Gene Summary

Gene:SLCO1B3; solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Aliases: LST3, HBLRR, LST-2, OATP8, OATP-8, OATP1B3, SLC21A8, LST-3TM13
Summary:This gene encodes a liver-specific member of the organic anion transporter family. The encoded protein is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the sodium-independent uptake of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and plays a critical role in bile acid and bilirubin transport. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Rotor type hyperbilirubinemia. Alternative splicing of this gene and the use of alternative promoters results in transcript variants encoding different isoforms that differ in their tissue specificity. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SLCO1B3 (cancer-related)

Sone K, Oguri T, Uemura T, et al.
Genetic variation in the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCC10 is associated with neutropenia for docetaxel in Japanese lung cancer patients cohort.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):246 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel is a widely used cytotoxic agent for treatments of various cancers. The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter / multidrug resistance protein (MRP) ABCC10/MRP7, involved in transporting taxanes, has been associated with resistance to these agents. Since genetic variation in drug transporters may affect clinical outcomes, we examined whether polymorphism of ABCC10 could affect clinical responses to docetaxel.
METHODS: Using 18 NSCLC cell lines and CRISPR-based genome-edited HeLa cells, we analyzed whether genetic variants of ABCC10 (rs2125739, rs9349256) affected cytotoxicity to docetaxel. Subsequently, we analyzed genetic variants [ABCC10 (rs2125739), ABCB1 (C1236T, C3435T, G2677 T/A), ABCC2 (rs12762549), and SLCO1B3 (rs11045585)] in 69 blood samples of NSCLC patients treated with docetaxel monotherapy. Clinical outcomes were evaluated between genotype groups.
RESULTS: In the cell lines, only one genetic variant (rs2125739) was significantly associated with docetaxel cytotoxicity, and this was confirmed in the genome-edited cell line. In the 69 NSCLC patients, there were no significant differences related to rs2125739 genotype in terms of RR, PFS, or OS. However, this SNP was associated with grade 3/4 neutropenia (T/C group 60% vs. T/T group 87%; P = 0.028). Furthermore, no patient with a T/C genotype experienced febrile neutropenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that genetic variation in the ABCC10 gene is associated with neutropenia for docetaxel treatment.

Jaerapong N, Jamil QA, Riha J, et al.
Organic anion‑transporting polypeptides contribute to the uptake of curcumin and its main metabolites by human breast cancer cells: Impact on antitumor activity.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2558-2566 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound with pronounced anticancer properties, despite its low bioavailability caused by extensive glucuronidation and sulfation. Information on the cellular uptake mechanisms and their contribution to the anticancer effects of curcumin and its biotransformation products is limited. The present study, therefore, investigated the role of organic anion‑transporting polypeptides (OATPs) in the cellular uptake of curcumin and its major metabolites in OATP‑expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human ZR‑75‑1 breast cancer cells. The uptake rates for curcumin in OATP1B1‑, OATP1B3‑ and OATP2B1‑transfected CHO cells were 2‑ to 3‑fold higher than wild‑type cells. Curcumin sulfate was transported by all three OATPs, although to a much lesser extent, while uptake of tetrahydrocurcumin was the highest but only via OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Notably, curcumin glucuronide did not exhibit any affinity for these OATPs. The increased mRNA levels of OATP1B1 in wild‑type human breast cancer ZR‑75‑1 cells compared with OATP1B1 knockdown cells was associated with a higher initial uptake of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin leading to decreased IC50 values. In conclusion, our data revealed that OATPs act as cellular uptake transporters for curcumin and its major metabolites, and this may also be applicable to patients undergoing cancer therapy.

Malinen MM, Ito K, Kang HE, et al.
Protein expression and function of organic anion transporters in short-term and long-term cultures of Huh7 human hepatoma cells.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2019; 130:186-195 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Human-derived hepatic cell lines are a valuable alternative to primary hepatocytes for drug metabolism, transport and toxicity studies. However, their relevance for investigations of drug-drug and drug-organic anion (e.g., bile acid, steroid hormone) interactions at the transporter level remains to be established. The aim of the present study was to determine the suitability of the Huh7 cell line for transporter-dependent experiments. Huh7 cells were cultured for 1 to 4 weeks and subsequently were analyzed for protein expression, localization and activity of solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in organic anion transport using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, immunocytochemistry, and model substrates [

Sun Y, Piñón Hofbauer J, Harada M, et al.
Cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 is a target for cancer suicide gene therapy using RNA trans-splicing technology.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 433:107-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (Ct-OATP1B3) has been identified as a cancer-specific transcript in various solid cancers, including colorectal cancer. Given its excellent cancer-specific expression profile, we hypothesized that Ct-OATP1B3 could represent a promising target for cancer-specific expression of the suicide gene, herpes simplex virus 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk), via a spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing (SMaRT) approach. SMaRT technology is used to recombine two RNA molecules to generate a chimeric transcript. In this study, we engineered an RNA trans-splicing molecule carrying a translation-defective HSV-tk sequence (RTM44), which was capable of inducing its own trans-splicing to the desired Ct-OATP1B3 pre-mRNA target. RTM44 expression in LS180 cells resulted in generation of Ct-OATP1B3/HSV-tk fusion mRNA. A functional translation start site contributed by the target pre-mRNA restored HSV-tk protein expression, rendering LS180 cells sensitive to ganciclovir treatment in vitro and in xenografted mice. The observed effects are ascribed to accurate and efficient trans-splicing, as they were absent in cells carrying a splicing-deficient mutant of RTM44. Collectively, our data highlights Ct-OATP1B3 as an ideal target for the HSV-tk SMaRT suicide system, which opens up new translational avenues for Ct-OATP1B3-targeted cancer therapy.

Jabir RS, Ho GF, Annuar MABA, Stanslas J
Association of Allelic Interaction of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Influx and Efflux Transporters Genes With Nonhematologic Adverse Events of Docetaxel in Breast Cancer Patients.
Clin Breast Cancer. 2018; 18(5):e1173-e1179 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Nonhematologic adverse events (AEs) of docetaxel constitute an extra burden in the treatment of cancer patients and necessitate either a dose reduction or an outright switch of docetaxel for other regimens. These AEs are frequently associated with genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding for proteins involved docetaxel disposition. Therefore, we investigated that association in Malaysian breast cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 110 Malaysian breast cancer patients were enrolled in the present study, and their blood samples were investigated for different single nucleotide polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. AEs were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0.
RESULTS: Fatigue, nausea, oral mucositis, and vomiting were the most common nonhematologic AEs. Rash was associated with heterozygous and mutant genotypes of ABCB1 3435C>T (P < .05). Moreover, patients carrying the GG genotype of ABCB1 2677G>A/T reported more fatigue than those carrying the heterozygous genotype GA (P < .05). The presence of ABCB1 3435-T, ABCC2 3972-C, ABCC2 1249-G, and ABCB1 2677-G alleles was significantly associated with nausea and oral mucositis. The coexistence of ABCB1 3435-C, ABCC2 3972-C, ABCC2 1249-G, and ABCB1 2677-A was significantly associated with vomiting (P < .05).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of nonhematologic AEs in breast cancer patients treated with docetaxel has been relatively high. The variant allele of ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism could be a potential predictive biomarker of docetaxel-induced rash, and homozygous wild-type ABCB1 2677G>A/T might predict for a greater risk of fatigue. In addition, the concurrent presence of specific alleles could be predictive of vomiting, nausea, and oral mucositis.

Xie X, Zhou Z, Song Y, et al.
Differences between carcinoma of the cecum and ascending colon: Evidence based on clinical and embryological data.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(1):87-98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Developing rapidly from the cecal diverticulum in a 5-week-old embryo, the cecum, which is developed from the caudal limb of the midgut loop, is different from the ascending colon. The aim of this study was to analyze the different clinicopathological and biological characteristics of patients with carcinoma of the cecum and ascending colon. We accessed data for 59,035 patients with adenocarcinomas of the cecum and ascending colon from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to explore the potential associations between the clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. Furthermore, we analyzed the differences in gene expression between the two segments in the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas database, as well as with another independent dataset from the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University. The results of this study revealed the potential prognostic differences between adenocarcinoma of the cecum and ascending colon, which may be caused by the differential expression levels of the SLCO1B3 gene. When including the expression levels of SLCO1B3 in intraoperatively examined lymph nodes, 8 factors were found able to predict the prognosis of patients with carcinomas of the cecum and ascending colon. As regards the surgical therapeutic strategies, the resection of >15 local lymph nodes is appropriate for improving the prognosis of patients.

Alam K, Farasyn T, Ding K, Yue W
Characterization of Liver- and Cancer-type-Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 Messenger RNA Expression in Normal and Cancerous Human Tissues.
Drug Metab Lett. 2018; 12(1):24-32 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Membrane transport protein organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 mediates the cellular uptake of many clinically important drugs including anti-cancer drugs (e.g., paclitaxel). In addition to the well-recognized hepatic expression and function of OATP1B3 [herein named liver-type (Lt) OATP1B3], OATP1B3 also expresses in cancers and has been postulated to play a role in cancer therapy, presumably by facilitating the influx of anti-cancer drugs. Recently, a cancer type (Ct)-OATP1B3 mRNA variant was identified in colon and lung cancer tissues, which encodes truncated Ct-OATP1B3 with negligible transport activity. Other than in colon and lung cancers, reports on mRNA expression of OATP1B3 in other cancers cannot distinguish between the Ltand Ct-OATP1B3.
OBJECTIVE: The current studies were designed to characterize the expression of Lt- and Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA in ovarian, prostate, bladder, breast, and lung tissues.
METHODS: Lt- and Ct-OATP1B3 isoform-specific PCR primers were utilized to determine the mRNA levels of Lt- and Ct-OATP1B3, respectively. An expression vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Lt-OATP1B3 was transiently transfected into the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3. Confocal live-cell microscopy was utilized to determine the localization of GFP-Lt-OATP1B3 in SKOV3 cells.
RESULTS: For the first time, Lt-OATP1B3 mRNA was detected in ovarian, prostate, bladder and breast cancers. The localization of GFP-Lt-OATP1B3 on the plasma membrane of SKOV3 cells after transient transfection was readily detected by confocal microscopy.
CONCLUSION: Our findings are supportive of the potential role of Lt-OATP1B3 in cancer cells.

Morio H, Sun Y, Harada M, et al.
Cancer-Type OATP1B3 mRNA in Extracellular Vesicles as a Promising Candidate for a Serum-Based Colorectal Cancer Biomarker.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2018; 41(3):445-449 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (Ct-OATP1B3) mRNA is a variant isoform of the liver-type OATP1B3. Because Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA shows an excellent cancer-specific expression profile in colorectal cancer (CRC), and that its expression levels are associated with CRC prognosis, it holds the potential to become a useful CRC detection and diagnosis biomarker. While the potential is currently justified only at the tissue level, if existence of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA in CRC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) is validated, the findings could enhance its translational potential as a CRC detection and diagnosis biomarker. Therefore, this study aims at proving that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA exists in CRC-derived EVs, and can be detected using serum specimens. To examine the possibility of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA being existed in extracellular milieu, we isolated EVs from the human CRC (HCT116, HT-29, and SW480) cell lines, and prepared their cDNAs. The RT-PCR results showed that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA was clearly present in EVs derived from the human CRC cell lines. Then, in order to further explore the possibility that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA in CRC-derived EVs can be detected in serum, we isolated serum EVs derived from human CRC xenograft mice, and then performed RT-PCR. The results showed that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA could be found in all serum EV and CRC tissue samples of the mice examined. Collectively, our findings, which show that Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA exists in EVs and can be detected in (at least) mouse serum, strengthen the potential use of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA as a serum-based CRC biomarker.

Wu MR, Liu HM, Lu CW, et al.
Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 as a dual reporter gene for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.
FASEB J. 2018; 32(3):1705-1715 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Reporter proteins have broad applications in visualizing molecular events at the cellular, tissue and whole-body levels. Transmembrane transporters recognizing specific molecular domains are of particular interest because they enable the migration of signal-source molecules from the extracellular space to the cytoplasm for subsequent application in multimodality imaging. Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) have demonstrated their MRI reporter efficacy. We further expanded their use as a dual-modality reporter in MRI and noninvasive in vivo imaging system (IVIS). We overexpressed OATP1B3 in the HT-1080 sarcoma cell line. Both Gd-EOB-DTPA, an MRI contrast agent, and indocyanine green (ICG), a near-infrared fluorescent dye that provides better deep-tissue detection because of its long wavelength, could be delivered to the intracellular space and imaged in a tumor-bearing nude mouse model. Our in vivo dual-imaging reporter system achieved high sensitivity in MRI and observation periods lasting as long as 96 h in IVIS. Because of the superior temporal and spatial resolutions and the clinical availability of both ICG and Gd-EOB-DTPA, this dual-imaging OATP1B3 system will find biomedical use in tumor biology, stem cell trafficking, and tissue engineering.-Wu, M.-R., Liu, H.-M., Lu, C.-W., Shen, W.-H., Lin, I.-J., Liao, L.-W., Huang, Y.-Y., Shieh, M.-J., Hsiao, J.-K. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 as a dual reporter gene for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

Verboom MC, Kloth JSL, Swen JJ, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes are associated with worse progression-free survival of patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours treated with imatinib.
Eur J Cancer. 2017; 86:226-232 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Imatinib 400 mg per day is first-line therapy for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). Although clinical benefit is high, progression-free survival (PFS) is variable. This study explores the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to imatinib pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and PFS in imatinib-treated patients with advanced GIST.
METHODS: In 227 patients a pharmacogenetic pathway analysis was performed. Genotype data from 36 SNPs in 18 genes were tested in univariate analyses to investigate their relationship with PFS. Genetic variables which showed a trend (p < 0.1) were tested in a multivariate model, in which each singular SNP was added to clinicopathological factors.
RESULTS: In univariate analyses, PFS was associated with synchronous metastases (p = 0.0008) and the mutational status (p = 0.004). Associations with rs1870377 in KDR (additive model, p = 0.0009), rs1570360 in VEGFA (additive model, p = 0.053) and rs4149117 in SLCO1B3 (mutant dominant model, 0.027) were also found. In the multivariate model, significant associations and trends with shorter PFS were found for synchronous metastases (HR 1.94, p = 0.002), KIT exon 9 mutation (HR 2.45, p = 0.002) and the SNPs rs1870377 (AA genotype, HR 2.61, p = 0.015), rs1570360 (AA genotype, HR 2.02, p = 0.037) and rs4149117 (T allele, HR 0.62, p = 0.083).
CONCLUSION: In addition to KIT exon 9 mutation and synchronous metastases, SNPs in KDR, VEGFA and SLCO1B3 appear to be associated with PFS in patients with advanced GIST receiving 400-mg imatinib. If validated, specific SNPs may serve as predictive biomarkers to identify patients with an increased risk for progressive disease during imatinib therapy.

Dudenkov TM, Ingle JN, Buzdar AU, et al.
SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and plasma estrone conjugates in postmenopausal women with ER+ breast cancer: genome-wide association studies of the estrone pathway.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 164(1):189-199 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrone (E1), the major circulating estrogen in postmenopausal women, promotes estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast tumor growth and proliferation. Two major reactions contribute to E1 plasma concentrations, aromatase (CYP19A1) catalyzed E1 synthesis from androstenedione and steroid sulfatase (STS) catalyzed hydrolysis of estrone conjugates (E1Cs). E1Cs have been associated with breast cancer risk and may contribute to tumor progression since STS is expressed in breast cancer where its activity exceeds that of aromatase.
METHODS: We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify SNPs associated with variation in plasma concentrations of E1Cs, E1, and androstenedione in 774 postmenopausal women with resected early-stage ER+ breast cancer. Hormone concentrations were measured prior to aromatase inhibitor therapy.
RESULTS: Multiple SNPs in SLCO1B1, a gene encoding a hepatic influx transporter, displayed genome-wide significant associations with E1C plasma concentrations and with the E1C/E1 ratio. The top SNP for E1C concentrations, rs4149056 (p = 3.74E-11), was a missense variant that results in reduced transporter activity. Patients homozygous for the variant allele had significantly higher average E1C plasma concentrations than did other patients. Furthermore, three other SLCO1B1 SNPs, not in LD with rs4149056, were associated with both E1C concentrations and the E1C/E1 ratio and were cis-eQTLs for SLCO1B3. GWAS signals of suggestive significance were also observed for E1, androstenedione, and the E1/androstenedione ratio.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest a mechanism for genetic variation in E1C plasma concentrations as well as possible SNP biomarkers to identify ER+ breast cancer patients for whom STS inhibitors might be of clinical value.

Sissung TM, Ley AM, Strope JD, et al.
Differential Expression of OATP1B3 Mediates Unconjugated Testosterone Influx.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(8):1096-1105 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has greater intratumoral testosterone concentrations than similar tumors from eugonadal men; simple diffusion does not account for this observation. This study was undertaken to ascertain the androgen uptake kinetics, functional, and clinical relevance of

Evangeli L, Ioannis S, Valentinos K, et al.
SLCO1B3 screening in colorectal cancer patients using High-Resolution Melting Analysis method and immunohistochemistry.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317691176 [PubMed] Related Publications
Personalized medicine has made some major advances in colorectal cancer, but new biomarkers still remain a hot issue as an emerging tool with potential prognostic and therapeutic potential. We investigated for SLCO1B3 gene alterations and protein expression in colorectal cancer, using the novel high-resolution melting analysis technique and immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 30 colorectal cancer patients were used. The screening for gene alterations was done by high-resolution melting analysis for all exons of SLCO1B3 gene. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal mouse MDQ antibody. High level of polymorphism was observed in the SLCO1B3 gene. We identified three previously reported polymorphisms in exons 7, 12, and 14, 699G>A, 1557A>G, and 1833G>A, respectively. In the exon 5, one variant seems to correspond to an as yet unknown SLCO family member. The immunohistochemical study revealed that organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 was expressed in 27/30 samples. Of great interest, the three samples, which were immunohistochemically negative, all appeared to accommodate mutations which lead to either early stop codons or other conformations of the tertiary protein structures affecting the antibody-epitope binding. The results of this study are of much interest as high-resolution melting analysis proved to be a reliable and rapid genotyping/scanning method for mutation detection of SLCO1B3 gene.

de Morrée ES, Böttcher R, van Soest RJ, et al.
Loss of SLCO1B3 drives taxane resistance in prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 115(6):674-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Both taxanes, docetaxel and cabazitaxel, are effective treatments for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, resistance to taxanes is common. Our objective was to investigate mechanisms of taxane resistance in prostate cancer.
METHODS: Two docetaxel-resistant patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of CRPC were established (PC339-DOC and PC346C-DOC) in male athymic nude mice by frequent intraperitoneal administrations of docetaxel. Next-generation sequencing was performed on PDX tissue pre- and post-docetaxel resistance and gene expression profiles were compared. [(14)C]-docetaxel and [(14)C]-cabazitaxel uptake assays in vitro and cytotoxicity assays were performed to validate direct involvement of transporter genes in taxane sensitivity.
RESULTS: Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (SLCO1B3), an influx transporter of docetaxel, was significantly downregulated in PC346C-DOC tumours. In accordance with this finding, intratumoural concentrations of docetaxel and cabazitaxel were significantly decreased in PC346C-DOC as compared with levels in chemotherapy-naive PC346C tumours. In addition, silencing of SLCO1B3 in chemo-naive PC346C resulted in a two-fold decrease in intracellular concentrations of both taxanes. Overexpression of SLCO1B3 showed higher sensitivity to docetaxel and cabazitaxel.
CONCLUSIONS: The SLCO1B3 determines intracellular concentrations of docetaxel and cabazitaxel and consequently influences taxane efficacy. Loss of the drug transporter SLCO1B3 may drive taxane resistance in prostate cancer.

Durmus S, van Hoppe S, Schinkel AH
The impact of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs) on disposition and toxicity of antitumor drugs: Insights from knockout and humanized mice.
Drug Resist Updat. 2016; 27:72-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is now widely accepted that organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), especially members of the OATP1A/1B family, can have a major impact on the disposition and elimination of a variety of endogenous molecules and drugs. Owing to their prominent expression in the sinusoidal plasma membrane of hepatocytes, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play key roles in the hepatic uptake and plasma clearance of a multitude of structurally diverse anti-cancer and other drugs. Here, we present a thorough assessment of the currently available OATP1A and OATP1B knockout and transgenic mouse models as key tools to study OATP functions in vivo. We discuss recent studies using these models demonstrating the importance of OATPs, primarily in the plasma and hepatic clearance of anticancer drugs such as taxanes, irinotecan/SN-38, methotrexate, doxorubicin, and platinum compounds. We further discuss recent work on OATP-mediated drug-drug interactions in these mouse models, as well as on the role of OATP1A/1B proteins in the phenomenon of hepatocyte hopping, an efficient and flexible way of liver detoxification for both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Interestingly, glucuronide conjugates of both the heme breakdown product bilirubin and the protein tyrosine kinase-targeted anticancer drug sorafenib are strongly affected by this process. The clinical relevance of variation in OATP1A/1B activity in patients has been previously revealed by the effects of polymorphic variants and drug-drug interactions on drug toxicity. The development of in vivo tools to study OATP1A/1B functions has greatly advanced our mechanistic understanding of their functional role in drug pharmacokinetics, and their implications for therapeutic efficacy and toxic side effects of anticancer and other drug treatments.

Krattinger R, Boström A, Schiöth HB, et al.
microRNA-192 suppresses the expression of the farnesoid X receptor.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016; 310(11):G1044-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid homeostasis in liver and intestine and may exert protective effects against certain forms of cancer such as colon carcinoma. However, the role of FXR in cell growth regulation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis is still controversial. Similar to FXR, microRNA-192 (miR-192) is mainly expressed in the liver and colon and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the extent to which FXR is regulated by miR-192. Two in silico-predicted binding sites for miR-192-3p within the NR1H4-3' untranslated region (UTR) were examined in vitro by luciferase reporter assays. Wild-type and mutated forms of the NR1H4-3'UTR were subcloned into a pmirGLO vector and cotransfected into Huh-7 cells with miR-192-3p. To study the effects of miR-192 on the expression of FXR, FXR target genes and cell proliferation, Huh-7 and Caco-2 cells were transfected with miR-192-5p and -3p mimics or antagomirs. In addition, the correlation between FXR and miR-192 expression was studied by linear regression analyses in colonic adenocarcinoma tissue from 27 patients. MiR-192-3p bound specifically to the NR1H4-3'UTR and significantly decreased luciferase activity. Transfection with miR-192 led to significant decreases in NR1H4 mRNA and protein levels as well as the mRNA levels of the FXR-inducible bile acid transporters OSTα-OSTβ and OATP1B3. Significant inverse correlations were detected in colonic adenocarcinoma between NR1H4 mRNA and miR-192-3p expression. In summary, microRNA-192 suppresses the expression of FXR and FXR target genes in vitro and in vivo.

Sewda K, Coppola D, Enkemann S, et al.
Cell-surface markers for colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):17773-89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is crucial for effective treatment. Among CRC screening techniques, optical colonoscopy is widely considered the gold standard. However, it is a costly and invasive procedure with a low rate of compliance. Our long-term goal is to develop molecular imaging agents for the non-invasive detection of CRC by molecular imaging-based colonoscopy using CT, MRI or fluorescence. To achieve this, cell surface targets must be identified and validated. Here, we report the discovery of cell-surface markers that distinguish CRC from surrounding tissues that could be used as molecular imaging targets. Profiling of mRNA expression microarray data from patient tissues including adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and normal gastrointestinal tissues was used to identify potential CRC specific cell-surface markers. Of the identified markers, six were selected for further validation (CLDN1, GPR56, GRM8, LY6G6D/F, SLCO1B3 and TLR4). Protein expression was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of patient tissues. Except for SLCO1B3, diffuse and low expression was observed for each marker in normal colon tissues. The three markers with the greatest protein overexpression were CLDN1, LY6G6D/F and TLR4, where at least one of these markers was overexpressed in 97% of the CRC samples. GPR56, LY6G6D/F and SLCO1B3 protein expression was significantly correlated with the proximal tumor location and with expression of mismatch repair genes. Marker expression was further validated in CRC cell lines. Hence, three cell-surface markers were discovered that distinguish CRC from surrounding normal tissues. These markers can be used to develop imaging or therapeutic agents targeted to the luminal surface of CRC.

Park HS, Lim SM, Shin HJ, et al.
Pharmacogenetic analysis of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with first-line paclitaxel and carboplatin chemotherapy.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2016; 26(3):116-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic polymorphisms contribute toward interindividual variations in drug response. We investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with first-line paclitaxel and carboplatin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 194 non-small-cell lung cancer patients were prospectively enrolled from January 2010 to January 2013. We genotyped 11 polymorphisms in seven genes involved in the glycolysis pathway and the related pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic pathway. Genetic associations with PET-SUV, survival outcome, and toxicity were analyzed, and in-vitro drug transport activity was measured in the oocyte system.
RESULTS: Patients with the c.334 T>G and c.699 G>A homozygous variant in SLCO1B3 showed a higher incidence of grade 3/4 anemia (P=0.002). Transport activities of oocyte that overexpress the SLCO1B3 c.699 G>A variant showed a significantly decreased uptake of paclitaxel compared with the wild-type expressing oocytes. In addition, patients with GG/GA/AA genotypes of ABCB1, c.2677 T>G/A locus showed inferior progression-free survival (hazard ratio=1.49, P=0.017) compared with other genotypes. The GA genotype of HIF1A, c.1834 G>A locus was associated with inferior progression-free survival compared with the GG genotype (hazard ratio=2.47, P=0.008).
CONCLUSION: This study showed that the SLCO1B3 c.699 G>A polymorphism may predict anemia and ABCB1, HIF1A polymorphism are highly predictive for worse survival in advanced NSCLC with first-line paclitaxel and carboplatin.

Dorman SN, Baranova K, Knoll JH, et al.
Genomic signatures for paclitaxel and gemcitabine resistance in breast cancer derived by machine learning.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(1):85-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Increasingly, the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy agents for breast cancer has been related to changes in the genomic profile of tumors. We investigated correspondence between growth inhibitory concentrations of paclitaxel and gemcitabine (GI50) and gene copy number, mutation, and expression first in breast cancer cell lines and then in patients. Genes encoding direct targets of these drugs, metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and those previously associated with chemoresistance to paclitaxel (n = 31 genes) or gemcitabine (n = 18) were analyzed. A multi-factorial, principal component analysis (MFA) indicated expression was the strongest indicator of sensitivity for paclitaxel, and copy number and expression were informative for gemcitabine. The factors were combined using support vector machines (SVM). Expression of 15 genes (ABCC10, BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, BMF, FGF2, FN1, MAP4, MAPT, NFKB2, SLCO1B3, TLR6, TMEM243, TWIST1, and CSAG2) predicted cell line sensitivity to paclitaxel with 82% accuracy. Copy number profiles of 3 genes (ABCC10, NT5C, TYMS) together with expression of 7 genes (ABCB1, ABCC10, CMPK1, DCTD, NME1, RRM1, RRM2B), predicted gemcitabine response with 85% accuracy. Expression and copy number studies of two independent sets of patients with known responses were then analyzed with these models. These included tumor blocks from 21 patients that were treated with both paclitaxel and gemcitabine, and 319 patients on paclitaxel and anthracycline therapy. A new paclitaxel SVM was derived from an 11-gene subset since data for 4 of the original genes was unavailable. The accuracy of this SVM was similar in cell lines and tumor blocks (70-71%). The gemcitabine SVM exhibited 62% prediction accuracy for the tumor blocks due to the presence of samples with poor nucleic acid integrity. Nevertheless, the paclitaxel SVM predicted sensitivity in 84% of patients with no or minimal residual disease.

Furihata T, Sun Y, Chiba K
Cancer-type Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B3: Current Knowledge of the Gene Structure, Expression Profile, Functional Implications and Future Perspectives.
Curr Drug Metab. 2015; 16(6):474-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a hepatocyte drug transporter that facilitates uptake of various therapeutic drugs from the circulatory system. Shortly after its initial identification in the liver, OATP1B3 expression was also reported in various solid cancer tissues. In the years since that time, it has been presumed that the OATP1B3 expressed in cancer tissues is identical to that expressed in the liver. However, we have recently identified a new OATP1B3 mRNA variant in cancer tissues, which we have named cancer-type OATP1B3 (Ct-OATP1B3). Given that the identification of Ct-OAT1B3 as a bona fide cancer-associated isoform revises a longstanding study premise, it is essential to fully elucidate the molecular function of Ct-OATP1B3 in cancer cells. Based on the predicted Ct-OATP1B3 protein structure, it is reasonable to assume that it functions as a transporter, but there are a number of ongoing arguments regarding Ct-OATP1B3 protein expression and its functions. With the above points in mind, this review will summarize current knowledge of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA expression features in cancer tissues and its proposed, yet currently controversial, functions. Based on that background, our future perspectives related to Ct-OATP1B3 studies will also be presented.

Miura T, Ban D, Tanaka S, et al.
Distinct clinicopathological phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma with ethoxybenzyl-magnetic resonance imaging hyperintensity: association with gene expression signature.
Am J Surg. 2015; 210(3):561-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is mostly a lower intensity lesion in the hepatobiliary phase on gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, some HCCs were shown as a higher intensity lesion (high HCC). This study aimed to reveal the clinicopathological and biological properties of high HCC.
METHODS: Patients who underwent curative hepatectomy as the first treatment for HCC were included. HCC was defined as high HCC if the ratio between the signal intensity of the HCC and the background liver was greater than or equal to 1.0. We retrospectively performed clinicopathological and global gene expression analyses.
RESULTS: Of the 77 patients, 14 had high HCC. Serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II levels in high HCC were lower, and the high HCCs were well differentiated. The 3-year disease-free survival rates in high HCC and low HCC patients were 90% and 54%, respectively (P = .035). Overall survival did not differ significantly. Global gene expression analysis revealed that SLCO1B3 was upregulated in high HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Clinicopathological analysis revealed low-grade malignancy in high HCCs compared with low HCCs. The expression of SLCO1B3 was key to the hyperintensity in the hepatobiliary phase of ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid magnetic resonance imaging.

de Lima LT, Bueno CT, Vivona D, et al.
Relationship between SLCO1B3 and ABCA3 polymorphisms and imatinib response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
Hematology. 2015; 20(3):137-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic variations in membrane transporters may contribute to imatinib mesylate (IM) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Objective To investigate the relationship between SLCO1B3, SLCO1A2, and ABCA3 polymorphisms and IM response in CML patients.
METHODS: Patients in chronic phase CML (N = 118) were studied. All patients were treated with a standard dose of IM (400 mg/day) and classified into one of the two groups according to their responses. Major molecular response (MMR) and complete molecular response (CMR) were evaluated. Criteria for response failure were established according to European LeukemiaNet (2009). Analysis of the SLCO1B3 c.334T > G (rs4149117) and c.699G > A (rs7311358), SLCO1A2 c.516A > C (rs11568563) and c.-62-361G > A (rs3764043), and ABCA3 c.1755C > G (rs323043) and c.4548-191C > A (rs150929) polymorphisms was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: SLCO1A2 and ABCA3 polymorphisms have similar frequencies between responders and non-responders. SLCO1B3 699GG and 344TT genotypes were more frequent in the responder group (63.8%) than in the non-responder group (44.7%, P = 0.042). Furthermore, carriers of 699GA/AA and 334TG/GG genotypes presented a higher probability of not responding to the standard dose of IM (odds ratio: 2.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-4.64, P = 0.04). Poor CMR for ABCA3 4548-91C > A was observed in patients with the CC/CA genotype when compared to AA carriers in the responder group (P = 0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: SLCO1B3 699GG and 344TT genotypes are associated with non-response to IM, while ABCA3 4548-91 CC/CA genotypes are related to poor CMR in CML patients treated with standard-dose imatinib.

Ueno A, Masugi Y, Yamazaki K, et al.
OATP1B3 expression is strongly associated with Wnt/β-catenin signalling and represents the transporter of gadoxetic acid in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Hepatol. 2014; 61(5):1080-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In the current era of emerging molecular targeted drugs, it is necessary to identify before treatment the specific subclass to which a tumour belongs. Gadoxetic acid is a liver-specific contrast agent that is preferentially taken up by hepatocytes. Therefore, gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) should provide precise molecular information about hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the transporters of gadoxetic acid in HCC comprehensively and to analyse the molecular regulatory mechanism of such transporters.
METHODS: Expression levels of transporters, transcriptional factors and Wnt target genes in clinical samples were examined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. LiCl treatment of the HCC cell line KYN-2 was conducted in vitro to assess the effects of Wnt signalling activity.
RESULTS: Comprehensive analyses of transporter mRNAs and protein expressions revealed that the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) had the strongest correlation with tumour enhancement in hepatobiliary-phase images of EOB-MRI. Association analysis with OATP1B3 expression revealed significant correlation with the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Further, LiCl treatment induced OATP1B3 mRNA expression in KYN-2 cells, indicating a strong association between OATP1B3 expression and Wnt/β-catenin signalling. The sensitivity and specificity to predict Wnt/β-catenin-activated HCC using tumour enhancement in EOB-MRI were 78.9% and 81.7%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: OATP1B3 was confirmed as the most important transporter mediating HCC enhancement in EOB-MRI. OATP1B3 expression showed a strong association with the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes, therefore, OATP1B3-upregulated HCC likely represents a specific subclass of Wnt/β-catenin-activated HCC.

Dayal JH, Cole CL, Pourreyron C, et al.
Type VII collagen regulates expression of OATP1B3, promotes front-to-rear polarity and increases structural organisation in 3D spheroid cultures of RDEB tumour keratinocytes.
J Cell Sci. 2014; 127(Pt 4):740-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Type VII collagen is the main component of anchoring fibrils, structures that are integral to basement membrane homeostasis in skin. Mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen COL7A1 cause recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) an inherited skin blistering condition complicated by frequent aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). OATP1B3, which is encoded by the gene SLCO1B3, is a member of the OATP (organic anion transporting polypeptide) superfamily responsible for transporting a wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. OATP1B3 expression is limited to the liver in healthy tissues, but is frequently detected in multiple cancer types and is reported to be associated with differing clinical outcome. The mechanism and functional significance of tumour-specific expression of OATP1B3 has yet to be determined. Here, we identify SLCO1B3 expression in tumour keratinocytes isolated from RDEB and UV-induced cSCC and demonstrate that SLCO1B3 expression and promoter activity are modulated by type VII collagen. We show that reduction of SLCO1B3 expression upon expression of full-length type VII collagen in RDEB cSCC coincides with acquisition of front-to-rear polarity and increased organisation of 3D spheroid cultures. In addition, we show that type VII collagen positively regulates the abundance of markers implicated in cellular polarity, namely ELMO2, PAR3, E-cadherin, B-catenin, ITGA6 and Ln332.

Ishizawa T, Masuda K, Urano Y, et al.
Mechanistic background and clinical applications of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2014; 21(2):440-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although clinical applications of intraoperative fluorescence imaging of liver cancer using indocyanine green (ICG) have begun, the mechanistic background of ICG accumulation in the cancerous tissues remains unclear.
METHODS: In 170 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the liver surfaces and resected specimens were intraoperatively examined by using a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system after preoperative administration of ICG (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). Microscopic examinations, gene expression profile analysis, and immunohistochemical staining were performed for HCCs, which showed ICG fluorescence in the cancerous tissues (cancerous-type fluorescence), and HCCs showed fluorescence only in the surrounding non-cancerous liver parenchyma (rim-type fluorescence).
RESULTS: ICG fluorescence imaging enabled identification of 273 of 276 (99%) HCCs in the resected specimens. HCCs showed that cancerous-type fluorescence was associated with higher cancer cell differentiation as compared with rim-type HCCs (P < 0.001). Fluorescence microscopy identified the presence of ICG in the canalicular side of the cancer cell cytoplasm, and pseudoglands of the HCCs showed a cancerous-type fluorescence pattern. The ratio of the gene and protein expression levels in the cancerous to non-cancerous tissues for Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8), which are associated with portal uptake of ICG by hepatocytes that tended to be higher in the HCCs that showed cancerous-type fluorescence than in those that showed rim-type fluorescence.
CONCLUSIONS: Preserved portal uptake of ICG in differentiated HCC cells by NTCP and OATP8 with concomitant biliary excretion disorders causes accumulation of ICG in the cancerous tissues after preoperative intravenous administration. This enables highly sensitive identification of HCC by intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging.

Gruber C, Koller U, Murauer EM, et al.
The design and optimization of RNA trans-splicing molecules for skin cancer therapy.
Mol Oncol. 2013; 7(6):1056-68 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/03/2020 Related Publications
Targeting tumor marker genes by RNA trans-splicing is a promising means to induce tumor cell-specific death. Using a screening system we designed RNA trans-splicing molecules (RTM) specifically binding the pre-mRNA of SLCO1B3, a marker gene in epidermolysis bullosa associated squamous cell carcinoma (EB-SCC). Specific trans-splicing, results in the fusion of the endogenous target mRNA of SLCO1B3 and the coding sequence of the suicide gene, provided by the RTM. SLCO1B3-specific RTMs containing HSV-tk were analyzed regarding their trans-splicing potential in a heterologous context using a SLCO1B3 expressing minigene (SLCO1B3-MG). Expression of the chimeric SLCO1B3-tk was detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell viability and apoptosis assays confirmed that the RTMs induced suicide gene-mediated apoptosis in SLCO1B3-MG expressing cells. The lead RTM also showed its potential to facilitate a trans-splicing reaction into the endogenous SLCO1B3 pre-mRNA in EB-SCC cells resulting in tk-mediated apoptosis. We assume that the pre-selection of RTMs by our inducible cell-death system accelerates the design of optimal RTMs capable to induce tumor specific cell death in skin cancer cells.

Liu T, Li Q
Organic anion-transporting polypeptides: a novel approach for cancer therapy.
J Drug Target. 2014; 22(1):14-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) encoded by the SLCO genes constitute an important transporter superfamily that mediates transmembrane transport of various clinical drugs and endogenous nutrients. Eleven human OATPs with different transport functions are expressed in various tissues. Bile acids, steroid hormone conjugates, prostaglandins, testosterone and thyroid hormones that promote cell proliferation are typical substrates of OATPs. Many important clinical drugs have been identified as substrates of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 and OATP1A2. Liver-specific OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 as well as testis-specific OATP6A1 are expressed in malignancies and can act as biomarkers for many tumours. Various studies have shown the associations of genetic polymorphisms in OATP genes with the uptake pharmacokinetics of their substrates. Because of their abundant expression in tumours and their high transport activity for many cancer drugs, OATPs should be considered as important therapeutic targets in anti-cancer drug design.

Han S, Kim K, Thakkar N, et al.
Role of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in the regulation of the cancer-specific variant of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), in colon and pancreatic cancer.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2013; 86(6):816-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) was initially considered to be a liver-specific transporter, mediating the uptake of a variety of endogenous and xenobiotic substances. Over the past decade, several investigations reported that OATP1B3 is also expressed across multiple types of cancers. Only recently, our laboratory and others demonstrated the identity of cancer-specific OATP1B3 variants (csOATP1B3) arising from the use of an alternative transcription initiation site, different from the wildtype (WT) OATP1B3 expressed in the normal liver. However, the mechanisms regulating the expression of csOATP1B3 remained unknown. In our current study, we investigated the role of hypoxia and the involvement of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in regulating the transcription of csOATP1B3. Our RT-PCR and immunoblotting results indicated that csOATP1B3, but not WT OATP1B3, can be induced in response to ambient or chemical hypoxia (upon exposure to 1% O₂ or cobalt chloride). Reporter assays with deletion and mutated constructs of the csOATP1B3 promoter revealed a functional hypoxia response element (HRE) located in the proximal upstream region. Constructs harboring the HRE displayed the upregulated reporter gene expression in response to hypoxia, but not when mutated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using a biotin-labeled csOATP1B3 promoter HRE probe indicated the binding of HIF-1α, which was blocked by an excess of unlabeled csOATP1B3 probe. Furthermore, siRNA-based knockdown of HIF-1α caused a substantial decrease in the expression level of csOATP1B3. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the transcription of csOATP1B3 is actively engaged during hypoxia, through a commonly utilized pathway involving HIF-1α.

Fujimoto N, Kubo T, Inatomi H, et al.
Polymorphisms of the androgen transporting gene SLCO2B1 may influence the castration resistance of prostate cancer and the racial differences in response to androgen deprivation.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013; 16(4):336-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) encoded by SLCO mediate the cellular uptake of many compounds, including androgens. SLCO1B3 and SLCO2B1 are polymorphic, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of those genes alter androgen transport efficiency. We aimed to investigate the association between genetic variations in SLCOs and the progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
METHODS: We studied the progression to CRPC for the SLCO1B3 rs4149117 and SLCO2B1 rs12422149 genotypes in 87 prostate cancer patients who received androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model.
RESULTS: SLCO3B1 genotypes were not significantly associated with the time to progression (TTP); however, patients carrying the active androgen transport SLCO2B1 genotype (GG allele) exhibited a median TTP that was 7 months shorter than that of patients with impaired androgen-transporting activity SLCO2B1 polymorphisms (GA/AA alleles) (10.0 vs 17.0 months, P=0.004). Active androgen transport genotypes of SLCO2B1 (GG allele) occurred more frequently in African and Caucasian populations than in Japanese and Han Chinese populations (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that SLCO2B1 rs12422149 variants could provide prognostic value for prostate cancer patients treated with ADT and influence ethnic differences in response to ADT. Active androgen import may be one of the underlying mechanisms of resistance to ADT, and androgen-transporting systems could provide novel biomarkers and targets for CRPC treatment.

Imai S, Kikuchi R, Tsuruya Y, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 in cancer cell lines.
Pharm Res. 2013; 30(11):2880-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The expression of a multispecific organic anion transporter, OATP1B3/SLCO1B3, is associated with clinical prognosis and survival of cancer cells. The aims of present study were to investigate the involvement of epigenetic regulation in mRNA expression of a cancer-type variant of OATP1B3 (Ct-OATP1B3) in cancer cell lines.
METHODS: The membrane localization and transport functions of Ct-OATP1B3 were investigated in HEK293 cells transiently expressing Ct-OATP1B3. DNA methylation profiles around the transcriptional start site of Ct-OATP1B3 in cancer cell lines were determined. The effects of a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor and siRNA knockdown of methyl-DNA binding proteins (MBDs) on the expression of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA were investigated.
RESULTS: 5'-RACE identified the TSS of Ct-OATP1B3 in PK-8 cells. Ct-OATP1B3 was localized on the plasma membrane, and showed the transport activities of E217βG, fluvastatin, rifampicin, and Gd-EOB-DTPA. The CpG dinucleotides were hypomethylated in Ct-OATP1B3-positive cell lines (DLD-1, TFK-1, PK-8, and PK-45P) but were hypermethylated in Ct-OATP1B3-negative cell lines (HepG2 and Caco-2). Treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor and siRNA knockdown of MBD2 significantly increased the expression of Ct-OATP1B3 mRNA in HepG2 and Caco-2.
CONCLUSIONS: Ct-OATP1B3 is capable of transporting its substrates into cancer cells. Its mRNA expression is regulated by DNA methylation-dependent gene silencing involving MBD2.

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