SOCS3

Gene Summary

Gene:SOCS3; suppressor of cytokine signaling 3
Aliases: CIS3, SSI3, ATOD4, Cish3, SSI-3, SOCS-3
Location:17q25.3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene is induced by various cytokines, including IL6, IL10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene can bind to JAK2 kinase, and inhibit the activity of JAK2 kinase. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested the roles of this gene in the negative regulation of fetal liver hematopoiesis, and placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:suppressor of cytokine signaling 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOCS3 (cancer-related)

Christopher AF, Gupta M, Bansal P
Micronome revealed miR-19a/b as key regulator of SOCS3 during cancer related inflammation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Gene. 2016; 594(1):30-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although significant advances have been established in molecular biology of Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), innovative strategies are still required to further understand detailed molecular mechanisms. Using bioinformatic approach, we aim to explore the potential miRNA-mRNA pairs in cancer related inflammatory response and investigate their potential roles as signature miRNA and proteins in the signaling pathway. Firstly, the differentially expressed genes of OSCC were selected which then underwent gene ontology to identify genes engaged in inflammatory response and its regulation. Validated miRNAs were retrieved and miRNAs with complete complementarily with their targets were visualized for miRNA-mRNA regulatory network. Protein-protein interactions of inflammatory and its regulatory genes were analyzed for interacting genes involved in signaling pathway. Eight universal miRNAs were obtained for inflammation and its regulation. miRNA-19a/b showed significant influence in controlling inflammatory response in OSCC. Therefore, micronome on deregulated genes in inflammation identifies miRNA-mRNA pairs which have high potential to be targeted for diagnostic and treatment applications in OSCC.

Wang X, Li T, Li M, et al.
The Functional SOCS3 RS115785973 Variant Regulated by MiR-4308 Promotes Gastric Cancer Development in Chinese Population.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(5):1796-802 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: SOCS3 is tumor suppressor which has been identified as upstream of JAK/STAT3 signaling by specific kinase inhibition. However, additional regulations especially through a non-coding RNA approach were remained unknown.
METHODS: We performed case-control study focusing on the miRNAs associated SNPs in SOCS3 to investigate the further relationship of the SNPs with miRNAs among Chinese gastric cancer (GC) patients. Genotyping, real time PCR assay, cell transfection and the dual luciferase reporter assay were used in our study.
RESULTS: We found that patients suffering from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection indicating as susceptible population by comparing with controls. Besides, SNP rs115785973 in SOCS3 was identified as a risk factor in the occurrence of GC highly associated with poor differentiation grade, larger tumor size and metastasis. In vitro assay found that rs115785973 could be regulated by miR-4308 which caused an up-regulation of SOCS3 in patients with GA and AA genotype.
CONCLUSION: Our findings have shown that the SNP rs115785973 in SOCS3 disrupting the regulatory role of miR-4308 in SOCS3 expression, rs115785973 in SOCS3 might act as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of GC.

Zhao LJ, He SF, Wang W, et al.
Interferon alpha antagonizes STAT3 and SOCS3 signaling triggered by hepatitis C virus.
Cytokine. 2016; 80:48-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to investigate regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) by interferon alpha (IFN-α) and to analyze the relationship between STAT3 and SOCS3 during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in STAT3 and SOCS3 were analyzed at both mRNA and protein levels in human hepatoma cells infected with HCV (J6/JFH1). At 72h of HCV infection, STAT3 expression was decreased with sustained phosphorylation, and IFN-α increased such decrease and phosphorylation. HCV increased SOCS3 expression, while IFN-α impaired such increase, indicating different regulation of STAT3 and SOCS3 by IFN-α. IFN-α-induced expression and phosphorylation of upstream kinases of the JAK/STAT pathway, Tyk2 and Jak1, were suppressed by HCV. Moreover, knockdown of STAT3 by RNA interference led to decreases in HCV RNA replication and viral protein expression, without affecting either the expression of Tyk2 and Jak1 or the SOCS3 induction in response to IFN-α. These results show that IFN-α antagonizes STAT3 and SOCS3 signaling triggered by HCV and that STAT3 regulation correlates inversely with SOCS3 induction by IFN-α, which may be important in better understanding the complex interplay between IFN-α and signal molecules during HCV infection.

Giordano C, Barone I, Vircillo V, et al.
Activated FXR Inhibits Leptin Signaling and Counteracts Tumor-promoting Activities of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Breast Malignancy.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:21782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the principal components of the tumor stroma, play a central role in cancer development and progression. As an important regulator of the crosstalk between breast cancer cells and CAFs, the cytokine leptin has been associated to breast carcinogenesis. The nuclear Farnesoid X Receptor-(FXR) seems to exert an oncosuppressive role in different tumors, including breast cancer. Herein, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064, inhibiting leptin signaling, affects the tumor-promoting activities of CAFs in breast malignancy. GW4064 inhibited growth, motility and invasiveness induced by leptin as well as by CAF-conditioned media in different breast cancer cell lines. These effects rely on the ability of activated FXR to increase the expression of the suppressor of the cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) leading to inhibition of leptin-activated signaling and downregulation of leptin-target genes. In vivo xenograft studies, using MCF-7 cells alone or co-injected with CAFs, showed that GW4064 administration markedly reduced tumor growth. Interestingly, GW4064-treated tumors exhibited decreased levels of leptin-regulated proteins along with a strong staining intensity for SOCS3. Thus, FXR ligands might represent an emerging potential anti-cancer therapy able to block the tumor supportive role of activated fibroblasts within the breast microenvironment.

Huang L, Hu B, Ni J, et al.
Transcriptional repression of SOCS3 mediated by IL-6/STAT3 signaling via DNMT1 promotes pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have investigated the sustained aberrantly activated Interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway is crucial for pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), as a key negative feedback regulator of this signaling pathway, is usually down-regulated in various cancers. In the present study, we aim at exploring the biological function and the underlying molecular regulation mechanisms of SOCS3 in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: The expression of SOCS3 and other genes in pancreatic cancer was examined by Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The interaction between pSTAT3 and DNA Methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Luciferase reporter assay was used to investigate the transcriptional regulation of pSTAT3 and DNMT1 on the SOCS3 gene. The effects of SOCS3 on the biological behavior of pancreatic cancer cells were assessed both in vitro and vivo. Furthermore, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression of SOCS3 in a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray (TMA) and correlated our findings with pathological parameters and outcomes of the patients.
RESULTS: We showed that SOCS3 expression was decreased in phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3)-positive tumors and was negatively correlated with pSTAT3 in pancreatic cancer cells. We also found that IL-6/STAT3 promoted SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation by increasing DNMT1 activity; silencing DNMT1 or 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) treatment could reverse the down-regulation of SOCS3 mediated by IL-6. Using co-immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays, we found that STAT3 recruited DNMT1 to the promoter region of SOCS3 and inhibited its transcriptional activity. Overexpression of SOCS3 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, which may be due to the increase in G1-S phase arrest; overexpression of SOCS3 also inhibited cell migration and invasion as well as tumorigenicity in nude mice. Pancreatic cancer tissue microarray analysis showed that high SOCS3 expression was a good prognostic factor and negatively correlated with tumor volume and metastasis.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that activated IL-6/STAT3 signaling could induce SOCS3 methylation via DNMT1, which led to pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. These data also provided a mechanistic link between sustained aberrantly activated IL-6/STAT3 signaling and SOCS3 down-regulation in pancreatic cancer. Thus, inhibitors of STAT3 or DNMT1 may become novel strategies for treating pancreatic cancer.

Urbschat A, Stumpf S, Hänze J, et al.
Expression of the anti-inflammatory suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9649-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The oncogenic transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a cytokine-activated transcription factor controlling inflammation, cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation in normal tissue as well as in tumor growth. One of its most important negative regulators is the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). Here, we analyzed SOCS3 and other tumor-associated local immune regulators in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Analyses were performed in tumor and adjacent tumor-free healthy renal tissue from 35 patients with ccRCC. For functional analysis, ccRCC Caki-1 cell lines were stimulated with IL-6 and IFNγ in cell culture assays. We observed significantly lower SOCS3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in tumor tissue compared to healthy tissue. SOCS3 mRNA strongly correlated within tumor and healthy tissue. Interestingly vice versa, SOCS3 protein levels were significantly higher in tumor tissue than in healthy tissue. IL-22 and IL-22R1 mRNA displayed no differences in tumor and healthy tissue. Stimulation of Caki-1 cells with IFNγ resulted in markedly increased SOCS3 mRNA levels. We conclude that SOCS3 along with STAT3 participates in regulatory mechanisms in ccRCC, which certainly features only one of multiple factors involved but nevertheless merits further attention.

Yuan K, Lei Y, Chen HN, et al.
HBV-induced ROS accumulation promotes hepatocarcinogenesis through Snail-mediated epigenetic silencing of SOCS3.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(4):616-27 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been demonstrated to be involved in Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocarcinogenesis through activation of the STAT3 pathway. The sustained activation of the IL-6/STAT3 pathway is frequently associated with repression of SOCS3, which is both a target gene and a negative regulator of STAT3. However, the silencing mechanism of SOCS3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. Here, we showed that the repression of SOCS3 and sustained activation of IL-6/STAT3 pathway in HBV-producing HCC cells were caused by HBV-induced mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Mechanistic studies revealed that ROS-mediated DNA methylation resulted in the silencing of SOCS3. Decreased SOCS3 expression significantly promoted the proliferation of HCC cells and growth of tumor xenografts in mice. Further studies revealed that HBV-induced ROS accumulation upregulated the expression of the transcription factor, Snail, which bound to the E-boxes of SOCS3 promoter and mediated the epigenetic silencing of SOCS3 in association with DNMT1 and HDAC1. In addition, we found that the expression of Snail and SOCS3 were inversely correlated in HBV-associated HCC patients, suggesting that SOCS3 and/or Snail could be used as prognostic markers in HCC pathogenesis. Taken together, our data show that HBV-induced mitochondrial ROS production represses SOCS3 expression through Snail-mediated epigenetic silencing, leading to the sustained activation of IL-6/STAT3 pathway and ultimately contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis.

Li P, Guo Y, Bledsoe G, et al.
Kallistatin induces breast cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy by modulating Wnt signaling and microRNA synthesis.
Exp Cell Res. 2016; 340(2):305-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Kallistatin is an endogenous protein that regulates differential signaling pathways and biological functions. Our previous studies showed that kallistatin gene therapy inhibited angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis in mice, and kallistatin protein suppressed Wnt-mediated growth, migration and invasion by blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. In this study, we show that kallistatin reduced cell viability, and increased apoptotic cell death and caspase-3 activity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Kallistatin also induced cancer cell autophagy, as evidenced by increased LC3B levels and elevated Atg5 and Beclin-1 expression; however, co-administration of Wnt or PPARγ antagonist GW9662 abolished these effects. Moreover, kallistatin via its heparin-binding site antagonized Wnt3a-induced cancer cell proliferation and increased PPARγ expression. Kallistatin inhibited oncogenic miR-21 synthesis associated with reduced Akt phosphorylation and Bcl-2 synthesis, but increased BAX expression. Kallistatin via PKC-ERK activation reduced miR-203 levels, leading to increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a tumor suppressor. Conversely, kallistatin stimulated expression of the tumorigenic suppressors miR-34a and p53. Kallistatin's active site is essential for suppressing miR-21 and miR-203, and stimulating miR-34a and SOCS3 expression. This is the first study to demonstrate that kallistatin's heparin-binding site is essential for inhibiting Wnt-mediated effects, and its active site plays a key role in regulating miR-21, miR-203, miR-34a and SOCS3 synthesis in breast cancer cells. These findings reveal novel mechanisms of kallistatin in inducing apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells, thus inhibiting tumor progression by regulation of Wnt/PPARγ signaling, as well as miR-21, miR-203 and miR-34a synthesis.

Vakil L, Najafipour R, Rakhshani N, et al.
Investigation of FIH-1 and SOCS3 expression in KRAS mutant and wild-type patients with colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):8841-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process based on the accumulation of somatic mutations in genes such as APC and KRAS. Data on the presence of mutations in KRAS gene in CRC and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters and expression of genes involved in tumor progression are scarce. We unbiasedly examined the KRAS status in samples from 99 patients and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters such as age, sex, tumor location, lymph node metastasis, tumor stage, tumor grade, and vascular invasion. Consistent with reports of other researchers, 38.4 % of our samples harbored KRAS mutation in their genomes with preferential mutation in codon 12 (89.4 %). Nevertheless, unlike previous reports, we were not able to correlate KRAS status with clinicopathological parameters (P > 0.05) except for vascular invasion. Patients with KRAS mutation have more vascular invasion compared with patient having wild-type KRAS. Next, we investigated the expression of two tumor suppressor genes, factor-inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (FIH-1) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3), in both KRAS mutant and wild-type groups and looked for any correlation between their expression and clinicopathological parameters. Although the expression of both genes was not regular, none of the clinicopathological parameters were associated with the expressions of FIH-1 and SOCS3 at mRNA level (P > 0.05). However, decline in FIH-1 expression at protein level in KRAS mutant group was correlated with stage IV and grade 2 of tumor (P ≤ 0.05). Our results demonstrated that there is no or low correlation between KRAS status, FIH-1, and SOCS3 expression with epidemiologic and clinicpathological characteristics in CRC.

Yen MC, Shih YC, Hsu YL, et al.
Isolinderalactone enhances the inhibition of SOCS3 on STAT3 activity by decreasing miR-30c in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1356-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of an efficient treatment for triple-negative breast cancer is an urgent issues. Compounds from plant extracts are a potential source of novel cancer treatment. Isolinderalactone, a kind of sesquiterpenoids compound, was purified from the root of Lindera strychnifolia and Neolitsea daibuensis and shows anti-inflammatory and anticancer capacity. In the present study, isolinderalactone induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells which is a kind of triple-negative breast cancer cell line through induction of an intrinsic mitochondria-mediated and caspase-independent cell death. Treatment of isolinderalactone increased the protein level of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SCOS3), decreased phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and suppressed expression of the down-stream genes of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results further showed that the level of SOCS3 expression was induced by isolinderalactone due to inhibiting the microRNA hsa-miR-30c-5p (miR-30c) expression. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of isolinderalactone induced apoptosis in a xenograft breast tumor while it did not significantly affect the histology of liver, kidney and lung of the treated mice. In conclusion, isolinderalactone induces apoptosis in MDA-MB‑231 cells and suppresses STAT3 signaling pathway through regulation of SOCS3 and miR-30c. It may become a novel treatment for triple-negative breast cancer in the future.

Kim MS, Lee WS, Jeong J, et al.
Induction of metastatic potential by TrkB via activation of IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT signaling in breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(37):40158-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
In metastatic breast cancers, the acquisition of metastatic ability, which leads to clinically incurable disease and poor survival, has been associated with acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and self-renewing trait (CSCs) via activation of PI3K/AKT and IL6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. We found that TrkB is a key regulator of PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT signal pathway-mediated tumor metastasis and EMT program. Here, we demonstrated that TrkB activates AKT by directly binding to c-Src, leading to increased proliferation. Also, TrkB increases Twist-1 and Twist-2 expression through activation of JAK2/STAT3 by inducing c-Src-JAK2 complex formation. Furthermore, TrkB in the absence of c-Src binds directly to JAK2 and inhibits SOCS3-mediated JAK2 degradation, resulting in increased total JAK2 and STAT3 levels, which subsequently leads to JAK2/STAT3 activation and Twist-1 upregulation. Additionally, activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway via induction of IL-6 secretion by TrkB enables induction of activation of the EMT program via induction of STAT3 nuclear translocation. These observations suggest that TrkB is a promising target for future intervention strategies to prevent tumor metastasis, EMT program and self-renewing trait in breast cancer.

Kalmár A, Péterfia B, Hollósi P, et al.
DNA hypermethylation and decreased mRNA expression of MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1 in colorectal adenoma and cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:736 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) development is accompanied by changes in expression for several genes; but the details of the underlying regulatory procesess remain unknown. Our aims were to assess the role of epigenetic processes in tumour formation and to identify characteristic DNA methylation and miRNA alterations in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
METHODS: Whole genome expression profiling was performed on colonic biopsy samples (49 healthy normal, 49 colorectal adenoma (AD), 49 CRC); on laser capture microdissected (LCM) epithelial and stromal cells from 6 CRC-normal adjacent tissue (NAT) samples pairs, and on demethylated human CRC cell lines using HGU133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). Methylation status of genes with gradually altering expression along the AD-CRC sequence was further analysed on 10-10 macrodissected and 5-5 LCM samples from healthy colon, from adenoma and from CRC biopsy samples using bisulfite-sequencing PCR (BS-PCR) followed by pyrosequencing. In silico miRNA prediction for the selected genes was performed with miRWALK algorithm, miRNA expression was analysed on 3 CRC-NAT sample pairs and 3 adenoma tissue samples using the Human Panel I + II (Exiqon). SFRP1 immunohistochemistry experiments were performed.
RESULTS: A set of transcripts (18 genes including MAL, SFRP1, SULT1A1, PRIMA1, PTGDR) showed decreasing expression (p < 0.01) in the biopsy samples along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Three of those (COL1A2, SFRP2, SOCS3) showed hypermethylation and THBS2 showed hypomethylation both in AD and in CRC samples compared to NAT, while BCL2, PRIMA1 and PTGDR showed hypermethylation only in the CRC group. miR-21 was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) upregulated in adenoma and tumour samples compared to the healthy colonic tissue controls and could explain the altered expression of genes for which DNA methylation changes do not appear to play role (e.g. BCL2, MAL, PTGS2). Demethylation treatment could upregulate gene expression of genes that were found to be hypermethylated in human CRC tissue samples. Decreasing protein levels of SFRP1 was also observed along the adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation of the selected markers (MAL, PRIMA1, PTGDR and SFRP1) can result in reduced gene expression and may contribute to the formation of colorectal cancer.

Jiang BG, Yang Y, Liu H, et al.
SOCS3 Genetic Polymorphism Is Associated With Clinical Features and Prognosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Hepatectomy.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(40):e1344 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Previous studies showed that suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) protein is associated with incidence and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the association between the genetic polymorphism of SOCS3 gene and HCC remains unknown. A total of 254 HCC patients and 354 healthy controls were enrolled. All HCC patients underwent partial hepatectomy as initial treatment and were followed. Three SOCS3 gene polymorphisms, namely, rs4969170 A>G, rs8064821 C>T, and rs12953258 C>A were determined. Our data show that the rs4969170 A>G polymorphism dramatically affects the susceptibility to HCC in our cohorts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the rs4969170 GG is a risk factor for HCC after the adjustment with confounding factors. The rs4969170A>G polymorphism is also associated with the clinical features of HCC patients and predicts the postoperative relapse-free survival and overall survival. The rs4969170GG genotype carrier had a worse prognosis than the rs4969170AG and rs4969170AA carrier. Our findings suggest that the rs4969170A>G polymorphism of SOCS3 gene may be used as a prognostic predictor for HCC patients who underwent surgical treatment.

Zhang P, Yang B, Yao YY, et al.
PIAS3, SHP2 and SOCS3 Expression patterns in Cervical Cancers: Relevance with activation and resveratrol-caused inactivation of STAT3 signaling.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 139(3):529-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Resveratrol inhibits cervical cancer (CC) cells by blocking STAT3 signaling. However, the mechanism of resveratrol-induced STAT3 inactivation remains largely unknown. SHP2, PIAS3, and SOCS3 are STAT3 negative regulators; therefore, their statuses in cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) and squamous cell carcinoma (SiHa and C33A) cell lines without and with resveratrol treatment and their correlation with STAT3 activation in CC specimens were investigated.
METHODS: MTT and TUNEL assays were used to check the resveratrol sensitivity of CC cells, and immunocytochemical staining, Western blotting, and RT-PCR were used to analyze SHP2, PIAS3, and SOCS3 expression and the intracellular distribution of STAT3. Tissue microarray based immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate potential correlations between SHP2, PIAS3, and SOCS3 expression and STAT3 activation.
RESULTS: PIAS3 and SOCS3 were found to be weakly expressed in CC cells and upregulated by resveratrol; this was accompanied by inhibition of STAT3 signaling. The SHP2 level remained unchanged in all three cell lines after resveratrol treatment. STAT3 nuclear translocation was more frequent in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas than that of their noncancerous counterparts. The SOCS3 level and detection rate were higher in noncancerous squamous cells (but not in glandular epithelia) compared with their cancerous counterparts. The phospho-SHP2 detection rate was similar in noncancerous and tumor tissues of squamous and glandular origins; however, PIAS3 levels were distinct.
CONCLUSIONS: Of the three STAT3 negative regulators, PIAS3 correlated most negatively with STAT3 nuclear translocation and may inhibit STAT3 signaling in both histological CC subtypes. PIAS3 responsiveness may reflect greater resveratrol sensitivity and improved therapeutic outcome in CCs.

Yin Y, Liu W, Dai Y
SOCS3 and its role in associated diseases.
Hum Immunol. 2015; 76(10):775-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell-cell communication depends on cytokine and growth factor network. Bound to their receptors on the surface of target cell, these glycoproteins initiate a range of intracellular events. Subsequent dissipation of receptor signaling is essential to ensure the response of the cell does not become pathogenic. The Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are a family of proteins induced to attenuate cytokine signal transduction in response to signals from a diverse range of cytokines and growth factors. Current evidence indicates that intracellular JAK-STAT (Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling not only governs cytokine-induced immunological responses but also rapidly initiates SOCS expression and its biological functions. This review focuses on current understanding of SOCS3, a member of SOCS family. SOCS3 binds to JAK, certain cytokine receptors in intracellular domain, and some signaling molecules, which results in suppressing further signaling events in the cell. Studies using conditional knockout mice have shown that SOCS3 protein is the key physiological regulator and plays an important pathological role in immune homeostasis. Dysregulation of SOCS3 functions can cause a variety of diseases, including allergy, autoimmune diseases, inflammation and cancer.

Guo F, Xu Z, Zhang Y, et al.
FXR induces SOCS3 and suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(33):34606-16 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is regarded as a vital repressor in the liver carcinogenesis mainly by inhibiting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activity. Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), highly expressed in liver, has an important role in protecting against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is unclear whether the tumor suppressive activity of FXR involves the regulation of SOCS3. In the present study, we found that activation of FXR by its specific agonist GW4064 in HCC cells inhibited cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, elevated p21 expression and repressed STAT3 activity. The above anti-tumor effects of FXR were dramatically alleviated by knockdown of SOCS3 with siRNA. Reporter assay revealed that FXR activation enhanced the transcriptional activity of SOCS3 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay displayed that FXR directly bound to IR9 DNA motif within SOCS3 promoter region. The in vivo study in nude mice showed that treatment with FXR ligand GW4064 could decelerate the growth of HCC xenografts, up-regulate SOCS3 and p21 expression and inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation in the xenografts. These results suggest that induction of SOCS3 may be a novel mechanism by which FXR exerts its anti-HCC effects, and the FXR-SOCS3 signaling may serve as a new potential target for the prevention/treatment of HCC.

Zhang X, You Q, Zhang X, Chen X
SOCS3 Methylation Predicts a Poor Prognosis in HBV Infection-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(9):22662-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) plays crucial roles in JAK/STAT signaling pathway inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the methylation status of SOCS3 in HBV infection-related HCC and the relationship between SOCS3 methylation and the clinical outcome remain unknown. Here, we reported that in HCC tumor tissues, two regions of the CpG island (CGI) in the SOCS3 promoter were subjected to methylation analysis and only the region close to the translational start site of SOCS3 was hypermethylated. In HCC tumor tissues, SOCS3 showed an increased methylation frequency and intensity compared with that in the adjacent non-tumor tissues. Moreover, SOCS3 expression was significantly down-regulated in HCC cell lines and tumor tissues, and this was inversely correlated with methylation. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed that in patients with an hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection background, SOCS3 hypermethylation was significantly correlated with a poor clinical outcome of HCC patients. Our findings indicated that SOCS3 hypermethylation has already happened in non-tumor tissues and increased in both frequency and intensity in tumor tissues. This suggests that the methylation of SOCS3 could predict a poor prognosis in HBV infection-related HCC patients.

Ortega-Molina A, Boss IW, Canela A, et al.
The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development.
Nat Med. 2015; 21(10):1199-208 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma; however, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center involution and impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination. Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) and expression of a set of genes, including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor and B cell receptor signaling pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3 and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell-activating pathways.

Becerril JL, Benítez JG, Juárez JJ, et al.
Evaluation of the Effect of 1,3-Bis(4-Phenyl)-1H-1,2,3-Triazolyl-2-Propanolol on Gene Expression Levels of JAK2-STAT3, NF-κB, and SOCS3 in Cells Cultured from Biopsies of Mammary Lesions.
Biochem Genet. 2015; 53(11-12):291-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in women and is responsible for approximately 13.8% of deaths per year for this gender. It has been suggested that JAK2, STAT3, and NF-κB gene expression is involved in this type of cancer. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of bistriazole in these signaling pathways in patients with breast cancer and benign mammary lesions. The inhibitory concentration 50 of bistriazole was calculated in cell cultures of patients with benign lesions, Probit = 4.6 μM with IC = 95%. The study was performed by examining 63 women who submitted to mammary biopsies. Biopsies of the mammary lesions were performed, gene expression was determined, and cells were cultured in the presence of 4.6 μM bistriazole. We found that breast cancer is related to age greater than 50 (P ≤ 0.01), being overweight (P ≤ 0.023) and having a waist circumference larger than 80 cm (P ≤ 0.01). The gene expression of JAK2, STAT3, and NF-κB was higher in groups of patients with breast cancer, while SOCS3 expression was lower. After being exposed to bistriazole, the expression of JAK2 and STAT3 decreased, and the expression of SOCS3 and NF-κB increased. In conclusion, this molecule in development has an effect on the gene expression of JAK3 and STAT3; nevertheless, the lack of change in NF-κB indicates that it is not a regulator of inflammation, and therefore, more studies should be performed.

Shi L, Liu S, Zhao W, Shi J
miR-483-5p and miR-486-5p are down-regulated in cumulus cells of metaphase II oocytes from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Reprod Biomed Online. 2015; 31(4):565-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to compare the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cumulus cells from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-PCOS women. In the present study, miRNA expression profiles of the cumulus cell samples were determined by miRNA microarrays. Quantification of selected miRNAs and predicted target genes was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that miR-483-5p and miR-486-5p are significantly decreased in cumulus cells of PCOS patients PCOS (fold change >2, false discovery rate <0.001). qRT-PCR found that four predicted genes, SOCS3, SRF, PTEN and FOXO1, were significantly increased in PCOS cumulus cells (all P < 0.001), and IGF2 (host gene of miR-483-5p) was significantly decreased in PCOS cumulus cells (P < 0.001). These results indicated that miR-483-5p might play an important role in reducing insulin resistance, and that miR-486-5p might promote cumulus cell proliferation through activation of PI3K/Akt. The findings from this study provided new insights into the complex molecular mechanisms involved in PCOS by revealing pathways possibly regulated by miRNAs. The differences in miRNAs (miR-483-5p, miR-486-5p) and their target gene expression in cumulus cells may provide clues for future research and help to explain aberrant follicular development and subfertility in women with PCOS.

Strauss L, Sangaletti S, Consonni FM, et al.
RORC1 Regulates Tumor-Promoting "Emergency" Granulo-Monocytopoiesis.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(2):253-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer-driven granulo-monocytopoiesis stimulates expansion of tumor promoting myeloid populations, mostly myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We identified subsets of MDSCs and TAMs based on the expression of retinoic-acid-related orphan receptor (RORC1/RORγ) in human and mouse tumor bearers. RORC1 orchestrates myelopoiesis by suppressing negative (Socs3 and Bcl3) and promoting positive (C/EBPβ) regulators of granulopoiesis, as well as the key transcriptional mediators of myeloid progenitor commitment and differentiation to the monocytic/macrophage lineage (IRF8 and PU.1). RORC1 supported tumor-promoting innate immunity by protecting MDSCs from apoptosis, mediating TAM differentiation and M2 polarization, and limiting tumor infiltration by mature neutrophils. Accordingly, ablation of RORC1 in the hematopoietic compartment prevented cancer-driven myelopoiesis, resulting in inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis.

Chen X, Liu L, Mims J, et al.
Analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression in radiation-resistant head and neck tumors.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(6):545-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Resistance to radiation therapy constitutes a significant challenge in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Alteration in DNA methylation is thought to play a role in this resistance. Here, we analyzed DNA methylation changes in a matched model of radiation resistance for HNSCC using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Our results show that compared to radiation-sensitive cells (SCC-61), radiation-resistant cells (rSCC-61) had a significant increase in DNA methylation. After combining these results with microarray gene expression data, we identified 84 differentially methylated and expressed genes between these 2 cell lines. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed ILK signaling, glucocorticoid receptor signaling, fatty acid α-oxidation, and cell cycle regulation as top canonical pathways associated with radiation resistance. Validation studies focused on CCND2, a protein involved in cell cycle regulation, which was identified as hypermethylated in the promoter region and downregulated in rSCC-61 relative to SCC-61 cells. Treatment of rSCC-61 and SCC-61 with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'deoxycitidine increased CCND2 levels only in rSCC-61 cells, while treatment with the control reagent cytosine arabinoside did not influence the expression of this gene. Further analysis of HNSCC data from The Cancer Genome Atlas found increased methylation in radiation-resistant tumors, consistent with the cell culture data. Our findings point to global DNA methylation status as a biomarker of radiation resistance in HNSCC, and suggest a need for targeted manipulation of DNA methylation to increase radiation response in HNSCC.

Kotzampassi K, Stavrou G, Damoraki G, et al.
A Four-Probiotics Regimen Reduces Postoperative Complications After Colorectal Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.
World J Surg. 2015; 39(11):2776-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous results of published studies led to conduct a randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a new formulation of four probiotics as prophylaxis for complications after colorectal surgery.
METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted enrolling patients undergoing colorectal surgery for cancer. Capsules of placebo or of a formulation containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. p lantarum, Bifidobacterium lactis and Saccharomyces boulardii were administered starting one day before operation and continuing for another 15 days postoperatively. Patients were followed up for 30 days with the development of postoperative complications as the primary outcome. Gene expression and serum levels of cytokines were measured on postoperative day 4 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02313519).
RESULTS: The study was prematurely stopped after enrolment due to efficacy in the primary outcome. Administration of probiotics significantly decreased the rate of all postoperative major complication (28.6 vs. 48.8 % of the placebo arm, p 0.010, odds ratio 0.42). Major benefit was found in the reduction of the rate of postoperative pneumonia (2.4 vs. 11.3 %, p 0.029), of surgical site infections (7.1 vs. 20.0 %, p 0.020) and of anastomotic leakage (1.2 vs. 8.8 %, p 0.031). The time until hospital discharge was shortened as well. Gene expression of SOCS3 was positively related with gene expression of TNF and of circulating IL-6 in the probiotic group but not in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: The studied probiotic formulation significantly decreased the risk of postoperative complications, namely mechanical ventilation, infections and anastomotic leakage. Modulation of the gene expression of SOCS3 is one suggested mechanism ( www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02313519).

Kim MH, Kim MS, Kim W, et al.
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes are silenced by DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation and regulate response to radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123133 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is an important negative regulator of cytokine signaling and deregulation of SOCS has been involved in many types of cancer. All cervical cancer cell lines tested showed lower expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 than normal tissue or cell lines. The immunohistochemistry result for SOCS proteins in human cervical tissue also confirmed that normal tissue expressed higher level of SOCS proteins than neighboring tumor. Similar to the regulation of SOCS in other types of cancer, DNA methylation contributed to SOCS1 downregulation in CaSki, ME-180, and HeLa cells. However, the expression of SOCS3 or SOCS5 was not recovered by the inhibition of DNA methylation. Histone deacetylation may be another regulatory mechanism involved in SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, however, SOCS5 expression was neither affected by DNA methylation nor histone deacetylation. Ectopic expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3 conferred radioresistance to HeLa cells, which implied SOCS signaling regulates the response to radiation in cervical cancer. In this study, we have shown that SOCS expression repressed by, in part, epigenetically and altered SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression could contribute to the radiosensitive phenotype in cervical cancer.

Che S, Sun T, Wang J, et al.
miR-30 overexpression promotes glioma stem cells by regulating Jak/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(9):6805-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant glioma is the most common intracranial tumor with poor prognosis. It is well believed that glioma stem cells (GSCs) are responsible for the initiation and progression of glioma. Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT3) pathway plays a key role in the functions of GSCs. However, the regulatory mechanism of Jak/STAT3 pathway has not been completely elucidated. This study employed multidisciplinary approaches to investigate the upstream regulators of Jak/STAT3 signaling in GSCs. miR-30 was found to be overexpressed in the GSCs derived from U-87 MG and primary glioma cells, compared with non-stem-cell-like glioma cells and normal cells. Downregulation of miR-30 was able to suppress Jak/STAT3 pathway and reduce the tumorigenecity of GSCs. miR-30 decreased the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression by targeting 3'UTR of its mRNA. The silencing of SOCS3 abolished the effect of miR-30 downregulation on GSCs. Collectively, there is a regulatory pathway consisting of miR-30, SOCS3, and Jak/STAT3 in GSCs, and targeting this pathway may be a promising strategy to treat glioma.

Rao CV, Sanghera S, Zhang Y, et al.
Antagonizing pathways leading to differential dynamics in colon carcinogenesis in Shugoshin1 (Sgo1)-haploinsufficient chromosome instability model.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(5):600-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Colon cancer is the second most lethal cancer. It is predicted to claim 50,310 lives in 2014. Chromosome Instability (CIN) is observed in 80-90% of colon cancers, and is thought to contribute to colon cancer progression and recurrence. However, there are no animal models of CIN that have been validated for studies of colon cancer development or drug testing. In this study, we sought to validate a mitotic error-induced CIN model mouse, the Shugoshin1 (Sgo1) haploinsufficient mouse, as a colon cancer study model. Wild-type and Sgo1(-/+) mice were treated with the colonic carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM). We tracked colon tumor development 12, 24, and 36 wk after treatment to assess progression of colon tumorigenesis. Initially, more precancerous lesions, Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF), developed in Sgo1(-/+) mice. However, the ACF did not develop straightforwardly into larger tumors. At the 36-wk endpoint, the number of gross tumors in Sgo1(-/+) mice was no different from that in wild-type controls. However, Copy Number Variation (CNV) analysis indicated that fully developed colon tumor in Sgo1(-/+) mice carried 13.75 times more CNV. Immunohistological analyses indicated that Sgo1(-/+) mice differentially expressed IL-6, Bcl2, and p16(INK4A) . We propose that formation of ACF in Sgo1(-/+) mice is facilitated by the IL6-STAT3-SOCS3 oncogenic pathway and by the Bcl2-anti-apoptotic pathway, yet further development of the ACF to tumors is inhibited by the p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor pathway. Manipulating these pathways would be beneficial for inhibiting development of colon cancer with CIN.

Zhou QX, Jiang XM, Wang ZD, et al.
Enhanced expression of suppresser of cytokine signaling 3 inhibits the IL-6-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cholangiocarcinoma cell metastasis.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(4):105 [PubMed] Related Publications
It was recently demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be explored. In this study, we studied the role of suppresser of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative feedback regulator of IL-6/STAT3, in the IL-6-induced EMT in CCA. Treatment with IL-6 induced the EMT by decreasing the E-cadherin expression and increasing the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. Using wound healing and invasion assays, we found that IL-6 promoted cell motility. Further, a stably transfected cell line overexpressing SOCS3 was constructed. Enhanced SOCS3 expression decreased IL-6-induced cell invasion and EMT in parallel with downregulating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. In contrast, SOCS3 silencing using siRNA exhibited no effect on the cell invasive ability and EMT. Finally, an in vivo study indicated that the enhancement of SOCS3 expression decreased metastasis compared with the control, and this effect was achieved by the repression of p-STAT3, N-cadherin and vimentin, and the induction of E-cadherin assessed by Western blot analysis. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of SOCS3 can antagonize IL-6-induced EMT and cell metastasis by abrogating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These data establish that SOCS3 plays a role in the EMT in CCA and may provide novel therapeutic strategies for CCA.

Wan J, Che Y, Kang N, Wu W
SOCS3 blocks HIF-1α expression to inhibit proliferation and angiogenesis of human small cell lung cancer by downregulating activation of Akt, but not STAT3.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):83-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a major negative regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) during tumorigenesis. Previous studies have indicated that SOCS3 also regulates other signaling pathways, such as PI3K/Akt. However, little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms by which SOCS3 regulates the proliferation and angiogenesis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The present study investigated the effect of SOCS3 upregulation on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and how this affects the proliferation and angiogenesis of SCLC cells. It was investigated whether this interaction is associated with STAT3 or the Akt signaling pathway. The results of the present study revealed that SOCS3 negatively regulates proliferation and angiogenesis of NCI-H446 cells and that HIF-1α is required in this process. The results also suggested a suppressive role of SOCS3 in Akt signaling, but not STAT3 signaling to block HIF-1α expression and a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for Akt function. In conclusion, the present study suggested that SOCS3 targets the Akt signaling pathway to inhibit HIF-1α expression and affect the growth and angiogenesis of SCLC cells, and may therefore be considered as a potential novel therapeutic for the treatment of SCLC.

Maliqueo M, Sundström Poromaa I, Vanky E, et al.
Placental STAT3 signaling is activated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Hum Reprod. 2015; 30(3):692-700 [PubMed] Related Publications
STUDY QUESTION: Does polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women without pregnancy complications affect placental signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling?
SUMMARY ANSWER: Placental STAT3 signaling is activated but mTOR signaling is unaffected in PCOS.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women with PCOS have increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes (e.g. restricted or accelerated fetal growth), indicating placental dysfunction. Placental STAT3 and mTOR pathways regulate placental function and indirectly affect fetal growth.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In a case-control study, placental tissue and maternal blood were collected at delivery from 40 control pregnant women and 38 PCOS women with uncomplicated pregnancy.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Women with PCOS were recruited at two medical centers and pregnant controls were recruited at one of these centers. Placental mRNA expression of genes encoding proteins related to steroid action, metabolic pathways and cytokines was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Phosphorylated placental STAT3 (P-STAT3) and mTOR targets was measured by western blot. Levels of sex steroids in serum were determined by mass spectrometry.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Placental P-STAT3 (Tyr-705) was increased in women with PCOS (P < 0.05) versus controls. Placental mTOR signaling was not affected in PCOS women when compared with controls. Circulating levels of androstenedione, androst-5-ene-3β, 17β-diol, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone and etiocholanolone glucuronide were higher and estradiol lower in women with PCOS than in controls (all P < 0.05). No correlation between sex steroid levels in serum and P-STAT3 was observed.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Women with PCOS and pregnancy complications were excluded to avoid the confounding effects of placental pathologies, which could modify STAT3 and mTOR signaling. Moreover, 97.4% of women with PCOS in the study displayed oligoamenorrhea at diagnosis. Thus, the current findings could be restricted to PCOS women with the oligo-anovulatory phenotype without pregnancy complications.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Phosphorylation of STAT3 is increased in the placenta from women with PCOS and uncomplicated pregnancies, indicating that specific metabolic placental pathways are activated in the absence of obstetric and perinatal complications.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The work was supported by the Swedish Medical Research Council (Project No. 2011-2732 and 2014-2775); Jane and Dan Olsson Foundation, Wilhelm and Martina Lundgrens's Science Fund; Hjalmar Svensson Foundation (E.S.-V and M.M.); Adlerbert Research Foundation; Swedish federal government under the LUA/ALF agreement ALFFGBG-136481 and 429501 and the Regional Research and Development agreement (VGFOUREG-5171, -11296 and -7861). MM thanks the Becas Chile Programme (Chile) and University of Chile for financial support through a postdoctoral fellowship. There are no competing interests.

Wiguna AP, Walden P
Role of IL-10 and TGF-β in melanoma.
Exp Dermatol. 2015; 24(3):209-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
IL-10 and TGF-β are immunosuppressive cytokines expressed in tumors including melanoma and, therefore, deemed major cause for failing antitumor immune responses. Re-evaluating their role, we compared their expression by quantitative RT-PCR in melanoma and skin of healthy individuals, tested their induction in dendritic cells and T cells co-cultured with tumor cells, and their effects on the immune cells. Both cytokines as well as their receptors were expressed in melanoma at significantly lower levels than in healthy skin. Consequently, the expressions of IL-10-responsive SOCS-3 and TGF-β-responsive Smad-7 were low in tumors but high in healthy skin. T cells co-cultured with tumor cells developed an anergic state without increased IL-10 or TGF-β expression. In vitro tumor-induced immature dendritic cells produced high IL-10 levels and less efficiently induced T-cell proliferation. Nonetheless, they could be induced to mature, and blocking IL-10 did not alter the capacity of the resulting mature dendritic cells to stimulate T cells. Mature dendritic cells co-cultured with tumor cells produced increased IL-10 but decreased TGF-β and more efficiently induced T-cell proliferation. The lack of correlation of IL-10 and TGF-β with immune deficits in situ and in vitro suggests re-evaluating their roles in cancer.

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