Gene Summary

Gene:TUSC2; tumor suppressor candidate 2
Aliases: PAP, FUS1, PDAP2, C3orf11
Summary:This gene is a highly conserved lung cancer candidate gene. No other information about this gene is currently available. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor suppressor candidate 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Untranslated Regions
  • Plasmids
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Ubiquitins
  • Chromosome 3
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • Young Adult
  • Liposomes
  • Gene Expression
  • Down-Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Transfection
  • Phosphorylation
  • Cations
  • Nanoparticles
  • Messenger RNA
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Protein Biosynthesis
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Interleukin-12
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Western Blotting
  • Promoter Regions
  • Tyrosine
  • Lung Cancer
  • MDM2
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TUSC2 (cancer-related)

Visnovsky J, Kudela E, Farkasova A, et al.
Amplification of TERT and TERC genes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014; 35(6):518-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Telomerase is activated in various stages of oncogenesis. For cervical cancer, telomerase is already active in precancerous lesions. In our study we focused on the analysis of the amplification patterns of telomerase genes TERT and TERC.
DESIGN AND SETTING: We included 39 patients in our study between January 2012 and April 2013. Each patient underwent a classical gynaecological examination and a colposcopy. During the colposcopic examination we collected material for a Pap smear, HPV DNA test (HC2) and LBC (LiquiPrep™), and performed punch biopsies for histopathological evaluation. Residual cytologic sample was hybridized with the FISH probe and telomerase genes were analysed.
RESULTS: The amplification of the TERT gene showed us a very similar amplification pattern as TERC and gradually corresponded with both histolopathological (p<0.001) and cytopathological findings (p<0.001). The specificity and sensitivity of TERC gene amplification for the detection of CIN2+ lesions (cut off value 2.3) was 88.2% and 95.5% respectively (PPV 91.3%, NPV 93.8%).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified increasing amplification pattern of telomerase genes in cervical lesions. According to our results telomerase genes could help in the future to determine the malignant potential of cervical lesions and could be tested together with cytology and HPV DNA in order to obtain the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for CIN2+ lesion detection.

Papp S, Dickson BC, Chetty R
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma mimicking solitary fibrous tumor: a report of two cases.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):223-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is an uncommon fibroblastic neoplasm with many morphologic mimics. Solitary fibrous tumor is a more common fibroblastic neoplasm, but the two rarely enter the same differential diagnosis. However, here, we report two unusual cases of LGFMS, containing dilated, hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels, which prompted diagnostic considerations of solitary fibrous tumor. Both cases presented were confirmed to harbor FUS gene rearrangement, thereby confirming a diagnosis of LGFMS. One case is that of an 18-year-old male with a left forearm mass, and the other a 50-year-old man with a left popliteal mass. While both cases show some histologic features of LGFMS, the non-classical, dilated blood vessel pattern seen here may serve as a diagnostic pitfall, as LGFMS normally exhibits fine, curvilinear blood vessels. To our knowledge, there is only one other report of LGFMS displaying such hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels. In summary, when encountering a bland spindle cell neoplasm with classic hemangiopericytoma-like blood vessels, it is prudent to consider a diagnosis of LGFMS besides solitary fibrous tumor--particularly in the absence of CD34 immunoreactivity as it may be a rare, mimicking variant of LGFMS.

Lin H, Chen TC, Chang TC, et al.
Methylated ZNF582 gene as a marker for triage of women with Pap smear reporting low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions - a Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG) study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):64-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Our previous work revealed that host genes ZNF582, PTPRR, PAX1, and SOX1 are highly methylated in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 or worse (CIN3(+)). In this study, we used a standardized testing assay to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these biomarkers in the triage of cytological diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), and compared the performance with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing.
METHODS: This 2-year multicenter prospective study examined a population of 230 women from 12 medical centers who were diagnosed with LSILs on cervical cytology. Cervical scrapings were obtained prior to a colposcopy-directed biopsy for quantitative methylation analysis of ZNF582, PTPRR, PAX1, and SOX1, and HPV testing. Using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, the abilities of methylated genes and HPV to predict CIN3(+) were assessed.
RESULTS: Fifteen (6.5%) of the 230 women with a cytological diagnosis of LSIL were confirmed to have CIN3(+) after a colposcopy-directed biopsy. Among the 4 methylated genes, ZNF582 was found to be the best biomarker for detecting CIN3(+). The sensitivities for methylated ZNF582 and HPV testing were 73% and 80%, and the specificities were 71% and 28%, respectively. The odds ratio for predicting CIN3(+) using methylated ZNF582 was 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-22.1), which was much better than HPV testing (OR=1.6, 95% CI 0.4-5.8).
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that ZNF582 methylation analysis of cervical swabs may be a promising choice in the positive triage of cytological diagnoses of LSILs.

Zreik R, Soyalp K, Ruiz S, et al.
Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of a posterior neck dedifferentiated liposarcoma with MDM2 fluorescence in situ hybridization performed on a Pap-stained smear.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2015; 43(4):320-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Head and neck liposarcomas, while rare, tend to be subcutaneous and well-differentiated. Dedifferentiated liposarcomas of the head and neck are exceedingly rare in the literature. We present a case of a dedifferentiated liposarcoma arising in the soft tissue of the posterior neck of an 86-year-old man and diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration. Aspirate smears showed a dual population of atypical lipomatous and spindled cells. MDM2 (murine double minute 2) amplification was demonstrated on a Pap-stained smear using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MDM2 FISH amplification in a liposarcoma performed on an aspirate smear.

Li Q, Cheng X, Ji J, et al.
Gene amplification of EGFR and its clinical significance in various cervical (lesions) lesions using cytology and FISH.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(5):2477-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gene amplification and clinical significance of the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene in cervical lesions. This study was designed to detect the EGFR gene amplification by liquid-based cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques in 78 cases of cervical various lesions [28 cases of normal control cervix, 26 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 25 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)]. Positive gene amplification rates of the EGFR gene in normal cervix, LSIL and HSIL were 7.14%, 23.08% and 62.50%, respectively. There was a significantly difference between HSIL and normal control cervix or LSIL (P<0.01). At the same time, the gene amplification rate of EGFR was also significantly different between the cases of LSIL with positive follow-up and negative follow-up (P<0.01). In addition, the correlation between EGFR gene amplification and HPV viral load in the same sample was evaluated in some cases. Then the increase of EGFR gene amplification in HSILs and LSILs with positive follow-up suggests that EGFR gene amplification is associated with the severity of cytologic findings. Therefore, detection of EGFR gene may provide an objective genetic test for the assessment of cells in Pap smears and serves as a screening marker for HSILs or LSILs, which may help determine the progressive potential of individual lesions.

Chen Z, Gulzar ZG, St Hill CA, et al.
Increased expression of GCNT1 is associated with altered O-glycosylation of PSA, PAP, and MUC1 in human prostate cancers.
Prostate. 2014; 74(10):1059-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protein glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification and glycan structural changes have been observed in several malignancies including prostate cancer. We hypothesized that altered glycosylation could be related to differences in gene expression levels of glycoprotein synthetic enzymes between normal and malignant prostate tissues.
METHODS: We interrogated prostate cancer gene expression data for reproducible changes in expression of glycoprotein synthetic enzymes. Over-expression of GCNT1 was validated in prostate samples using RT-PCR. ELISA was used to measure core 2 O-linked glycan sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x) ) of prostate specific antigen (PSA), Mucin1 (MUC1), and prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) proteins.
RESULTS: A key glycosyltransferase, GCNT1, was consistently over-expressed in several prostate cancer gene expression datasets. RT-PCR confirmed increased transcript levels in cancer samples compared to normal prostate tissue in fresh-frozen prostate tissue samples. ELISA using PSA, PAP, and MUC1 capture antibodies and a specific core 2 O-linked sLe(x) detection antibody demonstrated elevation of this glycan structure in cancer compared to normal tissues for MUC1 (P = 0.01), PSA (P = 0.03) and near significant differences in PAP sLe(x) levels (P = 0.06). MUC1, PSA and PAP protein levels alone were not significantly different between paired normal and malignant prostate samples.
CONCLUSIONS: GCNT1 is over-expressed in prostate cancer and is associated with higher levels of core 2 O-sLe(x) in PSA, PAP and MUC1 proteins. Alterations of O-linked glycosylation could be important in prostate cancer biology and could provide a new avenue for development of prostate cancer specific glycoprotein biomarkers.

Kan YY, Liou YL, Wang HJ, et al.
PAX1 methylation as a potential biomarker for cervical cancer screening.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014; 24(5):928-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: DNA methylation is a potential biomarker for early cancer detection. Previous studies suggested that the methylations of several genes are promising markers for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at grade III or worse (CIN3+). The purpose of the present study was to explore the feasibility of these DNA methylation testing in cervical cancer screening.
METHODS: A total of 443 women were recruited from the Yuan's General Hospital. Cervical scrapings were collected for Papanicolaou (Pap) test by using cervical brushes, and the cytological data were used for analysis. The residual cells on the brush were preserved in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 4°C until DNA extraction. Then, the extracted DNA were used for molecular tests, which included human papillomavirus typing and quantification of the methylation levels for PAX1, SOX1, and NKX6-1 genes. Subjects who had abnormal Pap test results underwent colposcopy or biopsy with subsequent conization or major surgery when biopsy results revealed CIN2+. The final diagnosis for this group was confirmed by colposcopy or pathological examination. The study was approved by the institutional review board of Yuan's General Hospital, and all the molecular tests were performed by ISO17025 certified laboratories.
RESULTS: The sensitivity of PAX1 and SOX1 was greater than 80%, and the specificity of PAX1 and NXK6-1 was greater than 80% for the detection of CIN3+ lesions. PAX1 detection alone had a sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 85%, respectively, whereas when used as a cotest with the Pap test, the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 83%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: PAX1 showed great potential as a biomarker for cervical cancer screening. When incorporating PAX1 detection into current screening protocol, the efficacy of screening could be greatly improved. Moreover, unnecessary referral for colposcopy and biopsy could be reduced up to 60%. However, prospective population-based studies are necessary for further implementation of this screening program.

Plantinga TS, Heinhuis B, Gerrits D, et al.
mTOR Inhibition promotes TTF1-dependent redifferentiation and restores iodine uptake in thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1368-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCEPT: Redifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma cells has the potential to increase the efficacy of radioactive iodine therapy in treatment-refractory, nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (TC), leading to an improved disease outcome. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell fate affecting survival and differentiation, with autophagy and inflammation as prominent downstream pathways.
METHODS: The effects of mTOR inhibition were studied for its redifferentiation potential of the human TC cell lines BC-PAP, FTC133, and TPC1 by assessment of mRNA and protein expression of thyroid-specific genes and by performance of iodine uptake assays.
RESULTS: In thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1)-expressing cell lines, mTOR inhibition promoted redifferentiation of TC cells by the up-regulation of human sodium-iodine symporter mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, these cells exhibited markedly elevated iodine uptake capacity. Surprisingly, this redifferentiation process was not mediated by autophagy induced during mTOR inhibition or by inflammatory mediators but through transcriptional effects at the level of TTF1 expression. Accordingly, small interfering RNA inhibition of TTF1 completely abrogated the induction of human sodium-iodine symporter by mTOR inhibition.
CONCLUSION: The present study has identified the TTF1-dependent molecular mechanisms through which the inhibition of mTOR leads to the redifferentiation of TC cells and subsequently to increased radioactive iodine uptake.

Li L, Yu C, Ren J, et al.
Synergistic effects of eukaryotic coexpression plasmid carrying LKB1 and FUS1 genes on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(6):895-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: LKB1 and FUS1 are two kinds of new tumor suppressor genes as well as early-stage genes in lung cancer. Recent studies showed that LKB1 and FUS1 play important roles in lung carcinogenesis process. We hypothesized that combined gene therapy with LKB1 and FUS1 could inhibit lung cancer growth and development synergistically.
METHODS: In this study, two kinds of tumor suppressor genes, LKB1 and FUS1, were constructed in an eukaryotic coexpression plasmid pVITRO(2), and then, we evaluated the synergistic effects of the two genes on anticancer activity and explored the relevant molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: We defined coexpression of LKB1 and FUS1 could synergistically inhibited lung cancer cells growth,invasion and migration and induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in vitro. Intratumoral administration of liposomes: pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1 complex (LPs–pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1) into subcutaneous lung tumor xenograft resulted in more significant inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, intravenous injection of LPs–pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1 into mice bearing experimental A549 lung metastasis demonstrated synergistic decrease in the number of metastatic tumor nodules. Finally, combined treatment with LKB1 and FUS1 prolonged overall survival in lung tumor-bearing mice. Further study showed tha tthe synergistic anti-lung cancer effects of coexpression ofLKB1 and FUS1 might be related to upregulation of p-p53, p-AMPK and downregulation of p-mTOR, p-FAK, MMPs, NEDD9, VEGF/R and PDGF/R.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that combined therapy with eukaryotic coexpression plasmid carrying LKB1 and FUS1 genes may be a novel and efficient treatment strategy for human lung cancer.

Balogh A, Bátor J, Markó L, et al.
Gene expression profiling in PC12 cells infected with an oncolytic Newcastle disease virus strain.
Virus Res. 2014; 185:10-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the oncolytic potential of natural, non-engineered Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are well-known, cellular mechanisms determining NDV sensitivity of tumor cells are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to look for gene expression changes in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells infected with an attenuated NDV strain that may be related to NDV susceptibility. PC12 cells were infected with the NDV strain MTH-68/H for 12h at a titer corresponding to the IC₅₀ value. Total cytoplasmic RNA samples isolated from control and MTH-68/H-infected cells were analyzed using a rat specific Affymetrix exon chip. Genes with at least 2-fold increase or decrease in their expression were identified. MTH-68/H-induced gene expression changes of 9 genes were validated using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. A total of 729 genes were up- and 612 genes were down-regulated in PC12 cells infected with MTH-68/H. Using the DAVID functional annotation clustering tool, the up- and down-regulated genes can be categorized into 176 and 146 overlapping functional gene clusters, respectively. Gene expression changes affecting the most important signaling mechanisms (Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, interferon signaling, interferon effector pathways, apoptosis pathways, endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, cell cycle regulation) are analyzed and discussed in detail in this paper. NDV-induced gene expression changes described in this paper affect several regulatory mechanisms and dozens of putative key proteins that may determine the NDV susceptibility of various tumors. Further characterization of these proteins may identify susceptibility markers to predict the chances of virotherapeutic treatment of human tumors.

González-Herrera L, Rodríguez-Morales P, Gonza Lez-Losa Mdel R, et al.
MTHFR/p53 polymorphisms as genetic factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer in HPV-infected Mexican women.
Int J Biol Markers. 2014 Apr-Jun; 29(2):e142-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We performed a case-control association study to evaluate the association between common polymorphisms in MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and the Arg72Pro polymorphism in the p53 gene and the risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Mexican HPV-infected women. We included 131 women with diagnosis of CIN grade I-II and 78 with CIN III or ICC; as controls we also included 274 women with normal Pap smear and negative HPV test. Genotyping for MTHFR and p53 polymorphisms was performed by PCR-RFPLs. HPV was tested by Hybrid Capture II. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Genotype frequencies for the 3 studied polymorphisms were distributed according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A1298C-MTHFR polymorphism showed significant differences for the heterozygous AC genotype and the C allele, whereas the AA genotype and A allele resulted to be genetic risk factors for CIN or ICC (p<0.03). The Arg72Pro-p53 polymorphism showed for the genotypes Arg/Pro and Pro/Pro, and for the Pro allele, a significant association only to the risk for CIN (p<0.03). The MTHFR/p53 interaction showed that the genotype combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro were associated, respectively, to the risk of ICC and CIN (p<0.05). This study suggests that the A1298C-MTHFR polymorphism contributes to the genetic risk for both CIN and ICC, whereas the Arg72Pro-p53 polymorphism only contributes to the risk for CIN. The MTHFR/p53 genetic combinations AA/ArgArg and AA/ArgPro are associated genetic risk factors for ICC and CIN in Mexican HPV-infected women.

Nandan MO, Ghaleb AM, Liu Y, et al.
Inducible intestine-specific deletion of Krüppel-like factor 5 is characterized by a regenerative response in adult mouse colon.
Dev Biol. 2014; 387(2):191-202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a pro-proliferative transcriptional regulator primarily expressed in the intestinal crypt epithelial cells. Constitutive intestine-specific deletion of Klf5 is neonatal lethal suggesting a crucial role for KLF5 in intestinal development and homeostasis. We have previously shown Klf5 to play an active role regulating intestinal tumorigenesis. Here we examine the effect of inducible intestine-specific deletion of Klf5 in adult mice. Klf5 is lost from the intestine beginning at day 3 after the start of a 5-day treatment with the inducer tamoxifen. Although the mice have no significant weight loss or lethality, the colonic tissue shows signs of epithelial distress starting at day 3 following induction. Accompanying the morphological changes is a significant loss of proliferative crypt epithelial cells as revealed by BrdU or Ki67 staining at days 3 and 5 after start of tamoxifen. We also observed a loss of goblet cells from the colon and Paneth cells from the small intestine upon induced deletion of Klf5. In addition, loss of Klf5 from the colonic epithelium is accompanied by a regenerative response that coincides with an expansion in the zone of Sox9 expression along the crypt axis. At day 11, both proliferation and Sox9 expression return to baseline levels. Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses reveal an up-regulation of several regeneration-associated genes (Reg1A, Reg3G and Reg3B) and down-regulation of many Klf5 targets (Ki-67, cyclin B, Cdc2 and cyclin D1). Sox9 and Reg1A protein levels are also increased upon Klf5 loss. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of KLF5 and exogenous expression of KLF5 in colorectal cancer cell lines confirm that Sox9 expression is negatively regulated by KLF5. Furthermore, ChIP assays reveal a direct association of KLF5 with both the Sox9 and Reg1A promoters. We have shown that disruption of epithelial homeostasis due to Klf5 loss from the adult colon is followed by a regenerative response led by Sox9 and the Reg family of proteins. Our study demonstrates that adult mouse colonic tissue undergoes acute physiological changes to accommodate the loss of Klf5 withstanding epithelial damage further signifying importance of Klf5 in colonic homeostasis.

Ren J, Yu C, Wu S, et al.
Cationic liposome mediated delivery of FUS1 and hIL-12 coexpression plasmid demonstrates enhanced activity against human lung cancer.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2014; 14(2):167-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
FUS1 is one of the most important tumor suppressor genes in lung cancer, as well as an important immunomodulatory molecule. Interleukin (IL)-12 has attracted considerable interest as a potential anti-tumor cytokine. Cationic liposome has been shown to effectively deliver therapeutic genes to the lungs and control metastatic lung tumors when administered intravenously. Here we evaluated the enhanced efficacy of cationic liposome-mediated delivery of FUS1 and human IL (hIL)-12 eukaryotic coexpression plasmid (pVITRO2-FUS1-hIL-12) against the human lung cancer in HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice model by local and systemic administration, and explored the related molecular mechanism. Our study demonstrated that FUS1-hIL-12 coexpression could more sufficiently inhibit tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis, significantly prolong the survival of experimental lung metastasis mice. Moreover, FUS1-hIL-12 coexpression performed higher antitumor activity and lower toxicity in the inhibition of experimental lung metastatic tumor compared to cisplatin. We further identified that FUS1-hIL-12 coexpression could induce strong antitumor immune response by secreting much higher levels of human interferon-γ (hIFN-γ) and hIL-15, enhancing expression of MHC-I and Fas, increasing infiltration of activated human CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. FUS1-hIL-12 coexpression could also obviously induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation partly by higher activation of STAT1 signal pathway and upregulation of p53. In addition, FUS1-hIL-12 coexpression also superiorly reduced the angiogenesis in tumors, which might be associated with downregulation of VEGF and VEGFR, and upregulation of human IP-10. Our results therefore suggest that cationic liposome-mediated FUS1-hIL-12 coexpression may be a new promising strategy for lung cancer treatment in clinical studies.

Dartell MA, Rasch V, Iftner T, et al.
Performance of visual inspection with acetic acid and human papillomavirus testing for detection of high-grade cervical lesions in HIV positive and HIV negative Tanzanian women.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(4):896-904 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV positive and HIV negative women who underwent cervical cancer screening, and to examine the ability of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), the standard detection method in Tanzania, and HPV-testing to detect cytologically diagnosed high grade lesions or cancer (HSIL+). Women from different areas in Tanzania were invited by public announcement to cervical cancer screening organized by Ocean Road Cancer Institute (Dar-es-Salaam). A total of 3,767 women were enrolled. Women underwent gynecological examination with collection of cervical cells for conventional cytological examination, and swab for HPV-DNA detection (Hybrid-Capture2) and genotyping (LiPAv2 test). Subsequently VIA was performed. The participants were also tested for HIV. HPV16, HPV52 and HPV18 were the three most common HR HPV types among women with HSIL+ cytology with prevalences of 42.9, 35.7 and 28.6%, respectively, in HIV positive women which was higher than among HIV negative women (30.2, 21.9 and 16.7%). A total of 4.5% of the women were VIA positive, and VIA showed a low sensitivity compared to HPV-testing for detection of HSIL+. The sensitivity of VIA varied with staff VIA experience, HIV status and age. Vaccines including HPV16, HPV52 and HPV18 will likely reduce the number of HSIL+ cases independently of HIV status. The frequency of HSIL+ was high among HIV positive women, emphasizing the importance of establishing a screening program which also reaches HIV positive women. Our results highlight the importance of continuous training of staff performing VIA, and also point to the need for other screening methods such as HPV-testing at low cost.

Larson SR, Chin J, Zhang X, et al.
Prostate cancer derived prostatic acid phosphatase promotes an osteoblastic response in the bone microenvironment.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(2):247-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Approximately 90 % of patients who die of prostate cancer (PCa) have bone metastases, often promoting osteoblastic lesions. We observed that 88 % of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) bone metastases express prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), a soluble secreted protein expressed by prostate epithelial cells in predominately osteoblastic (n = 18) or osteolytic (n = 15) lesions. Additionally, conditioned media (CM) of an osteoblastic PCa xenograft LuCaP 23.1 contained significant levels of PAP and promoted mineralization in mouse and human calvaria-derived cells (MC3T3-E1 and HCO). To demonstrate that PAP promotes mineralization, we stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells with PAP and observed increased mineralization, which could be blocked with the specific PAP inhibitor, phosphonic acid. Furthermore, the mineralization promoted by LuCaP 23.1 CM was also blocked by phosphonic acid, suggesting PAP is responsible for the mineralization promoting activity of LuCaP 23.1. In addition, gene expression arrays comparing osteoblastic to osteolytic CRPC (n = 14) identified betacellulin (BTC) as a gene upregulated during the osteoblastic response in osteoblasts during new bone formation. Moreover, BTC levels were increased in bone marrow stromal cells in response to LuCaP 23.1 CM in vitro. Because new bone formation does occur in osteoblastic and can occur in osteolytic CRPC bone metastases, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry (n = 36) that BTC was highly expressed in osteoblasts involved in new bone formation occurring in both osteoblastic and osteolytic sites. These studies suggest a role for PAP in promoting the osteoblastic reaction in CRPC bone metastases and identify BTC as a novel downstream protein expressed in osteoblasts during new bone formation.

Meng J, Majidi M, Fang B, et al.
The tumor suppressor gene TUSC2 (FUS1) sensitizes NSCLC to the AKT inhibitor MK2206 in LKB1-dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77067 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TUSC2-defective gene expression is detected in the majority of lung cancers and is associated with worse overall survival. We analyzed the effects of TUSC2 re-expression on tumor cell sensitivity to the AKT inhibitor, MK2206, and explored their mutual signaling connections, in vitro and in vivo. TUSC2 transient expression in three LKB1-defective non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines combined with MK2206 treatment resulted in increased repression of cell viability and colony formation, and increased apoptotic activity. In contrast, TUSC2 did not affect the response to MK2206 treatment for two LKB1-wild type NSCLC cell lines. In vivo, TUSC2 systemic delivery, by nanoparticle gene transfer, combined with MK2206 treatment markedly inhibited growth of tumors in a human LKB1-defective H322 lung cancer xenograft mouse model. Biochemical analysis showed that TUSC2 transient expression in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells significantly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and enzymatic activity. More importantly, AMPK gene knockdown abrogated TUSC2-MK2206 cooperation, as evidenced by reduced sensitivity to the combined treatment. Together, TUSC2 re-expression and MK2206 treatment was more effective in inhibiting the phosphorylation and kinase activities of AKT and mTOR proteins than either single agent alone. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that TUSC2 expression status is a biological variable that potentiates MK2206 sensitivity in LKB1-defective NSCLC cells, and identifies the AMPK/AKT/mTOR signaling axis as an important regulator of this activity.

Chmelarova M, Dvorakova E, Spacek J, et al.
Importance of promoter methylation of GATA4 gene in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):294-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, with typically late diagnosis. Altered DNA methylation of tumor suppressor gene promoters probably plays a relevant role in ovarian carcinogenesis and frequently occurs as an early event in the development of different types of cancer including ovarian carcinoma. GATA4 methylation has been reported in a variety of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of the GATA4 gene in ovarian cancer by comparison with that in normal ovarian tissue.
METHODS: To search for promoter methylation of the GATA4 gene we used MSP (methylation-specific PCR) to compare the methylation status in 67 tissue samples of ovarian cancer with that in 40 control samples.
RESULTS: In our study, methylation-specific PCR revealed GATA4 promoter methylation in 21 of 67 specimens with ovarian cancer (31.3%), and in none of the control ovarian tissue samples.
CONCLUSION: These results confirm that methylation in the GATA4 promoter region could play an important role in ovarian carcinogenesis, and show new loci which are highly methylated only in ovarian cancer samples and which are associated predominantly with the endometrioid type of ovarian carcinoma.

Lenko V, Bialesova L, Macejova D, et al.
The relationship between renal cell carcinoma and nuclear retinoid/rexinoid receptors.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):316-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a urologic malignancy with a steady rise in incidence and high mortality rate. Between 60 to 70% of patients with renal cell carcinoma can only be cured with surgery but despite advances in early diagnostis, in around 20-30% of cases there is metastasis. For these patients, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are ineffective and hence the prognosis is poor. Retinoids are biologically active compounds of either natural or synthetic origin that are involved in complex physiological and developmental processes in many tissues including cell proliferation and activation of tumour suppression genes. This article reviews the role of retinoids and their cognate nuclear retinoid/rexinoid receptors in relation to renal cell carcinoma.
METHODS: A literature search using ScienceDirect and Medline with a focus on the relationship between renal cell carcinoma and nuclear retinoid/rexinoid receptors.
RESULTS: Use of retinoids/rexinoids in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic RCC significantly prolongs median time of tumour progression and overall survival of patients. Combination therapy with other preparations has greater efficacy than treatment with retinoids alone. Patient survival can be predicted on the basis of the expression of different all-trans retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) subtypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Since nuclear retinoid receptors play a crucial role as ligand-activated, DNA binding, trans-acting, transcription-modulating proteins involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for transcriptional responses in target genes, retinoids might be an alternative approach for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

Kimura M, Naito H, Tojo T, et al.
REG Iα gene expression is linked with the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients via discrete mechanisms.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2625-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the REG Iα and REG Iβ genes on lung cancer cell lines, and thereafter, the expression of REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP and REG IV) in lung cancer in relation to patient prognosis was evaluated. Lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines expressing REG Iα or REG Iβ (HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ and EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ) were established, and cell number, cell invasive activity, and anchorage-independent cell growth were compared with these variables in the control cells. The expression levels of REG family genes were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR in surgically resected lung cancers, and disease-specific survival (DSS) curves were generated. The HLC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cell line showed significant increases in cell number and anchorage-independent cell growth compared with the control cells. EBC-1 REG Iα/Iβ cells showed significant increases in cell invasive activity and anchorage-independent cell growth as compared with the control cells. Except for the REG Iβ gene, expression of other REG family genes was observed in the surgically resected samples; however, DSS was significantly worse only in stage I patients who were positive for REG Iα expression than in patients who were negative for REG Iα expression. The effects of REG Iα on AD and SCC cells were different in the in vitro study, and a correlation between REG Iα expression and patient prognosis was noted in the in vivo study. Therefore, overexpression of REG Iα is a risk factor for poor prognosis caused by discrete mechanisms in AD and SCC patients.

Koo J, Zhou X, Moschiano E, et al.
The immunohistochemical expression of islet 1 and PAX8 by rectal neuroendocrine tumors should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors of unknown primary origin.
Endocr Pathol. 2013; 24(4):184-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) can be classified by histologic pattern and secretory products. Recently, rectal NETs have been noted to exhibit immunohistochemical (IHC) positivity for Islet 1 and PAX8, which are generally considered markers for NETs of pancreatic origin. In this study, we sought to characterize the IHC staining profile of rectal NETs and determine whether there was any correlation between the histologic pattern of rectal NETs and their IHC profile. Fifty-six primary rectal NETs were histologically reviewed and stained with antibodies against Islet 1, PAX8, CDX2, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin. In a subset of 31 cases, immunoreactivity for serotonin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was also studied. By morphology, the tumors studied included 55 % trabecular, 27 % solid nested, 4 % acinar, and 14 % mixed patterns. Islet 1 was positive in 89 % and PAX8 in 79 % of cases. CDX2 was negative in all 56 cases. Cytoplasmic staining was observed for chromogranin A in 30 % of cases and for synaptophysin in all 56 cases. Cytoplasmic staining for serotonin, PP, and PAP was present in 16, 61, and 97 % of cases, respectively. There was no correlation between histologic pattern and IHC staining pattern with any of the antibodies studied. We have demonstrated that Islet 1 and PAX8 are not entirely specific for NETs of pancreatic origin, as they are expressed in a majority of rectal NETs. Since rectal NETs may show an IHC staining profile which mirrors that of pancreatic NETs (Islet 1 and PAX8-positive, CDX2-negative), a metastatic rectal NET should be considered in the differential diagnosis and ruled out clinically in the work-up of a metastatic NET of unknown primary origin which exhibits this staining profile.

Humplikova L, Kollinerova S, Papajik T, et al.
Expression of miR-15a and miR-16-1 in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):284-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), miR-15a and miR-16-1 play an important role. These miRNAs are located on chromosome 13 in the 13q14.3 region, which is deleted in more than 55% of CLL patients. This aberration affects expression of miRNAs.
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at performing a molecular genetic analysis of miR-15a and miR-16-1 expression in a group of 39 patients diagnosed with CLL and determining the association between the expression of the two miRNAs and types of deletions in the 13q14 region.
METHODS: We used fluorescence in situ hybridiziation (FISH) for determination of mono- or biallelic deletion 13q and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) to revealed expression miR-15a and miR-16-1 in 39 patients suffering from CLL.
RESULTS: The analysis comprised 19 patients with monoallelic 13q14 deletion, 3 patients with biallelic deletion, 9 patients with both monoallelic and biallelic deletions, and 8 patients without 13q14 deletion serving as controls. The results showed different levels of miRNA expression in individual patients. Significantly higher normalized levels of miR-15a expression were found in the control group and patients with monoallelic 13q14 expression compared with patients with biallelic deletion. There was a significantly decreased expression of both miRNAs in patients with biallelic deletion of the 13q14 region but only when deletions were present in 77% or more of cells, as detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

Han L, Ravoori M, Wu G, et al.
Somatostatin receptor type 2-based reporter expression after plasmid-based in vivo gene delivery to non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Imaging. 2013; 12(7):1-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Plasmids tend to have much lower expression than viruses. Gene expression after systemic administration of plasmid vectors has not been assessed using somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-based reporters. The purpose of this work was to identify gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene. In vitro, Western blotting was performed after transient transfection with the plasmid cytomegalovirus (CMV)-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2. SSTR2 is the reporter gene, and TUSC2 is a therapeutic gene. Mice with A549 NSCLC lung tumors were injected intravenously with CMV-SSTR2, CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2, or CMV-TUSC2 plasmids in DOTAP:cholesterol-liposomal nanoparticles. Two days later, mice were injected intravenously with 111In-octreotide. The next day, biodistribution was performed. The experiment was repeated including single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Immunohistochemistry was performed. In vitro, SSTR2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-SSTR2 or CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2. TUSC2 expression was similar in cells transfected with CMV-TUSC2 or CMV-TUSC2-SSTR2. Biodistribution demonstrated significantly greater 111In-octreotide uptake in tumors from mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 than the control plasmid, CMV-TUSC2 (p < .05). Gamma-camera and SPECT/CT imaging illustrated SSTR2 expression in tumors in mice injected with CMV-TUSC2-IRES-SSTR2 or CMV-SSTR2 versus background with control plasmid. Immunohistochemistry corresponded with imaging. SSTR2-based reporter imaging can visualize gene expression in lung tumors after systemic liposomal nanoparticle delivery of plasmid containing SSTR2-based reporter gene or SSTR2 linked to a second therapeutic gene, such as TUSC2.

Dvorakova E, Chmelarova M, Laco J, et al.
Methylation analysis of tumor suppressor genes in endometroid carcinoma of endometrium using MS-MLPA.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):298-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic changes are considered to be a frequent event during tumor development. Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands represents an alternative mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators and transcription factors. The aim of this study was to investigate promoter methylation of specific genes in endometrial cancer by comparison with normal endometrial tissue.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used MS-MLPA (Methylation-specific Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) to compare the methylation status of 59 tissue samples of endometroid type of endometrial carcinoma with 20 control samples of non-neoplastic endometrium.
RESULTS: Using 15% cut-off for methylation, we observed significantly higher methylation in the CDH13 gene in endometrial cancer group. We observed significantly higher methylation in both WT1 and GATA5 genes in IB stage of endometroid carcinoma. We also observed significantly higher methylation in GATA5 gene in the group of poorly differentiated endometroid carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the importance of hypermethylation of CDH13, WT1 and GATA5 genes in endometrial carcinogenesis and could have implications for future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of endometrial cancer based on epigenetic changes.

Shukla D, Dinesh Kale A, Hallikerimath S, et al.
Association between GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and survival in oral cancer patients.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2013; 157(4):304-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Cancer patient's inherited genotype may influence his or her survival, but evidence for the role of these genetic differences in oral cancer survival has not yet been explored.
METHODS: The authors evaluated polymorphisms in the GSTM1 and CYP1A1 genes for associations with overall survival in 100 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) treated patients and 100 controls who were followed up for survival within 2 years of the date of completion of their treatment. Overall survival was evaluated in Kaplan-Meier survival functions and Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: After adjustment for stage and histology, GSTM1null genotype was associated with shorter survival among OSCC patients, compared with GSTM1 present genotype. There was no association between CYP1A1 C genotype and survival in the overall study population.
CONCLUSION: The study indicated a potential role for GSTM1 polymorphism in predicting the clinical outcomes of treated oral carcinoma patients.

Zhang B, Xu X, Qi Z, et al.
The FUS1 gene inhibits EC109 cell growth mediated by a lentivirus vector.
Br J Biomed Sci. 2013; 70(1):22-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effects of the FUS1 gene on the oesophageal carcinoma cell line EC109 are investigated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level of the FUS1 gene was detected by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in the cell lines SHEE, SHEEC and EC109. The full length of the FUS1 gene was amplified using a PCR technique from the total RNA of umbilical mesenchymal stem cells. The FUS1 gene was cloned into a pSL6-IRES-EGFP vector and identified by PCR, digestion and sequencing. The recombinant pSL6-FUS1-IRES-EGFP plasmid was transfected into 293FT cells and the resulting lentivirus was collected. The growth of EC109 cells after transfection with lentivirus containing the FUS1 gene was determined by MTT assay and plate colony formation. Expression of the FUS1 gene in EC109 cells was weaker than that in SHEE, SHEEC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEE; used as a control). Transfection efficiency was more than 80% after 48 h. Cell growth assessed by MTT assay was inhibited by about 40% compared with the control group; a finding that was in accordance with the plate colony formation results. The results suggest that the FUS1 gene might be a candidate tumour suppressor gene for the treatment of oesophageal carcinoma; however, these results require confirmation in in vivo studies.

Szántó A, Pap Z, Benedek I, et al.
Monitoring M-BCR-ABL expression level in CML patients by RQ-PCR: experience of a single Center.
Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2013; 54(1):37-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome and the BCR-ABL fusion gene that encodes an abnormal tyrosine kinase. Development of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors completely changed the management of these patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2008 and July 2012, at the Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Targu Mures, Romania, we monitored the M-BCR-ABL transcript level by real time quantitative PCR in case of 15 CML patients diagnosed at the Hematology and Transplant Center of Targu Mures.
RESULTS: Modification of M-BCR-ABL expression level shows statistically significant correlation (p=0.013) with the clinical course of these patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular biology techniques have an important role in monitoring CML patients and regular analysis is recommended.

Giorgi Rossi P, Benevolo M, Vocaturo A, et al.
Prognostic value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in women with negative colposcopy or CIN1 histology result: a follow-up study.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e57600 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse), but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip) for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5-74). Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02), and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative.

Li W, Anderson RA
Star-PAP controls HPV E6 regulation of p53 and sensitizes cells to VP-16.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(7):928-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV type 16, 18 and 31, and so on) are major agents for its cause. A key switch for the onset of cervical cancers by HPVs is the cellular degradation of the tumor-suppressor p53 that is mediated by the HPV-generated E6 protein. E6 forms a complex with the E3 ubiquitin-ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) leading to p53 degradation. The components that control E6 expression and the mechanisms for regulation of the expression in host cells remain undefined. Here we show that the nuclear noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) speckle targeted PIPKIα regulated PAP (Star-PAP) controls E6 mRNA polyadenylation and expression and modulates wild-type p53 levels as well as cell cycle profile in high-risk HPV-positive cells. In the absence of Star-PAP, treatment of cells with the chemotherapeutic drug VP-16 dramatically reduced E6 and increased p53 levels. This diminished both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth required for cancer progression, indicating a synergism between VP-16 treatment and the loss of Star-PAP. This identifies Star-PAP as a potential drug target for the treatment of HPV-positive cancer cells. These data provide a mechanistic basis for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers that have low levels of wild-type p53.

Demokan S, Chuang AY, Chang X, et al.
Identification of guanine nucleotide-binding protein γ-7 as an epigenetically silenced gene in head and neck cancer by gene expression profiling.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1427-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes plays a vital role in head and neck carcinogenesis. Aberrant hypermethylation in the promoter region of some known or putative tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during the development of various types of cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study we used an expanded mRNA expression profiling approach followed by microarray expression analysis to identify epigenetically inactivated genes in HNSCC. Two HNSCC cell lines were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine followed by microarray analysis to identify epigenetically silenced genes in HNSCC. We found 1,960, 614 and 427 genes were upregulated in the HNSCC cell lines JHU-012, JHU-011 and the combination of both cell lines, respectively. HNSCC tumor and normal mucosal samples were used for gene profiling by a 47K mRNA gene expression array and we found 7,140 genes were downregulated in HNSCC tumors compared to normal mucosa, as determined by microarray analysis, and were integrated with cell line data. Integrative analysis defined 126 candidate genes, of which only seven genes showed differential methylation in tumors and no methylation in normal mucosa after bisulfite sequencing. Following validation by QMSP, one gene, guanine nucleotide-binding protein γ-7 (GNG7), was confirmed to be highly methylated in tumors and unmethylated in normal mucosal and salivary rinse samples demonstrating cancer-specific methylation in HNSCC tissues. TXNIP and TUSC2 were partially methylated in tumors and normal salivary rinses but unmethylated in normal mucosa. We concluded that GNG7 is a highly specific promoter methylated gene associated with HNSCC. In addition, TXNIP and TUSC2 are also potential biomarkers for HNSCC.

Kinde I, Bettegowda C, Wang Y, et al.
Evaluation of DNA from the Papanicolaou test to detect ovarian and endometrial cancers.
Sci Transl Med. 2013; 5(167):167ra4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Papanicolaou (Pap) smears have revolutionized the management of patients with cervical cancers by permitting the detection of early, surgically curable tumors and their precursors. In recent years, the traditional Pap smear has been replaced by a liquid-based method, which allows not only cytologic evaluation but also collection of DNA for detection of human papillomavirus, the causative agent of cervical cancer. We reasoned that this routinely collected DNA could be exploited to detect somatic mutations present in rare tumor cells that accumulate in the cervix once shed from endometrial or ovarian cancers. A panel of genes that are commonly mutated in endometrial and ovarian cancers was assembled with new whole-exome sequencing data from 22 endometrial cancers and previously published data on other tumor types. We used this panel to search for mutations in 24 endometrial and 22 ovarian cancers and identified mutations in all 46 samples. With a sensitive massively parallel sequencing method, we were able to identify the same mutations in the DNA from liquid Pap smear specimens in 100% of endometrial cancers (24 of 24) and in 41% of ovarian cancers (9 of 22). Prompted by these findings, we developed a sequence-based method to query mutations in 12 genes in a single liquid Pap smear specimen without previous knowledge of the tumor's genotype. When applied to 14 samples selected from the positive cases described above, the expected tumor-specific mutations were identified. These results demonstrate that DNA from most endometrial and a fraction of ovarian cancers can be detected in a standard liquid-based Pap smear specimen obtained during routine pelvic examination. Although improvements need to be made before applying this test in a routine clinical manner, it represents a promising step toward a broadly applicable screening methodology for the early detection of gynecologic malignancies.

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