Gene Summary

Gene:SOCS3; suppressor of cytokine signaling 3
Aliases: CIS3, SSI3, ATOD4, Cish3, SSI-3, SOCS-3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene is induced by various cytokines, including IL6, IL10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene can bind to JAK2 kinase, and inhibit the activity of JAK2 kinase. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested the roles of this gene in the negative regulation of fetal liver hematopoiesis, and placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:suppressor of cytokine signaling 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOCS3 (cancer-related)

Li Z, Zhang Y, Meng L, et al.
LncRNA-ENST00000501520 promotes the proliferation of malignant-transformed BEAS-2B cells induced with coal tar pitch mediated by target genes.
Environ Toxicol. 2019; 34(7):869-877 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a human carcinogen, coal tar pitch (CTP) can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanism underlying CTP-induced lung carcinogenesis has not been well understood. This study aims to explore the role of the LncRNA-ENST00000501520 in the proliferation of malignant-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (BAES-2B) induced by CTP extract for the first time. BEAS-2B cells were stimulated with 2.4 μg/mL CTP extract, and then passaged for three times, which were named passage 1 and then passaged until passage 30 (named as CTP group). The ENST000001520 of cells in CTP group was interfered using siRNA. The results showed that ENST000001520 located in cell nucleus (>80%) had no or weak ability of protein encoding. After interference of ENST000001520, the migration and proliferation of cells in CTP group were inhibited, and the cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase; however, the apoptosis of cells in CTP group was promoted. The target genes (SKB1, CLTB, TAP2, PIPK2, and SOCS3) of ENST000001520 were screened out, and the mRNA and protein expression of SBK1 and SOCS3 was significantly decreased after ENST000001520 interference. SBK1 and SOCS3 may play a promoting role in occurrence and development of cancers. The study suggests that LncRNA-ENST00000501520 could promote the proliferation in malignant-transformed BEAS-2B cells induced with CTP extract which may be mediated by target genes. This study may provide a new target for prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

Hsu JB, Chang TH, Lee GA, et al.
Identification of potential biomarkers related to glioma survival by gene expression profile analysis.
BMC Med Genomics. 2019; 11(Suppl 7):34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have proposed several gene signatures as biomarkers for different grades of gliomas from various perspectives. However, most of these genes can only be used appropriately for patients with specific grades of gliomas.
METHODS: In this study, we aimed to identify survival-relevant genes shared between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and lower-grade glioma (LGG), which could be used as potential biomarkers to classify patients into different risk groups. Cox proportional hazard regression model (Cox model) was used to extract relative genes, and effectiveness of genes was estimated against random forest regression. Finally, risk models were constructed with logistic regression.
RESULTS: We identified 104 key genes that were shared between GBM and LGG, which could be significantly correlated with patients' survival based on next-generation sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas for gene expression analysis. The effectiveness of these genes in the survival prediction of GBM and LGG was evaluated, and the average receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the curve values ranged from 0.7 to 0.8. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that these genes were involved in eight significant pathways and 23 molecular functions. Moreover, the expressions of ten (CTSZ, EFEMP2, ITGA5, KDELR2, MDK, MICALL2, MAP 2 K3, PLAUR, SERPINE1, and SOCS3) of these genes were significantly higher in GBM than in LGG, and comparing their expression levels to those of the proposed control genes (TBP, IPO8, and SDHA) could have the potential capability to classify patients into high- and low- risk groups, which differ significantly in the overall survival. Signatures of candidate genes were validated, by multiple microarray datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus, to increase the robustness of using these potential prognostic factors. In both the GBM and LGG cohort study, most of the patients in the high-risk group had the IDH1 wild-type gene, and those in the low-risk group had IDH1 mutations. Moreover, most of the high-risk patients with LGG possessed a 1p/19q-noncodeletion.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified survival relevant genes which were shared between GBM and LGG, and those enabled to classify patients into high- and low-risk groups based on expression level analysis. Both the risk groups could be correlated with the well-known genetic variants, thus suggesting their potential prognostic value in clinical application.

Gerber MH, Underwood PW, Judge SM, et al.
Local and Systemic Cytokine Profiling for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma to Study Cancer Cachexia in an Era of Precision Medicine.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition seen frequently in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The underlying mechanisms driving cancer cachexia are not fully understood but are related, at least in part, to the immune response to the tumor both locally and systemically. We hypothesize that there are unique differences in cytokine levels in the tumor microenvironment and systemic circulation between PDAC tumors and that these varying profiles affect the degree of cancer cachexia observed. Patient demographics, operative factors, oncologic factors, and perioperative data were collected for the two patients in the patient derived xenograft (PDX) model. Human pancreatic cancer PDX were created by implanting fresh surgical pancreatic cancer tissues directly into immunodeficient mice. At PDX end point, mouse tumor, spleen and muscle tissues were collected and weighed, muscle atrophy related gene expression measured, and tumor and splenic soluble proteins were analyzed. PDX models were created from surgically resected patients who presented with different degrees of cachexia. Tumor free body weight and triceps surae weight differed significantly between the PDX models and control (P < 0.05). Both PDX groups had increased atrophy related gene expression in muscle compared to control (FoxO1, Socs3, STAT3, Acvr2b, Atrogin-1, MuRF1; P < 0.05). Significant differences were noted in splenic soluble protein concentrations in 14 of 15 detected proteins in tumor bearing mice when compared to controls. Eight splenic soluble proteins were significantly different between PDX groups (P < 0.05). Tumor soluble proteins were significantly different between the two PDX groups in 15 of 24 detected proteins (P < 0.05). PDX models preserve the cachectic heterogeneity found in patients and are associated with unique cytokine profiles in both the spleen and tumor between different PDX. These data support the use of PDX as a strategy to study soluble cachexia protein markers and also further efforts to elucidate which cytokines are most related to cachexia in order to provide potential targets for immunotherapy.

Zhou Y, Lv L, Liu Q, Song J
Total flavonoids extracted from
Biosci Rep. 2019; 39(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Large doses of flavonoids could cure many diseases with no serious side effects. However, the role of flavonoids in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has not been reported. Therefore, total flavonoids extracted from

Ghafouri-Fard S, Oskooei VK, Azari I, Taheri M
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes are downregulated in breast cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):226 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins are inhibitors of the cytokine-activated Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. We aimed at evaluation of expression of SOCS genes in breast cancer.
METHODS: We evaluated expression of SOCS1-3 and SOCS5 genes in breast cancer samples compared with the corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCTs).
RESULTS: All assessed SOCS genes were significantly downregulated in tumoral tissues compared with ANCTs. SOCS1 and SOCS2 genes were significantly overexpressed in higher grade samples, but SOCS3 had the opposite trend. Significant correlations were found between expression levels of SOCS genes. The SOCS1 and SOCS2 expression levels had the best specificity and sensitivity values respectively for breast cancer diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: The current study provides further evidence for contribution of SOCS genes in breast cancer.

Ishibashi K, Koguchi T, Matsuoka K, et al.
Interleukin-6 induces drug resistance in renal cell carcinoma.
Fukushima J Med Sci. 2018; 64(3):103-110 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a tumor entity with poor prognosis due to limited therapy options. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), the novel targeted agents have been used for the treatment of mRCC and have shown efficacy. Interferon (IFN)-α is also one of the most frequently used agents in immunotherapy. However, drug resistance needs to be overcome to achieve a sufficiently positive effect. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), which induce suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) expression, is one of the factors associated with poor prognosis of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). To analyze the influence of IL-6 in drug resistance of RCC, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was used in combination with IFN or TKIs. The SOCS3 mRNA expression level was significantly increased by IFN-α stimulation in 786-O RCC cells which were resistant to IFN, but not in ACHN cells that were sensitive to IFN. The overexpression of SOCS3 by gene transfection in ACHN significantly inhibited the growth-inhibitory effect of IFN-α. An in vivo study demonstrated that co-administration of SOCS3-targeted siRNA promoted INF-α-induced cell death and growth suppression in 786-O cell xenograft. SOCS3 could be a key component in the resistance to interferon treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Because SOCS3 is rapidly up-regulated by IL-6 and a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, IL-6 expression on RCC cells was also analyzed and the 786-O cells showed the high level of IL-6 mRNA expression under the condition of interferon stimulation. IL-6R antibody, tocilizumab, significantly suppressed cell proliferation in 786-O cells by interferon stimulation accompanied with phosphorylation of STAT1 and inhibited SOCS3 expression. The in vivo effects of combination therapy with tocilizumab and interferon showed significant suppression of 786-O tumor growth in a xenograft model. We also hypothesized that TKI resistance and IL-6 secretion are causally connected. And we found that 786-O RCC cells secrete high IL-6 levels after low dose stimulation with the TKIs sorafenib, sunitinib and pazopanib, inducing activation of AKT-mTOR pathway, NFκB, HIF-2α and VEGF expression. Tocilizumab neutralizes the AKT-mTOR pathway activation and results in reduced proliferation. A combination therapy with tocilizumab and TKI suppresses 786-O tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in vivo more efficient than TKI alone. Our findings suggest that IL-6 could induce drug resistance on RCC, and combination therapy of IL-6R inhibitors and IFN/TKIs may represent a novel therapeutic approach for RCC treatment.

Jadid FZ, Chihab H, Alj HS, et al.
Control of progression towards liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma by SOCS3 polymorphisms in chronic HCV-infected patients.
Infect Genet Evol. 2018; 66:1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic Hepatitis C is one of the most important risk factors of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Before reaching these ultimate steps, insulin resistance triggered by hepatitis C virus infection is known to participate in the progression of liver disease. The present study aims to investigate the influence of two functional polymorphisms on SOCS3 mRNA expression and on the outcomes of CHC progression in a North African context.
PATIENTS & METHODS: In this case-control study, 601 Moroccan subjects composed of 200 healthy controls, 101 resolvers and 300 patients with persistent HCV infection including 95 mild chronic hepatitis, 131 Advanced Liver Diseases and 74 HCC were enrolled. They were genotyped for the 4874 A/G (rs4969170) and A + 930- > G (rs4969168) SOCS3 variants using TaqMan SNPs assays. SOCS3 mRNA expression was assessed using Real Time PCR technique.
RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis showed that variation at rs4969168 was associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV (P < 0.05). In addition, minor allele frequencies were significantly higher in AdLD patients when compared to the mCHC group both for rs4969168 (P = 7.0 E-04) and rs4969170 (P = 4.0 E-05). A significant association between haplotype and liver disease progression was also found. Moreover, SOCS3 mRNA was significantly more expressed in peripheral leukocytes from patients with HCC than in those from mCHC. Finally, rs4969170 was significantly associated with LDL-lipoprotein (P = 0.04), total cholesterol (P = 5.0 E-04), and higher fasting glucose levels (P = 0.005) in patients with persistent HCV infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results underline the importance of the functional SOCS3 polymorphisms in the modulation of CHC progression and suggest their contribution to HCC development by affecting its mRNA expression and perturbing key metabolic parameters.

Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Domańska-Senderowska D, Antczak A, et al.
The Expression Levels of IL-4/IL-13/STAT6 Signaling Pathway Genes and SOCS3 Could Help to Differentiate the Histopathological Subtypes of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.
Mol Diagn Ther. 2018; 22(5):621-629 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 signaling pathway and the SOCS3 gene, one of its main regulators, constitute an important link between the inflammation process in the epithelial cells and inflammatory-related tumorigenesis. The present study is the first to evaluate IL-4, IL-13, STAT6, and SOCS3 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) histopathological subtypes.
METHODS: Gene expression levels were assessed using TaqMan
RESULTS: Increased expression of IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 was observed in all histopathological NSCLC subtypes (squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], adenocarcinoma [AC], and large cell carcinoma [LCC]). Significantly higher expression of IL-13 and STAT6 (p = 0.019 and p = 0.008, respectively) was found in SCC than in LCC. No statistically significant differences were found for IL-4. Significantly higher SOCS3 expression was found in LCC than in AC (p = 0.027). A negative correlation (rho = -0.519) was observed for the STAT6 and SOCS3 genes in SCC (p = 0.005). No associations were found between gene expression and tumor staging (post-operative Tumor Node Metastasis [pTNM], American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC]), patients' age, sex, or history of smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: As the number of LCC cases in our study was quite low, the statistically significant results obtained should be confirmed in a larger group of patients, particularly as the relationships identified between increased IL-4, IL-13, and STAT6 mRNA expression and decreased SOCS3 expression suggest that these genes may serve as potential diagnostic markers for differentiating between NSCLC histopathological subtypes.

Xu W, Fu J, Wu H, Sun W
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expressions and Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 pathway may be associated with clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S311-S318 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: Our study aims to investigate the expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), Janus-activated kinase/signal transducer, and activator of transcription 3-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (JAK/STAT3-SOCS3) pathway in gastric cancer (GC) and its relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis of GC.
Materials and Methods: A total of 105 GC patients who underwent surgical resection were enrolled for our study, and corresponding 60 normal tissues adjacent to carcinoma (>10 cm from the carcinoma tissues) as control groups. Spearman correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis among HER-2, STAT3, and SOCS3. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model were applied for investigating the associations among HER-2, STAT3 and SOCS3 expressions and prognosis of GC patients.
Results: The expressions of HER-2 and STAT3 in GC tissues were increased, but SOCS3 expression showed an evident decrease with the change of depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis (LNM), and tumor node metastasis staging (all P < 0.05). The result of Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between HER-2 and STAT3 (r = 0.216, P < 0.05), while a negative correlation was observed between STAT3 and SOCS3 (r = -0.237, P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier analysis results showed that the survival time of HER-2 and STAT3 negative group were both higher than their positive group (both P < 0.001), nevertheless, the survival time of SOCS3 negative group was lower than positive group (P < 0.001). Cox regression multivariate analysis indicated HER-2, STAT3, SOCS3, LNM, and depth of invasion were independent prognostic factors influenced the prognosis of GC (all P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Our study revealed that HER-2 may participates in the development, invasion and metastasis of GC by affecting the JAK/STAT3 pathway. HER-2, STAT3, and SOCS3 serve as reference indexes for the prognosis of GC patients.

Chea C, Miyauchi M, Inubushi T, et al.
Molecular mechanism of inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0191683 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin (LF), a member of the transferrin family, recently has been demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of its effects on OSCC. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of the suppressive effects of bovine LF (bLF) on the growth of OSCC cells.
METHODS: In the current study, HSC2, HSC3, HSC4 and normal human oral keratinocytes (RT7) cell lines were tested with bLF 1, 10, and 100 μg/ml. The effects and detail mechanisms of bLF on proliferation and apoptosis of cells were investigated using flow cytometry and western blotting.
RESULTS: We found that bLF (1, 10, and 100 μg/ml) induced activation of p53, a tumor suppressor gene, is associated with the induction of cell cycle arrest in G1/S phase and apoptosis in OSCC. Moreover, bLF downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt and activated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), thereby attenuating multiple signaling pathways including mTOR/S6K and JAK/STAT3. Interestingly, we revealed that bLF exerted its effect selectively against HSC3 but not on RT7 via different effects on the phosphorylation status of NF-κB and Akt.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing that bLF selectively suppresses proliferation through mTOR/S6K and JAK/STAT3 pathways and induction of apoptosis in OSCC. This study provides important new findings, which might be useful in the prevention and treatment of OSCC.

Li XD, Li XM, Gu JW, Sun XC
MiR-155 regulates lymphoma cell proliferation and apoptosis through targeting SOCS3/JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(22):5153-5159 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Janus kinase (JAK)- signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway participates in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and related to lymphoma. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a negative regulator of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. SOCS3 reduction and miR-155 up-regulation are associated with lymphoma pathogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis showed the complementary binding site between miR-155 and SOCS3. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-155 in regulating SOCS3/JAK-STAT signaling pathway and affecting diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell proliferation and apoptosis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: DLBCL tumor sample was collected from the patients in our hospital. Lymphatic tissue derived from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia patients were selected as control. MicroRNA-155 (MiR-155) and SOCS3 expressions were detected. Dual luciferase assay was used to verify the targeted relationship between miR-155 and SOCS3. OCI-LY10 cells were cultured in vitro and divided into five groups, including miR-NC, miR-155 inhibitor, pIRES2-Blank, pIRES2-SOCS3, and miR-155 + pIRES2-SOCS3 groups. SOCS3, p-JAK1, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, and Survivin expressions were tested. Cell apoptosis and proliferation were detected by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: MiR-155 expression significantly increased, while SOCS3 level declined in DLBCL tissue compared with control. MiR-155 targeted regulated SOCS3 expression. MiR-155 inhibitor and/or pIRES2-SOCS3 transfection markedly up-regulated SOCS3 expression, reduced p-JAK1, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, and Survivin levels, attenuated cell proliferation, and enhanced cell apoptosis in OCI-LY10 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulation of miR-155 inhibited DLBCL cell proliferation and facilitated apoptosis through up-regulating SOCS3 expression to suppress JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway.

Kucia-Tran JA, Tulkki V, Scarpini CG, et al.
Anti-oncostatin M antibody inhibits the pro-malignant effects of oncostatin M receptor overexpression in squamous cell carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2018; 244(3):283-295 [PubMed] Related Publications
The oncostatin M (OSM) receptor (OSMR) shows frequent gene copy number gains and overexpression in cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), associated with adverse clinical outcomes. In SCC cells that overexpress OSMR, the major ligand OSM induces multiple pro-malignant effects, including invasion, secretion of angiogenic factors, and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that OSMR overexpression in SCC cells activates cell-autonomous feed-forward signalling, via further expression of OSMR and OSM and sustained STAT3 activation, despite expression of the negative regulator suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3). The pro-malignant effects associated with OSMR overexpression are critically mediated by JAK-STAT3 activation, which is induced by exogenous OSM and also by autocrine OSM-OSMR interactions. Importantly, specific inhibition of OSM-OSMR interactions by neutralizing antibodies significantly inhibits STAT3 activation and feed-forward signalling, leading to reduced invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Our findings are supported by data from 1254 clinical SCC samples, in which OSMR levels correlated with multiple cognate genes, including OSM, STAT3, and downstream targets. These data strongly support the development of OSM-OSMR-blocking antibodies as biologically targeted therapies against SCCs of the cervix and other anatomical sites. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Li Z, Li X, Xu L, et al.
Inhibition of neuroblastoma proliferation by PF-3758309, a small-molecule inhibitor that targets p21-activated kinase 4.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):2705-2716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid childhood tumor. Despite the availability of advanced multimodal therapy, high-risk patients still have low survival rates. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) has been shown to regulate many cellular processes in cancer cells, including migration, polarization and proliferation. However, the role of PAK4 in neuroblastoma remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that PAK4 was overexpressed in neuroblastoma tissues and was correlated with tumor malignance and prognosis. To investigate the function of PAK4 in neuroblastoma, we used a small-molecule inhibitor that targets PAK4, that is, PF-3758309. Our results showed that PF-3758309 significantly induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell lines. Meanwhile, the inhibition of PAK4 by PF-3758309 increased the expression of CDKN1A, BAD and BAK1 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. In addition, we screened the target genes of PAK4 by PCR array and found that 23 genes were upregulated (including TP53I3, TBX3, EEF1A2, CDKN1A, IFNB1 and MAPK8IP2) and 20 genes were downregulated (including TNFSF8, Bcl2-A1, Bcl2L1, SOCS3, BIRC3 and NFKB1) after PAK4 inhibition by PF-3758309. Moreover, PAK4 was found to regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis via the ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated, for the first time, the expression and function of PAK4 in neuroblastomas and the inhibitory effect of PF-3758309, which deserves further investigation as an alternative strategy for neuroblastoma treatment.

Wonganan O, He YJ, Shen XF, et al.
6-Hydroxy-3-O-methyl-kaempferol 6-O-glucopyranoside potentiates the anti-proliferative effect of interferon α/β by promoting activation of the JAK/STAT signaling by inhibiting SOCS3 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017; 336:31-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN α/β) signaling. Inhibition of SOCS3 by small molecules may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of type I IFN and reduce its side effects. We established a cell-based screening assay using human hepatoma HepG2 cells stably transfected with a plasmid wherein the luciferase reporter activity was propelled by interferon α-stimulated response element (ISRE), which is a motif specifically recognized by type I IFN-induced activation of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. After screening our chemical library, 6-hydroxy-3-O-methyl-kaempferol 6-O-glucopyranoside (K6G) was identified to be a potent activator of type I IFN with EC

Carbotti G, Nikpoor AR, Vacca P, et al.
IL-27 mediates HLA class I up-regulation, which can be inhibited by the IL-6 pathway, in HLA-deficient Small Cell Lung Cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):140 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recently, immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibodies has shown clinical benefit in recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC). Since anti-PD-1 re-activates anti-tumor Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) responses, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms regulating HLA class I, and PD-L1 expression in HLA-negative SCLC. Here we addressed the role of IL-27, a cytokine related to both IL-6 and IL-12 families.
METHODS: The human SCLC cell lines NCI-N592, -H69, -H146, -H446 and -H82 were treated in vitro with different cytokines (IL-27, IFN-γ, IL-6 or a soluble IL-6R/IL-6 chimera [sIL-6R/IL-6]) at different time points and analyzed for tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT proteins by Western blot, for surface molecule expression by immunofluorescence and FACS analyses or for specific mRNA expression by QRT-PCR. Relative quantification of mRNAs was calculated by the ΔΔCT method. The Student's T test was used for the statistical analysis of experimental replicates.
RESULTS: IL-27 triggered STAT1/3 phosphorylation and up-regulated the expression of surface HLA class I antigen and of TAP1 and TAP2 mRNA in four out of five SCLC cell lines tested. The IL-27-resistant NCI-H146 cells showed up-regulation of HLA class I by IFN-γ. IFN-γ also induced expression of PD-L1 in SCLC cells, while IL-27 was less potent in this respect. IL-27 failed to activate STAT1/3 phosphorylation in NCI-H146 cells, which display a low expression of the IL-27RA and GP130 receptor chains. As GP130 is shared in IL-27R and IL-6R complexes, we assessed its functionality in response to sIL-6R/IL-6. sIL-6R/IL-6 failed to trigger STAT1/3 signaling in NCI-H146 cells, suggesting low GP130 expression or uncoupling from signal transduction. Although both sIL-6R/IL-6 and IL-27 triggered STAT1/3 phosphorylation, sIL-6R/IL-6 failed to up-regulate HLA class I expression, in relationship to the weak activation of STAT1. Finally sIL-6R/IL-6 limited IL-27-effects, particularly in NCI-H69 cells, in a SOCS3-independent manner, but did not modify IFN-γ induced HLA class I up-regulation.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, IL-27 is a potentially interesting cytokine for restoring HLA class I expression for SCLC combined immunotherapy purposes. However, the concomitant activation of the IL-6 pathway may limit the IL-27 effect on HLA class I induction but did not significantly alter the responsiveness to IFN-γ.

Pastuszak-Lewandoska D, Domańska-Senderowska D, Kordiak J, et al.
Immunoexpression analysis of selected JAK/STAT pathway molecules in patients with non- small-cell lung cancer.
Pol Arch Intern Med. 2017; 127(11):758-764 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are critically involved in tumorigenesis in various cancers, including lung cancer. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to analyze the immunoexpression levels of 3 STAT proteins: STAT3, STAT5, and STAT6 in their phosphorylated forms (pSTATs), STAT inhibitors PIAS3 and SOCS3, and additionally cyclooxygenase 2 (COX‑2), as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 71 patients diagnosed with non- small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The immunoexpression levels of the proteins were assessed in lung tissue samples, using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. Tumors were staged using the postoperative TNM classification. RESULTS    All studied STATs were overexpressed in 54% to 55% of NSCLC specimens. Significantly higher STAT3 and STAT6 immunoexpression levels were observed in squamous cell carcinoma. Significant differences between NSCLC samples and controls were found for STAT5. Significantly higher STAT5 levels were observed in pT2 tumors. The COX‑2 overexpression was observed in 55% of NSCLC specimens and was significantly higher in T2 tumors. STAT inhibitors were underexpressed in 56% to 58% of NSCLC specimens. The PIAS3 immunoexpression was significantly lower in non-squamous cell carcinoma. The SOCS3 level was significantly lower in smaller tumors (pT1). Negative correlations between STAT5 and PIAS3 levels, as well as between STAT6 and SOCS levels, and a positive correlation between STAT5 and COX-2 levels were observed. CONCLUSIONS    The deregulated expression of the studied pSTATs and their inhibitors may be involved in the development and progression of lung cancer. The observed differences between the histotypes suggest the potential usefulness of STAT proteins as diagnostic markers. Our results may contribute to the search for targets in lung cancer therapy.

Wei L, Huang Y, Zhao R, et al.
Detection of promoter methylation status of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in tissue and plasma from Chinese patients with different hepatic diseases.
Clin Exp Med. 2018; 18(1):79-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOCS3 as an important negative regulator of IL6/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway may be early critical determinants of carcinogenesis. This study aimed to explore the aberrant promoter methylation of SOCS3 gene in circulating DNA as a noninvasive biomarker for screening hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) high-risk individuals and for prognosis of HCC patients after partial hepatectomy. We detected its methylation status in 116 liver tissues and 326 plasma specimens of different hepatic diseases and healthy subjects, and its mRNA and protein expression in tissues. Higher methylation rate was remarkably detected in HCC (47.92%), compared with corresponding non-tumor (25.0%), liver cirrhosis (LC) (10.0%), benign liver diseases (0%) and normal liver tissues (0%) (all P < 0.05). SOCS3 mRNA level was significantly lower in methylated HCC tissues (P < 0.05). The expressions of SOCS3 and pSTAT3 were affected by methylation status. Correlation and consistency of SOCS3 methylation were found between cancer tissue and corresponding plasma (P < 0.001, κ = 0.747). The detection rate of plasma for HCC reached 73.91%, with no false positive error. SOCS3 methylation status both in tissue and plasma was significantly associated with AFP400, tumor size, tumor differentiation, LC, metastasis and recurrence (all P < 0.05). Patients with SOCS3 methylation were followed up a markedly poorer prognosis than those unmethylated for disease-free survival (P < 0.05). These data indicate that methylation status of SOCS3 in plasma cell-free DNA can correctly reflect that in tissue DNA and be used as a noninvasive potential biomarker for chronic liver disease monitoring, predicting the degree of malignancy and poor prognosis of HCC.

Liu H, Chang JK, Hou JQ, et al.
Inhibition of miR-221 influences bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(14):3193-3199 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Janus kinase (JAK) - signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway participate in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) are negative regulators of JAK-STAT3. SOCS3 was found significantly declined, while microRNA-221 (miR-221) obviously up-regulated in bladder cancer tissue. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the complementary binding site between miR-221 and 3'-UTR of SOCS3. This study investigated the role of miR-221 in regulating SOCS3/JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway and bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bladder cancer tumor tissue and para-carcinoma tissue were collected from patients to test miR-221 and SOCS3 expressions. Dual luciferase assay was used to test the targeting regulatory effect of miR-221 on SOCS3. MiR-221, SOCS3, p-JAK1, p-JAK2, and survivin expressions were compared in T24 and HBEC cells. T24 cells were divided into miR-NC, miR-221 inhibitor, pSicoR-blank, pSicoR-SOCS3, and miR-221 inhibitor + pSicoR-SOCS3 groups. Flow cytometry was applied to detect cell apoptosis. EdU staining was adopted to evaluate cell proliferation.
RESULTS: MiR-221 significantly increased, while SOCS3 obviously reduced in bladder cancer tissue compared with para-carcinoma tissue. MiR-221 targeted inhibited SOCS3 expression. MiR-221, phosphorylated JAK1 (p-JAK1), phosphorylated JAK2 (p-JAK2), phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3), and survivin levels markedly up-regulated, whereas SOCS3 expression apparently declined in T24 cells compared with that in HBEC cells. MiR-221 inhibitor and/or pSicoR-SOCS3 elevated SOCS3 expression, decreased p-JAK1, p-JAK2, p-STAT3, and survivin levels, enhanced cell apoptosis, and attenuated cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-221 elevated, while SOCS3 reduced in bladder cancer tissue. Inhibition of miR-221 suppressed T24 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by up-regulating SOCS3 expression, lowering JAK-STAT3 signaling pathway activity, and attenuating survivin expression.

Wei F, Ma C, Zhou T, et al.
Exosomes derived from gemcitabine-resistant cells transfer malignant phenotypic traits via delivery of miRNA-222-3p.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):132 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although gemcitabine-based chemotherapy has been established as a core multimodal therapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, its clinical efficacy remains limited by the development of acquired resistance following tumor metastasis and relapse. In this study, we investigated how gemcitabine-resistant (GR) cells contribute to the development of NSCLC tumor malignancy via exosome-mediated transfer of microRNAs.
METHODS: We first studied the mechanism of exosome internalization via PKH-67 staining and an immunofluorescence assay, then confirmed our finding by transmission electron microscopy and western blot analysis. Candidate miRNAs were identified through microarray analysis. Thereafter, RT-PCR, MTS, Transwell and soft agar assays were performed to assess the role of exosomic miR-222-3p in vitro. A 3' untranslated region reporter assay was applied to identify the target of miR-222-3p. A lung metastasis mouse model was constructed to evaluate tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Finally, clinical samples were used for correlation analysis between exosomic miR-222-3p levels and patients' response to gemcitabine.
RESULTS: A549-GR-derived exosomes were internalized by receipt cells via caveolin- and lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, which allowed the transfer of miR-222-3p. Exosomic miR-222-3p enhanced the proliferation, gemcitabine resistance, migration, invasion, and anti-anoikis of parental sensitive cells by directly targeting the promoter of SOCS3. In addition, a higher level of exosomic miR-222-3p in sera usually predicted worse prognosis in NSCLC patients.
CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that exosomic-miR-222-3p functions as a principal regulator of gemcitabine resistance and malignant characteristics by targeting SOCS3. The exosomic miR-222-3p level in sera may be a potential prognostic biomarker for predicting gemcitabine sensitivity in NSCLC patients.

Thiagarajan PS, Zheng Q, Bhagrath M, et al.
STAT3 activation by leptin receptor is essential for TNBC stem cell maintenance.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017; 24(8):415-426 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Leptin (LEP) binds to the long form of the leptin receptor (LEPRb), leading to the activation of multiple signaling pathways that are potential targets for disrupting the obesity-breast cancer link. In triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), LEP is hypothesized to predominantly mediate its tumorigenic effects via a subpopulation of LEPRb-positive tumor cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can initiate tumors and induce tumor progression. Previously, we showed that LEP promotes CSC survival

Zhu L, Feng H, Jin S, et al.
High expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen are correlated with high tumor burden and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317711655 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant regulation of BCL6 plays crucial oncogenic roles in various malignant tumors; howbeit, the function of BCL6 in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of BCL6 in ovarian cancer. The methods of immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemical staining, and gene expression profile enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible role of BCL6 in ovarian cancer. We observed that the expression of BCL6 was significantly higher in ovarian cancer tissues and correlated with higher tumor burden including advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages, poor differentiation, Type II ovarian cancer, the presence of >1 cm residual tumor size, and appearance of recurrence or death (all p < 0.05). The expression patterns of Lewis y were similar to these of BCL6. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, lymph node metastasis, residual tumor size >1 cm, as well as high expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen were independent factors of worse progression-free survival and overall survival (all p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation of the expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen. The associated genes with BCL6 in response to Lewis y antigen were identified, including four upregulated genes ( SOCS3, STAT1, PPARG, and GADD45A) and three downregulated genes ( ACAN, E2F3, and ZBTB7B). In conclusion, the high expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen are associated with development, high tumor burden, and worse prognosis of ovarian cancer and targeting BCL6 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.

Ayub SG, Kaul D
miR-2909 regulates ISGylation system via STAT1 signalling through negative regulation of SOCS3 in prostate cancer.
Andrology. 2017; 5(4):790-797 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the well-document strategies adopted by tumour cells for progression is to evade immune surveillance mechanisms. An understanding of the tight interaction between immunity and progression of cancer can provide novel treatment options for different malignancies including prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we have shown that AATF genome encoded miR-2909, known to play role both in immunity and cancer upregulates various interferon stimulating genes (ISGs) including ISGylation system through STAT1. Our results revealed that miR-2909 up-regulates STAT1 through negative regulation of SOCS3 and not through up-regulation of Type 1 interferon (IFN) production. It was observed that inhibition of ISGylation reduced the proliferation potential of PCa cells. Furthermore, androgens were found to negatively regulate ISGylation in LNCaP cells through androgen receptor signalling independently of miR-2909. TGF-β mediated SMAD3 signalling was also seen to be suppressed by miR-2909 through induction of SMAD7 via enhanced STAT1 expression. Collectively, these studies suggest that miR-2909 could play a vital role in prostate carcinogenesis through modulation of ISGylation system and TGFβ signalling via STAT1.

Long KB, Tooker G, Tooker E, et al.
IL6 Receptor Blockade Enhances Chemotherapy Efficacy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(9):1898-1908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammation mediated by activation of JAK/STAT signaling is a major cause of chemotherapy resistance in cancer. We studied the impact of selectively blocking the IL6 receptor (IL6R) as a strategy to inhibit IL6-induced STAT activation and to overcome chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To do this, STAT activation was investigated in tumors arising spontaneously in

Chu Q, Shen D, He L, et al.
Prognostic significance of SOCS3 and its biological function in colorectal cancer.
Gene. 2017; 627:114-122 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor, in which the inflammatory microenvironment plays an important role. STAT3 signaling pathway is regarded as the "bridge" between inflammation and cancer, and involved in the development of CRC. SOCS3 is a key negative feedback regulator of JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Studies about SOCS3 gene in CRC are rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to determine the expression of SOCS3 in CRC tissue and its correlation with the clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis of colorectal cancers. The effects of SOCS3 on biological behavior such as apoptosis, proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor formation in nude mice were studied. We observed that SOCS3 expression was down-regulated in CRC tissues, while IL-6, pSTAT3 were up-regulated. Inflammatory cytokines IL-6 can promote the expression of STAT3 signaling pathways while inhibit the expression of SOCS3 by promoting hypermethylation of SOCS3 gene promoters. 5-Aza-cdR treatment can reverse IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway mediated down-regulation of SOCS3 in colorectal cancer cells. Low expression of SOCS3 was correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage. Patients with high expression of SOCS3 in colorectal cancers often indicated a relatively good prognosis. Overexpression of SOCS3 inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenic ability of CRC cells while increased cell apoptosis. This study demonstrated that IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation negatively regulated SOCS3 expression, which led to imbalance and sustained activation of STAT3 signaling pathway. Reduced expression of SOCS3 promoted the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer. Thus, targeting IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway may become an important treatment strategy of colorectal cancer.

Ren D, Lin B, Zhang X, et al.
Maintenance of cancer stemness by miR-196b-5p contributes to chemoresistance of colorectal cancer cells via activating STAT3 signaling pathway.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(30):49807-49823 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Emerging studies indicated that cancer stem cells represent a subpopulation of cells within the tumor that is responsible for chemotherapeutic resistance. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clarified yet. Here we report that miR-196b-5p is dramatically upregulated in CRC tissues and high expression of miR-196b-5p correlates with poor survival in CRC patients. Moreover, recurrent gains (amplification) contribute to the miR-196b-5p overexpression in CRC tissues. Silencing miR-196b-5p suppresses spheroids formation ability, the fraction of SP cells, expression of stem cell factors and the mitochondrial potential, and enhances the apoptosis induced by 5-fluorouracil in CRC cells; while ectopic expression of miR-196b-5p yields an opposite effect. In addition, downregulation of miR-196b-5p resensitizes CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil in vivo. Our results further demonstrate that miR-196b-5p promotes stemness and chemoresistance of CRC cells to 5-fluorouracil via targeting negative regulators SOCS1 and SOCS3 of STAT3 signaling pathway, giving rise to activation of STAT3 signaling. Interestingly, miR-196b-5p is highly enriched in the serum exosomes of patients with CRC compared to the healthy control subjects. Thus, our results unravel a novel mechanism of miR-196b-5p implicating in the maintenance of stem cell property and chemotherapeutic resistance in CRC, offering a potential rational registry of anti-miR-196b-5p combining with conventional chemotherapy against CRC.

Shang AQ, Wu J, Bi F, et al.
Relationship between HER2 and JAK/STAT-SOCS3 signaling pathway and clinicopathological features and prognosis of ovarian cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2017; 18(5):314-322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aims to explore the relationship between expressions of HER2 and JAK/STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway and clinicopathological features and prognosis of ovarian cancer (OC).
METHODS: A total of 136 OC patients were collected. Immunohistochemistry was applied to measure the expressions of STAT3, p-STAT3, SOCS3, HER2 and p-HER2 in the tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expressions of HER2, SOCS3 and STAT3 and western blotting was applied for protein expressions of HER2, p-HER2, SOCS3, STAT3 and p-STAT3 in the tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Flow cytometry was used for the cell apoptosis in the blank, afatinib (A), ruxolitinib (R) and afatinib + ruxolitinib (A + R) groups. Follow-up was performed to explore relationship of HER2, SOCS3, and STAT3 expressions with survival time of OC patients.
RESULTS: HER2, p-HER2, STAT3, and p-STAT3 expressions were higher while SOCS3 expression was lower in the tumor tissues. The positive expressions of STAT3, HER2, p-HER2 and p-STAT3 were lower while the positive expression of SOCS3 was higher in the adjacent normal tissues. The expressions of HER2, SOCS3, and p-STAT3 were associated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (LNM), and STAT3 expression has correlation with histological grade and LNM. The mRNA and protein expressions of HER2, STAT3 and p-STAT3 in the tumor tissues were higher than those in the adjacent normal tissues, but SOCS3 expression was significantly decreased. The positive expressions of HER2, p-HER2 and STAT3, the negative expression of SOCS3 and pathological stages were important risk factors for the prognosis of patients with OC.
CONCLUSION: Our study showed that the expressions of HER2, STAT3, and SOCS3 are associated with the progression of OC, and higher expressions of HER2 and STAT3 and lower expression of SOCS3 predict poor prognosis of OC.

Madonna S, Scarponi C, Morelli M, et al.
SOCS3 inhibits the pathological effects of IL-22 in non-melanoma skin tumor-derived keratinocytes.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(15):24652-24667 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) are common malignancies in humans, caused by neoplastic transformation of keratinocytes of the basal or suprabasal layers of epidermis, respectively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently found in BCC and SCC, and functionally promote epithelial carcinogenesis. TILs secreting IL-22, in particular, participate to BCC and SCC growth by inducing keratinocyte proliferation and migration, as well as the expression of inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic genes.In this study, we identified SOCS3 as a valid candidate to be manipulated for suppressing tumorigenic functions in BCC and SCC. We found that SOCS3 and SOCS1 expression was reduced in vivo, in tumor lesions of BCC and SCC, as compared to other skin inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, despite the high number of IL-22-secreting TILs. Moreover, IL-22 was not able to induce in vitro the transcriptional expression of SOCS3 in BCC-or SCC-derived keratinocytes, contrarily to healthy cells. Aimed at rescuing SOCS3 activity in these tumor contexts, a SOCS3-derived peptide, named KIR-ESS, was synthesized, and its ability in suppressing IL-22-induced responses was evaluated in healthy and transformed keratinocytes. We found that KIR-ESS peptide efficiently suppressed the IL-22 molecular signaling in keratinocytes, by acting on STAT3 and Erk1/2 cascade, as well as on the expression of STAT3-dependent downstream genes. Interestingly, after treatment with peptide, both healthy and transformed keratinocytes could no longer aberrantly proliferate and migrate in response to IL-22. Finally, treatment of athymic nude mice bearing SCC xenografts with KIR-ESS peptide concomitantly reduced tumor growth and activated STAT3 levels. As a whole, these data provides the rationale for the use in BCC and SCC skin tumors of SOCS3 mimetics, being able to inhibit the deleterious effects of IL-22 in these contexts.

Singh S, Chouhan S, Mohammad N, Bhat MK
Resistin causes G1 arrest in colon cancer cells through upregulation of SOCS3.
FEBS Lett. 2017; 591(10):1371-1382 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistin, a proinflammatory cytokine, is elevated in a number of pathological disorders, including cancer. The serum resistin level in colon cancer patients is elevated and correlates with tumor grade. However, the implications of increased resistin on colon cancer cells remain unclear. In the present study, we find that resistin binds to TLR4 on colon cancer cell membrane and initiates TLR4-MyD88-dependent activation of ERK. In addition, the upregulation of SOCS3 by ERK downregulates the JAK2/TAT3 pathway and causes the arrest of cells in G1 phase. Interestingly, we observe that resistin-exposed cells survive 5-fluorouracil treatment because of a decrease in drug uptake due to the arrest of cells in G1 phase.

Hoan NX, Van Tong H, Giang DP, et al.
SOCS3 genetic variants and promoter hypermethylation in patients with chronic hepatitis B.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(10):17127-17139 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The clinical manifestations of hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) include chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The contribution of negative regulator suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) promoter variants in HBV disease and SOCS3 hypermethylation in tumor tissues were investigated. The SOCS3 promoter region was screened for polymorphisms in 878 HBV patients and in 272 healthy individuals. SOCS3 promoter methylation was examined by bisulfite sequencing. SOCS3 mRNA expression was quantified in 37 tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissue specimens. The minor allele rs12953258A was associated with increased susceptibility to HBV infection (OR=1.3, 95%CI=1.1-1.6, adjusted P=0.03). The minor allele rs111033850C and rs12953258A were observed in increased frequencies in HCC and LC patients compared to CHB patients (HCC: OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1-2.9, adjusted P=0.046; LC: OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.1-1.9, adjusted P=0.017, respectively). HBV patients with rs111033850CC major genotype had decreased viral load (P=0.034), whereas the rs12953258AA major genotype contributed towards increased viral load (P=0.029). Tumor tissues revealed increased hypermethylation compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues (OR=5.4; 95%CI= 1.9-17.1; P=0.001). Increased SOCS3 expression was observed in HBV infested tumor tissues than non-HBV related tumor tissues (P=0.0048). SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation was associated with relatively low mRNA expression in tumor tissues (P=0.0023). In conclusion, SOCS3 promoter variants are associated with HBV susceptibility and SOCS3 hypermethylation stimulates HCC development.

Dantas WS, Murai IH, Perandini LA, et al.
Acute exercise elicits differential expression of insulin resistance genes in the skeletal muscle of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017; 86(5):688-697 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the role of acute exercise on skeletal muscle gene expression related to insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls.
METHODS: Four obese women with PCOS and four body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (CTRL) participated in this study. After an overnight fast, the subjects underwent a single 40-min bout of aerobic exercise. Muscle samples were obtained from vastus lateralis at baseline and 60 min after exercise. The expression of a panel of insulin resistance genes was evaluated by a quantitative PCR array system. Network-based analyses were performed to interpret transcriptional changes occurring before and after the exercise challenge.
RESULTS: Overall, differentially expressed genes associated with mitochondria function and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling were identified. At baseline, there was a significant upregulation of six genes exclusively in PCOS (i.e. NFKBIA, MAPK3, PPARGC1A, GAPDH, ACTB and PPARA). Twelve genes were upregulated in CTRL after a single bout of aerobic exercise (i.e. LEPR, CXCR4, CCR5, IL-18R1, CRLF2, ACACA, CEBPA, PPARGC1A, UCP1, TNFRSF1B, TLR4 and IKBKB). After the exercise session, three genes were upregulated in PCOS (i.e. SOCS3, NAMPT and IL-8), whilst IL-6 was upregulated in both groups after exercise.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence on the effects of acute exercise on insulin resistance genes in skeletal muscle of PCOS. The differentially expressed genes reported herein could be further investigated as targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving insulin resistance in this syndrome.

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