Research IndicatorsGraph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: TTPA (cancer-related)
Chu CY, Chen WY, Yeh SD, et al.Syphilitic orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor in a clinically occult HIV-infected young man: a case report with emphasis on a challenging pathological diagnosis.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11:4 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Syphilitic orchitis is a rare manifestation of gumma in tertiary syphilis, microscopically typically characterized by multiple discrete granulomas with central necrosis and peripheral fibrosis. We report a case of syphilitic orchitis mimicking a testicular tumor with atypical histological features.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old clinically occult HIV-infected man had a testicular tumor. A radical orchiectomy was performed, and a histological examination showed an acute and chronic interstitial inflammatory lesion as well as spindle cell proliferation, without typical gumma formation, necessitating the differential diagnosis having to be made from a panel of etiological factors. Syphilitic orchitis was confirmed by both an immunohistochemical study and PCR testing for the Treponema pallidum DNA polymerase I gene using paraffin-embedded tissues. However, serology tests, including both the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and Treponema pallidum partical agglutination (TTPA), demonstrated false-negative results.
CONCLUSION: Syphilitic orchitis may present atypical and unusual histological features, and should be included in the differential diagnoses of nonspecific interstitial inflammatory lesions of the testes by pathologists, especially in immunocompromised patients.
Su M, Chang W, Zhang K, et al.Expression and purification of recombinant ATF-mellitin, a new type fusion protein targeting ovarian cancer cells, in P. pastoris.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(2):1179-85 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Melittin is well known to possess cytolytic activity with wide-spectrum lytic properties and its potential use as an agent to treat several types of cancer has been tested. Due to the non-specific toxicity, melittin can impair not only cancer cells but also normal tissue. Thus, tumor-targeted toxins may be helpful for developing novel anticancer therapeutics. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays a central role in tissue remodelling events occurring in normal physiology and in pathophysiology, including cancer invasion and metastasis. Heartening findings showed that uPA receptor is predominantly expressed on many types of cancer. Therefore, the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of uPA which was able to identify and bond with cancer cells was used as the cell-targeting domain to make up tumor-targeted toxin in this study. In the present study, pPICZαC-ATF-melittin eukaryotic expression vector was successfully constructed. After transformed into P. pastoris and induced by methanol, rATF-mellitin was detected by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. After induction with methanol, the expression level of rATF-mellitin was 312 mg/l in 80-l fermentor. rATF‑mellitin was purified to >95% purity using SP Sepharose ion exchange chromatography and source™ 30 RPC with 67.2% recovery. Cell proliferation assay showed that rATF-melittin inhibited growth of SKOV3 cells and had no cytotoxicity effect on normal cells. For the first time, we established a stable and effective rATF-mellitin P. pastoris expression system to obtain a high level of expression of secreted rATF-mellitin which was purified by a highly efficient purification procedure.
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is the major immune mediator that prevents toxoplasmic encephalitis in murine models. The lack of IFN-γ secretion causes reactivation of latent T. gondii infection that may confer a risk for severe toxoplasmic encephalitis. We analyse the effect of IFN-γ on immune mediator production and parasite multiplication in human nerve cells infected by tachyzoites of two T. gondii strains (RH and PRU). IFN-γ decreased the synthesis of MCP-1, G-CSF, GM-CSF and Serpin E1 in all cell types. It decreased IL-6, migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and GROα synthesis only in endothelial cells, while it increased sICAM and Serpin E1 synthesis only in neurons. The PRU strain burden increased in all nerve cells and in contrast, RH strain replication was controlled in IFN-γ-stimulated microglial and endothelial cells but not in IFN-γ-stimulated neurons. The proliferation of the PRU strain in all stimulated cells could be a specific effect of this strain on the host cell.
Deepak V, Ramachandran S, Balahmar RM, et al.In vitro evaluation of anticancer properties of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus acidophilus in colon cancer cell lines.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2016; 52(2):163-73 [PubMed
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The present work aims at studying the effect of exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus acidophilus on the colon cancer cell lines in vitro. Initial analysis showed that EPS has antioxidative properties. EPS was also found to induce cytotoxicity in two colon cancer cell lines, viz. HCT15 and CaCo2 under normoxia and hypoxia. The membrane integrity was also found to be affected in EPS-treated cells. Once the toxic concentration was determined (5 mg/ml), the effect of EPS on the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of various genes was studied by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The results suggest that EPS downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and upregulated the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). An increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was also observed. These results show that EPS may inhibit the expressions of genes involved in tumor angiogenesis and survival. Increase in the expression of HO-1 also shows that EPS have antioxidative properties.
Epithelial membrane protein-3 (EMP3), a typical member of the epithelial membrane protein (EMP) family, is epigenetically silenced in some cancer types, and has been proposed to be a tumor suppressor gene. However, its effects on tumor suppression are controversial and its roles in development and malignancy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In the present study, we found that EMP3 was highly expressed in the tumorous tissues comparing to the matched normal tissues, and negatively correlated with differentiated degree of HCC patients. Knockdown of EMP3 significantly reduced cell proliferation, arrested cell cycle at G1 phase, and inhibited the motility and invasiveness in accordance with the decreased expression and activity of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in HCC cells. The in vivo tumor growth of HCC was effectively suppressed by knockdown of EMP3 in a xenograft mouse model. The EMP3 knockdown-reduced cell proliferation and invasion were attenuated by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or knockdown of Akt, and rescued by overexpression of Akt in HCC cells. Clinical positive correlations of EMP3 with p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K, p-Akt, uPA, as well as MMP-9 were observed in the tissue sections from HCC patients. Here, we elucidated the tumor progressive effects of EMP3 through PI3K/Akt pathway and uPA/MMP-9 cascade in HCC cells. The findings provided a new insight into EMP3, which might be a potential molecular target for diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Strong AL, Ohlstein JF, Biagas BA, et al.Leptin produced by obese adipose stromal/stem cells enhances proliferation and metastasis of estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.
Breast Cancer Res. 2015; 17:112 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The steady increase in the incidence of obesity among adults has been paralleled with higher levels of obesity-associated breast cancer. While recent studies have suggested that adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) isolated from obese women enhance tumorigenicity, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs remains undefined. Evidence suggests that increased adiposity results in increased leptin secretion from adipose tissue, which has been shown to increased cancer cell proliferation. Previously, our group demonstrated that ASCs isolated from obese women (obASCs) also express higher levels of leptin relative to ASCs isolated from lean women (lnASCs) and that this obASC-derived leptin may account for enhanced breast cancer cell growth. The current study investigates the impact of inhibiting leptin expression in lnASCs and obASCs on breast cancer cell (BCC) growth and progression.
METHODS: Estrogen receptor positive (ER+) BCCs were co-cultured with leptin shRNA lnASCs or leptin shRNA obASCs and changes in the proliferation, migration, invasion, and gene expression of BCCs were investigated. To assess the direct impact of leptin inhibition in obASCs on BCC proliferation, MCF7 cells were injected alone or mixed with control shRNA obASCs or leptin shRNA obASCs into SCID/beige mice.
RESULTS: ER+ BCCs were responsive to obASCs during direct co-culture, whereas lnASCs were unable to increase ER(+) BCC growth. shRNA silencing of leptin in obASCs negated the enhanced proliferative effects of obASC on BCCs following direct co-culture. BCCs co-cultured with obASCs demonstrated enhanced expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis genes (SERPINE1, MMP-2, and IL-6), while BCCs co-cultured with leptin shRNA obASCs did not display similar levels of gene induction. Knockdown of leptin significantly reduced tumor volume and decreased the number of metastatic lesions to the lung and liver. These results correlated with reduced expression of both SERPINE1 and MMP-2 in tumors formed with MCF7 cells mixed with leptin shRNA obASCs, when compared to tumors formed with MCF7 cells mixed with control shRNA obASCs.
CONCLUSION: This study provides mechanistic insight as to how obesity enhances the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells; specifically, obASC-derived leptin contributes to the aggressiveness of breast cancer in obese women.
Chen H, Peng H, Liu W, et al.Silencing of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 suppresses colorectal cancer progression and liver metastasis.
Surgery. 2015; 158(6):1704-13 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is reported to be expressed in many cancer cell types and regarded as one of the most informative biochemical markers for poor prognosis. However, no previous study has evaluated whether PAI-1 could serve as a target in antitumor and antimetastasis therapies of colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: The plasma level of PAI-1 in CRC patients was detected and its correlation with the clinicopathologic features was evaluated. PAI-1 protein expression was assessed by Western blot assay and immunohistochemistry. The biologic consequences of PAI-1 silencing in colon cancer cell lines and CRC bearing nude mice were also investigated.
RESULTS: Plasma PAI-1 level was higher in CRC patients with liver metastasis and correlated with liver metastasis, tumor size, differentiation, serosa infiltration, Duke's stage, and lymphatic metastasis. PAI-1 protein expression in the CRC tissue of patients with liver metastasis was significantly greater than that in those without liver metastasis. In addition, the abilities of proliferation, invasion, and migration of CRC cells transfected with lentivirus expressing PAI-1 small interfering RNA were reduced significantly. Nude mice inoculated with PAI-1 knockdown cells also had fewer metastatic nodules in the liver and smaller tumor volumes.
CONCLUSION: Plasma PAI-1 level was increased in CRC patients with liver metastasis, and PAI-1 silencing may significantly compromise the malignant behaviors of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings may provide evidence for PAI-1 targeted therapy of CRC.
PURPOSE: Less than 20% of patients with melanoma who undergo sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy based on American Society of Clinical Oncology/Society of Surgical Oncology recommendations are SLN positive. We present a multi-institutional study to discover new molecular risk factors associated with SLN positivity in thin and intermediate-thickness melanoma.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gene clusters with functional roles in melanoma metastasis were discovered by next-generation sequencing and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using a discovery set of 73 benign nevi, 76 primary cutaneous melanoma, and 11 in-transit melanoma metastases. We then used polymerase chain reaction to quantify gene expression in a model development cohort of 360 consecutive thin and intermediate-thickness melanomas and a validation cohort of 146 melanomas. Outcome of interest was SLN biopsy metastasis within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. Logic and logistic regression analyses were used to develop a model for the likelihood of SLN metastasis from molecular, clinical, and histologic variables.
RESULTS: ITGB3, LAMB1, PLAT, and TP53 expression were associated with SLN metastasis. The predictive ability of a model that included these molecular variables in combination with clinicopathologic variables (patient age, Breslow depth, and tumor ulceration) was significantly greater than a model that only considered clinicopathologic variables and also performed well in the validation cohort (area under the curve, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97; false-positive and false-negative rates of 22% and 0%, respectively, using a 10% cutoff for predicted SLN metastasis risk).
CONCLUSION: The addition of cell adhesion-linked gene expression variables to clinicopathologic variables improves the identification of patients with SLN metastases within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis.
Roomi MW, Kalinovsky T, Niedzwiecki A, Rath MModulation of uPA, MMPs and their inhibitors by a novel nutrient mixture in human colorectal, pancreatic and hepatic carcinoma cell lines.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(1):370-6 [PubMed
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Colorectal, pancreatic and hepatic carcinomas are characterized by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 secretions, allowing cancer cells to spread to distal organs. These and other proteases, such as uPA, play a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by digesting the basement membrane and ECM components. Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates association of elevated levels of uPA and MMPs with cancer progression, metastasis and shortened patient survival. MMP activities are regulated by specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Our main objective was to study the effect of a nutrient mixture (NM) on activity of uPA, MMPs and TIMPs in colon HCT-116, pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 and hepatic carcinoma SK-Hep-1 cell lines. These cell lines (ATCC) were cultured in their respective media and treated at confluence with NM at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 µg/ml. Analysis of uPA activity was carried out by fibrin zymography, MMPs by gelatinase zymography and TIMPs by reverse zymography. All three cancer cell lines expressed uPA, which was inhibited by NM in a dose-dependent manner. On gelatinase zymography, SK-Hep-1 showed bands corresponding to MMP-2 and MMP-9 with enhancement of MMP-9 with PMA (100 ng/ml) treatment. HCT-116 and MIA PaCa-2 showed strong bands corresponding to MMP-9 but no MMP-2 band. NM inhibited their expression in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of TIMPs was upregulated by NM in all cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis revealed a positive correlation between uPA and MMP-9 and a negative correlation between uPA/MMP-9 and TIMP-2. These findings suggest the therapeutic potential of NM in treatment of colon, pancreatic and hepatic carcinomas.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with the potential to invade local and distant sites and promote lymph node metastasis. Major players underlying the molecular mechanisms behind tumor progression are yet to be fully explored. Migration and invasion enhancer 1 (MIEN1), a novel protein overexpressed in various cancers, facilitates cell migration and invasion. In the present study we investigated the expression and role of MIEN1 in oral cancer progression using an in vitro model, patient derived oral tissues and existing TCGA data. Expression analysis using immortalized normal and cancer cells demonstrated increased expression of MIEN1 in cancer. Assays performed after MIEN1 knockdown in OSC-2 cells showed decreased migration, invasion and filopodia formation; while MIEN1 overexpression in DOK cells increased these characteristics and also up-regulated some Akt/NF-κB effectors, thereby suggesting an important role for MIEN1 in oral cancer progression. Immunohistochemical staining and analyses of oral tissue specimens, collected from patients over multiple visits, revealed significantly more staining in severe dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma compared to mildly dysplastic or hyperplastic tissues. Finally, this was corroborated with the TCGA dataset, where MIEN1 expression was not only higher in intermediate and high grade cancer with significantly lower survival but also correlated with smoking. In summary, we demonstrate that MIEN1 expression not only positively correlates with oral cancer progression but also seems to be a critical molecular determinant in migration and invasion of oral cancer cells, thereby, playing a possible role in their metastatic dissemination.
Buta M, Džodić R, Đurišić I, et al.Potential clinical relevance of uPA and PAI-1 levels in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):8193-200 [PubMed
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We evaluated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) prognostic value in postmenopausal, node-negative breast cancer patients bearing tumors with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) expression, treated with locoregional therapy alone, within an early follow-up. We focused our analysis on tumors of histological grade II in order to improve its prognostic value and, consequently, to improve a decision-making process. The cytosol extracts of 73 tumor samples were used for assessing several biomarkers. ER and PR levels were measured by classical biochemical method. Cathepsin D was assayed by a radiometric immunoassay while both uPA and PAI-1 level determinations were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. HER-2 gene amplification was determined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in primary tumor tissue. Patients bearing tumors smaller than or equal to 2 cm (pT1) or those with low PAI-1 levels (PAI-1 < 6.35 pg/mg) showed favorable outcome compared to patients bearing tumors greater than 2 cm (pT2,3) or those with high PAI-1 levels, respectively. Analyses of 4 phenotypes, defined by tumor size and PAI-1 status, revealed that patients bearing either pT1 tumors, irrespective of PAI-1 levels, or pT2,3 tumors with low PAI-1 levels, had similar disease-free interval probabilities and showed favorable outcome compared to those bearing pT2,3 tumors with high PAI-1 levels. Our findings suggest that tumor size and PAI-1, used in combination as phenotypes are not only prognostic but might also be predictive in node-negative, postmenopausal breast cancer patients bearing histological grade II tumors with ER/PR expression, during an early follow-up period.
Zhang W, Du Y, Jiang T, et al.Upregulation of GRIM-19 inhibits the growth and invasion of human breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(2):2919-25 [PubMed
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Gene associated with retinoid-interferon (IFN)-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), a novel IFN-β/retinoic acid-inducible gene product, has been identified as a potential tumor suppressor, which is associated with the inhibition of tumor growth. GRIM-19 has been demonstrated to be downregulated in the ovarian tissue of patients with breast cancer, however, its role in breast cancer remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid carrying GRIM-19 was constructed and then transfected into the MCF7 human breast cancer cell line to examine its effects on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion using several in vitro approaches. The results demonstrated that upregulation GRIM-19 in the MCF7 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis. Additionally, upregulation of GRIM-19 also suppressed the secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It was also demonstrated that the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was downregulated by the expression of GRIM-19. These results revealed that overexpression of the GRIM-19 gene may be an effective approach to control the growth and invasion of human breast cancer cells.
Akita N, Ma N, Okamoto T, et al.Host protein C inhibitor inhibits tumor growth, but promotes tumor metastasis, which is closely correlated with hypercoagulability.
Thromb Res. 2015; 135(6):1203-8 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Protein C inhibitor (PCI), a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is expressed in various human tissues, including liver and kidneys. In the plasma, PCI physiologically inhibits an anticoagulant serine protease, activated protein C (APC). PCI expressed by cancer cells suppresses tumor invasion by inhibiting urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis, which are independent of its protease-inhibitory activity. In the present study, we clarified the effects of host PCI on growth and metastasis of B16 melanoma (B16) cells by comparing between wild-type mice and mice transgenic for human PCI gene (hPCI-TG), which have a tissue distribution of PCI similar to that observed in humans.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Growth of intracutaneously-injected B16 cells was evaluated by measuring the tumor volume, and metastatic behavior of intravenously-injected B16 cells by counting the number of metastatic lung nodules.
RESULTS: Growth of intracutaneously injected B16 cells was significantly faster in wild-type mice than in hPCI-TG mice; however, hPCI-TG mice developed more metastatic nodules of B16 cells in the lungs. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-mouse fibrinogen antibody revealed more fibrin deposition in the lung in hPCI-TG mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, the more invasive behavior observed in hPCI-TG mice was reduced by rabbit anti-human PCI IgG, APC, or soluble TM administration for 3 consecutive days including the day that B16 cells were injected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that like PCI expressed in tumor cells, host PCI also inhibits tumor growth, but host PCI promotes tumor metastasis via its procoagulant properties.
Goldberg JM, Fisher DE, Demetri GD, et al.Biologic Activity of Autologous, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Secreting Alveolar Soft-Part Sarcoma and Clear Cell Sarcoma Vaccines.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(14):3178-86 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Alveolar soft-part sarcoma (ASPS) and clear cell sarcoma (CCS) are rare mesenchymal malignancies driven by chromosomal translocations that activate members of the microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) family. However, in contrast to malignant melanoma, little is known about their immunogenicity. To learn more about the host response to ASPS and CCS, we conducted a phase I clinical trial of vaccination with irradiated, autologous sarcoma cells engineered by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Metastatic tumors from ASPS and CCS patients were resected, processed to single-cell suspensions, transduced with a replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding GM-CSF, and irradiated. Immunizations were administered subcutaneously and intradermally weekly three times and then every other week.
RESULTS: Vaccines were successfully manufactured for 11 of the 12 enrolled patients. Eleven subjects received from three to 13 immunizations. Toxicities were restricted to grade 1-2 skin reactions at inoculation sites. Vaccination elicited local dendritic cell infiltrates and stimulated T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to irradiated, autologous tumor cells. Antibody responses to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tTPA) and angiopoietins-1/2 were detected. Tumor biopsies showed programmed death-1 (PD-1)-positive CD8(+) T cells in association with PD ligand-1 (PD-L1)-expressing sarcoma cells. No tumor regressions were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with irradiated, GM-CSF-secreting autologous sarcoma cell vaccines is feasible, safe, and biologically active. Concurrent targeting of angiogenic cytokines and antagonism of the PD-1-negative regulatory pathway might intensify immune-mediated tumor destruction.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate differentially expressed genes using DNA microarray between advanced gastric cancer (AGC) with aggressive lymph node (LN) metastasis and that with a more advanced tumor stage but without LN metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five sample pairs of gastric cancer tissue and normal gastric mucosa were taken from three patients with T3N3 stage (highN) and two with T4N0 stage (lowN). Data from triplicate DNA microarray experiments were analyzed, and candidate genes were identified using a volcano plot that showed ≥ 2-fold differential expression and were significant by Welch's t test (p < 0.05) between highN and lowN. Those selected genes were validated independently by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using five AGC patients, and tissue-microarray (TMA) comprising 47 AGC patients.
RESULTS: CFTR, LAMC2, SERPINE2, F2R, MMP7, FN1, TIMP1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), ITGB8, SDS, and TMPRSS4 were commonly up-regulated over 2-fold in highN. REG3A, CD24, ITLN1, and WBP5 were commonly down-regulated over 2-fold in lowN. Among these genes, overexpression of PAI-1 was validated by RT-PCR, and TMA showed 16.7% (7/42) PAI-1 expression in T3N3, but none (0/5) in T4N0 (p=0.393).
CONCLUSION: DNA microarray analysis and validation by RT-PCR and TMA showed that overexpression of PAI-1 is related to aggressive LN metastasis in AGC.
Farha AK, Dhanya SR, Mangalam SN, Remani PAnti-metastatic effect of deoxyelephantopin from Elephantopus scaber in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro.
Nat Prod Res. 2015; 29(24):2341-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In this study, we focused on the in vitro anti-metastatic effects of deoxyelephantopin (DOE), a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber on lung cancer A549 cells. DOE significantly decreased the metastatic potential of A549 cells as demonstrated by transwell invasion and migration assay. DOE inhibited the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor at transcript level. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) mRNA levels was up-regulated in A549 tumour cells without any change in TIMP-1 expression after DOE treatment. DOE inhibited the protein levels of p-ERK1/2 and p-Akt in A549 cells but it activated p-JNK, p-p38 protein expression. NF-κB and IκBα expressions were down-regulated in DOE-treated cells. All these results demonstrated that DOE has shown anti-metastatic activity against A549 tumour cells.
The increased proteolytic activity of membrane-bound and secreted proteases on the surface of cancer cells and in the transformed stroma is a common characteristic of aggressive metastatic prostate cancer. We describe here the development of an active site-specific probe for detecting a secreted peritumoral protease expressed by cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment. Using a human fragment antigen-binding phage display library, we identified a human antibody termed U33 that selectively inhibited the active form of the protease urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA, PLAU). In the full-length immunoglobulin form, U33 IgG labeled with near-infrared fluorophores or radionuclides allowed us to noninvasively detect active uPA in prostate cancer xenograft models using optical and single-photon emission computed tomography imaging modalities. U33 IgG labeled with (111)In had a remarkable tumor uptake of 43.2% injected dose per gram (%ID/g) 72 hours after tail vein injection of the radiolabeled probe in subcutaneous xenografts. In addition, U33 was able to image active uPA in small soft-tissue and osseous metastatic lesions using a cardiac dissemination prostate cancer model that recapitulated metastatic human cancer. The favorable imaging properties were the direct result of U33 IgG internalization through an uPA receptor-mediated mechanism in which U33 mimicked the function of the endogenous inhibitor of uPA to gain entry into the cancer cell. Overall, our imaging probe targets a prostate cancer-associated protease, through a unique mechanism, allowing for the noninvasive preclinical imaging of prostate cancer lesions.
Mego M, Karaba M, Minarik G, et al.Relationship between circulating tumor cells, blood coagulation, and urokinase-plasminogen-activator system in early breast cancer patients.
Breast J. 2015 Mar-Apr; 21(2):155-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and plasma d-dimer (DD) and tissue factor (TF) are established VTE associated markers. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are associated with the risk of VTE in metastatic breast cancer. This study aimed to correlate CTCs, blood coagulation and the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) system in primary breast cancer (PBC) patients. This prospective study included 116 PBC patients treated by primary surgery. CTCs were detected by quantitative RT-PCR assay for expression of epithelial (CK19) or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes (TWIST1, SNAIL1, SLUG, ZEB1, FOXC2). Plasma DD, TF, uPA system proteins were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while expressions of uPA system in surgical specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. CTCs were detected in 27.6% patients. Patients with CTCs had a significantly higher mean plasma DD (ng/mL) than those of patients without CTCs (632.4 versus 365.4, p = 0.000004). There was no association between plasma TF and CTCs. Epithelial CTCs exhibit higher expression of uPA system genes compared to EMT_CTCs. Patients with CTCs had higher plasma uPA proteins than those of patients without CTCs; there was no correlation between tissue expression of uPA system, CTCs, DD or TF levels. In multivariate analysis CTCs and patients age were independent factors associated with plasma DD. We found association between plasma DD and CTCs indicating a potential role for activation of the coagulation cascade in the early metastatic process. CTCs could be directly involved in coagulation activation or increased CTCs could be marker of aggressive disease and increased VTE risk.
AIM: To investigate the effects of 17β-estradiol via estrogen receptors (ER) or direct administration of ER agonists on human colorectal cancer.
METHODS: LoVo cells were established from the Bioresource Collection and Research Center and cultured in phenol red-free DMEM (Sigma, United States). To investigate the effects of E2 and/or ER selective agonists on cellular proliferation, LoVo colorectal cells were treated with E2 or ER-selective agonists for 24 h and 48 h and subjected to the MTT (Sigma) assay to find the concentration. And investigate the effects of E2 and/or ER selective agonists on cell used western immunoblotting to find out the diversification of signaling pathways. In order to observe motility and migration the wound healing assay and a transwell chamber (Neuro Probe) plate were tased. For a quantitative measure, we counted the number of migrating cells to the wound area post-wounding for 24 h. We further examined the cellular migration-regulating factors urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA), tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in human LoVo cells so gelatin zymography that we used and gelatinolytic activity was visualized by Coomassie blue staining. And these results are presented as means ± SE, and statistical comparisons were made using Student's t-test.
RESULTS: The structure was first compared with E2 and ER agonists. We then treated the LoVo cells with E2 and ER agonists (10(-8) mol/L) for 24 h and 48 h and subsequently measured the cell viability using MTT assay. Our results showed that treatment with 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonists in human LoVo colorectal cancer cells activated p53 and then up-regulated p21 and p27 protein levels, subsequently inhibiting the downstream target gene, cyclin D1, which regulates cell proliferation. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the anti-tumorigenesis effects of 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonists and suggest that these compounds may prove to be a potential alternative therapy in the treatment of human colorectal cancer. These results demonstrate that 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonists downregulate migration-related proteins through the p53 signaling pathway in human LoVo colorectal cancer cells. These findings suggest that p53 plays a critical role in the 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonist-mediated protective activity against colorectal cancer progression. In addition, 17β-estradiol and/or ER agonists dramatically inhibited cell migration and reduced the expression of u-PA, t-PA and MMP-9 as well as MMP-2/9 activity in LoVo cells, which regulate cell metastasis. Moreover, we observed that pretreatment with a p53 inhibitor significantly blocked the anti-migration effects of E2 and/or ER agonists on LoVo cells. That E2 and/or ER agonists may impair LoVo cell migration by modulating migration-related factors via the p53 tumor suppressor gene.
CONCLUSION: Direct ER treatment may prove to be an attractive alternative therapy in the treatment of human colorectal tumors in the future.
Li HF, Liu YQ, Shen ZJ, et al.Downregulation of MACC1 inhibits invasion, migration and proliferation, attenuates cisplatin resistance and induces apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(2):651-60 [PubMed
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and function of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its relationship with the expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) (CD147). Levels of MACC1 and EMMPRIN expression were analyzed in 65 paraffin‑embedded tissue specimens of TSCC and in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC). MACC1 expression was highly associated with lymphatic metastasis and EMMPRIN expression. Overexpression of MACC1 was significantly correlated with poor overall patient survival. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) was delivered into TSCCA cells to downregulate MACC1 expression. The CCK-8 assay showed that TSCCA cell proliferation was markedly reduced and that cisplatin resistance was attenuated. The suppression of MACC1 promoted the apoptosis of the TSCCA cell line. A Transwell experiment demonstrated that the migration and invasion abilities of the TSCCA cells were extremely downregulated. An ELISA experiment and western blotting revealed that the secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator system (uPA) in the supernatant of the culture medium and uPA expression were significantly reduced. Experiments revealed that the secretion of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in the supernatant of the culture medium and MMP2 expression were not affected. MACC1 may serve as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for TSCC.
ETS factors have been shown to be dysregulated in breast cancer. ETS factors control the expression of genes involved in many biological processes, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. FLI1 is an ETS protein aberrantly expressed in retrovirus-induced hematological tumors, but limited attention has been directed towards elucidating the role of FLI1 in epithelial-derived cancers. Using data mining, we show that loss of FLI1 expression is associated with shorter survival and more aggressive phenotypes of breast cancer. Gain and loss of function cellular studies indicate the inhibitory effect of FLI1 expression on cellular growth, migration, and invasion. Using Fli1 mutant mice and both a transgenic murine breast cancer model and an orthotopic injection of syngeneic tumor cells indicates that reduced Fli1 contributes to accelerated tumor growth. Global expression analysis and RNA-Seq data from an invasive human breast cancer cell line with over expression of either FLI1 and another ETS gene, PDEF, shows changes in several cellular pathways associated with cancer, such as the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. This study demonstrates a novel role for FLI1 in epithelial cells. In addition, these results reveal that FLI1 down-regulation in breast cancer may promote tumor progression.
Elumalai P, Brindha Mercy A, Arunkamar R, et al.Nimbolide inhibits invasion and migration, and down-regulates uPAR chemokine gene expression, in two breast cancer cell lines.
Cell Prolif. 2014; 47(6):540-52 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in women, worldwide. Urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine protease that is involved in cancer progression, especially invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. Nimbolide is a potent cytotoxic limnoid isolated from Azadirachta indica. Our previous studies have shown that nimbolide elicits pleiotropic effects on breast cancer cells; however, its roles in invasion and migration have not previously been fully elucidated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Protein expression of pEGFR, VEGFR, NFκB, IKKα, IKKβ, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 were analysed by western blotting. We also analysed expressions of uPA, uPAR genes and chemokines by real-time PCR. Breast cancer cell invasion was assessed by transwell invasion assay and cell migration analysed by scratch wound healing assay.
RESULTS: Our results showed that reduced protein expression of pEGFR, VEGFR, NFκB, IKKα, β, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMP-2 was higher in nimbolide-treated breast cancer cells. mRNA expression of uPA, uPAR, chemokines and their receptors were also significantly reduced in response to nimbolide treatment. Nimbolide inhibited breast cancer cell migration and invasion as shown in transwell invasion and wound healing assays.
CONCLUSION: These results clearly proved inhibitory effects of nimbolide on tumour cell invasion and migration by down-regulating proteins critically involved in regulation of cell invasion and metastasis, suggesting a possible therapeutic role of nimbolide for breast cancer.
Donepudi MS, Kondapalli K, Amos SJ, Venkanteshan PBreast cancer statistics and markers.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014 Jul-Sep; 10(3):506-11 [PubMed
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Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D), genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc.), and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins) used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Recently, miR-10b is identified as a miRNA highly expressed in many human cancers, promoting cell migration and invasion. However, the specific function of miR-10b in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear at this point.
METHODS: The miR-10b expression levels in 60 paired different TNM Stage HCC tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor (ANT) tissues, normal tissue control (8 benign tumor and 7 normal liver tissues), 3 normal liver and 7 HCC cell lines were measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and to evaluate their association with HCC clinicopathologic features. Invasion assay, MTT proliferation assay and wound-healing assay were performed to test the invasion and proliferation of HCC cell after transfection. The effect of miR-10b on HCC in vivo was validated by murine xenograft model.
RESULTS: We found that miR-10b expression was increased in human HCC tissues and cell lines compared with normal control, respectively. The expression of miR-10b was correlated with HCC metastatic ability. Overexpression of miR-10b in MHCC-97L cells increased cell motility and invasiveness, whereas inhibition of miR-10b in MHCC-97H cells reduced cell motility and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that HOXD10 was negatively regulated by miR-10b at the posttranscriptional level, via a specific target site within the 3'UTR by luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, we found that miR-10b induced HCC cell invasion and migration by modulating the HOXD10 target gene RhoC, uPAR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that miR-10b was overexpressed in HCC and promoted HCC cell migration and invasion through the HOXD10/ RhoC/ uPAR/ MMPs pathway which may provide a novel bio-target for HCC therapy.
Ashour AA, Gurbuz N, Alpay SN, et al.Elongation factor-2 kinase regulates TG2/β1 integrin/Src/uPAR pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediating pancreatic cancer cells invasion.
J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18(11):2235-51 [PubMed
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the lethal cancers with extensive local tumour invasion, metastasis, early systemic dissemination and poorest prognosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms regulating invasion/metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is the key for developing effective therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an atypical kinase that we found to be highly up-regulated in PaCa cells. However, its role in PaCa invasion/progression remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of eEF-2K in cellular invasion, and we found that down-regulation of eEF-2K, by siRNA or rottlerin, displays impairment of PaCa cells invasion/migration, with significant decreases in the expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), the multifunctional enzyme implicated in regulation of cell attachment, motility and survival. These events were associated with reductions in β1 integrin/uPAR/MMP-2 expressions as well as decrease in Src activity. Furthermore, inhibition of eEF-2K/TG2 axis suppresses the EMT, as demonstrated by the modulation of the zinc finger transcription factors, ZEB1/Snail, and the tight junction proteins, claudins. Importantly, while eEF-2K silencing recapitulates the rottlerin-induced inhibition of invasion and correlated events, eEF-2K overexpression, by lentivirus-based expression system, suppresses such rottlerin effects and potentiates PaCa cells invasion/migration capability. Collectively, our results show, for the first time, that eEF-2K is involved in regulation of the invasive phenotype of PaCa cells through promoting a new signalling pathway, which is mediated by TG2/β1 integrin/Src/uPAR/MMP-2, and the induction of EMT biomarkers which enhance cancer cell motility and metastatic potential. Thus, eEF-2K could represent a novel potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
Zhou YQ, Lv XP, Li S, et al.Synergy of urokinase‑type plasminogen activator receptor isomer (D1D2) and integrin α5β1 causes malignant transformation of hepatic cells and the occurrence of liver cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(5):2568-74 [PubMed
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlations and possible synergy among the urokinase‑type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) isomer D1D2 and integrin α5β1 expression levels, malignant transformation in hepatic cells and the occurrence of liver cancer. The expression site and concentration of uPAR (D1D2) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization at the gene level in 60 samples of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, 60 samples of para‑carcinoma tissues and 25 samples of normal liver tissues. The mRNA levels of uPAR (D1D2) and integrin α5β1 were markedly increased para‑carcinoma tissue and liver cancer tissue as compared with those in normal tissue. The grey values of the three groups were significantly different (P<0.05). In situ hybridization revealed that the expression levels of uPAR (D1D2) and integrin α5β1 in the cytoplasm and the positive rate of the two molecules in the HCC tissue were significantly higher than those in the para-carcinoma and normal liver tissues, and the expression levels were positively correlated (rs1=0.257, P<0.05; rs2=0.261, P<0.05). The results suggested that uPAR (D1D2) mRNA overexpression may be due to changes in the conformation of the uPAR isomer. Synergy of uPAR (D1D2) mRNA and integrin α5β1 interaction may result in abnormal signal transduction in liver cells and ultimately liver cell abnormal clonal hyperplasia and malignant transformation.
Magnussen S, Hadler-Olsen E, Latysheva N, et al.Tumour microenvironments induce expression of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and concomitant activation of gelatinolytic enzymes.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105929 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and increased expression of uPAR is often found at the invasive tumour front. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the role of uPAR in invasion and metastasis of OSCC, and the effects of various tumour microenvironments in these processes. Furthermore, we wanted to study whether the cells' expression level of uPAR affected the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.
METHODS: The Plaur gene was both overexpressed and knocked-down in the murine OSCC cell line AT84. Tongue and skin tumours were established in syngeneic mice, and cells were also studied in an ex vivo leiomyoma invasion model. Soluble factors derived from leiomyoma tissue, as well as purified extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, were assessed for their ability to affect uPAR expression, glycosylation and cleavage. Activity of gelatinolytic enzymes in the tissues were assessed by in situ zymography.
RESULTS: We found that increased levels of uPAR did not induce tumour invasion or metastasis. However, cells expressing low endogenous levels of uPAR in vitro up-regulated uPAR expression both in tongue, skin and leiomyoma tissue. Various ECM proteins had no effect on uPAR expression, while soluble factors originating from the leiomyoma tissue increased both the expression and glycosylation of uPAR, and possibly also affected the proteolytic processing of uPAR. Tumours with high levels of uPAR, as well as cells invading leiomyoma tissue with up-regulated uPAR expression, all displayed enhanced activity of gelatinolytic enzymes.
CONCLUSIONS: Although high levels of uPAR are not sufficient to induce invasion and metastasis, the activity of gelatinolytic enzymes was increased. Furthermore, several tumour microenvironments have the capacity to induce up-regulation of uPAR expression, and soluble factors in the tumour microenvironment may have an important role in the regulation of posttranslational modification of uPAR.
Lin CW, Chou YE, Chiou HL, et al.Pterostilbene suppresses oral cancer cell invasion by inhibiting MMP-2 expression.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2014; 18(10):1109-20 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Polyphenol compounds, present in a wide variety of natural plants, exhibit antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability and induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, the effect of pterostilbene on oral cancer cell metastasis has not been clarified.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The present study aimed to examine the anti-metastatic properties of pterostilbene in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9 cells.
RESULTS: In this study, pterostilbene treatment significantly inhibited migration/invasion capacities of SCC-9 cells in vitro. The results of zymography and western blotting revealed that the activities and protein levels of the MMP-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) was inhibited by pterostilbene. Western blot analysis also showed that pterostilbene inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38. Determinations of the mRNA levels, real-time polymerase chain reaction and promoter assays were conducted to evaluate the inhibitory effects of pterostilbene on MMP-2 and u-PA expression in SCC-9 cells. Such inhibitory effects were associated with the upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and the downregulation of the transcription factors of NF-κB, SP-1 and CREB signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Pterostilbene may have potential use as a chemopreventive agent against oral cancer metastasis.
Lin CY, Chen HJ, Huang CC, et al.ADAM9 promotes lung cancer metastases to brain by a plasminogen activator-based pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):5229-43 [PubMed
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The transmembrane cell adhesion protein ADAM9 has been implicated in cancer cell migration and lung cancer metastasis to the brain, but the underpinning mechanisms are unclear and clinical support has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that ADAM9 enhances the ability of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to cleave and stimulate the function of the promigratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis. Blocking this mechanism of cancer cell migration prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice and cooperated with dexamethasone and dasatinib (a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor) treatment to enhance cytotoxic treatment. In clinical specimens, high levels of ADAM9 and CDCP1 correlated with poor prognosis and high risk of mortality in patients with lung cancer. Moreover, ADAM9 levels in brain metastases derived from lung tumors were relatively higher than the levels observed in primary lung tumors. Our results show how ADAM9 regulates lung cancer metastasis to the brain by facilitating the tPA-mediated cleavage of CDCP1, with potential implications to target this network as a strategy to prevent or treat brain metastatic disease.
Lee YR, Kim KM, Jeon BH, Choi SThe hexane fraction of Naematoloma sublateritium extract suppresses the TNF-α-induced metastatic potential of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells through modulation of the JNK and p38 pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1284-92 [PubMed
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Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) P. Karst is a basidiomycete that has been used as traditional medicine. N. sublateritium produces a triterpenoid antitumor compound, clavaric acid, but, in general, the effects of N. sublateritium constituents against tumor invasion and metastasis have been poorly studied. To investigate the inhibitory effect of N. sublateritium constituents on highly invasive and metastatic tumor cells, the TNF-α-stimulated human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB‑231 was treated with the hexane fraction of an N. sublateritium extract (HFNS). Non-cytotoxic concentrations of HFNS markedly inhibited the invasion and migration of the MDA-MB‑231 cells in the Matrigel invasion assay and wound-healing analysis, respectively. Gelatin zymography showed that HFNS suppressed the activity of MMP-9, but not of MMP-2. Immunoblotting demonstrated that treatment with HFNS had decreased the level of MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator-1 (uPA-1), but had upregulated expression of the endogenous inhibitor proteins, including TIMP-1,-2, and PAI-1, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HFNS suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK1/2, but not that of ERK1/2. This was confirmed by pretreatment of cells with specific inhibitors prior to stimulation with TNF-α. HFNS treatment also led to a dose-dependent inhibition of the DNA-binding activities of AP-1 and NFκB, which are downstream targets of JNK and p38. These data suggested that HFNS inhibits the metastatic potential of MDA-MB‑231 cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK/p38 and reducing AP-1 and NFκB DNA-binding activities. Therefore, HFNS may be a potential therapeutic agent against metastasis of breast cancer.