J, Gao Q, Zeng S, Shen H
Knockdown of NDRG1 promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer via NF-κB signaling.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 114(4):520-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NDRG1 plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The relation between NDRG1 and metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has not been identified and the mechanism of NDRG1 involving in mCRC needs to be elucidated.
METHODS: Correlations between NDRG1 and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of 164 patients with mCRC were evaluated. Sensitivity of NDRG1-knockdown colon cancer cell to irinotecan (CPT-11) was determined by MTT assay. Blocking of NF-κB signaling by p65 siRNA interference was carried out to explore the mechanism of NDRG1 involving in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-regulated invasion and metastasis of CRC.
RESULTS: NDRG1 expression was significantly negatively correlated with differentiation (P = 0.008) and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.016) of mCRC. NDRG1 was a favorable prognostic factor of mCRC, although might be responsible for CPT-11 resistance in vitro. Knockdown of NDRG1 promoted EMT of CRC cells via NF-κB signaling. Depletion of NDRG1 increased phosphorylation level of NF-κB. E-cadherin expression was increased and Vimentin expression was reduced in the p65-siRNA treated group, compared with the control group (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: NDRG1 appears to prevent EMT-induced metastasis by attenuating NF-κB signaling in mCRC. NDRG1 may be an independent prognostic factor for good survival of mCRC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:520-527. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Wu CF, Bohnert S, Thines E, Efferth T
Cytotoxicity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2016; 44(4):871-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) is a well-known Chinese herb that possesses numerous therapeutic activities, including anticancer effects. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the biological mechanisms of S. miltiorrhiza (SM) root extract on diverse resistant and sensitive cancer cell lines were investigated. CEM/ADR5000 cells were 1.68-fold resistant to CCRF-CEM cells, while HCT116 (p53[Formula: see text] and U87.MG[Formula: see text]EGFR cells were hypersensitive (collateral sensitive) compared to their parental cells. SM root extract stimulated ROS generation, cell cycle S phase arrest and apoptosis. The induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was validated by increased cleavage of caspase 3, 7, 9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). MAP kinases including JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 were obviously phosphorylated and nuclear P65 was downregulated upon SM treatment. Transcriptome-wide COMPARE analysis revealed that the expression of encoding genes with diverse functions were associated with the cellular response to cryptotanshinone, one of the main constituents of SM root extract. In conclusion, SM root extract exerted profound cytotoxicity towards various sensitive and resistant cancer cells and induced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

Nambirajan A, Malgulwar PB, Sharma MC, et al.
C11orf95-RELA fusion present in a primary intracranial extra-axial ependymoma: Report of a case with literature review.
Neuropathology. 2016; 36(5):490-495 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ependymomas are gliomas that recapitulate the ependymal cells microscopically and ultrastructurally. They commonly occur along the ventricular surfaces and central canal of the brain and spinal cord. Intracranial extra-axial ependymoma (IEAE) is a rare entity and is commonly misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as a meningioma. The histogenesis of such IEAEs is obscure. A novel recurrent oncogenic fusion involving the C11orf95 and RELA genes was recently described in supratentorial ependymomas. A 9-year-old girl presented with a dural based parafalcine mass that, in addition to exhibiting classical immunohistochemical features of an ependymoma, also demonstrated C11orf95-RELA fusion, characteristic of supratentorial ependymomas. We suggest that IEAEs share their histogenesis with their intra-axial counterparts, arising either from dural extension of subcortical, subependymal rests or directly from ectopic dural rests.

Shen H, Ma JL, Zhang Y, et al.
Integrin-linked kinase overexpression promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via nuclear factor-κB signaling in colorectal cancer cells.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(15):3969-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the effect of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) on proliferation, metastasis, and invasion of the colorectal cancer cell line SW480.
METHODS: In this study, the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was stably transfected with ILK plasmids, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB/p65. Methylthiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay was performed to measure proliferation, and the wound healing migration assay and matrigel invasion assay were used to test the metastasis and invasion ability of SW480 cells. To explore the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, embryonic development, and the invasion and metastasis of tumors, the protein level of E-cadherin, vimentin, snail, and slug was detected by western blot. Immunofluorescence was also used to detect E-cadherin expression. Western blot was used to determine the level of phosphorylated-inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)a, inhibitor of gamma B (IγB)a, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expressions and to explore the ILK signaling pathway.
RESULTS: Western blot results revealed that ILK expression significantly increased when ILK was overexpressed in SW480 cells (P < 0.05). Proliferation, metastasis, and invasion ability were improved in the vector-ILK group compared to the vector group (P < 0.05). Immunofluorescence results revealed that E-cadherin fluorescence intensity decreased after ILK was overexpressed (P < 0.05). Western blot results revealed that the protein expression of E-cadherin was reduced, while vimentin, snail, and slug were upregulated when ILK was overexpressed in SW480 cells (P < 0.05). In order to determine the role of the NF-κB signaling pathway in ILK overexpression promoted EMT occurrence, we overexpressed ILK in SW480 cells and found that levels of NF-κB/p65 and cytoplasmic phosphorylated-IκBa were increased and that cytoplasmic IкBa levels were decreased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, NF-κB/p65 knockout revealed that E-cadherin was increased in the overexpressed ILK group.
CONCLUSION: ILK overexpression improved the proliferation, metastasis, and invasion ability of SW480 cells, and this effect may be mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway.

Savva CG, Totokotsopoulos S, Nicolaou KC, et al.
Selective activation of TNFR1 and NF-κB inhibition by a novel biyouyanagin analogue promotes apoptosis in acute leukemia cells.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:279 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acquired resistance towards apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer. Elimination of cells bearing activated oncogenes or stimulation of tumor suppressor mediators may provide a selection pressure to overcome resistance. KC-53 is a novel biyouyanagin analogue known to elicit strong anti-inflammatory and anti-viral activity. The current study was designed to evaluate the anticancer efficacy and molecular mechanisms of KC-53 against human cancer cells.
METHODS: Using the MTT assay we examined initially how KC-53 affects the proliferation rates of thirteen representative human cancer cell lines in comparison to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and immortalized cell lines. To decipher the key molecular events underlying its mode of action we selected the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and the acute lymphocytic leukemia CCRF/CEM cell lines that were found to be the most sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of KC-53.
RESULTS: KC-53 promoted rapidly and irreversibly apoptosis in both leukemia cell lines at relatively low concentrations. Apoptosis was characterized by an increase in membrane-associated TNFR1, activation of Caspase-8 and proteolytic inactivation of the death domain kinase RIP1 indicating that KC-53 induced mainly the extrinsic/death receptor apoptotic pathway. Regardless, induction of the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway was also achieved by Caspase-8 processing of Bid, activation of Caspase-9 and increased translocation of AIF to the nucleus. FADD protein knockdown restored HL-60 and CCRF/CEM cell viability and completely blocked KC-53-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, KC-53 administration dramatically inhibited TNFα-induced serine phosphorylation on TRAF2 and on IκBα hindering therefore p65/NF-κΒ translocation to nucleus. Reduced transcriptional expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-survival p65 target genes, confirmed that the agent functionally inhibited the transcriptional activity of p65.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the selective anticancer properties of KC-53 towards leukemic cell lines and provide a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying its dual anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties. These results provide new insights into the development of innovative and targeted therapies for the treatment of some forms of leukemia.

Seo EJ, Saeed M, Law BY, et al.
Pharmacogenomics of Scopoletin in Tumor Cells.
Molecules. 2016; 21(4):496 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance and the severe side effects of chemotherapy necessitate the development of novel anticancer drugs. Natural products are a valuable source for drug development. Scopoletin is a coumarin compound, which can be found in several Artemisia species and other plant genera. Microarray-based RNA expression profiling of the NCI cell line panel showed that cellular response of scopoletin did not correlate to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCC1, ABCG2). This was also true for the expression of the oncogene EGFR and the mutational status of the tumor suppressor gene, TP53. However, mutations in the RAS oncogenes and the slow proliferative activity in terms of cell doubling times significantly correlated with scopoletin resistance. COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of transcriptome-wide mRNA expression resulted in a set of 40 genes, which all harbored binding motifs in their promoter sequences for the transcription factor, NF-κB, which is known to be associated with drug resistance. RAS mutations, slow proliferative activity, and NF-κB may hamper its effectiveness. By in silico molecular docking studies, we found that scopoletin bound to NF-κB and its regulator IκB. Scopoletin activated NF-κB in a SEAP-driven NF-κB reporter cell line, indicating that NF-κB might be a resistance factor for scopoletin. In conclusion, scopoletin might serve as lead compound for drug development because of its favorable activity against tumor cells with ABC-transporter expression, although NF-κB activation may be considered as resistance factor for this compound. Further investigations are warranted to explore the full therapeutic potential of this natural product.

Chen YJ, Lin KN, Jhang LM, et al.
Gallic acid abolishes the EGFR/Src/Akt/Erk-mediated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 252:131-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several studies have revealed that natural compounds are valuable resources to develop novel agents against dysregulation of the EGF/EGFR-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in cancer cells. In view of the findings that EGF/EGFR-mediated MMP-9 expression is closely related to invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. To determine the beneficial effects of gallic acid on the suppression of breast cancer metastasis, we explored the effect of gallic acid on MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment with EGF up-regulated MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 cells. EGF treatment induced phosphorylation of EGFR and elicited Src activation, subsequently promoting Akt/NFκB (p65) and ERK/c-Jun phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells. Activation of Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun was responsible for the MMP-9 up-regulation in EGF-treated cells. Gallic acid repressed the EGF-induced activation of EGFR and Src; furthermore, inactivation of Akt/p65 and ERK/c-Jun was a result of the inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. Over-expression of constitutively active Akt and MEK1 or over-expression of constitutively active Src eradicated the inhibitory effect of gallic acid on the EGF-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. A chromosome conformation capture assay showed that EGF induced a chromosomal loop formation in the MMP-9 promoter via NFκB/p65 and AP-1/c-Jun activation. Treatment with gallic acid, EGFR inhibitor, or Src inhibitor reduced DNA looping. Taken together, our data suggest that gallic acid inhibits the activation of EGFR/Src-mediated Akt and ERK, leading to reduced levels of p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping and thus inhibiting MMP-9 expression in EGF-treated MCF-7 cells.

Cheng S, Zhang X, Huang N, et al.
Down-regulation of S100A9 inhibits osteosarcoma cell growth through inactivating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:253 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is well-known for poor prognosis due to its high incidence of proliferation and metastasis. Researches have provided valuable insights into the tumorigenesis of S100A9 in some cancers. We aimed to understand the expression level, functions and mechanisms of S100A9 in human osteosarcoma for the first time.
METHODS: The expression of S100A9 protein was detected in 120 human osteosarcoma tissues and 40 normal human bone tissues using tissue microarrays analysis. The knockdown of S100A9 induced by RNA interference (RNAi) method in three osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, 143B, MG63) was applied to analyze the effects of S100A9 on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, migration, invasion and xenotransplanted tumors. Moreover, MAPK-ERK1/2, MAPK-p38, NF-κB-p65, NF-κB-p50, p21, p27, CDK2 and CDK4 were tested.
RESULTS: The expression of S100A9 was increased in human osteosarcoma issues and was positively correlated with clinical classification and survival rate. Down-regulation of S100A9 inhibited OS cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and cell cycle S phase in vitro and suppressed tumor formation in vivo with the reduction on PCNA and Ki67 proliferation index. Our data also demonstrated that knockdown of S100A9 repressed the protein levels of phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-p50, phospho-p65 except phospho-p38, and prompted up-regulation of p21 and p27 leading to inactivation of cyclin dependent kinase 2(CDK2) and cyclin dependent kinase 4(CDK4).
CONCLUSIONS: S100A9 might be a significant role for predicting osteosarcoma prognosis and down-regulation of S100A9 could be used as a potential target for gene therapy.

Ma M, He M, Jiang Q, et al.
MiR-487a Promotes TGF-β1-induced EMT, the Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells by Directly Targeting MAGI2.
Int J Biol Sci. 2016; 12(4):397-408 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Tumor metastasis is a complex and multistep process and its exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We attempted to find novel microRNAs (miRNAs) contributing to the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-487a was higher in MDA-MB-231breast cancer cells with high metastasis ability than MCF-7 breast cancer cells with low metastasis ability and the treatment with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) significantly increased the expression of miR-487a in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Subsequently, we found that the transfection of miR-487a inhibitor significantly decreased the expression of vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, while increased the expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, in both MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Also, the inactivation of miR-487a inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, our findings demonstrated that miR-487a directly targeted the MAGI2 involved in the stability of PTEN. The down-regulation of miR-487a increased the expression of p-PTEN and PTEN, and reduced the expression of p-AKT in both cell lines. In addition, the results showed that NF-kappaB (p65) significantly increased the miR-487a promoter activity and expression, and TGF-β1 induced the increased miR-487a promoter activity via p65 in MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, we further confirmed the expression of miR-487a was positively correlated with the lymph nodes metastasis and negatively correlated with the expression of MAGI2 in human breast cancer tissues. Overall, our results suggested that miR-487a could promote the TGF-β1-induced EMT, the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by directly targeting MAGI2.

Bae KJ, Lee Y, Kim SA, Kim J
Plumbagin exerts an immunosuppressive effect on human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 473(1):272-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Of the hematological disorders typified by poor prognoses and survival rates, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is one of the most commonly diagnosed. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents, the treatment options for this cancer remain limited. In this manuscript, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of plumbagin, mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling; the human T-ALL MOLT-4 cell line was used as our experimental system. Plumbagin is a natural, plant derived compound, which exerts an anti-proliferative activity against many types of human cancer. Our experiments confirm that plumbagin induces a caspase-dependent apoptosis of MOLT-4 cells, with no significant cytotoxicity seen for normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Plumbagin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p65, and the transcription of NF-κB target genes. Our results now show that plumbagin is a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, and suppressor of T-ALL cell proliferation.

Hou J, Wang T, Xie Q, et al.
N-Myc-interacting protein (NMI) negatively regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting the acetylation of NF-κB/p65.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 376(1):22-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an essential role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and tumor progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Many signaling pathways, including the NF-κB signaling pathway, trigger EMT during development and differentiation. In the present study, we report that N-Myc interactor (NMI) inhibits EMT progression by suppressing transcriptional activities of NF-κB in human gastric cancer cells. We show that the expression of NMI is significantly reduced in invasive gastric cancer cells and gastric cancer tissues. Overexpression of NMI inhibited cell migration and invasion, and this inhibition was enhanced after TNF-α stimulation. Tumorigenicity assay in nude mice support the notion that NMI inhibits EMT in cancer cells. Mechanistically, NMI promotes the interaction between NF-κB/p65 and histone deacetylases (HDACs) and inhibits the acetylation and transcriptional activity of p65. The expression of p65 rescues NMI-mediated inhibition of EMT and the inhibition of the acetylation of p65 mediated by NMI is HDACs-dependent. Taken together, these findings suggest that NMI can suppress tumor invasion and metastasis by inhibiting NF-κB pathways, providing an alternative mechanism for EMT inhibition in stomach neoplasm.

Wu ZY, Lien JC, Huang YP, et al.
Casticin Inhibits A375.S2 Human Melanoma Cell Migration/Invasion through Downregulating NF-κB and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -1.
Molecules. 2016; 21(3):384 [PubMed] Related Publications
Casticin is one of the main components from Fructus Viticis, which is widely used as an anti-inflammatory agent. The mechanism of how casticin affects melanoma cell migration and invasion is still not well known. Here we studied the anti-metastasis effects of casticin on A375.S2 melanoma cells by using a non-lethal concentration. First; we used an adhesion assay to test the A375.S2 cells' adhesion ability after treatment with casticin. We next investigated the cell migration ability after casticin treatment by using a wound healing assay to prove that the migration of A375.S2 cells can be inhibited by casticin and double checked the results using the transwell-migration assay. The suppressive effects on matrix metalloproteinase-2; and -9 (MMP-2; and -9) activities were examined by gelatin zymography. Furthermore, western blotting was used to investigate the protein level changes in A375.S2 cells. We found that p-EGFR; Ras and p-ERK1/2 are decreased by casticin, indicating that casticin can down-regulate the migration and invasion ability of A375.S2 cells via the p-EGFR/Ras/p-ERK pathway. The NF-κB p65 and p-ERK levels in nuclear proteins are also decreased by treatment with casticin. An EMSA assay also discovered that the NF-κB p65 and DNA interaction is decreased. NF-κB p65 protein level was examined by immunofluorescence staining and also decreased. Our findings suggest that casticin has anti-metastatic potential by decreasing the invasiveness of A375.S2 cells. We also found that casticin suppressed A375.S2 cell proliferation and cell adhesion ability, but did not affect cell death, as examined using cytometry and a collagen adhesion assay. Based on these observations, casticin could be used as an inhibitor of migration and invasion of human melanoma cells in the future.

Hyun J, Wang S, Kim J, et al.
MicroRNA-378 limits activation of hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis by suppressing Gli3 expression.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:10993 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) mediate various cellular processes; however, their role in liver fibrosis is unclear. Here we investigate regulation of miRNAs in chronically damaged fibrotic liver. MiRNA profiling shows that expression of miR-378 family members (miR-378a-3p, miR-378b and miR-378d) declines in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated compared with corn-oil-treated mice. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p, directly targeting Gli3 in activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), reduces expression of Gli3 and profibrotic genes but induces gfap, the inactivation marker of HSCs, in CCl4-treated liver. Smo blocks transcriptional expression of miR-378a-3p by activating the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The hepatic level of miR-378a-3p is inversely correlated with the expression of Gli3 in tumour and non-tumour tissues in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that miR-378a-3p suppresses activation of HSCs by targeting Gli3 and its expression is regulated by Smo-dependent NF-κB signalling, suggesting miR-378a-3p has therapeutic potential for liver fibrosis.

de Oliveira KA, Kaergel E, Heinig M, et al.
A roadmap of constitutive NF-κB activity in Hodgkin lymphoma: Dominant roles of p50 and p52 revealed by genome-wide analyses.
Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):28 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: NF-κB is widely involved in lymphoid malignancies; however, the functional roles and specific transcriptomes of NF-κB dimers with distinct subunit compositions have been unclear.
METHODS: Using combined ChIP-sequencing and microarray analyses, we determined the cistromes and target gene signatures of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB species in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells.
RESULTS: We found that the various NF-κB subunits are recruited to regions with redundant κB motifs in a large number of genes. Yet canonical and non-canonical NF-κB dimers up- and downregulate gene sets that are both distinct and overlapping, and are associated with diverse biological functions. p50 and p52 are formed through NIK-dependent p105 and p100 precursor processing in HL cells and are the predominant DNA binding subunits. Logistic regression analyses of combinations of the p50, p52, RelA, and RelB subunits in binding regions that have been assigned to genes they regulate reveal a cross-contribution of p52 and p50 to canonical and non-canonical transcriptomes. These analyses also indicate that the subunit occupancy pattern of NF-κB binding regions and their distance from the genes they regulate are determinants of gene activation versus repression. The pathway-specific signatures of activated and repressed genes distinguish HL from other NF-κB-associated lymphoid malignancies and inversely correlate with gene expression patterns in normal germinal center B cells, which are presumed to be the precursors of HL cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We provide insights that are relevant for lymphomas with constitutive NF-κB activation and generally for the decoding of the mechanisms of differential gene regulation through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling.

Deng Y, Sun J, Zhang LD
Effect of ST2825 on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1):15016826 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ST2825, an inhibitor of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells as well as the potential mechanism and clinical significance of ST2825 in the treatment of HCC. Immunohistochemical staining with an MyD88 antibody was performed on tissues from 80 human HCC patients and adjacent normal tissues. In the in vitro experiment, human HCC HepG-2 cells cultured in vitro were divided into the following groups: blank, control (1% DMSO), low-dose (2 μM), medium-dose (10 μM), and high-dose ST2825 (20 μM). Cell apoptosis was detected by the Annexin V-FITC assay, and HepG-2 cell proliferation was detected by the MTT assay. The expression of IκB, p65, cyclin D1, caspase-3, and bcl-2 in the cells after a 48-h treatment was assayed by western blot analysis. MyD88 expression in the HCC tissue was significantly higher than that in the adjacent normal tissue (P < 0.05). The proliferation and apoptosis rates of control HCC cells displayed no significant differences compared with those of the blank group (P > 0.05). Compared with the control, ST2825 significantly inhibited the proliferation of and promoted the apoptosis of HCC cells. Moreover, ST2825 significantly decreased bcl-2 expression, increased cleaved caspase-3 expression (P < 0.05), and reduced p65 nuclear expression (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. ST2825 inhibits the proliferation of and promotes the apoptosis of HCC cells, thereby suggesting that ST2825 may be a new drug for HCC treatment.

Buhrmann C, Shayan P, Popper B, et al.
Sirt1 Is Required for Resveratrol-Mediated Chemopreventive Effects in Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Nutrients. 2016; 8(3):145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Sirt1 is a NAD⁺-dependent protein-modifying enzyme involved in regulating gene expression, DNA damage repair, metabolism and survival, as well as acts as an important subcellular target of resveratrol. The complex mechanisms underlying Sirt1 signaling during carcinogenesis remain controversial, as it can serve both as a tumor promoter and suppressor. Whether resveratrol-mediated chemopreventive effects are mediated via Sirt1 in CRC growth and metastasis remains unclear; which was the subject of this study. We found that resveratrol suppressed proliferation and invasion of two different human CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner, and interestingly, this was accompanied with a significant decrease in Ki-67 expression. By transient transfection of CRC cells with Sirt1-ASO, we demonstrated that the anti-tumor effects of resveratrol on cells was abolished, suggesting the essential role of this enzyme in the resveratrol signaling pathway. Moreover, resveratrol downregulated nuclear localization of NF-κB, NF-κB phosphorylation and its acetylation, causing attenuation of NF-κB-regulated gene products (MMP-9, CXCR4) involved in tumor-invasion and metastasis. Finally, Sirt1 was found to interact directly with NF-κB, and resveratrol did not suppress Sirt1-ASO-induced NF-κB phosphorylation, acetylation and NF-κB-regulated gene products. Overall, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can suppress tumorigenesis, at least in part by targeting Sirt1 and suppression of NF-κB activation.

Su Z, Wang K, Li R, et al.
Overexpression of RBM5 induces autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
World J Surg Oncol. 2016; 14:57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dysfunctions in autophagy and apoptosis are closely interacted and play an important role in cancer development. RNA binding motif 5 (RBM5) is a tumor suppressor gene, which inhibits tumor cells' growth and enhances chemosensitivity through inducing apoptosis in our previous studies. In this study, we investigated the relationship between RBM5 overexpression and autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
METHODS: Human lung adenocarcinoma cancer (A549) cells were cultured in vitro and were transiently transfected with a RBM5 expressing plasmid (GV287-RBM5) or plasmid with scrambled control sequence. RBM5 expression was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Intracellular LC-3 I/II, Beclin-1, lysosome associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1), Bcl-2, and NF-κB/p65 protein levels were detected by Western blot. Chemical staining with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) was applied to detect acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs). The ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope (TEM). Then, transplanted tumor models of A549 cells on BALB/c nude mice were established and treated with the recombinant plasmids carried by attenuated Salmonella to induce RBM5 overexpression in tumor tissues. RBM5, LC-3, LAMP1, and Beclin1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry staining in plasmids-treated A549 xenografts.
RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that overexpression of RBM5 caused an increase in the autophagy-related proteins including LC3-I, LC3-II, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, Beclin1, and LAMP1 in A549 cells. A large number of autophagosomes with double-membrane structure and AVOs were detected in the cytoplasm of A549 cells transfected with GV287-RBM5 at 24 h. We observed that the protein level of NF-κB/P65 was increased and the protein level of Bcl-2 decreased by RBM5 overexpression. Furthermore, treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, enhanced RBM5-induced cell death and chemosensitivity in A549 cells. Furthermore, we successfully established the lung adenocarcinoma animal model using A549 cells. Overexpression of RBM5 enhanced the LC-3, LAMP1, and Beclin1 expression in the A549 xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed for the first time that RBM5 overexpression induced autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells, which might be driven by upregulation of Beclin1, NF-κB/P65, and downregulation of Bcl-2. RBM5-enhanced autophagy acts in a cytoprotective way and inhibition of autophagy may improve the anti-tumor efficacy of RBM5 in lung cancer.

Kim SM, Lee EJ, Lee JH, et al.
Simvastatin in combination with bergamottin potentiates TNF-induced apoptosis through modulation of NF-κB signalling pathway in human chronic myelogenous leukaemia.
Pharm Biol. 2016; 54(10):2050-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context Simvastatin (SV) and bergamottin (BGM) are known to exhibit diverse anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. Objective Very little is known about the potential efficacy of combination of these two agents to potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis in human chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). Materials and methods In the present study, we investigated whether SV combined with BGM mediates its effect through suppression of NF-κB-signalling pathway. Results We found that the combination treatment enhanced cytotoxicity and potentiated the apoptosis induced by TNF as indicated by intracellular esterase activity, Annexin V staining and caspase activation. This effect of co-treatment correlated with down-regulation of various gene products that mediate cell proliferation (cyclin D1), cell survival (cIAP-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin), invasion (MMP-9) and angiogenesis (VEGF); all known to be regulated by NF-κB. SV combined with BGM also produced TNF-induced cell-cycle arrest in S-phase and this arrest correlated with a concomitant increase in the levels of cyclin-dependent inhibitor p21 and p27. The combination therapy inhibited TNF-induced NF-κB activation, IκBα degradation and p65 translocation to the nucleus as compared with the treatment with individual agents alone. Besides, SV combined with BGM did not significantly potentiate apoptotic effect induced by TNF in p65(-)(/)(-) cells, as compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Discussion and conclusion Our results provide novel insight into the role of SV and BGM in potentially preventing and treating cancer through modulation of NF-κB signalling pathway and its regulated gene products.

Du Q, Wang Y, Liu C, et al.
Chemopreventive activity of GEN-27, a genistein derivative, in colitis-associated cancer is mediated by p65-CDX2-β-catenin axis.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17870-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Nonresolving inflammation in the intestine predisposes individuals to colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), which leads to high morbidity and mortality. Here we show that genistein-27 (GEN-27), a derivative of genistein, inhibited proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells through inhibiting β-catenin activity. Our results showed that GEN-27 increased expressions of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2), and reduced β-catenin nuclear localization, which resulted from the inhibition of NF-κB/p65 nuclear localization and up-regulation of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2). Furthermore, GEN-27 decreased binding of p65 to the silencer region of CDX2 and increased binding of CDX2 to the promoter regions of APC and AXIN2, thus inhibiting the activation of β-catenin induced by TNF-α. Importantly, GEN-27 protected mice from azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis, with reduced mortality, tumor number and tumor volume. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that dietary GEN-27 significantly decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, GEN-27 inhibited AOM/DSS-induced p65 and β-catenin nuclear translocation, while promoted the expression of CDX2, APC, and AXIN2. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the anti-proliferation effect of GEN-27 in vitro and the prevention of CAC in vivo is mediated by p65-CDX2-β-catenin axis via inhibiting β-catenin target genes. Our results imply that GEN-27 could be a promising candidate for the chemoprevention of CAC.

Okamoto M, Mizukami Y
GPER negatively regulates TNFα-induced IL-6 production in human breast cancer cells via NF-κB pathway.
Endocr J. 2016; 63(5):485-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, that are thought to be mediated by the classical estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα and ERβ. G protein coupled estrogen receptor1 (GPER) is a novel membrane-type estrogen receptor that can mediate non-genomic estrogenic responses. Although there have been several reports asserting that the participation of GPER in anti-inflammatory effects is induced by estrogen, the role of GPER remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the involvement of GPER in the regulation of a representative inflammatory cytokine, IL-6. We first examined the expression of IL-6 mRNA by TNFα stimulation in the transfection of GPER-expression plasmid into HeLa cells. Exogenous GPER significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-6 expression, and blocked NF-κB promoter activity inducing the expression of IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. The promoter activity was restored almost to control level by transfection with the C-terminal deletion mutant of GPER. Similar results have been observed in endogenous GPER using SKBR3 cells which do not express the classical ERs. The data have been validated by treatment of GPER with siRNA. These findings indicate that GPER negatively regulates TNFα-induced IL-6 expression, probably through inhibition of NF-κB promoter activity by a signal(s) derived from the C-terminal region of GPER.

Persona K, Polus A, Góralska J, et al.
An In Vitro Study of the Neurotoxic Effects of N-Benzylpiperazine: A Designer Drug of Abuse.
Neurotox Res. 2016; 29(4):558-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2017 Related Publications
Recently, the number of new psychoactive substances has significantly increased. Despite the systematic introduction of prohibition in trade of medicinal products which mimic the effects of illegal drugs, the problem concerning this group of drugs is still important although knowledge about the mechanism of action of those types of substances is scarce. This study aimed to follow the neurotoxic effect of N-benzylpiperazine (BZP), the central nervous system psychostimulant, using the human cancer LN-18 cell model. The statistically significant elevation of LDH levels, increased mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased ATP and increased ROS production, increased levels of DNA damage marker (8-OHdG) and activation of caspases: -3 and -9 confirmed by Real-Time PCR imply the activation of mitochondrial proapoptotic pathways induced by BZP after 24 h incubation. This study is a novel, preliminary attempt to explain the toxicity of one of the most popular designer drug of abuse at the cellular level.

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