SLC19A2

Gene Summary

Gene:SLC19A2; solute carrier family 19 (thiamine transporter), member 2
Aliases: TC1, THT1, TRMA, THMD1, THTR1
Location:1q23.3
Summary:This gene encodes the thiamin transporter protein. Mutations in this gene cause thiamin-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA), which is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus, megaloblastic anemia and sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:thiamine transporter 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLC19A2 (cancer-related)

Kim S, Rhee JK, Yoo HJ, et al.
Bioinformatic and metabolomic analysis reveals miR-155 regulates thiamine level in breast cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(2):488-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNA-155 (miR-155) is one of the well-known oncogenic miRNA implicated in various types of tumors. Thiamine, commonly known as vitamin B1, is one of critical cofactors for energy metabolic enzymes including pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and transketolase. Here we report a novel role of miR-155 in cancer metabolism through the up-regulation of thiamine in breast cancer cells. A bioinformatic analysis of miRNA array and metabolite-profiling data from NCI-60 cancer cell panel revealed thiamine as a metabolite positively correlated with the miR-155 expression level. We confirmed it in MCF7, MDA-MB-436 and two human primary breast cancer cells by showing reduced thiamine levels upon a knock-down of miR-155. To understand how the miR-155 controls thiamine level, a set of key molecules for thiamine homeostasis were further analyzed after the knockdown of miR-155. The results showed the expression of two thiamine transporter genes (SLC19A2, SLC25A19) as well as thiamine pyrophosphokinase-1 (TPK1) were decreased in both RNA and protein level in miR-155 dependent manner. Finally, we confirm the finding by showing a positive correlation between miR-155 and thiamine level in 71 triple negative breast tumors. Taken altogether, our study demonstrates a role of miR-155 in thiamine homeostasis and suggests a function of this oncogenic miRNA on breast cancer metabolism.

Li J, Jie HB, Lei Y, et al.
PD-1/SHP-2 inhibits Tc1/Th1 phenotypic responses and the activation of T cells in the tumor microenvironment.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(3):508-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Immune rejection of tumors is mediated by IFNγ production and T-cell cytolytic activity. These processes are impeded by PD-1, a coinhibitory molecule expressed on T cells that is elevated in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). PD-1 elevation may reflect T-cell exhaustion marked by decreased proliferation, production of type I cytokines, and poor cytolytic activity. Although anti-PD-1 antibodies enhance IFNγ secretion after stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR), the mechanistic link between PD-1 and its effects on T-cell help (Tc1/Th1 skewing) remains unclear. In prospectively collected cancer tissues, we found that TIL exhibited dampened Tc1/Th1 skewing and activation compared with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). When PD-1 bound its ligand PD-L1, we observed a marked suppression of critical TCR target genes and Th1 cytokines. Conversely, PD-1 blockade reversed these suppressive effects of PD-1:PD-L1 ligation. We also found that the TCR-regulated phosphatase SHP-2 was expressed higher in TIL than in PBL, tightly correlating with PD-1 expression and negative regulation of TCR target genes. Overall, these results defined a PD-1/SHP-2/STAT1/T-bet signaling axis mediating the suppressive effects of PD-1 on Th1 immunity at tumor sites. Our findings argue that PD-1 or SHP-2 blockade will be sufficient to restore robust Th1 immunity and T-cell activation and thereby reverse immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment.

Touati W, Tran T, Seguin J, et al.
A suicide gene therapy combining the improvement of cyclophosphamide tumor cytotoxicity and the development of an anti-tumor immune response.
Curr Gene Ther. 2014; 14(3):236-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) consists in targeted delivery to tumor cells of a suicide gene responsible for in situ conversion of a prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites. One of the major limitations of this strategy in clinical application was the poor prodrug activation capacity of suicide gene. We built a highly efficient suicide gene capable of bioactivating the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) by fusing a CYP2B6 triple mutant with NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CYP2B6TM-RED). Expression of this fusion gene via a recombinant lentivirus (LV) vector converted resistant human (A549) and murine (TC1) pulmonary cell lines into CPA-susceptible cell lines. We tested the efficiency of our GDEPT strategy in C57Bl/6 immunocompetent mice, using TC1 cells expressing the HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins. In mice bearing tumors composed only of TC1-CYP2B6TM-RED cells, four CPA injections (140 mg/Kg once a week) completely eradicated the tumors for more than two months. Tumors having only 25% of TC1-CYP2B6TM-RED cells were also completely eradicated by five CPA injections, demonstrating a major in vivo bystander effect. Moreover, surviving mice were rechallenged with parental TC1 cells. The tumors regressed spontaneously 7 days after cell inoculation or grew more slowly than in control naive mice due to a strong immune response mediated by anti-E7CD8(+)T cells. These data suggest that combining the CYPB6TM-RED gene with CPA may hold promise as a highly effective treatment for solid tumors in humans.

Tang JC, Shen GB, Wang SM, et al.
IL-7 inhibits tumor growth by promoting T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in Meth A model.
Immunol Lett. 2014 Mar-Apr; 158(1-2):159-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immune suppression is well documented during tumor progression, which includes loss of effect of T cells and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. IL-7 plays a key role in the proliferation, survival and homeostasis of T cells and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of IL-7 in Meth A model. IL-7 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice with corresponding increases in the frequency of CD4 and CD8 T cells, Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)), Tc1 (CD8(+)IFN-γ(+)) and T cells cytolytic activity against Meth A cells. Neutralization of CD4 or CD8 T cells reversed the antitumor benefit of IL-7. Furthermore, IL-7 decreased regulatory T Foxp3 as well as cells suppressive activity with a reciprocal increase in SMAD7. In addition, we observed an increase of the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and a significant decrease of TGF-β and IL-10 after IL-7 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-7 augments T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and improves the effect of antitumor in Meth A model.

Faghih Z, Rezaeifard S, Safaei A, et al.
IL-17 and IL-4 producing CD8+ T cells in tumor draining lymph nodes of breast cancer patients: positive association with tumor progression.
Iran J Immunol. 2013; 10(4):193-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes have been recently divided based on their cytokine expression profile.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the percentages of CD8+ lymphocytes and their effector subsets including Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17 in the tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) of patients with breast cancer.
METHODS: Single cell suspensions were obtained from TDLNs of 42 patients with breast cancer. Staining of the cell surface markers and intracellular cytokines was performed using appropriate fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies. The data was acquired on a four-color flow cytometer and was analyzed by CellQuestPro software package. The percentages of different CD8+ cell subtypes (Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17) were quantified in CD8+ T lymphocytes. The comparison was made between LN+ versus LN- patients, as well as patients in different clinico-pathological status.
RESULTS: The percentage of Tc1, Tc2 and Tc17 subsets were not significantly different between LN+ and LN- patients. Despite no difference in the percentages of Tc1 cells in LN+ patients with infiltrative ductal carcinoma (IDC), the mean expression of IFN-γ by Tc1 cells decreased significantly in comparison to LN- patients. On the other hand, the percentages of Tc2 and Tc17 effector subsets were increased in advanced stages (p=0.018 and p=0.009, respectively).
CONCLUSION: As the first study to investigate various effector subtypes of CD8+ lymphocytes in TDLNs of patients with breast cancer, our data collectively suggests a positive association between IL-17- and IL-4-producing CD8+ T cell percentages (Tc2 and Tc17) in TDLNs with breast cancer progression. Although the number of Tc1 cells seems not to be affected by cancer progression, down-regulation of IFN-γ by these cells seems to be associated with tumor metastasis to TDLNs. These findings may have implications in cancer immunotherapy based on CD8+ effector subsets.

Carreno BM, Becker-Hapak M, Huang A, et al.
IL-12p70-producing patient DC vaccine elicits Tc1-polarized immunity.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(8):3383-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Systemic administration of IL-12p70 has demonstrated clinical activity in cancer patients, but dose-limiting toxicities have hindered its incorporation in vaccine formulations. Here, we report on the immunological and clinical outcomes upon vaccination with CD40L/IFN-γ-matured, IL-12p70-producing DCs.
METHODS: 7 HLA-A*0201+ newly diagnosed stage IV melanoma patients were immunized against the gp100 melanoma antigen using autologous peptide-pulsed, CD40L/IFN-γ-matured DCs. PBMCs were taken weekly for immune monitoring by tetramer analysis and functional assays. CT imaging was performed at baseline, week 9, and week 18 for clinical assessment using RECIST.
RESULTS: 6 of 7 treated patients developed sustained T cell immunity to all 3 melanoma gp100 antigen-derived peptides. 3 of the 6 immunological responders developed confirmed clinical responses (1 complete remission >4 years, 2 partial response). Importantly, DC vaccine-derived IL-12p70 levels positively correlated with time to progression (P = 0.019, log-rank), as did T-cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) immunity, as assessed by IFN-γ/IL-13 and IFN-γ/IL-5 ratios (P = 0.035 and P = 0.030, respectively, log-rank). In contrast, a pathway-specific defect in IL-12p35 transcription was identified upon CD40L/IFN-γ activation in clinical nonresponder patient DCs, and gp100-specific T cells from these patients displayed a Tc2 phenotype. Incorporation of TLR3 and TLR8 agonists into the CD40L/IFN-γ activation protocol corrected the IL-12p70 production defect in DCs derived from clinical nonresponder patients.
CONCLUSION: These findings underscore the essential role of IL-12p70 in the development of therapeutic type 1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cell immunity in humans with cancer.

Xu W, Stadler CK, Gorman K, et al.
An exogenous retrovirus isolated from koalas with malignant neoplasias in a US zoo.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(28):11547-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Leukemia and lymphoma account for more than 60% of deaths in captive koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in northeastern Australia. Although the endogenizing gammaretrovirus koala endogenous retrovirus (KoRV) was isolated from these koalas, KoRV has not been definitively associated with leukemogenesis. We performed KoRV screening in koalas from the San Diego Zoo, maintained for more than 45 y with very limited outbreeding, and the Los Angeles Zoo, maintained by continuously assimilating captive-born Australian koalas. San Diego Zoo koalas are currently free of malignant neoplasias and were infected with only endogenous KoRV, which we now term subtype "KoRV-A," whereas Los Angeles Zoo koalas with lymphomas/leukemias are infected in addition to KoRV-A by a unique KoRV we term subtype "KoRV-B." KoRV-B is most divergent in the envelope protein and uses a host receptor distinct from KoRV-A. KoRV-B also has duplicated enhancer regions in the LTR associated with increased pathology in gammaretroviruses. Whereas KoRV-A uses the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1 (PiT1) as a receptor, KoRV-B employs a different receptor, the thiamine transporter 1 (THTR1), to infect cells. KoRV-B is transmitted from dam to offspring through de novo infection, rather than via genetic inheritance like KoRV-A. Detection of KoRV-B in native Australian koalas should provide a history, and a mode for remediation, of leukemia/lymphoma currently endemic in this population.

Zastre JA, Hanberry BS, Sweet RL, et al.
Up-regulation of vitamin B1 homeostasis genes in breast cancer.
J Nutr Biochem. 2013; 24(9):1616-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increased carbon flux and exploitation of metabolic pathways for the rapid generation of biosynthetic precursors is a common phenotype observed in breast cancer. To support this metabolic phenotype, cancer cells adaptively regulate the expression of glycolytic enzymes and nutrient transporters. However, activity of several enzymes involved in glucose metabolism requires an adequate supply of cofactors. In particular, vitamin B1 (thiamine) is utilized as an essential cofactor for metabolic enzymes that intersect at critical junctions within the glycolytic network. Intracellular availability of thiamine is facilitated by the activity of thiamine transporters and thiamine pyrophosphokinase-1 (TPK-1). Therefore, the objective of this study was to establish if the cellular determinants regulating thiamine homeostasis differ between breast cancer and normal breast epithelia. Employing cDNA arrays of breast cancer and normal breast epithelial tissues, SLC19A2, SLC25A19 and TPK-1 were found to be significantly up-regulated. Similarly, up-regulation was also observed in breast cancer cell lines compared to human mammary epithelial cells. Thiamine transport assays and quantitation of intracellular thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate established a significantly greater extent of thiamine transport and free thiamine levels in breast cancer cell lines compared to human mammary epithelial cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate an adaptive response by breast cancer cells to increase cellular availability of thiamine.

Tomei S, Marchetti I, Zavaglia K, et al.
A molecular computational model improves the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:396 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological features on fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology have a 20% risk of thyroid cancer. The aim of the current study was to determine the diagnostic utility of an 8-gene assay to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasm.
METHODS: The mRNA expression level of 9 genes (KIT, SYNGR2, C21orf4, Hs.296031, DDI2, CDH1, LSM7, TC1, NATH) was analysed by quantitative PCR (q-PCR) in 93 FNA cytological samples. To evaluate the diagnostic utility of all the genes analysed, we assessed the area under the curve (AUC) for each gene individually and in combination. BRAF exon 15 status was determined by pyrosequencing. An 8-gene computational model (Neural Network Bayesian Classifier) was built and a multiple-variable analysis was then performed to assess the correlation between the markers.
RESULTS: The AUC for each significant marker ranged between 0.625 and 0.900, thus all the significant markers, alone and in combination, can be used to distinguish between malignant and benign FNA samples. The classifier made up of KIT, CDH1, LSM7, C21orf4, DDI2, TC1, Hs.296031 and BRAF had a predictive power of 88.8%. It proved to be useful for risk stratification of the most critical cytological group of the indeterminate lesions for which there is the greatest need of accurate diagnostic markers.
CONCLUSION: The genetic classification obtained with this model is highly accurate at differentiating malignant from benign thyroid lesions and might be a useful adjunct in the preoperative management of patients with thyroid nodules.

Wei H, Liu P, Swisher E, et al.
Silencing of the TGF-β1 gene increases the immunogenicity of cells from human ovarian carcinoma.
J Immunother. 2012; 35(3):267-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Cells from many tumors produce transforming growth factor (TGF)-β which facilitates their escape from control by the immune system. We previously reported that nonimmunogenic cells from either of 2 transplantable mouse tumors became effective as therapeutic tumor vaccines after lentivirus-mediated shRNA interference to "silence" the TGF-β1 gene. We now show that cells from in vitro cultured human ovarian carcinomas (OvC) make large amounts of TGF-β1 and that this can be prevented by "silencing" the TGF-β1 gene. We further show that in vitro sensitization of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of either mitomycin-treated OvC cells whose TGF-β1 gene was silenced or in vitro matured dendritic cells that had been pulsed with homogenates from OvC cells with silenced TGF-β1 generated a stronger Th1/Tc1 immune response to the respective wild-type OvC and also to the OvC antigens mesothelin and HE4 as measured by ELIspot assays. The percentage of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased while there were fewer cells expressing markers characteristic for regulatory T cells or myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Similar results were obtained when peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a patient with OvC were sensitized to dendritic cells pulsed with homogenate from autologous TGF-β1-silenced tumor cells, and a cytolytic lymphocyte response was generated to autologous OvC cells. Our results support clinical evaluation of TGF-β1-silenced tumor vaccines for immunotherapy of OvC.

Jokić M, Brčić-Kostić K, Stefulj J, et al.
Association of MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, RFC1, and DHFR gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to sporadic colon cancer.
DNA Cell Biol. 2011; 30(10):771-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered folate levels may play an important role in colon carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of polymorphisms in key folate-metabolizing genes with susceptibility to sporadic colon cancer. Six common polymorphisms (two in MTHFR and one each in MTR, MTRR, RFC1, and DHFR genes) were genotyped in 300 healthy subjects and 300 colon cancer patients from Croatia. Obtained results indicate possible protective role of MTRR 66 AA in sporadic colon cancer (OR=0.655; 95% CI=0.441-0.973; p=0.04). Maximum-likelihood analysis of haplotypes revealed a linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the two investigated polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene (C677T and A1298C), both in the control and patient groups (p<0.01 for both). LD was also detected between MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms but only in a group of patients (p<0.01). A haplotype of A66G and A1298C polymorphisms, A/A, proved to be protective (OR=0.775; 95% CI=0.603-0.996; p=0.04), whereas haplotype A/G was a risk factor for colon cancer (OR=1.270; 95% CI=1.007-1.602; p=0.04). Contrary to some previous studies, single-locus analyses identified no polymorphisms associated with risk for colon cancer, but demonstrated a possible protective effect of MTRR 66 AA genotype. The detected significant LD between two loci (MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G) located on different chromosomes indicates a strong selective force as a mechanism for the maintenance of their linkage. Specific combinations of alleles of these two polymorphisms showed a protective but also a risk effect on colon cancer susceptibility.

Sweet R, Paul A, Zastre J
Hypoxia induced upregulation and function of the thiamine transporter, SLC19A3 in a breast cancer cell line.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2010; 10(11):1101-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adaptive responses within hypoxic tumor microenvironments require the altered expression of Solute Carrier (SLC) transporters to maintain nutrient uptake in support of cellular metabolism and biosynthesis. Using a real time PCR array strategy to further characterize changes in transporter expression within a chronic hypoxia breast cancer cell line model (BT474), we have found a 31 fold increase in the expression of the thiamine transporter, SLC19A3. Thus, further investigations into the expression changes of the thiamine transporters, SLC19A2 and SLC19A3, and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) regulating their expression were conducted. Chronic culturing of BT474 cells in 1% O2 up to 142 days consistently demonstrated a high level of SLC19A3 expression with a mean of approximately 40 fold with no change in SLC19A2. A corresponding 2 fold increase in thiamine uptake over 15 min was measured in chronic hypoxic BT474 cells compared to normoxia. Acute 1% O2 exposure of BT474 cells up to 72 h demonstrated a 7.5 fold increase in SLC19A3 expression. The chemical hypoxia mimetic deferoxamine, resulted in an approximately 70 fold increase in SLC19A3 expression. Stable shRNA knockdown of HIF-1α reduced hypoxia mediated SLC19A3 up-regulation by approximately 3 fold compared to scrambled construct. In conclusion, SLC19A3 transporter expression was observed to be up-regulated under acute, chronic and DFO induced hypoxia. The attenuated increase in SLC19A3 expression after HIF-1α knockdown suggests a role for HIF-1α mediated pathways regulating SLC19A3 gene expression.

Copeland NG, Jenkins NA
Harnessing transposons for cancer gene discovery.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2010; 10(10):696-706 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, it has become possible to mobilize the Tc1/mariner transposon, Sleeping Beauty (SB), in mouse somatic cells at frequencies high enough to induce cancer. Tumours result from SB insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes, thus facilitating the identification of the genes and signalling pathways that drive tumour formation. A conditional SB transposition system has also been developed that makes it possible to limit where SB mutagenesis occurs, providing a means to selectively model many types of human cancer. SB mutagenesis has already identified a large collection of known cancer genes in addition to a plethora of new candidate cancer genes and potential drug targets.

Qu Y, Chen L, Pardee AD, et al.
Intralesional delivery of dendritic cells engineered to express T-bet promotes protective type 1 immunity and the normalization of the tumor microenvironment.
J Immunol. 2010; 185(5):2895-902 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
T-bet (Tbx21), a T-box transcription factor, has been previously identified as a master regulator of type 1 T cell polarization. We have also recently shown that the genetic engineering of human dendritic cells (DCs) to express human T-bet cDNA yields type 1-polarizing APCs in vitro (1). In the present study, murine CD11c(+) DCs were transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length murine T-bets (DC.mTbets) and analyzed for their immunomodulatory functions in vitro and in vivo. Within the range of markers analyzed, DC.mTbets exhibited a control DC phenotype and were indistinguishable from control DCs in their ability to promote allogenic T cell proliferation in MLR in vitro. However, DC.mTbets were superior to control DCs in promoting Th1 and Tc1 responses in vitro via a mechanism requiring DC-T cell interaction or the close proximity of these two cell types and that can only partially be explained by the action of DC-elaborated IL-12p70. When injected into day 7 s.c. CMS4 sarcoma lesions growing in syngenic BALB/c mice, DC.mTbets dramatically slowed tumor progression (versus control DCs) and extended overall survival via a mechanism dependent on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and, to a lesser extent, asialoGM1(+) NK cells. DC.mTbet-based therapy also promoted superior tumor-specific Tc1 responses in the spleens and tumor-draining lymph nodes of treated animals, and within the tumor microenvironment it inhibited the accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells and normalized CD31(+) vascular structures. These findings support the potential translational utility of DC.Tbets as a therapeutic modality in the cancer setting.

Reynolds LE, Watson AR, Baker M, et al.
Tumour angiogenesis is reduced in the Tc1 mouse model of Down's syndrome.
Nature. 2010; 465(7299):813-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Down's syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by full or partial trisomy of human chromosome 21 and presents with many clinical phenotypes including a reduced incidence of solid tumours. Recent work with the Ts65Dn model of DS, which has orthologues of about 50% of the genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21), has indicated that three copies of the ETS2 (ref. 3) or DS candidate region 1 (DSCR1) genes (a previously known suppressor of angiogenesis) is sufficient to inhibit tumour growth. Here we use the Tc1 transchromosomic mouse model of DS to dissect the contribution of extra copies of genes on Hsa21 to tumour angiogenesis. This mouse expresses roughly 81% of Hsa21 genes but not the human DSCR1 region. We transplanted B16F0 and Lewis lung carcinoma tumour cells into Tc1 mice and showed that growth of these tumours was substantially reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. Furthermore, tumour angiogenesis was significantly repressed in Tc1 mice. In particular, in vitro and in vivo angiogenic responses to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were inhibited. Examination of the genes on the segment of Hsa21 in Tc1 mice identified putative anti-angiogenic genes (ADAMTS1and ERG) and novel endothelial cell-specific genes, never previously shown to be involved in angiogenesis (JAM-B and PTTG1IP), that, when overexpressed, are responsible for inhibiting angiogenic responses to VEGF. Three copies of these genes within the stromal compartment reduced tumour angiogenesis, explaining the reduced tumour growth in DS. Furthermore, we expect that, in addition to the candidate genes that we show to be involved in the repression of angiogenesis, the Tc1 mouse model of DS will permit the identification of other endothelium-specific anti-angiogenic targets relevant to a broad spectrum of cancer patients.

Wei L, Zuo H, Sun X, et al.
Comparison of Wilms' tumor antigen 1-specific T lymphocyte generation soon after nonmyeloablative allergenic stem-cell transplantation in acute and chronic leukemia patients.
Int J Hematol. 2010; 91(4):652-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clinical studies have shown that NST has better therapeutic results with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) than acute leukemia (AL), but whether the generation of graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects is different between AL and CML patients early after NST has not yet been studied, so we used a pentamer-staining technique in combination with ICCS to detect WT1(+)CD8(+)CTL/WT1(+)Tc1 and WT1(+)Th1 cells in these two groups of patients. Results showed that the emergence time of WT1(+)CD(8) (+)CTL/WT1(+)Tc1 cells after NST in AL patients was similar to that in CML patients (P = 0.58), while the emergence time of WT1(+)Th1 cells after NST in AL patients was shorter than in CML patients (P = 0.047). Furthermore, the peak proportions of WT1(+)CD(8) (+)CTL/WT1(+)Tc1 (P > 0.05) and WT1(+)Th1 (P > 0.05) cells were similar between AL and CML patients, and the increased rates (P > 0.05) and elevated levels (P > 0.05) of WT1-specific T cells were not statistically different between the groups after G-CSF mobilized donor mononuclear cell infusion. In addition, the reconstruction of lymphocyte subsets (P > 0.05) and CD4/8 ratios (P > 0.05) in AL patients were not statistically different from those in CML patients within 180 days after NST. These results suggested that WT1 maybe induces similar GVL effects in both AL and CML patients early after NST.

Hoffmann C, Stanke J, Kaufmann AM, et al.
Combining T-cell vaccination and application of agonistic anti-GITR mAb (DTA-1) induces complete eradication of HPV oncogene expressing tumors in mice.
J Immunother. 2010 Feb-Mar; 33(2):136-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
We generated an adenovirus-based T-cell vaccine (Ad-p14) that reliably elicits T-cell responses to human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes of the 2 most common high-risk HPV serotypes. The artificial gene used to create the vaccine comprising 415 aa (1248 bp) was cloned by fusing 14 polymerase chain reaction fragments of HPV16 and HPV18 E6 and E7 oncogenes devoid of sequences with transforming potential. Although ensuring maximal biologic safety, the construct includes approximately 70% of the relevant T-cell epitopes. In a tumor model for cervical cancer (C3), therapeutic vaccination led to complete eradication in 100% of the mice. In a second model (TC1), it induced initial tumor mass reduction, but 90% of the animals showed delayed tumor progression. To further improve the therapeutic effect, vaccination was combined with systemic application of imiquimod, anti-CD4, alpha-interferon, or anti-GITR. Although adding alpha-interferon improved the therapeutic potential of Ad-p14 by 40%, the combination with anti-GITR resulted in complete and permanent eradication of all TC1 tumors. Ad-p14 has clinical potential for treating HPV-induced lesions, and the added effect of immune response modifiers stresses the importance of combined protocols for immunotherapy of malignant tumors.

Okada H
Brain tumor immunotherapy with type-1 polarizing strategies.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009; 1174:18-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the safety of vaccine approaches for central nervous system (CNS) malignancies has been established in early phase clinical trials, the success of a vaccine strategy will depend critically on the ability of effector T cells to home in to CNS tumors and durably exert antitumor effects. Based on our recent studies, efficient CNS tumor homing is a characteristic of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with a type 1 phenotype (Tc1), and this appears to be related to the Tc1 response to the type 1 CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 10 [also known as interferon (IFN)-inducible protein (IP)-10] and expression of an integrin receptor very late antigen (VLA)-4 on Tc1. In addition, we have previously shown that direct intratumoral delivery of dendritic cells (DCs) ex vivo engineered to secrete IFN-alpha further enhances Tc1 homing via upregulation of CXCL10/IP-10 in the tumor microenvironment. As a means to induce IFN-alpha and CXCL10/IP-10 in the CNS tumor microenvironment in a clinically feasible manner, we used administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized by lysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), a ligand for toll-like receptor 3 and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) in combination with vaccinations targeting CTL epitopes derived from glioma-associated antigens (GAAs). The combination of subcutaneous vaccination and i.m. poly-ICLC administration remarkably promoted systemic induction of antigen GAA-specific Tc1s expressing VLA-4 in the CNS tumors and improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice in the absence of detectable autoimmunity. Based on these data, we have implemented a phase I/II vaccination study using type 1 polarizing DCs loaded with GAA peptides in combination with poly-ICLC in patients with recurrent malignant glioma.

Hahn NM, Zon RT, Yu M, et al.
A phase II study of pemetrexed as second-line chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); Hoosier Oncology Group GU03-67.
Ann Oncol. 2009; 20(12):1971-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: No standard therapy exists for post-docetaxel castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. This trial aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of pemetrexed in post-docetaxel CRPC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: CRPC patients with progression after docetaxel (Taxotere) therapy received pemetrexed (500 mg/m2) i.v. every 3 weeks. The primary end point was prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response. A pharmacogenetic analysis of the reduced folate carrier-1 gene (RFC1) G80A polymorphism was also carried out.
RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were enrolled: median age 68 years, median baseline PSA 72 ng/ml, and median Karnofsky performance status of 90. Grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurred in 20 (43%) and four patients (8%), respectively. Confirmed >50% PSA decline occurred in four patients (8%), stable PSA lasting at least 12 weeks in 10 patients (20%). A significant relationship was observed between time from prior docetaxel therapy and overall survival. Pharmacogenetic analyses of RFC1 G80A genotype frequencies showed no relationship between genotypes and clinical efficacy.
CONCLUSIONS: Pemetrexed treatment of CRPC patients after docetaxel therapy was associated with only modest clinical activity. Further investigation of pemetrexed as a single agent in a nonenriched CRPC population is unlikely to add significant clinical benefit over that seen with traditional second-line chemotherapy agents such as mitoxantrone.

Lemos C, Kathmann I, Giovannetti E, et al.
Cellular folate status modulates the expression of BCRP and MRP multidrug transporters in cancer cell lines from different origins.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(3):655-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
As cellular folate levels seem to have a different effect on cancer cells from different origins, we extended our initial study to a broader panel of cancer cells. BCRP and MRP1-5 expression was determined in KB, OVCAR-3, IGROV-1, ZR75-1/R/MTX, SCC-11B, SCC-22B, and WiDr either grown in standard RPMI 1640 containing 2.3 micromol/L supraphysiologic concentration of folic acid [high folate (HF)] or adapted to more physiologic concentrations [1-5 nmol/L folic acid or leucovorin; low folate (LF)]. Compared with the HF counterparts, KB LF cells displayed 16.1-fold increased MRP3 and OVCAR-3 LF cells showed 4.8-fold increased MRP4 mRNA levels along with increased MRP3 and MRP4 protein expression, respectively. A marked increase on BCRP protein and mRNA expression was observed in WiDr LF cells. These cells acquired approximately 2-fold resistance to mitoxantrone compared with the HF cell line, a phenotype that could be reverted by the BCRP inhibitor Ko143. Of note, WiDr cells expressed BCRP in the intracellular compartment, similarly to what we have described for Caco-2 cells. Our results provide further evidence for an important role of cellular folate status in the modulation of the expression of multidrug resistance transporters in cancer cells. We show that up-regulation of intracellularly localized BCRP in response to adaptation to LF conditions may be a common feature within a panel of colon cancer cell lines. Under these circumstances, folate supplementation might improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs by decreasing BCRP expression.

Bousarghin L, Touze A, Gaud G, et al.
Inhibition of cervical cancer cell growth by human papillomavirus virus-like particles packaged with human papillomavirus oncoprotein short hairpin RNAs.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2009; 8(2):357-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of human papillomavirus (HPV E6 and HPV E7) oncogenes in human cervical cells results in the development of cancer, and E6 and E7 proteins are therefore targets for preventing cervical cancer progression. Here, we describe the silencing of E6 and E7 expression in cervical carcinoma cells by RNA interference. In order to increase the efficacy of the RNA interference, HPV pseudovirions coding for a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) sequence were produced. The results indicated the degradation of E6 and E7 mRNAs when shRNA against E6 or E7 were delivered by pseudovirions in HPV-positive cells (CaSki and TC1 cells). E6 silencing resulted in the accumulation of cellular p53 and reduced cell viability. More significant cell death was observed when E7 expression was suppressed. Silencing E6 and E7 and the consequences for cancer cell growth were also investigated in vivo in mice using the capacity of murine TC1 cells expressing HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncogenes to induce fast-growing tumors. Treatment with lentiviruses and HPV virus-like particle vectors coding for an E7 shRNA sequence both resulted in dramatic inhibition of tumor growth. These results show the ability of pseudovirion-delivered shRNA to produce specific gene suppression and provide an effective means of reducing HPV-positive tumor growth.

Vergote I, Calvert H, Kania M, et al.
A randomised, double-blind, phase II study of two doses of pemetrexed in the treatment of platinum-resistant, epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45(8):1415-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We conducted a randomised phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy of standard versus high-dose pemetrexed in platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (PR-EOC). The expression of ten genes was also examined as potential biomarkers of pemetrexed/platinum activity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received pemetrexed 500mg/m(2) (Pem500) or 900mg/m(2) (Pem900) on day 1 of each 21-d cycle. Responses were defined per RECIST for measurable disease or by Gynaecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG) CA-125 criteria for non-measurable disease.
RESULTS: Of 102 patients randomised, 98 were evaluable for toxicity (47 Pem500, 51 Pem900) and 91 were evaluable for efficacy (43 Pem500, 48 Pem900) of whom 68 had measurable disease and 23 had CA-125-defined disease. The overall RR was 9.3% (95% CI: 2.6-22.1%) on Pem500 and 10.4% (95% CI: 3.5-22.7%) on Pem900. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.8 months on both arms, and the median survival was 11.9 and 10.3 months, respectively. Lower mRNA expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) and reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) were associated with longer PFS and time to treatment failure, respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicities, including fatigue, nausea and vomiting, were numerically greater on Pem900. Pemetrexed-related SAEs occurred in 17% and 28% of Pem500 and Pem900 patients, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Pemetrexed has activity in PR-EOC equivalent to other agents in platinum-resistant disease; however, Pem500 has the preferable toxicity profile. ERCC1 and RFC1 may merit examination as predictive biomarkers in PR-EOC.

de Jonge R, Tissing WJ, Hooijberg JH, et al.
Polymorphisms in folate-related genes and risk of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2009; 113(10):2284-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in folate pathway genes may influence the susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). DNA was isolated from 245 pediatric ALL patients (cases) and from 500 blood bank donors (controls). Polymorphisms in methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C), methionine synthase (MTR 2756A>G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR 66A>G), methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1 1958G>A), nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT IVS -151C>T), serine hydroxymethyl transferase (SHMT1 1420C>T), thymidylate synthase (TS 2R3R), and the reduced folate carrier (RFC1 80G>A) were detected. In ALL patients, an increased occurrence was observed of the RFC1 80AA variant (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2; P = .002) and the RFC1 80A allele (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1; P = .02). Likewise, the NNMT IVS -151TT genotype showed a 2.2-fold increased ALL risk (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.6; P = .04). A 1.4-fold reduction in ALL risk was observed for (heterozygous or homozygous) carriers of the TS 2R allele and the MTHFR 677T allele (OR = 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-1.0; P < .05). Furthermore, interactions between NNMT and MTHFR 677C>T and RFC1 were observed. NNMT IVS -151CC/MTHFR 677CT + TT patients exhibited a 2-fold reduction in ALL risk whereas RFC1 80AA/NNMT IVS -151CT + TT subjects had a 4.2-fold increase in ALL risk (P = .001). For the first time, we associate the RFC1 80G>A and NNMT IVS -151C>T variants to an increased ALL susceptibility.

Guglielmelli T, Giugliano E, Cappia S, et al.
Frequency and distribution of trisomy 11 in multiple myeloma patients: relation with overexpression of CCND1 and t(11;14).
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 173(1):51-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myelomas (MM) recently have been stratified into five groups (TC1-TC5) on the basis of the presence of the recurrent IgH chromosomal translocation and cyclin D expression. Cyclin D1 is detectable in up to one third of MM patients and plays crucial role in the regulation of G1-S transition in cell cycle. To evaluate the mechanisms of cyclin D1 overexpression, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis with specific probes for the CCND1 gene and t(11;14)(q13;q32) were performed on highly purified plasma cells from bone marrow samples of 30 MM patients at diagnosis. CCND1 gene overexpression was detected in 14/30 cases (46.6%). Patients with evidence of the t(11;14) showed strong nuclear staining for cyclin D1 (TC1 group) and 7/8 demonstrated CCND1 overexpression. The remaining 7/15 cases with increased CCND1 gene copy numbers lacked the t(11;14) and showed low to negative levels of cyclin D1 protein (TC2 group). Trisomy 11 was demonstrated in 2/8 cases carrying the t(11;14) (TC1), 6/7 overexpressing cyclin D1 without the translocation (TC2), and 4/15 negative for both alterations (TC3-TC5). According to our data, trisomy 11 does not appear to directly cause CCND1 gene overexpression because it was present in 4/15 patients without the overexpression of the CCND1 gene and in 2/8 patients carrying the t(11;14). One patient belonging to the TC2 group overexpressed cyclin D1 and lacked both trisomy and translocation, suggesting that cyclin D1 can be dysregulated by additional mechanisms. In the TC2 group, trisomy 11 may probably be considered as a recurrent polisomy of the hyperdiploid status.

Sasaki T, Ikeda H, Sato M, et al.
Antitumor activity of chimeric immunoreceptor gene-modified Tc1 and Th1 cells against autologous carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing colon cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2006; 97(9):920-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
To generate tumor-specific and interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing Tc1 and Th1 cells applicable for many cancer patients, we previously developed a protocol for generating carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific Tc1 and Th1 cells from healthy human T cells by transduction with a lentivirus containing a chimeric immunoglobulin T-cell receptor (cIgTCR) gene composed of single-chain variable fragments from an anti-CEA-specific monoclonal antibody fused to an intracellular signaling domain of CD28 and CD3zeta. These cells, designated Tc1-T and Th1-T bodies, respectively, showed strong antitumor activity against CEA-expressing tumor cells in RAG2-/- mice when both of them were transferred. However, it remains unclear whether it is possible to generate Tc1-T and Th1-T bodies from cancer patients with defective T-cell function because of significant immunosuppression. Here, we prepared Tc1-T and Th1-T bodies from T cells of a colon cancer patient, and asked whether these T bodies can exert effective T-cell function against autologous tumor cells. These T bodies showed high cytotoxicity and produced IFN-gamma in response to CEA-expressing autologous tumor cells, even in the presence of soluble CEA. It was also demonstrated that Th1-T bodies supported the survival of Tc1-T bodies through cell-to-cell interactions. Furthermore, our protocol utilized retrovirus for cIgTCR transduction to achieve better induction efficiency compared to lentivirus-mediated transduction. Taken together, our findings here indicate that retrovirally transduced Tc1-T and Th1-T bodies will become a promising strategy for adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

Kim B, Koo H, Yang S, et al.
TC1(C8orf4) correlates with Wnt/beta-catenin target genes and aggressive biological behavior in gastric cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(11 Pt 1):3541-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have recently reported that TC1(C8orf4), a small protein present in vertebrates, functions as a novel regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. TC1 up-regulates beta-catenin target genes that are implicated in the aggressive behavior of cancers. Our aim was to investigate the clinical and pathobiological relevance of TC1 in gastric cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The expression of TC1 was analyzed using tissue microarray in correlation with clinicopathologic variables and beta-catenin target genes in 299 gastric cancers. The biological effects of TC1 on Matrigel invasiveness and the proliferation of cancer cells were analyzed. TC1 expression was analyzed in gastric cancer cells after serial peritoneal implantation in nude mice.
RESULTS: TC1 expression was present in 111 carcinomas (37.1%), correlating with tumor stage (P < 0.002), poor differentiation (P < 0.001), lymphatic infiltration (P < 0.005), and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.006). TC1 also correlated with poor survival in diffuse type carcinomas (P < 0.0001), and even in patients with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0014). TC1 also correlated with the expression of beta-catenin target genes including laminin gamma2, metalloproteinase-7 and metalloproteinase-14, cyclin D1, c-Met, and CD44. TC1 enhanced Matrigel invasiveness and proliferation, supporting its role in the aggressive biological behavior of cancers. The expression of TC1 increased in MKN45 cells after serial peritoneal seeding in nude mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that TC1 coordinates the up-regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes that are implicated in the aggressive biological behavior of cancers. The strong clinical relevance, even in patients with lymph node metastasis, suggested that TC1 could be a potential therapeutic target of advanced gastric cancers.

Casati C, Camisaschi C, Rini F, et al.
Soluble human LAG-3 molecule amplifies the in vitro generation of type 1 tumor-specific immunity.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(8):4450-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The adjuvant activities of the human lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) molecule have been evaluated in a human setting by investigating the ability of a soluble recombinant human LAG-3 protein (hLAG-3Ig) to enhance the in vitro induction of viral- and tumor-specific CTLs. We found that soluble human LAG-3 significantly sustained the generation and expansion of influenza matrix protein Melan-A/MART-1 and survivin-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of both cancer patients and healthy donors, showing its ability to boost CD8+ T-cell memory response or to prime naive T cells in vitro. The peptide-specific T cells generated in the presence of hLAG-3Ig were endowed with cytotoxic activity and enhanced release of type 1 cytotoxic T (Tc1) cytokines and were able to recognize tumor cells expressing their nominal antigen. Phenotype and cytokine/chemokines produced by antigen-presenting cells (APC) of PBMCs exposed in vitro for 2 days to peptide and hLAG-3Ig indicate that the LAG-3-mediated adjuvant effect may depend on a direct activation of circulating APCs. Our data revealed the activity of hLAG-3Ig in inducing tumor-associated, antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses in a human setting and strongly support the conclusion that this recombinant protein is a potential candidate adjuvant for cancer vaccines.

Jung Y, Bang S, Choi K, et al.
TC1 (C8orf4) enhances the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway by relieving antagonistic activity of Chibby.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(2):723-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has been implicated in human cancers. Here, we show that TC1 (C8orf4), a small protein present in vertebrates, functions as a positive regulator of the pathway. TC1 interacts with Chibby (Cby) and thereby enhances the signaling pathway by relieving the antagonistic function of Cby on the beta-catenin-mediated transcription. Upon coexpression in mammalian cells, TC1 redistributes from nucleolus to nuclear speckles, where it colocalizes with Cby. TC1 up-regulates the expression of beta-catenin target genes that are implicated in invasiveness and aggressive behavior of cancers, such as metalloproteinases, laminin gamma2, and others. Our data indicate that TC1 is a novel upstream regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway that enhances aggressive behavior of cancers.

Batchu RB, Moreno AM, Szmania SM, et al.
Protein transduction of dendritic cells for NY-ESO-1-based immunotherapy of myeloma.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(21):10041-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloma vaccines, based on dendritic cells pulsed with idiotype or tumor lysate, have been met with limited success, probably in part due to insufficient cross-priming of myeloma antigens. A powerful method to introduce myeloma-associated antigens into the cytosol of dendritic cells is protein transduction, a process by which proteins fused with a protein transduction domain (PTD) freely traverse membrane barriers. NY-ESO-1, an immunogenic antigen by itself highly expressed in 60% of high-risk myeloma patients, was purified to near homogeneity both alone and as a recombinant fusion protein with a PTD, derived from HIV-Tat. Efficient entry of PTD-NY-ESO-1 into dendritic cells, confirmed by microscopy, Western blotting, and intracellular flow cytometry, was achieved without affecting dendritic cell phenotype. Experiments with amiloride, which inhibits endocytosis, and N-acetyl-l-leucinyl-l-norleucinal, a proteasome inhibitor, confirmed that PTD-NY-ESO-1 entered dendritic cells by protein transduction and was degraded by the proteasome. Tetramer analysis indicated superior generation of HLA-A2.1, CD8+ T lymphocytes specific for NY-ESO-1(157-165) with PTD-NY-ESO-1 compared with NY-ESO-1 control protein (44% versus 2%, respectively). NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes generated with PTD-NY-ESO-1 secreted IFN-gamma indicative of a Tc1-type cytokine response. Thus, PTD-NY-ESO-1 accesses the cytoplasm by protein transduction, is processed by the proteasome, and NY-ESO-1 peptides presented by HLA class I elicit NY-ESO-1-specific T lymphocytes.

Agnelli L, Bicciato S, Mattioli M, et al.
Molecular classification of multiple myeloma: a distinct transcriptional profile characterizes patients expressing CCND1 and negative for 14q32 translocations.
J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(29):7296-306 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The deregulation of CCND1, CCND2 and CCND3 genes represents a common event in multiple myeloma (MM). A recently proposed classification grouped MM patients into five classes on the basis of their cyclin D expression profiles and the presence of the main translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IGH) at 14q32. In this study, we provide a molecular characterization of the identified translocations/cyclins (TC) groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gene expression profiles of purified plasma cells from 50 MM cases were used to stratify the samples into the five TC classes and identify their transcriptional fingerprints. The cyclin D expression data were validated by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis; fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to investigate the cyclin D loci arrangements, and to detect the main IGH translocations and the chromosome 13q deletion.
RESULTS: Class-prediction analysis identified 112 probe sets as characterizing the TC1, TC2, TC4 and TC5 groups, whereas the TC3 samples showed heterogeneous phenotypes and no marker genes. The TC2 group, which showed extra copies of the CCND1 locus and no IGH translocations or the chromosome 13q deletion, was characterized by the overexpression of genes involved in protein biosynthesis at the translational level. A meta-analysis of published data sets validated the identified gene expression signatures.
CONCLUSION: Our data contribute to the understanding of the molecular and biologic features of distinct MM subtypes. The identification of a distinctive gene expression pattern in TC2 patients may improve risk stratification and indicate novel therapeutic targets.

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