Gene Summary

Gene:TAGLN; transgelin
Aliases: SM22, SMCC, TAGLN1, WS3-10, SM22-alpha
Summary:This gene encodes a shape change and transformation sensitive actin-binding protein which belongs to the calponin family. It is ubiquitously expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscle, and is an early marker of smooth muscle differentiation. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in calcium-independent smooth muscle contraction. It acts as a tumor suppressor, and the loss of its expression is an early event in cell transformation and the development of some tumors, coinciding with cellular plasticity. The encoded protein has a domain architecture consisting of an N-terminal calponin homology (CH) domain and a C-terminal calponin-like (CLIK) domain. Mice with a knockout of the orthologous gene are viable and fertile but their vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit alterations in the distribution of the actin filament and changes in cytoskeletal organization. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
TAGLN is implicated in:
- actin binding
- cytoplasm
- muscle organ development
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TAGLN (cancer-related)

Yang R, Klimentová J, Göckel-Krzikalla E, et al.
Combined Transcriptome and Proteome Analysis of Immortalized Human Keratinocytes Expressing Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) Oncogenes Reveals Novel Key Factors and Networks in HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis.
mSphere. 2019; 4(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the role of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) as etiological agents in cancer development has been intensively studied during the last decades, there is still the necessity of understanding the impact of the HPV

Liu Y, Wu X, Wang G, et al.
CALD1, CNN1, and TAGLN identified as potential prognostic molecular markers of bladder cancer by bioinformatics analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(2):e13847 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in the genitourinary tract. We employed the GSE13507 data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database in order to identify key genes related to tumorigenesis, progression, and prognosis in BC patients.
METHODS: The data set used in this study included 10 normal bladder mucosae tissue samples and 165 primary BC tissue samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 2 types of samples were identified by GEO2R. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the online website DAVID. The online website STRING was used to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Moreover, the plugins in MCODE and cytoHubba in Cytoscape were employed to find the hub genes and modules in these DEGs.
RESULTS: We identified 154 DEGs comprising 135 downregulated genes and 19 upregulated genes. The GO enrichment results were mainly related to the contractile fiber part, extracellular region part, actin cytoskeleton, and extracellular region. The KEGG pathway enrichment results mainly comprised type I diabetes mellitus, asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and allograft rejection. A module was identified from the protein-protein interaction network. In total, 15 hub genes were selected and 3 of them comprising CALD1, CNN1, and TAGLN were associated with both overall survival and disease-free survival.
CONCLUSION: CALD1, CNN1, and TAGLN may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis as well as therapeutic targets in BC patients.

Lee H, Fu Z, Koo BH, et al.
The expression of TTF1, CDX2 and ISL1 in 74 poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2018; 37:30-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The expression profile of immunohistochemical markers of origin in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (PDNEC) is not well studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four PDNECs from gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) organs and the lung, including 48 large cell NEC (LCNEC) and 26 small cell carcinomas (SmCC), were subject to immunohistochemical staining for CDX2, TTF1 and ISL1. The staining intensity (1 to 3) and percentage of positive tumor cells [0 (negative), 1 (<50%) and 2 (≥50%)] were assessed. The multiplicative index (maximum 6) was calculated and the average total score (aTS) was determined for each primary site and histologic subtype.
RESULTS: In the 38 GEP and 36 lung PDNECs, CDX2, TTF1 and ISL1 staining was observed in 71% (aTS 2.8), 16% (aTS 0.4), 63% (aTS 1.9), and 22% (aTS 0.6), 72% (aTS 2.9) and 92% (aTS 3.8), respectively. GEP PDNECs showed a higher aTS for CDX2 and lower aTS for TTF1 and ISL1, compared to that of lung PDNECs (Student's t-test, p < 0.001). SmCC had a higher aTS for TTF1 and ISL1 (p < 0.001) and lower aTS for CDX2 (p < 0.002) than that of LCNEC.
CONCLUSIONS: CDX2 and TTF1 demonstrate potential utility in suggesting the primary site of PDNEC. In addition, CDX2 may be useful in supporting the diagnosis of LCNEC in cases with overlapping or borderline morphology. Utility of ISL1 as an adjunctive diagnostic marker of SmCC remains to be studied.

Wang G, Xiao L, Zhang M, et al.
Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 81 cases.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 79:57-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the bladder is a rare disease. We retrospectively studied a large series of bladder SmCC from a single institution. The patients included 69 men and 12 women with a mean age of 68 years. Most bladder SmCCs were presented at advanced stage, with tumors invading the muscularis propria and beyond (n = 77). SmCC was pure in 27 cases and mixed with other histologic types in 54 cases, including urothelial carcinoma (UC) (n = 32), UC in situ (n = 26), glandular (n = 14), micropapillary (n = 4), sarcomatoid (n = 4), squamous (n = 3), and plasmacytoid (n = 1) features. Most SmCCs expressed neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin (41/56), chromogranin (26/55), and CD56 (39/41); however, they did not express UC luminal markers CK20 (0/17), GATA3 (1/30), and uroplakin II (1/22). Some SmCCs showed focal expression of CK5/6 (9/25), a marker for the basal molecular subtype. Furthermore, expression of the retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene protein was lost in most of the bladder SmCCs (2/23). The patients' survival was significantly associated with cancer stage but did not show a significant difference between mixed and pure SmCCs. Compared with conventional UC at similar stages, SmCC had a worse prognosis only when patients developed metastatic diseases. In conclusion, bladder SmCC is an aggressive disease that is frequently present at an advanced stage. A fraction of SmCCs show a basal molecular subtype, which may underlie its good response to chemotherapy. Inactivation of the RB1 gene may be implicated in the oncogenesis of bladder SmCC.

Rosenberg EE, Gerashchenko GV, Hryshchenko NV, et al.
Expression of cancer-associated genes in prostate tumors.
Exp Oncol. 2017; 39(2):131-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND:  Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers in Western countries and takes the third place in morbidity in Ukraine. It is a highly heterogeneous disease.
AIM: To analyze relative expression levels of the TGFB1, IL1B, FOS, EFNA5, TAGLN, PLAU, and EPDR1 genes in malignant and non-malignant prostate tissues.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Total RNA was isolated from 16 prostate adenomas, 37 prostate adenocarcinomas, and 29 conventionally normal prostate tissues. To analyze relative gene expression levels the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed.
RESULTS: The significant alterations in the relative expression levels were found in all analyzed sample groups for 4 genes: FOS, EFNA5, IL1B, and TGFB1. We have found that FOS and EFNA5 were more frequently overexpressed in carcinomas with Gleason score ≤ 7, compared with adenomas. On contrary, PLAU expression levels were decreased more frequently in prostate cancers, compared with conventionally normal tissues. Noteworthy, we found positive correlation between IL1B expression level and PSA (for patients with slight PSA increase, no more than 20.0 ng/ml).
CONCLUSION: The EFNA5, FOS, IL1B, PLAU, and TGFB1 genes that showed significant expression alterations in prostate tumors, compared with conventionally normal prostate tissue, may play role in prostate cancer development and should be further investigated.

Morton LM, Sampson JN, Armstrong GT, et al.
Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Susceptibility Loci That Modify Radiation-Related Risk for Breast Cancer After Childhood Cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Background: Childhood cancer survivors treated with chest-directed radiotherapy have substantially elevated risk for developing breast cancer. Although genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in the general population is well studied, large-scale evaluation of breast cancer susceptibility after chest-directed radiotherapy for childhood cancer is lacking.
Methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in female survivors of childhood cancer, pooling two cohorts with detailed treatment data and systematic, long-term follow-up: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. The study population comprised 207 survivors who developed breast cancer and 2774 who had not developed any subsequent neoplasm as of last follow-up. Genotyping and subsequent imputation yielded 16 958 466 high-quality variants for analysis. We tested associations in the overall population and in subgroups stratified by receipt of lower than 10 and 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure. We report P values and pooled per-allele risk estimates from Cox proportional hazards regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: Among survivors who received 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure, a locus on 1q41 was associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (rs4342822, nearest gene PROX1 , risk allele frequency in control subjects [RAF controls ] = 0.46, hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 2.44, P = 7.09 × 10 -9 ). Two rare variants also showed potentially promising associations (breast radiation ≥10 gray: rs74949440, 11q23, TAGLN , RAF controls = 0.02, P = 5.84 × 10 -8 ; <10 gray: rs17020562, 1q32.3, RPS6KC1 , RAF controls = 0.0005, P = 6.68 × 10 -8 ). Associations were restricted to these dose subgroups, with consistent findings in the two survivor cohorts.
Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence that germline genetics outside high-risk syndromes could modify the effect of radiation exposure on breast cancer risk after childhood cancer.

Chen JY, Xu L, Fang WM, et al.
Identification of PA28β as a potential novel biomarker in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(10):1010428317719780 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common and serious malignancies in China. However, the exact mechanisms of tumor formation and progression are unclear. As late diagnosis and poor therapeutic efficacy result in lower survival rates, identifying biomarkers for early detection, prognostic evaluation, and recurrence monitoring of ESCC is necessary. Here we analyzed 10 protein expression profiles of ESCC core tissues and paired normal esophageal epithelial tissues using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We excised 29 protein spots with two-fold or greater differential expression between cancer and normal tissues and identified them using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The role of PA28β in ESCC cell was confirmed using cell growth, colony formation and soft agar in TE-1 cells pre- and post- PA28β transfection. Compared to their expression in the adjacent normal epithelia, 12 proteins, including transgelin (TAGLN), were upregulated in ESCC tissues; 17 proteins, including proteasome activator 28-beta subunit (PA28β), were downregulated (p < 0.05). Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed that PA28β was significantly underexpressed in ESCC tissues. The functional assays demonstrate that PA28β inhibited cell growth, proliferation and malignancy of TE-1 cells. Among the differentially expressed proteins, PA28β is a potential tumor inhibitor.

Kryza T, Silva LM, Bock N, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 induces cancer-associated fibroblast features in prostate-derived stromal cells.
Mol Oncol. 2017; 11(10):1307-1329 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peristromal interface. KLK4 induced CAF-like features in the prostate-derived WPMY1 normal stromal cell line, including increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ESR1 and SFRP1. KLK4 activated protease-activated receptor-1 in WPMY1 cells increasing expression of several factors (FGF1, TAGLN, LOX, IL8, VEGFA) involved in prostate cancer progression. In addition, KLK4 induced WPMY1 cell proliferation and secretome changes, which in turn stimulated HUVEC cell proliferation that could be blocked by a VEGFA antibody. Importantly, the genes dysregulated by KLK4 treatment of WPMY1 cells were also differentially expressed between patient-derived CAFs compared to matched nonmalignant fibroblasts and were further increased by KLK4 treatment. Taken together, we propose that epithelial-derived KLK4 promotes tumour progression by actively promoting CAF differentiation in the prostate stromal microenvironment.

Yuan Y, Shi Y, Li C, et al.
DeepGene: an advanced cancer type classifier based on deep learning and somatic point mutations.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2016; 17(Suppl 17):476 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With the developments of DNA sequencing technology, large amounts of sequencing data have become available in recent years and provide unprecedented opportunities for advanced association studies between somatic point mutations and cancer types/subtypes, which may contribute to more accurate somatic point mutation based cancer classification (SMCC). However in existing SMCC methods, issues like high data sparsity, small volume of sample size, and the application of simple linear classifiers, are major obstacles in improving the classification performance.
RESULTS: To address the obstacles in existing SMCC studies, we propose DeepGene, an advanced deep neural network (DNN) based classifier, that consists of three steps: firstly, the clustered gene filtering (CGF) concentrates the gene data by mutation occurrence frequency, filtering out the majority of irrelevant genes; secondly, the indexed sparsity reduction (ISR) converts the gene data into indexes of its non-zero elements, thereby significantly suppressing the impact of data sparsity; finally, the data after CGF and ISR is fed into a DNN classifier, which extracts high-level features for accurate classification. Experimental results on our curated TCGA-DeepGene dataset, which is a reformulated subset of the TCGA dataset containing 12 selected types of cancer, show that CGF, ISR and DNN all contribute in improving the overall classification performance. We further compare DeepGene with three widely adopted classifiers and demonstrate that DeepGene has at least 24% performance improvement in terms of testing accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on deep learning and somatic point mutation data, we devise DeepGene, an advanced cancer type classifier, which addresses the obstacles in existing SMCC studies. Experiments indicate that DeepGene outperforms three widely adopted existing classifiers, which is mainly attributed to its deep learning module that is able to extract the high level features between combinatorial somatic point mutations and cancer types.

Laé M, Gardrat S, Rondeau S, et al.
MED12 mutations in breast phyllodes tumors: evidence of temporal tumoral heterogeneity and identification of associated critical signaling pathways.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(51):84428-84438 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Exome sequencing has recently identified highly recurrent MED12 somatic mutations in fibroadenomas (FAs) and phyllodes tumors (PTs). In the present study, based on a large series, we confirmed the presence of MED12 exon 1 and 2 mutations in 49% (41/83) of PTs, 70% (7/10) of FAs and 9.1% (1/11) of fibromatoses. We show that MED12 mutations are associated with benign behavior of phyllodes tumors, as they are detected less frequently in malignant PTs (27.6%) compared to benign (58.3%) and borderline (63.3%) PTs, respectively (p = 0.0036). Phyllodes tumors presented marked temporal heterogeneity of MED12 mutation status, as 50% (3/6) of primary and recurrent phyllodes tumor pairs with MED12 mutation presented different MED12 mutations between the primary and recurrent tumors. There was no correlation between MED12 status and genomic profiles obtained by array-CGH. MED12 mutations are associated with altered expressions of the genes involved in the WNT (PAX3, WNT3A, AXIN2), TGFB (TAGLN, TGFBR2, CTGF) and THRA (RXRA, THRA) signaling pathways.In conclusion, this study confirmed that MED12 plays a central oncogenic role in breast fibroepithelial tumorigenesis and identified a limited number of altered signaling pathways that maybe associated with MED12 mutations. MED12 exon 1 and 2 mutation status and some of the altered genes identified in this study could constitute useful diagnostic or prognostic markers, and form the basis for novel therapeutic strategies for PTs.

Wen PH, Wang DY, Zhang JK, et al.
Kruppel-like factor 6 suppresses growth and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016; 29(4):666-675 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) as a novel tumor suppressive gene participates in multiple biological behaviors and plays an important role in regulating tumor cell growth and invasion. However, the functions of KLF6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly understood. The expression level of KLF6 was examined by immunohistochemical assay in human HCC tissues, and KLF6-overexpressed HCC cells (SMCC-7721 and HepG2) were used for evaluating cell proliferation and invasion by MTT and Transwell assays. A subcutaneous HCC tumor model was established for assessing tumor growth in vivo. Our results showed that the expression of KLF6 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (50.0% vs. 72.0%, P = 0.034) and negatively associated with the lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI) in HCC patients (P = 0.003). Furthermore, overexpression of KLF6 reduced cell proliferation and weakened the cell invasive potential followed with the decreased expression of PCNA and MMP-9 in HCC cells. The in vivo experiment indicated that KLF6 overexpression suppressed the xenograft tumor growth. Therefore, our findings show that KLF6 suppresses growth and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a tumor suppressive function in HCC and provides the potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

Lu Y, Li J, Cheng J, Lubahn DB
Messenger RNA profile analysis deciphers new Esrrb responsive genes in prostate cancer cells.
BMC Mol Biol. 2015; 16:21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Orphan nuclear receptor estrogen related receptor β (Esrrb or ERRβ) is well known in stem cells and early embryonic development. However, little is known about its function in cancer.
METHOD: We investigated the mRNA profile alterations induced by Esrrb expression and its synthetic ligand DY131 in human prostate cancer DU145 cells via RNA-Seq analysis.
RESULTS: We distinguished 67 mRNAs differentially expressed by Esrrb alone. Although DY131 alone did not change any gene, treatment of DY131 in the presence of Esrrb altered 1161 mRNAs. These observations indicated Esrrb had both ligand-independent and ligand-dependent activity. When Esrrb was expressed, DY131 treatment further regulated 15 Esrrb-altered mRNAs. DY131 acted as an antagonist for 11 of 15 mRNAs (wdr52, f13a1, pxdn, spns2, loc100506599, tagln, loc441454, tkel1, sema3f, zcwpw2, sdc2) and as an agonist for 4 of the 15 mRNAs (rarres3, oasl, padi2, ddx60). Gene ontology analyses showed altered genes are related to transcription and translation regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis regulation, and cellular metabolism.
CONCLUSION: Our results characterized mRNA profiles in DU145 prostate cancer cells driven by Esrrb expression and Esrrb ligand DY131, and provided multiple markers to characterize Esrrb's function in Esrrb research.

Li F, Wang Z, Huang Y, et al.
Delivery of PUMA Apoptosis Gene Using Polyethyleneimine-SMCC-TAT/DNA Nanoparticles: Biophysical Characterization and In Vitro Transfection Into Malignant Melanoma Cells.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2015; 11(10):1776-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
A synthesized PEI-based gene delivery system, wherein PEI was crosslinked with sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC) conjugating trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT), yielding PEI-SMCC-TAT (PST), a novel non-viral vector for apoptosis-related gene PUMA (p53 up regulated modulator of apoptosis), was designed and evaluated. Sulfo-SMCC is a commonly used heterobifunctional crosslinker and is soluble in water, making the crosslinking easier without organic reagent like DMSO or chloroform. The PST/pDNA nanoparticles were 171.9 nm at the optimal N/P ratio (50:1). DNA complexes of all the PST conjugation had much lower toxicity and exhibited enhancement in transfection efficiency in comparison with single PEI vector. The results also showed that the transfection efficiency of PST/pEGFP nanoparticles into malignant melanoma A375 cell increased, and PST carrying PUMA gene induced the apoptosis of A375 cells. It was suggested that PST could be a promising melanoma tumor-targeting nanovector, and have a good potential in clinical application.

Yokota M, Kojima M, Higuchi Y, et al.
Gene expression profile in the activation of subperitoneal fibroblasts reflects prognosis of patients with colon cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(6):1422-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumors can create a heterogenetic tumor microenvironment. We recently identified the pathologically unique cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI), and revealed that subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) within peritoneal tissue play a crucial role in tumor progression through their interaction with cancer cells. Therefore, the genes in SPFs altered by cancer stimulation may include some biologically important factors associated with patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to identify new biomarkers using genes specifically upregulated in SPFs by cancer-cell-conditioned medium (CCCM) stimulation (SPFs CCCM response genes; SCR genes) in colon cancer (CC). We constructed two frameworks using SCR gene data: a publicly released microarray dataset, and validation cases with freshly frozen CC samples to identify genes related to short recurrence-free survival (RFS). In the first framework, we selected differentially expressed genes between the high and low SCR gene expression groups. In the second framework, genes significantly related to short RFS were selected by univariate analysis using all SCR genes, and multivariate analysis was performed to select robust genes associated with short RFS. We identified CTGF, CALD1, INHBA and TAGLN in the first framework, and PDLIM5, MAGI1, SPTBN1 and TAGLN in the second framework. Among these seven genes, high expression of three genes (CALD1, TAGLN and SPTBN1) showed a poor prognosis in our validation cases. In a public microarray dataset, SCR gene expression was associated with the expression of ECM component, EMT, and M2-macrophage associated genes, which was concordant with the pathological features of CMPI. Thus, we successfully identified new prognostic factors.

Lee JS, Oh E, Yoo JY, et al.
Adenovirus expressing dual c-Met-specific shRNA exhibits potent antitumor effect through autophagic cell death accompanied by senescence-like phenotypes in glioblastoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(6):4051-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
c-Met, a cognate receptor tyrosine kinase of hepatocyte growth factor, is overexpressed and/or mutated in number of tumors. Therefore, abrogation of c-Met signaling may serve as potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we generated Ads expressing single shRNA specific to c-Met (shMet) (dl/shMet4 and dl/shMet5) or dual shRNAs specific to c-Met (dl/shMet4+5); and examined the therapeutic potential of these newly engineered Ads in targeting c-Met, and delineated their mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Ads expressing shMet induced knock-down in c-Met, and phenotypically resulted in autophagy-like features including appearance of membranousvacuoles, formation of acidic vesicular organelles, and cleavage and recruitment of microtubule-associated protein1 light chain 3 to autophagosomes. Ads expressing shMet also suppressed Akt phosphorylation and increased number of senescence-related gene products including SM22, TGase II, and PAI-1. These changes resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and G2/M arrest of U343 cells. In vivo, intratumoral injection with dl/shMet4+5 resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth with corresponding increasing overall survival. Histopathological analysis of these treated tumors revealed that Atg5 was highly up-regulated, indicating the therapeutic induction of autophagy. In sum, these results reveal that autophagic cell death induced by shMet-expressing Ads provide a novel strategy for targeting c-Met-expressing tumors through non-apoptotic mechanism of cell death.

Yazawa T
Recent advances in histogenesis research of lung neuroendocrine cancers: Evidence obtained from functional analyses of primitive neural/neuroendocrine cell-specific transcription factors.
Pathol Int. 2015; 65(6):277-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small cell carcinoma (SmCC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LENEC) are categorized as neuroendocrine cancers (NECs) of the lung and have extremely poor prognoses. The lack of an effective therapeutic strategy against SmCC and LCNEC is a serious issue. Because the regulation of the cellular phenotype is complicated by the actions of various transcription factors, investigations into the function of neural/neuroendocrine cell-specific transcription factors are important for elucidating the cellular characteristics and histogenesis of SmCC and LCNEC and for establishing innovative therapeutic strategies against them. In this review, the functions of ASCL1, NeuroD1, REST, TTF1, and class III/IV POU, that are specifically and highly expressed in lung NECs, are introduced. These transcription factors transactivate and/or transrepress various genes and are involved in neural progenitor phenotyping, neuroendocrine and stem cell marker expression, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Based on the evidence that certain carcinoids express ASCL1, NeuroD1, TTF1, and class III/IV POU and that lung NECs can develop from non-NE cells/non-NEC cells, the relationships among lung NECs, carcinoid tumors, and non-NECs are discussed. Finally, a model of the histogenesis of lung NECs in view of similarities in the expression of primitive neural/neuroendocrine cell-specific transcription factors is proposed.

Fisher CA, Harms PW, McHugh JB, et al.
Small cell carcinoma in the parotid harboring Merkel cell polyomavirus.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014; 118(6):703-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to document three new cases of primary small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the parotid and examine immunohistochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of the recently developed Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) within these tumors.
STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers (chromogranin A, CD56, CD57, neuron-specific enolase [NSE], thyroid transcription factor 1 [TTF-1]), epithelial markers (CK20, CK7, CAM 5.2), and MCPyV large T antigen (LTAg) were examined. qPCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to confirm the presence of the MCPyV LTAg gene.
RESULTS: Two males and one female, average age 76 years, presented with left parotid masses. Clinical examinations, histories, and imaging studies were negative for cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), pulmonary and extrapulmonary SmCC, or any other malignancy. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated positive immunoreactivity for CK20 in a perinuclear dotlike pattern (3/3), CAM 5.2 (3/3), (2/3), NSE (3/3), CD56 (2/3), and CD57 (3/3). Two cases stained positive for MCPyV, showing moderate to strong, diffuse positivity, confirmed with qPCR. PCR-Sanger sequencing of LTAg exon 2 showed greater than 97% similarity to the MCPyV reference genome in both cases.
CONCLUSION: Our findings expand the number of reported cases classified as primary parotid SmCC that harbors MCPyV and underscore the similarity between cutaneous MCC and parotid SmCC. Further investigation is needed to determine whether immune-based therapeutic strategies targeting MCPyV in MCC are also effective in the setting of parotid SmCC harboring MCPyV.

Zhao M, Huang J, Gui K, et al.
The downregulation of miR-144 is associated with the growth and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through the regulation of TAGLN expression.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 34(6):1565-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the majority of human malignancies, and the dysregulation of microRNA-144 (miR-144) has been associated with several diseases. However, the potential involvement of miR-144 in osteosarcoma, a common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents with a high risk of relapse and metastasis, has not yet been fully investigated. In the present study, we examined the expression and roles of miRNAs in osteosarcoma as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, and we focused on miR-144 due to its known involvement in osteogenesis. We demonstrate that miR-144 is downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and primary human osteosarcoma tissue samples and that its ectopic expression inhibits osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion. We identified TAGLN as a downstream target of miR-144 and demonstrated that its expression is upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and tumor tissue and is inversely correlated with miR-144 expression. Our results indicate that miR-144 may regulate osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion by downregulating its target gene, TAGLN, suggesting that miR-144 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Dong W, Zhao H, Zhang C, et al.
Gene silencing of heparanase results in suppression of invasion and migration of hepatoma cells.
World J Surg Oncol. 2014; 12:85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of the heparanase gene on hepatoma SMCC-7721 cells.
METHODS: SiRNAs targeting the promoter region and coding region of the heparanase gene were designed and synthesized. Then the siRNAs were transfected into hepatoma SMCC-7721 cells by nuclear transfection or cytoplasmic transfection. The expression of heparanase was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post-transfection. In addition, wound healing and invasion assays were performed to estimate the effect of TGS of the heparanase gene on the migration and invasion of hepatoma SMCC-7721 cells.
RESULTS: Protein and mRNA expression of the heparanase gene were interfered with by TGS or post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) 48 h after transfection. At 72 h post-transfection, the expression of the PTGS group of genes had recovered unlike the TGS group. At 96 h post-transfection, the expression of the heparanase gene had recovered in both the TGS group and PTGS group. Invasion and wound healing assays showed that both TGS and PTGS of the heparanase gene could inhibit invasion and migration of hepatoma SMCC-7721 cells, especially the TGS group.
CONCLUSIONS: TGS can effectively interfere with the heparanase gene to reduce the invasion and migration of hepatoma SMCC-7721 cells.

Park GH, Lee SJ, Yim H, et al.
TAGLN expression is upregulated in NF1-associated malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors by hypomethylation in its promoter and subpromoter regions.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1347-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) caused by NF1 gene mutation is a commonly inherited autosomal dominant disorder. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a type of aggressive sarcoma, are a major cause of mortality in NF1 patients. The malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) to MPNSTs is a marked peculiarity in NF1 patients, yet the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We found that an actin-associated protein transgelin (SM22) was highly expressed in NF1-deficient MPNST tissues compared to NF1-deficient PN tissues using immunohistological staining and primary cultured MPNST cells in western blot analysis. We further found that this transgelin upregulation was caused by increased transcriptional expression of the TAGLN gene encoding transgelin. Comparison of DNA methylation values in the promoter and subpromoter regions of the TAGLN gene in three types of NF1-deficient primary-cultured cells, derived from an NF1 patient's normal phenotype, a benign PN and MPNST tissues, revealed that the TAGLN gene was hypomethylated in the MPNST cells. Next, to determine the functional role of transgelin in MPNST pathogenesis, we manipulated the TAGLN gene expression and investigated the alteration of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the normal-phenotypic and malignant tumor cells. The downregulation of TAGLN expression in NF1-deficient MPNST tumor cells through the treatment of the small interfering RNA resulted in a decrease in the RAS activation (GTP-RAS) and the downstream ERK1/2 activation (phosphorylated ERK1/2), while the overexpression of TAGLN in normal-phenotypic NF1-deficient cells caused an increase in RAS and ERK1/2 activation. These results indicate that upregulation of transgelin caused by hypomethylation of the TAGLN gene is closely involved in tumor progression in NF1.

He Q, Huang Y, Cai L, et al.
Expression and prognostic value of Ars2 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Clin Oncol. 2014; 19(5):880-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. Arsenic resistance protein 2 (Asr2) was reported to be important for microRNA (miR) biogenesis, and its depletion could reduce the levels of several miRs, including miR-21, which is over-expressed in HCC. We hypothesized that Ars2 is also overexpressed in HCC and may be involved in the biological properties of HCC.
METHODS: Ars2 immunolabeling was evaluated in 132 HCCs. Ars2 immunolabeling, Ars2 qRT-PCR and miR-21 were evaluated in 20 HCCs and in paired normal tissues. Ars2 shRNA was transfected into SMCC-7721 and HepG2 HCC cells. The cell proliferation and expression of Ars2 and miR-21 were subsequently evaluated.
RESULTS: Ars2 was expressed primarily in the nucleus of HCC cells. The expression of Ars2 was statistically correlated with the loss of HCC differentiation and pathological stage. The survival rates of patients with low Ars2 expression in HCC were statistically higher than patients with overexpressed Ars2 in HCC. Ars2 and miR-21 were more highly expressed in HCC specimens than normal tissues, and they were also correlated. The knockdown of Ars2 in HCC cells inhibited miR-21 expression and cell proliferation.
CONCLUSIONS: Ars2 is overexpressed in HCC and may have prognostic value; it might play an important role in HCC proliferation and miR-21 expression.

Rosenberg EE, Prudnikova TY, Zabarovsky ER, et al.
D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase cell type specifically affects angiogenesis pathway in different prostate cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(4):3237-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is involved in breast and lung carcinogenesis as a potential tumor suppressor gene, acting through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis pathways. However, in prostate tumors, increased GLCE expression is associated with advanced disease, suggesting versatile effects of GLCE in different cancers. To investigate further the potential cancer-promoting effect of GLCE in prostate cancer, GLCE was ectopically re-expressed in morphologically different LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Transcriptional profiles of normal PNT2 prostate cells, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, and GLCE-expressing LNCaP and PC3 cells were determined. Comparative analysis revealed the genes whose expression was changed in prostate cancer cells compared with normal PNT2 cells, and those differently expressed between the cancer cell lines (ACTA2, IL6, SERPINE1, TAGLN, SEMA3A, and CDH2). GLCE re-expression influenced mainly angiogenesis-involved genes (ANGPT1, SERPINE1, IGF1, PDGFB, TNF, IL8, TEK, IFNA1, and IFNB1) but in a cell type-specific manner (from basic deregulation of angiogenesis in LNCaP cells to significant activation in PC3 cells). Invasion/metastasis pathway was also affected (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, S100A4, ITGA1, ITGB3, ERBB2, and FAS). The obtained results suggest activation of angiogenesis as a main molecular mechanism of pro-oncogenic effect of GLCE in prostate cancer. GLCE up-regulation plus expression pattern of a panel of six genes, discriminating morphologically different prostate cancer cell sub-types, is suggested as a potential marker of aggressive prostate cancer.

Fenne IS, Helland T, Flågeng MH, et al.
Downregulation of steroid receptor coactivator-2 modulates estrogen-responsive genes and stimulates proliferation of mcf-7 breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70096 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The p160/Steroid Receptor Coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2/GRIP1, and SRC-3/AIB1 are important regulators of Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) activity. However, whereas the functions of SRC-1 and SRC-3 in breast tumourigenesis have been extensively studied, little is known about the role of SRC-2. Previously, we reported that activation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA, facilitates ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of SRC-2 which in turn leads to inhibition of SRC-2-coactivation of ERα and changed expression of the ERα target gene, pS2. Here we have characterized the global program of transcription in SRC-2-depleted MCF-7 breast cancer cells using short-hairpin RNA technology, and in MCF-7 cells exposed to PKA activating agents. In order to identify genes that may be regulated through PKA-induced downregulation of SRC-2, overlapping transcriptional targets in response to the respective treatments were characterized. Interestingly, we observed decreased expression of several breast cancer tumour suppressor genes (e.g., TAGLN, EGR1, BCL11b, CAV1) in response to both SRC-2 knockdown and PKA activation, whereas the expression of a number of other genes implicated in cancer progression (e.g., RET, BCAS1, TFF3, CXCR4, ADM) was increased. In line with this, knockdown of SRC-2 also stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. Together, these results suggest that SRC-2 may have an antiproliferative function in breast cancer cells.

Haase R, Magnusson T, Su B, et al.
Generation of a tumor- and tissue-specific episomal non-viral vector system.
BMC Biotechnol. 2013; 13:49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A key issue for safe and reproducible gene therapy approaches is the autologous and tissue-specific expression of transgenes. Tissue-specific expression in vivo is either achieved by transfer vectors that deliver the gene of interest into a distinct cell type or by use of tissue-specific expression cassettes. Here we present the generation of non-viral, episomally replicating vectors that are able to replicate in a tissue specific manner thus allowing tissue specific transgene expression in combination with episomal replication. The episomal replication of the prototype vector pEPI-1 and its derivatives depends exclusively on a transcription unit starting from a constitutively active promoter extending into the scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR).
RESULTS: Here, we exchanged the constitutive promoter in the pEPI derivative pEPito by the tumor specific alpha fetoprotein (AFP) or the muscle specific smooth muscle 22 (SM22) promoter leading to specific transgene expression in AFP positive human hepatocellular carcinoma (HUH7) and in a SM22 positive cell line, respectively. The incorporation of the hCMV enhancer element into the expression cassette further boosted the expression levels with both promoters. Tissue specific-replication could be exemplary proven for the smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22) promoter in vitro. With the AFP promoter-driven pEPito vector hepatocellular carcinoma-specific expression could be achieved in vivo after systemic vector application together with polyethylenimine as transfection enhancer.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study we present an episomal plasmid system designed for tissue specific transgene expression and replication. The human AFP-promoter in combination with the hCMV enhancer element was demonstrated to be a valuable tissue-specific promoter for targeting hepatocellular carcinomas with non-viral gene delivery system, and tissue specific replication could be shown in vitro with the muscle specific SM22 promoter. In combination with appropriate delivery systems, the tissue specific pEPito vector system will allow higher tissue-specificity with less undesired side effects and is suitable for long term transgene expression in vivo within gene therapeutical approaches.

Terada T
Primary cutaneous small cell carcinoma; a case report with differential diagnosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(6):1164-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Primary cutaneous small cell carcinoma (PC-SmCC) is extremely rare; only two cases have been reported in the world literatures. A 79-year-old woman presented a small cutaneous tumor in the face. Physical examination showed a tumor measuring 1.0x.08x0.6 cm in the shallow skin of the face. Excisional skin biopsy was performed. The biopsy showed complete excision of the tumor. The tumor was located in the shallow dermis and no connections to epidermis were seen. The tumor was invasive into subcutaneous tissue and surrounding dermis. The tumor was very hypercellular tumor composed of small cells with scant cytoplasm, hyperchromatic nu lei, negative nucleoli, and molded nuclei. The shapes of tumor cells are round, ovoid or spindle. The histological appearances fulfilled the criteria of SmCC of WHO. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CD5, CD6, CK8, p63, NSE, NCAM, synaptophysin (focal), chromogranin (focal), p53, KIT, PDGFRA and Ki-67 (labeling index (LI)=86%). They were negative for CK7, CK19, CK20, EMA, vimentin, CEA, S100 protein, CA19-9, TTF-1, MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed no mucins. A molecular genetic analysis of PCR-direct sequencing identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The author diagnosed this cutaneous tumor as SmCC. Post-diagnosis whole body examination using various imaging and endoscopic techniques revealed no tumors. This may confirm that the skin tumor was primary. The cutaneous tumor was completely resected with wide margins. The patient is now followed up without therapy 8 months after the diagnosis. No recurrence or metastasis is seen. The differential diagnosis from Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma is very difficult and herein discussed.

Terada T
Urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma with expression of KIT and PDGFRA and showing diverse differentiations into plasmacytoid, clear cell, acantholytic, nested, and spindle variants, and into adenocarcinoma, signet-ring cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and pleomorphic carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013; 6(6):1150-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
Various tumors can arise in the urinary bladder (UB); most common is urothelial carcinoma (UC). UC of the UB have many variants. Other types of carcinomas such as adenocarcinoma (AC) and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) can occur in UB carcinomas. Expression of KIT and PDGFRA has not been reported. A 66-year-old man admitted to our hospital because of hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed papillary invasive tumor and a transurethral bladder tumorectomy (TUR-BT) was performed. The TUR-BT showed UC, AC, SmCC, large cell carcinoma (LCC), and pleomorphic carcinoma (PC). The UC component showed plasmacytoid, spindle, nested, clear cell, acantholytic variants. The AC element showed tubular adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma (Sig). Immunohistochemically, all of these subtypes were positive for cytokeratin (CK) AE1/3, CK CAM5.2, CK34BE12, CK5, CK6, CK7, CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, CEA, p63, CA19-9, p53 (positive 45%), MUC1, NSE, NCAM, KIT, PDGFRA, and Ki-67 (87%). They were negative for vimentin, chromogranin, synaptophysin, S100 protein, CD34, CD14, α-smooth muscle actin, CD31, caldesmon, CD138, CD45, κ-chain, λ-chain, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6. Mucin histochemistry revealed mucins in AC element including Sig. A molecular genetic analysis using PCR-direct sequencing method identified no mutations of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) genes. The carcinoma was highly aggressive and invaded into muscular layer. The nuclear grade was very high, and there were numerous lymphovascular permeations were seen. The surface showed carcinoma in situ involving von-Brunn's nests. This case shows that carcinoma of UB can show diverse differentiations into numerous histological types and variants, and can express KIT and PDGFRA. The both genes showed no mutations in the present case.

Yuen HF, McCrudden CM, Huang YH, et al.
TAZ expression as a prognostic indicator in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54211 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
The Hippo pathway restricts the activity of transcriptional coactivators TAZ (WWTR1) and YAP. TAZ and YAP are reported to be overexpressed in various cancers, however, their prognostic significance in colorectal cancers remains unstudied. The expression levels of TAZ and YAP, and their downstream transcriptional targets, AXL and CTGF, were extracted from two independent colon cancer patient datasets available in the Gene Expression Omnibus database, totaling 522 patients. We found that mRNA expressions of both TAZ and YAP were positively correlated with those of AXL and CTGF (p<0.05). High level mRNA expression of TAZ, AXL or CTGF significantly correlated with shorter survival. Importantly, patients co-overexpressing all 3 genes had a significantly shorter survival time, and combinatorial expression of these 3 genes was an independent predictor for survival. The downstream target genes for TAZ-AXL-CTGF overexpression were identified by Java application MyStats. Interestingly, genes that are associated with colon cancer progression (ANTXR1, EFEMP2, SULF1, TAGLN, VCAN, ZEB1 and ZEB2) were upregulated in patients co-overexpressing TAZ-AXL-CTGF. This TAZ-AXL-CTGF gene expression signature (GES) was then applied to Connectivity Map to identify small molecules that could potentially be utilized to reverse this GES. Of the top 20 small molecules identified by connectivity map, amiloride (a potassium sparing diuretic), and tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid) have shown therapeutic promise in inhibition of colon cancer cell growth. Using MyStats, we found that low level expression of either ANO1 or SQLE were associated with a better prognosis in patients who co-overexpressed TAZ-AXL-CTGF, and that ANO1 was an independent predictor of survival together with TAZ-AXL-CTGF. Finally, we confirmed that TAZ regulates Axl, and plays an important role in clonogenicity and non-adherent growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. These data suggest that TAZ could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of colon cancer.

Davidson B, Abeler VM, Hellesylt E, et al.
Gene expression signatures differentiate uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma from leiomyosarcoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2013; 128(2):349-55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and leiomyosarcoma (LMS) are the two most common uterine sarcomas, but both are rare tumors. The aim of the present study was to compare the global gene expression patterns of ESS and LMS.
METHODS: Gene expression profiles of 7 ESS and 13 LMS were analyzed using the HumanRef-8 BeadChip from Illumina. Differentially expressed candidate genes were validated using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using all 54,675 genes in the array separated ESS from LMS samples. We identified 549 unique probes that were significantly differentially expressed in the two malignancies by greater than 2-fold with 1% FDR cutoff using one-way ANOVA with Benjamini-Hochberg correction, of which 336 and 213 were overexpressed in ESS and LMS, respectively. Genes overexpressed in ESS included SLC7A10, EFNB3, CCND2, ECEL1, ITM2A, NPW, PLAG1 and GCGR. Genes overexpressed in LMS included CDKN2A, FABP3, TAGLN, JPH2, GEM, NAV2 and RAB23. The top 100 genes overexpressed in LMS included those coding for myosin light chain and caldesmon, but not the genes coding for desmin or actin. CD10 was not overexpressed in ESS. Results for selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS: We present the first study in which gene expression profiling was shown to distinguish between ESS and LMS. The molecular signatures unique to each of these malignancies may aid in expanding the diagnostic battery for their differentiation, and may provide a molecular basis for prognostic studies and therapeutic target discovery.

Li Q, Shi R, Wang Y, Niu X
TAGLN suppresses proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis of colorectal carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(1):505-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to find the correlation between transgelin gene (TAGLN) and colorectal carcinoma occurrence, we investigated the expression of TAGLN in colorectal carcinoma tissue samples and colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells. Meanwhile, the effects of TAGLN on the characteristics of LoVo cells were also examined. The expressions of TAGLN in colorectal carcinoma tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and LoVo cells were detected by the Western blot method. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-TAGLN was established and transfected into LoVo cells with the help of Lipofectamine™ 2000. At the same time, the TAGLN siRNA was transfected into LoVo cells in another group. Forty-eight hours later, the expressions of TAGLN in all groups were assayed by Western blot, and the cell viability was analyzed by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cell cycle and cell apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry, and the cell invasive ability was analyzed by Transwell invasion experiment. The effect of TALGN on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) was detected by Western blot. Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of TALGN in colorectal carcinoma tissues and LoVo cells were significantly decreased compared with colorectal carcinoma adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.01). In the overexpression or RNAi experiments, the plasmid pcDNA3.1-TAGLN significantly enhanced TALGN expression (p < 0.01), and TAGLN siRNA significantly decreased TAGLN expression (p < 0.01) in LoVo cells 48 h after transfection. In addition, MTT assay indicated that the cell viability of LoVo cells in the pcDNA3.1-TAGLN transfection group was significantly lower than that in the untransfected control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the overexpression of TAGLN significantly lowered the cell proliferation index (p < 0.05) and improved cell apoptosis (p < 0.01) in LoVo cells. In Transwell invasive experiments, the cell number, which had migrated through the chamber membrane, significantly decreased in the pcDNA3.1-TAGLN transfection group (p < 0.05) and significantly increased in the TAGLN knockdown group (p < 0.05) compared to the untransfected control group. At the same time, the expression of MMP9 was notably inhibited in the pcDNA3.1-TAGLN transfection group (p < 0.01). The expressions of TAGLN were inhibited in colorectal carcinoma tissues and colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells. The study also demonstrated that TAGLN could attenuate the proliferation and invasive ability of LoVo cells and enhance LoVo cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of MMP9 was also inhibited by TAGLN. All these results could bring us a new perspective for biological therapy in colorectal carcinoma.

Wickramasinghe CM, Domaschenz R, Amagase Y, et al.
HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(1):103-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

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