Gene Summary

Gene:STMN1; stathmin 1
Aliases: Lag, SMN, OP18, PP17, PP19, PR22, LAP18, C1orf215
Summary:This gene belongs to the stathmin family of genes. It encodes a ubiquitous cytosolic phosphoprotein proposed to function as an intracellular relay integrating regulatory signals of the cellular environment. The encoded protein is involved in the regulation of the microtubule filament system by destabilizing microtubules. It prevents assembly and promotes disassembly of microtubules. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: STMN1 (cancer-related)

Ishida E, Lee J, Campbell JS, et al.
Intratumoral delivery of an HPV vaccine elicits a broad anti-tumor immune response that translates into a potent anti-tumor effect in a preclinical murine HPV model.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(8):1273-1286 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Therapeutic cancer vaccines have met limited clinical success. In the setting of cancer, the immune system is either tolerized and/or has a limited tumor-specific T cell repertoire. In this study, we explore whether intratumoral (IT) vaccination with an HPV vaccine can elicit quantitative and qualitative differences in immune response as compared to intramuscular (IM) vaccination to overcome immune resistance in established tumors. We report that IT administration of an HPV-16 E7 peptide vaccine formulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] generated an enhanced antitumor effect relative to IM delivery. The elicited anti-tumor effect with IT vaccination was consistent among the vaccinated groups and across various C57BL/6 substrains. IT vaccination resulted in an increased frequency of PD-1

Holland BC, Sood A, Delfino K, et al.
Age and sex have no impact on expression levels of markers of immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoint pathways in patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):991-997 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Advanced age and female sex have been associated with worse outcomes in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A reduced immune response has been implicated as a mechanism. The objective of our study was to analyze the expression patterns of various cellular proteins active in bladder cancer immune pathways, and assess the correlation between age, sex, and the expression of these immune markers.
METHODS: We obtained surgical tissue samples from equally distributed male/female patients with/without lymph node metastasis who had undergone radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder (n = 50). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3 (cluster of differentiation), CD4, CD8, CD56, LAG-3 (lymphocyte-activation gene), TIM-3 (T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain), PD-1 (programmed death) and PD-L1 molecules was performed and scored by a single pathologist (high versus low). Spearman's correlation and Chi square tests investigated the association between age, sex, and IHC results.
RESULTS: Mean age at surgery was 67 years (range 50-78 years); all patients were Caucasians. The following percent of patients scored high for a stain: 18% CD3, 10% CD4, 0% CD8, 0% CD56, 20% LAG-3, 4% TIM-3, 0% PD-1 and 0% PD-L1. There was no association between patients' age, sex, and the expression of any of the immune markers (p > 0.05 for all).
CONCLUSIONS: The association between advanced age, female sex, and worse outcomes in bladder cancer may be independent of the immune pathways active in the disease that we examined in this study.

Klein S, Mauch C, Wagener-Ryczek S, et al.
Immune-phenotyping of pleomorphic dermal sarcomas suggests this entity as a potential candidate for immunotherapy.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(6):973-982 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic dermal sarcomas (PDS) are sarcomas of the skin with local recurrences in up to 28% of cases, and distant metastases in up to 20%. Although recent evidence provides a strong rational to explore immunotherapeutics in solid tumors, nothing is known about the immune environment of PDS.
METHODS: In the current study, a comprehensive immune-phenotyping of 14 PDS using RNA and protein expression analyses, as well as quantitative assessment of immune cells using an image-analysis tool was performed.
RESULTS: Three out of 14 PDS revealed high levels of CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TILs), also showing elevated levels of immune-related cytokines such as IL1A, IL2, as well as markers that were very recently linked to enhanced response of immunotherapy in malignant melanoma, including CD27, and CD40L. Using a multivariate analysis, we found a number of differentially expressed genes in the CD8-high group including: CD74, LYZ and HLA-B, while the remaining cases revealed enhanced levels of immune-suppressive cytokines including CXCL14. The "CD8-high" PDS showed strong MHC-I expression and revealed infiltration by PD-L1-, PD-1- and LAG-3-expressing immune cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) predominantly consisted of CD68 + , CD163 + , and CD204 + M2 macrophages showing an accentuation at the tumor invasion front.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, we provide first explorative evidence about the immune-environment of PDS tumors that may guide future decisions whether individuals presenting with advanced PDS could qualify for immunotherapeutic options.

Mollica V, Di Nunno V, Gatto L, et al.
Novel Therapeutic Approaches and Targets Currently Under Evaluation for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Waiting for the Revolution.
Clin Drug Investig. 2019; 39(6):503-519 [PubMed] Related Publications
Management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma has drastically changed in the last few years, witnessing the advent of more and more target therapies and, recently, of immune-checkpoint inhibitors. On the other hand, the adjuvant setting still lacks a clear beneficial treatment. Medical treatment still remains a compelling challenge. A large number of clinical trials is ongoing with the aim to identify new therapeutic approaches to expand the options in our repertoire. Several strategies are under investigation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). These include new targeted agents and combinations of target therapy and immunotherapy. Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) are just part of the intricate network that regulates our immune response to cancer cells. Co-stimulators, such as glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 4 (OX40), and co-repressors, example.g. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), also take part. As knowledge of the functioning of the immune system grows, so do these pathways to target with new drugs. This review is an overview of the current state of the clinical research, providing a report of ongoing Phase I, II and III clinical trials for localized and metastatic RCC, including novel target therapies, novel immunotherapy agents and new combinations strategies.

Noviello M, Manfredi F, Ruggiero E, et al.
Bone marrow central memory and memory stem T-cell exhaustion in AML patients relapsing after HSCT.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1065 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
The major cause of death after allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is disease relapse. We investigated the expression of Inhibitory Receptors (IR; PD-1/CTLA-4/TIM-3/LAG-3/2B4/KLRG1/GITR) on T cells infiltrating the bone marrow (BM) of 32 AML patients relapsing (median 251 days) or maintaining complete remission (CR; median 1 year) after HSCT. A higher proportion of early-differentiated Memory Stem (T

Chen S, Zhao Y, Shen F, et al.
Introduction of exogenous wild‑type p53 mediates the regulation of oncoprotein 18/stathmin signaling via nuclear factor‑κB in non‑small cell lung cancer NCI‑H1299 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):2051-2059 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies demonstrated that high expression of oncoprotein 18 (Op18)/stathmin promotes malignant transformation of non‑small cell lung cancer NCI‑H1299 cells. Investigation of the cellular settings determined that NCI‑H1299 cells were genetically p53 deficient. In order to determine whether p53 deficiency is associated with Op18/stathmin‑mediated high levels of malignancy, exogenous wild‑type p53 (p53wt) was introduced into NCI‑H1299 cells in the present study to observe Op18/stathmin signaling changes and malignant behaviors. The results indicated that p53 downregulated Op18/stathmin expression and phosphorylation at the Ser25 and Ser63 sites in NCI‑H1299 cells, and the abilities of proliferation, colony formation and migration in multi‑dimensional spaces were simultaneously reduced. Introduction of p53wt inhibited the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), and the activities of the Op18/stathmin upstream kinases cyclin‑dependent 2 (CDC2) and extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, blocking of NF‑κB signaling decreased CDC2 and ERK activation. Additionally, p53 intervention attenuated the secretion and protein expression of the immune inhibitory cytokine interleukin‑10, which was in accordance with the effect of NF‑κB signaling inhibition. Further experiments validated that p53 enhanced the sensitivity of NCI‑H1299 cells to Taxol through initiating the caspase‑3 and ‑9 intrinsic death pathways, and resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phases. These data indicated that exogenous p53wt mediates the regulation of Op18/stathmin signaling through the p53‑NF‑κB‑CDC2/ERK‑Op18/stathmin pathway, and that p53 deficiency is associated with high malignancy levels of NCI‑H1299 cells.

Shu F, Zou X, Tuo H, et al.
Stathmin gene silencing suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells via AKT/sCLU and STAT3 signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):1086-1098 [PubMed] Related Publications
Globally, gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy, with high rates of incidence and mortality. The high mortality rate and poor prognosis of gastric cancer are closely associated with its profound invasiveness, high incidence of metastasis, rapid proliferation, and high rate of recurrence. Previous studies have confirmed that stathmin (STMN) has an important role in the occurrence, development and prognosis of gastric cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms by which STMN affects these processes remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine how STMN promotes invasion, migration and proliferation in gastric cancer tumor cells. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated that STMN is overexpressed in stomach neoplasm tissues, and that it is associated with migration, invasion, proliferation and anti‑apoptotic states of gastric cancer cells. The secretory proteins of gastric cancer cells with or without STMN knockdown were further analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation method to identify differentially expressed proteins verified by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Inhibition of STMN decreases the levels of clusterin, cystatin C and matrix metalloproteinases, followed by inhibiting the protein kinase B and signal transducer and activation of transcription activation. These findings suggest that STMN could be a promising therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

Li J, Qi Z, Hu YP, Wang YX
Possible biomarkers for predicting lymph node metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a review.
J Int Med Res. 2019; 47(2):544-556 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common form of cancer worldwide, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a major type of esophageal cancer that arises from epithelial cells of the esophagus. Local lymph node metastasis (LNM) is a typical sign of failure for ESCC clinical treatments, and a link has been established between LNM and the aberrant expression of specific biomarkers. In this review, we summarize what is known about nine factors significantly associated with LNM in ESCC patients: phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), mucin 1, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8), Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein, stathmin (STMN1), metastasis-associated protein 1, caveolin-1, and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3. The function of these nine proteins involves four major mechanisms: tumor cell proliferation, tumor cell migration and invasion, epithelium-mesenchymal transition, and chemosensitivity. The roles of PTEN, STMN1, and TNFAIP8 involve at least two of these mechanisms, and we suggest that they are possible biomarkers for predicting LNM in ESCC. However, further retrospective research into PTEN, STMN1, and TNFAIP8 is needed to test their possibilities as indicators.

Zhang WT, Zhang ZW, Guo YD, et al.
Discovering biomarkers in bladder cancer by metabolomics.
Biomark Med. 2018; 12(12):1347-1359 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has become increasingly clear that the development of cancer, a multifactorial disease, cannot be explained by a single molecule or gene mutation. As a new discipline, metabolomics focuses on the body's metabolite changes, and attempts to find differences to explain the development of cancer; it has proven to be effective and credible. Metabolic studies of bladder cancer (BCa) lag behind those of other tumors. This review systematically outlines the specific process of metabolomics and the use of metabolomics in BCa studies in recent years. We have reviewed the in vitro cell line, bladder tumor tissue and biofluid (urine, plasma and serum) studies used in metabolomics analyses of BCa. The advantages and drawbacks of the use of different samples were compared. Based on the available studies, we have further described the aberrant metabolic pathways of BCa and have suggested some metabolites that may be potential biomarkers for BCa detection.

Wang X, Peng L, Gong X, et al.
miR-423-5p Inhibits Osteosarcoma Proliferation and Invasion Through Directly Targeting STMN1.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(6):2249-2259 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidences suggest that dysregulated expression of miRNAs contributes to the progression of various tumors. However, the underlying function of miR-423-5p in osteosarcoma remains unexplored.
METHODS: The expression of miR-423-5p and STMN1 were determined in osteosarcoma samples and cell lines via quantitative real-time PCR. Colony formation and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays were performed to measure cell proliferation ability and transwell analysis was used to detect cell invasion, and dual luciferase reporter assay was perform to analysis the interaction between the miR-423-5p and STMN1.
RESULTS: The expression levels of miR-423-5p and STMN1 in the osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines were measured by qRT-PCR. Cell viability was determined using the clone formation and CCK-8 assays. A dual-luciferase reporter and Western blot were performed to stdudy the target gene of miR-423-5p. Here, we showed that miR-423-5p expression was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. However, the expression of stathmin1 (STMN1) was downregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines. Moreover, STMN1 expression level was negatively correlated with the miR-423-5p expression in the osteosarcoma tissues. We identified STMN1 was a direct target gene of miR-423-5p in osteosarcoma cell. Overexpression of miR-423-5p inhibited osteosarcoma cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that STMN1 was involved in miR-423-5p-mediated cell behavior such as cell proliferation, colony formation and invasion in the osteosarcoma cell.
CONCLUSION: Our present study indicated that miR-423-5p acted as a tumor suppressor gene in osteosarcoma partly through inhibiting STMN1 expression.

Bens A, Cronin-Fenton D, Dehlendorff C, et al.
Nonaspirin NSAIDs and contralateral breast cancer risk.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(6):1243-1250 [PubMed] Related Publications
Laboratory studies suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes inhibits breast cancer development. We aimed to evaluate whether postdiagnosis use of COX-2 selective or other nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among Danish breast cancer patients. From the clinical database of the Danish Breast Cancer Group, we identified 52,723 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1996 and 2012. Data on nonaspirin NSAID use, CBC and potential confounding variables were obtained from nationwide registries. We defined postdiagnosis use (two or more prescriptions) as a time-varying covariate with a one-year lag. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CBC associated with nonaspirin NSAID use. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years (interquartile range: 2.3-9 years), 1,444 patients were diagnosed with CBC. Overall, postdiagnosis use of nonaspirin NSAID was associated with an adjusted HR for CBC of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.87-1.11). The HRs did not vary substantially with duration or intensity of nonaspirin NSAID use. Moreover, similar associations were found for COX-2 selective (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.85-1.23) and nonselective (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82-1.13) nonaspirin NSAIDs. In conclusion, our nationwide cohort study of breast cancer patients does not suggest a reduced risk of CBC with nonaspirin NSAID use regardless of the COX-2 selectivity.

Zhang Q, Salzler R, Dore A, et al.
Multiplex Immuno-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Parallel Reaction Monitoring (LC-MS-PRM) Quantitation of CD8A, CD4, LAG3, PD1, PD-L1, and PD-L2 in Frozen Human Tissues.
J Proteome Res. 2018; 17(11):3932-3940 [PubMed] Related Publications
The immune status of tumors critically influences their responsiveness to PD1 blockades and other immune-based therapies. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a clinically validated predictive biomarker of response to checkpoint-inhibitor therapy in a limited number of clinical settings but is poorly predictive in most. With emerging evidence that multiple pathways and immune-checkpoint proteins may coordinately contribute to the adaptive immune resistance, the identification and quantitation of multiple immune markers in tumor tissue could help identify the controlling pathways in a given patient, guide the selection of optimal therapy, and monitor response to treatment. We developed and validated a sensitive and robust immuno-liquid chromatography-parallel reaction monitoring assay to simultaneously quantify the expression levels of six immune markers (CD8A, CD4, LAG3, PD1, PD-L1, and PD-L2) using as little as 1-2 mg of fresh frozen tissue. The lower limit of quantitation ranged from 0.07 ng/mg protein for PD1 to 1.0 ng/mg protein for CD4. The intrabatch accuracy was within -16.6% to 15.0% for all proteins at all concentrations, and the variation ranged from 0.8% to 14.7%, while interbatch accuracy was within -6.3% to 8.6%, and the variation ranged from 1.3% to 12.8%. The validated assay was then applied to quantify all six biomarkers in different tissues and was confirmed to have sufficient sensitivity (0.07-1.00 ng/mg protein) and reproducibility (variation ranged from 4.3 to 12.0%). In an analysis of 26 cervical tumors, CD8A and CD4 were detected in all tumors, followed by PD-L1 in 85%, LAG-3 in 65%, PD1 in 50%, and PD-L2 in 35%. The strongest correlations were observed between CD8A and CD4 ( r = 0.88) and CD8A and LAG-3 ( r = 0.86). PD1 was not significantly correlated with any of the other proteins tested. This method can be applied to survey the immune signatures across tumor types and tailored to incorporate additional markers as needed.

Bens A, Friis S, Dehlendorff C, et al.
Low-dose aspirin use and risk of contralateral breast cancer: a Danish nationwide cohort study.
Prev Med. 2018; 116:186-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
Observational studies of aspirin use and breast cancer risk have provided inconsistent results. The occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among breast cancer survivors may serve as a useful high-risk model to identify preventive drug effects. Using this model, we examined the association between post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and risk of CBC. We identified all women recorded with a first primary breast cancer in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Database between 1996 and 2012. Information on drug use, tumor and patient characteristics, treatment, and CBC was obtained from nationwide registries. In the main analysis, we defined time-varying post-diagnosis low-dose aspirin use as two or more prescriptions filled during follow-up and applied a one-year exposure lag. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between post-diagnosis low-dose aspirin use and CBC risk. Among 52,723 breast cancer patients, 1,444 women developed CBC during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The adjusted HR for CBC associated with post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.75-1.09). We observed no substantial variation in HRs according to pattern of low-dose aspirin use or estrogen receptor status of the first or the contralateral breast cancer. In conclusion, this large nationwide cohort study of breast cancer survivors does not provide strong evidence suggesting an association between post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and risk of CBC.

Honda K, Katzke VA, Hüsing A, et al.
CA19-9 and apolipoprotein-A2 isoforms as detection markers for pancreatic cancer: a prospective evaluation.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(8):1877-1887 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we identified unique processing patterns of apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Our study provides a first prospective evaluation of an ApoA2 isoform ("ApoA2-ATQ/AT"), alone and in combination with carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), as an early detection biomarker for pancreatic cancer. We performed ELISA measurements of CA19-9 and ApoA2-ATQ/AT in 156 patients with pancreatic cancer and 217 matched controls within the European EPIC cohort, using plasma samples collected up to 60 months prior to diagnosis. The detection discrimination statistics were calculated for risk scores by strata of lag-time. For CA19-9, in univariate marker analyses, C-statistics to distinguish future pancreatic cancer patients from cancer-free individuals were 0.80 for plasma taken ≤6 months before diagnosis, and 0.71 for >6-18 months; for ApoA2-ATQ/AT, C-statistics were 0.62, and 0.65, respectively. Joint models based on ApoA2-ATQ/AT plus CA19-9 significantly improved discrimination within >6-18 months (C = 0.74 vs. 0.71 for CA19-9 alone, p = 0.022) and ≤ 18 months (C = 0.75 vs. 0.74, p = 0.022). At 98% specificity, and for lag times of ≤6, >6-18 or ≤ 18 months, sensitivities were 57%, 36% and 43% for CA19-9 combined with ApoA2-ATQ/AT, respectively, vs. 50%, 29% and 36% for CA19-9 alone. Compared to CA19-9 alone, the combination of CA19-9 and ApoA2-ATQ/AT may improve detection of pancreatic cancer up to 18 months prior to diagnosis under usual care, and may provide a useful first measure for pancreatic cancer detection prior to imaging.

Li N, Jilisihan B, Wang W, et al.
Soluble LAG3 acts as a potential prognostic marker of gastric cancer and its positive correlation with CD8+T cell frequency and secretion of IL-12 and INF-γ in peripheral blood.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(3):341-351 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common lethal cancer worldwide and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) as a therapeutic target for cancers has been investigated. Herein, our study is to clarify the value of peripheral blood (PB) soluble LAG-3 (sLAG3) in GC.
METHODS: Peripheral serum samples of GC patients and healthy people were collected for the measurement of serum levels of sLAG3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), IL-12 and IFN-γ. Additionally, ROC and Kaplan-Meier curves were adopted to identify the diagnostic and prognostic values of sLAG-3 in patients with GC. Then, GC-bearing mice were treated with recombinant sLAG3. The tumor volume was measured, and CD8+T cell frequency was detected in PB and tumor-ininfiltrating area. Additionally, the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ in T cells was assayed and the overall survival of mice was analyzed.
RESULTS: sLAG3 in PB was poorly expressed and its expression was positively correlated with IL-12 and IFN-γ expression in GC patients. sLAG3 was proved to have a higher diagnostic value than CEA in GC. Moreover, high sLAG-3 expression is found in relation to a better prognosis in GC. The in vivo experiments indicated that sLAG-3 might inhibit the tumor growth, and promote the secretion of CD8+T cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, sLAG-3 was able to prolong overall survival and increase survival rate of GC-bearing mice.
CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we conclude that sLAG3 positively regulates CD8+T cells, IL-12 and IFN-γ, and function as a prognostic marker for GC, which might be a potential target in the treatment of GC.

Zhu L, Chen Y, Nie K, et al.
MiR-101 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer through targeting STMN1.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 23(2):301-309 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiRNAs regulated most genes expression, which were proved important in various tumors. In this study, we want to investigate miR-101 effect and molecular mechanism on pancreatic cancer (PC), the research about this was blank now. RT-PCR analysis showed that miR-101 expression was declined in PC. MTT assay found that miR-101 mimic suppressed cell viability, while suppressing miR-101 facilitated cell proliferation. Transwell assay showed that miR-101 mimic inhibited cell invasion, but promoted cell invasion by miR-101 inhibitor. With TargetScanHuman's help, we verified STMN1 as a specific target of miR-101 and luciferase reporter assay was carried out to further confirm this discovery. STMN1 expression was reduced by miR-101 mimic and increased by miR-101 inhibitor. We next found that STMN1 was elevated in PC and its expression was negatively correlated with miR-101 expression. Furthermore, STMN1 siRNA curbed cell proliferation and invasion, which was opposite to miR-101 inhibitor effect on PC progression and STMN1 siRNA attenuated miR-101 inhibitor effect on cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, miR-101 inhibited PC cell proliferation and invasion via regulating STMN1, which provided a potential therapeutic for PC patients.

Tomcikova D, Gerinec A, Busanyova B, et al.
Incomprehensible treatment of retinoblastoma with high doses of vitamin C.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2018; 119(8):513-515 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSES: To inform about a case of neglected retinoblastoma that was left untreated for more than 3 years by parents. During this time period the local finding worsened from endophytic retinoblastoma group B according IIRC (ABC classification) to extraorbital propagation.
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in childhood, that occurs approximately in 1 : 15-20 000 births worldwide. In European region cases of extraocular propagation are very infrequent. Extraorbital propagation is extremely rare in middle and high income countries.
METHODS: We report the preoperative ophthalmological findings, MRI imaging, treatment methods and postoperative results of this case.
RESULTS: After initial dose of six courses of chemotherapy patient underwent surgery (orbital exenteration). In postoperative period patient received two more courses of chemotherapy. In spite of progressed stage of the disease, we obtained good results with our therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: We suppose that good treatment results, in spite of extraordinary long lag interval and hopeless pretreatment condition, caused by alternative therapy with high doses vitamin C and no protein intake, were caused by therapeutic naïve retinoblastoma with an absence of RB1 gene mutation (Fig. 6, Ref. 7).

Jun HJ, Appleman VA, Wu HJ, et al.
A PDGFRα-driven mouse model of glioblastoma reveals a stathmin1-mediated mechanism of sensitivity to vinblastine.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3116 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain cancer that includes focal amplification of PDGFRα and for which there are no effective therapies. Herein, we report the development of a genetically engineered mouse model of GBM based on autocrine, chronic stimulation of overexpressed PDGFRα, and the analysis of GBM signaling pathways using proteomics. We discover the tubulin-binding protein Stathmin1 (STMN1) as a PDGFRα phospho-regulated target, and that this mis-regulation confers sensitivity to vinblastine (VB) cytotoxicity. Treatment of PDGFRα-positive mouse and a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) GBMs with VB in mice prolongs survival and is dependent on STMN1. Our work reveals a previously unconsidered link between PDGFRα activity and STMN1, and highlight an STMN1-dependent cytotoxic effect of VB in GBM.

Sasidharan Nair V, Toor SM, Taha RZ, et al.
DNA methylation and repressive histones in the promoters of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, TIGIT, PD-L1, and galectin-9 genes in human colorectal cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):104 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed human malignancy worldwide. Upregulation of inhibitory immune checkpoints by tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) or their ligands by tumor cells leads to tumor evasion from host immunosurveillance. Changes in DNA methylation pattern and enrichment of methylated histone marks in the promoter regions could be major contributors to the upregulation of immune checkpoints (ICs) in the tumor microenvironment (TME).
METHODS: Relative expressions of various immune checkpoints and ligands in colon normal tissues (NT) and colorectal tumor tissues (TT) were assessed by qRT-PCR. The epigenetic modifications behind this upregulation were determined by investigating the CpG methylation status of their promoter regions using bisulfite sequencing. Distributions of histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) in promoter regions of these genes were assessed by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay.
RESULTS: We found that the expression levels of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, TIGIT, PD-L1, and galectin-9 were significantly higher in colorectal tumor tissues, compared with colon normal tissues. To study the role of DNA methylation, we checked the promoter CpG methylation of ICs and ligands and found that only CTLA-4 and TIGIT, among other genes, were significantly hypomethylated in TT compared with NT. Next, we checked the abundance of repressive histones (H3K9me3 and H3K27me3) in the promoter regions of ICs/ligands. We found that bindings of H3K9me3 in PD-1 and TIGIT promoters and H3K27me3 in CTLA-4 promotor were significantly lower in TT compared with NT. Additionally, bindings of both H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 in the TIM-3 promoter were significantly lower in TT compared with NT.
CONCLUSION: This study shows that both DNA hypomethylation and H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 repressive histones are involved in upregulation of CTLA-4 and TIGIT genes. However, repressive histones, but not DNA hypomethylation, are involved in upregulation of PD-1 and TIM-3 genes in CRC tumor tissue. These epigenetic modifications could be utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for CRC.

Chaussade A, Millot G, Wells C, et al.
Correlation between RB1germline mutations and second primary malignancies in hereditary retinoblastoma patients treated with external beam radiotherapy.
Eur J Med Genet. 2019; 62(3):217-223 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retinoblastoma (Rb) results from biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene. Hereditary Rb patients i. e germline carriers of a RB1 mutation also have a risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) such as osteosarcomas. This SMN risk is maximized by external beam radiotherapy treatments (EBRT), which is why these treatments are now avoided. Nevertheless, EBRT is still a matter of great concern, as EBRT-treated patients are in their adulthood and SMNs remain the major cause of death for patients. To decipher the relationship between RB1 genotype and SMN development in EBRT treated patients, we conducted a retrospective study in a cohort of 160 irradiated hereditary Rbs with fully resolved RB1 mutational status. Median follow-up was 22 years [1-51] and median age of patients was 27 years old [7-53]. Among these 160 Rb patients, 120 did not develop any SMN (75%) and 40 developed SMNs (25%). The age at which EBRT is given (i.e. before or after the age of 12 months) was not correlated to SMN development (p = 0.6). We didn't find any difference in RB1 mutation type between patients with or without SMN, neither could we detect any linkage between mutation type and SMN location, SMN type and age at diagnosis. Interestingly, among 13 carriers of a RB1 low penetrance mutation, 3 of them developed sarcomas, a rare tumor that cannot be attributed to the general population. Our study cannot explain why a RB1 mutation leads or not to a SMN but demonstrated that EBRT patients with a low penetrance mutation remain at risk of SMN and should be cautiously monitored.

Sasidharan Nair V, El Salhat H, Taha RZ, et al.
DNA methylation and repressive H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation in the promoter regions of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, LAG-3, TIGIT, and PD-L1 genes in human primary breast cancer.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Background: High expression of immune checkpoints in tumor microenvironment plays significant roles in inhibiting anti-tumor immunity, which is associated with poor prognosis and cancer progression. Major epigenetic modifications in both DNA and histone could be involved in upregulation of immune checkpoints in cancer.
Methods: Expressions of different immune checkpoint genes and PD-L1 were assessed using qRT-PCR, and the underlying epigenetic modifications including CpG methylation and repressive histone abundance were determined using bisulfite sequencing, and histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP), respectively.
Results: We first assessed the expression level of six immune checkpoints/ligands and found that PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, and LAG-3 were significantly upregulated in breast tumor tissues (TT), compared with breast normal tissues (NT). We investigated the epigenetic modifications beyond this upregulation in immune checkpoint genes. Interestingly, we found that CpG islands in the promoter regions of PD-1, CTLA-4, and TIM-3 were significantly hypomethylated in tumor compared with normal tissues. Additionally, CpG islands of PD-L1 promoter were completely demethylated (100%), LAG-3 were highly hypomethylated (80-90%), and TIGIT were poorly hypomethylated (20-30%), in both NT and TT. These demethylation findings are in accordance with the relative expression data that, out of all these genes, PD-L1 was highly expressed and completely demethylated and TIGIT was poorly expressed and hypermethylated in both NT and TT. Moreover, bindings of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 were found to be reduced in the promoter loci of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, and LAG-3 in tumor tissues.
Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that both DNA and histone modifications are involved in upregulation of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, and LAG-3 in breast tumor tissue and these epigenetic modifications could be useful as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

Querfeld C, Leung S, Myskowski PL, et al.
Primary T Cells from Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma Skin Explants Display an Exhausted Immune Checkpoint Profile.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(8):900-909 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) develops from clonally expanded CD4

Wu H, Deng WW, Yang LL, et al.
Expression and phosphorylation of Stathmin 1 indicate poor survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and associate with immune suppression.
Biomark Med. 2018; 12(7):759-769 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Stathmin 1 and Serine 38 phospho-Stathmin 1 (p-Stathmin 1
RESULTS: Stathmin 1 and p-Stathmin 1
CONCLUSION: We found expression of Stathmin 1 and p-Stathmin 1

Li R, Dou S, Ruan M, et al.
A feasibility and safety study of concurrent chemotherapy based on genetic testing in patients with high-risk salivary gland tumors: Preliminary results.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(17):e0564 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of customized chemotherapy regimens based on the gene characteristics of salivary gland tumors.
METHODS: Patients were enrolled with histologically confirmed intermediate or high grade, stage T3-4, N1-3 disease, and T1-2, N0 patients with a close (≤1 mm) or microscopically positive surgical margin were also enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. To evaluate the responsiveness of therapies, the chemotherapy regimen was based on gene targets, β-tubulin III, ABCB1, STMN1, and CYP1B1 (for docetaxel) and TYMS (for pemetrexed). The primary endpoints were treatment compliance and acute toxicities.
RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled between September 2013 and January 2016. The median age was 46 years (range: 23-70 years). Genetic testing showed that 8 patients may have been sensitive to docetaxel, 5 patients may have been sensitive to pemetrexed, and 7 patients sensitive to either docetaxel or pemetrexed. All patients received the full dose of radiation. A total of 19 patients (95%) completed 2 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). One patient treated concurrently with pemetrexed experienced grade 3 neutropenia. Three patients experienced grade 3 oral mucositis, and 2 patients experienced grade 3 dermatitis.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that a CCT selecting method based on the gene targets associated with drug sensitivity was clinically feasible and safe. Further studies enrolled more patients with longer follow-up times are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this CCT selecting method.

Granier C, Vinatier E, Colin E, et al.
Multiplexed Immunofluorescence Analysis and Quantification of Intratumoral PD-1+ Tim-3+ CD8+ T Cells.
J Vis Exp. 2018; (132) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Immune cells are important components of the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor growth and evolution at all stages of carcinogenesis. Notably, it is now well established that the immune infiltrate in human tumors can correlate with prognosis and response to therapy. The analysis of the immune infiltrate in the tumor microenvironment has become a major challenge for the classification of patients and the response to treatment. The co-expression of inhibitory receptors such as Program Cell Death Protein 1 (PD1; also known as CD279), Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4), T-Cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin Containing Protein-3 (Tim-3; also known as CD366), and Lymphocyte Activation Gene 3 (Lag-3; also known as CD223), is a hallmark of T cell exhaustion. We developed a multiparametric in situ immunofluorescence staining to identify and quantify at the cellular level the co-expression of these inhibitory receptors. On a retrospective series of frozen tissue of renal cell carcinomas (RCC), using a fluorescence multispectral imaging technology coupled with an image analysis software, it was found that co-expression of PD-1 and Tim-3 on tumor infiltrating CD8

Charlton J, Downing TL, Smith ZD, et al.
Global delay in nascent strand DNA methylation.
Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2018; 25(4):327-332 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/02/2020 Related Publications
Cytosine methylation is widespread among organisms and essential for mammalian development. In line with early postulations of an epigenetic role in gene regulation, symmetric CpG methylation can be mitotically propagated over many generations with extraordinarily high fidelity. Here, we combine BrdU labeling and immunoprecipitation with genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to explore the inheritance of cytosine methylation onto newly replicated DNA in human cells. Globally, we observe a pronounced lag between the copying of genetic and epigenetic information in embryonic stem cells that is reconsolidated within hours to accomplish faithful mitotic transmission. Populations of arrested cells show a global reduction of lag-induced intermediate CpG methylation when compared to proliferating cells, whereas sites of transcription factor engagement appear cell-cycle invariant. Alternatively, the cancer cell line HCT116 preserves global epigenetic heterogeneity independently of cell-cycle arrest. Taken together, our data suggest that heterogeneous methylation largely reflects asynchronous proliferation, but is intrinsic to actively engaged cis-regulatory elements and cancer.

Curmi F, Cauchi RJ
The multiple lives of DEAD-box RNA helicase DP103/DDX20/Gemin3.
Biochem Soc Trans. 2018; 46(2):329-341 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gemin3, also known as DDX20 or DP103, is a DEAD-box RNA helicase which is involved in more than one cellular process. Though RNA unwinding has been determined

Mizuno Y, Maemura K, Tanaka Y, et al.
Expression of delta-like 3 is downregulated by aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(5):2209-2216 [PubMed] Related Publications
Delta-like 3 (DLL3) is a member of the Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 family of ligands for the Notch receptor and plays a role in Notch signaling. We have previously revealed that the expression of DLL3 is silenced by aberrant DNA methylation and that overexpression of DLL3 in the HuH2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line induced apoptosis. In the present study, we first confirmed the methylation of DLL3 in HuH2 cells and analyzed the methylation status of the DLL3 promoter region by bisulfite sequencing. Furthermore, we investigated whether other epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation and histone methylation, affected the expression of DLL3. Treatment with the DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-azadeoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) slightly reactivated DLL3 mRNA expression and bisulfite sequencing revealed that CpG sites in the DLL3 promoter region of the HuH2 cells were densely-methylated. In addition, a significant increase in the expression of DLL3 was observed when the cells were treated with 5-Aza-dC in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. However, an inhibitor of the dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) or the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), modifications that are associated with gene silencing, had no effect on DLL3 reactivation. In combination with the findings from our previous study, these results indicated that DLL3 expression was silenced in HCC cells by DNA methylation and was more readily affected by histone acetylation than histone methylation (H3K9me2 or H3K27me3).

Bialkowski L, Van der Jeught K, Bevers S, et al.
Immune checkpoint blockade combined with IL-6 and TGF-β inhibition improves the therapeutic outcome of mRNA-based immunotherapy.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(3):686-698 [PubMed] Related Publications
Improved understanding of cancer immunology has provided insight into the phenomenon of frequent tumor recurrence after initially successful immunotherapy. A delicate balance exists between the capacity of the immune system to control tumor growth and various resistance mechanisms that arise to avoid or even counteract the host's immune system. These resistance mechanisms include but are not limited to (i) adaptive expression of inhibitory checkpoint molecules in response to the proinflammatory environment and (ii) amplification of cancer stem cells, a small fraction of tumor cells possessing the capacity for self-renewal and mediating treatment resistance and formation of metastases after long periods of clinical remission. Several individual therapeutic agents have so far been developed to revert T-cell exhaustion or disrupt the cross-talk between cancer stem cells and the tumor-promoting microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that a three-arm combination therapy-consisting of an mRNA-based vaccine to induce antigen-specific T-cell responses, monoclonal antibodies blocking inhibitory checkpoint molecules (PD-1, TIM-3, LAG-3), and antibodies targeting IL-6 and TGF-β-improves the therapeutic outcome in subcutaneous TC-1 tumors and significantly prolongs survival of treated mice. Our findings point to a need for a rational development of multidimensional anticancer therapies, aiming at the induction of tumor-specific immunity and simultaneously targeting multiple resistance mechanisms.

Tan HT, Chung MCM
Label-Free Quantitative Phosphoproteomics Reveals Regulation of Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein upon Stathmin-1 Silencing in a Pair of Isogenic Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.
Proteomics. 2018; 18(8):e1700242 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this communication, we present the phosphoproteome changes in an isogenic pair of colorectal cancer cell lines, viz., the poorly metastatic HCT-116 and the highly metastatic derivative E1, upon stathmin-1 (STMN1) knockdown. The aim was to better understand how the alterations of the phosphoproteins in these cells are involved in cancer metastasis. After the phosphopeptides were enriched using the TiO

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